Anda di halaman 1dari 11

(STADIS) STAN PATNIYOT

SENIOR PETROPHYSICAL CONSULTANT AND LOGGING SPECIALIST

Email: spatniyot@kuala-lumpur.oilfield.slb.com
: sp66b34c@westpost.net

Houston:
Mobile :
+ 1 281 645 6501
+60 12 274 6944

EMPLOYMENT EXPRERIENCE
2010- PRESENT SCHLUMBERGER Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Senior Reservoir Petrophysicist
Resumed work in the Betty Field FFR update. This involves petrophysica
l evaluation of new wells and updating the existing geological model .Geoframe
Elan plus and Petrel are the software applications which are used for task.
2009- 2010 SCHLUMBERGER INDIA.
Mumbai, India
Senior Petrophysical Consultant
Working with a team of geoscientists and reservoir engineers -specialists in an
in-house ONGC full field review of the Mumbai high reservoir. ELAN plus is the
petrophysical evaluation program used in this reservoir. Horizontal - lateral dr
ains , highly deviated landing phase and vertical wells were evaluated in this
complex carbonate reservoir. The objective was to produce a consistent porosity
and hydrocarbon saturation model. This data is being input into a PETREL based
geo-statistical model and then later into an ECLIPSE gas compositional model.
This is a major undertaking with several separate reservoirs being evaluated. A
high level of expertise especially in working LWD technology in horizontal traj
ectories and modeling of the resistivity response is required.
* Mumbai High, Offshore Mumbai India.
This field is a very mature in age. About 1000 wells are in production and unde
r a flank water flood since since 1985. The carbonates are Mocene-Eocene in age
with a traditional textural stacked sequence
from grainstone to mudstone with the bulk of the reserves in the packestone. The
challenge in producing an FFR/FDP comes from
the areal expanse and the drilling practices used. It was very challenging to ma
ke a reliable interpretation from data collected in horizontal drains and highly
deviated landing phases. ONGC run all the latest technology tools in this reser
voir which is still being drilled included scanner family , CMR and traditional
PEX. Horizontal wells
are logged with ARC/ADN.
2009- 2008 SCHLUMBERGER Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Senior Petrophysist
Worked for six months in the jointly managed Schlumberger and Petronas FFR/FDP
Center. Worked on petrophysical evaluation of 2 offshore fields in the Malay ba
sin. The formations in this area are predominantly clastics with a high degree
of stratigraphic complexity and very often silty. Petronas prefers a sand, shal
e, silt volumetric model. Geolog , Interactive Petrophysics and Petrel softwa
re were used in the analysis. Facies modeling was done using Petrel.
2008- 2007 SCHLUMBERGER BRAZIL
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Petrophysics Domain Champion
Worked with a team of specialist s on petrophysical evaluations on newly discove
red fields in the Cretaceous Sub Salt carbonates of the Santos ,Campos and othe
r basins.
Another equally important objective was to introduce the clients in Brazil to t
he ""scanner family"" of Schlumberger logging tools such as the magnetic resonan
ce, sonic and resistivity scanner and being trained on the processing and interp
retation of this data. Evaluation of pressure test and fluid sampling data obtai
ned from the MDT tool was also done extensively as the client, Petrobras favors
this method of evaluation and spends 1-3 million dollars per wells on the wireli
ne testing program.
* Santos/Campos Basins, Brazil
I was the petrophyics Domain Champion for Latin America. Schlumberger logged sev
eral of the discovery wells in the Sub Salt carbonate formations. The technical
challenge was the depth of the wells which reached 6500+ m and running the full
range of scanner technology and LWD services.
2004- 2007 SCHLUMBERGER LOGECO INC.
Moscow, Russia
Senior Petrophysical Consultant
Developed petrophyscial models and did the analysis for several
full field reviews and field development for major Russian clients incl
uding Gazprom, Sibneft, Surgutneftegaz, Megioneftegaz.. These studies were in
oil and gas fields primarily In Western Siberia. These clastic reservoirs which
ranged in age from Miocene to Jurassic are huge in aerial extent.. I spent a
year in Nizhnevartosk working with production enhancement teams for Sibneft.
Static and dynamic sector models were used to locate and drill horizontal and h
ighly deviated drains. Trained several Russian petrophysicists both for Schlu
mberger and the client. Core log integration and production data review in the f
orm of Kh comparison from logs and production data were mandatory evaluation t
echniques.. This work is described in a technical paper which is described in
my publication list below .Comparison from logs and production data were mand
atory evaluation techniques.
The Jurassic shales and considered to be the source rock for the Cretaceous for
mations and are produced in several areas. I did several petrophysical evaluatio
ns in these source rocks using Geoframe (Elan plus), Interactive Petrophysics. T
he Jurassic shales of Western Siberia are an unconvenyional oil reservoir. Petre
l and Russian log analysis software was also used. I developed a high level of
expertise with Russian logs during my assignment in Russia.

2003 - 2004 YUKOS OIL


Moscow, Russia
Senior Petrophysical Consultant
Developed petrophysical models for Obb River complex fields which were the clie
nts major asset at the time. Six hundred wells were evaluated using a team of bo
th Russian and expat goescientists and software. Primarily Russian logs were a
vailable for this project. IP Geoframe Petrroview and Russian software
were used.This project enabled me to develop a expertise in evaluating Russian
logs. Since we were given only 6 months to finish the project I had to employ an
d supervise 6 Russian petrophysicists in order to meet the time deadline. The Lo
wer Cretaceous lower permeability sands of Western Siberia are very prolific, va
st and relatively unproduced to date. They represent a vast future resource for
Russia.
2003 RESTECH RESERVOIR EVALUATION SERVICES
Houston, Texas
Worked on several petrophysical evaluation projects, for BP,Devon, N
oble,
Anardako, in Texas, California, West Africa and South China Sea. Bec
ame very
familiar with major Texas oil and gas producing formations. Used Pe
tcom,
Powerlog as the primary petrophysical evaluation software.
Res Tech has been involved in the evaluation of shale as a potential
oil
Resource for a long time. Initial work with the Gas Research Institu
te (et al) in
the late 1980's and early-mid 1990's in the Devonian shale of the App
alachian
basin, the Antrim in Michigan, and the Barnett in Texas, resulted in
core
analysis protocols and log evaluation techniques that are still being
used today.

2001 - 2003 SHELL DEEP WATER SERVICES


Houston, Texas
Senior Petrophysical Consultant
Conducted international petrophysical evaluation on exploration, deep-water well
s in the Niger Delta complex in West Africa. I was responsible for the petrophys
ical evaluation of several high profile wells. ($70 + million/well.) I was also
responsible for the operational readiness of subcontractors for wireline logging
, mud logging and coring. Evaluated wells in the Bonga, Bolia an Ngolo complexes
. Handled operations planning for log data acquisition, well testing

and coring. Coach and mentor for less experienced petrophysical engineers.
Developed a high level of expertiize with traditional and new Shell Interpretati
on methods. I was able to apply these methods to the Niger Delta Deep Water proj
ects. Primarily Shell proprietary Software Logic) was used. Did a small sector
field study in the Bolia field (30 wells) and developed original correlations
between Qv, and and shale volume. This work was presented in an internal Shell
forum in Brunei
1996 - 2001 PETROLEOS de VENEZUELA - WESTERN EXPLORATION UNIT
Maracaibo, Venezuela
Senior Geoscientist, Consulting Petrophysicist-Te
chnical
Specialist in Formation Evaluation -
Conducted petrophysical evaluation of Lagomar the integrated study that comprise
d of 400 wells. Worked closely with Venezuelan counterparts and expatriate speci
alists in interpretation, sedimentology and stratigraphy to construct static an
d dynamic models.
* West Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela
The lagomar area are Cretaceous limestones overlying a fractured basement. Shel
l and PDVSA are producing 4000 BOPD from these deep wells.
17,000 - 18000 feet deep.

PETROLEOS de VENEZUELA - WESTERN EXPLORATION UNIT


Barinas, Venezuela
Senior Geoscientist, Consulting Petrophysicist-Technical Specialist in Formation
Evaluation -
I was well evaluation petrophysicist in the Apure and Barinas basins working in
both clastic and carbonate environments. There were four drilling rigs active a
t the time Also prospected for by-passed oil using CO logging and chemical compo
sition logging techniques, which have proven to be very successful.
* Escandalosa Formation, Apure W. Venezuela.
This carbonate deposit is Cretaceous in Age and originated from tidal deposits
on a silisiclastic platform. Our mandate was to increase the average production
of wells. We did so by developing an accurate geological model and paying close
attention to core data. We cored and described every well we drilled. I was luc
ky enough to work beside some industry heavy weights on this project such as Pro
f. Lake of UT Austin, Prof. Jose Mendez of UCV- carbonate specialist, and Prof F
rank Stapor of Tennesee tech. - sedimentolgist. This project was a major succes
s that resulted in an average increase in well production from 1000 BOPD to 40
00 BOPD. Latest Schlumberger logging tools are used here including CMR and ECS.
We ran RST in cased hole also.

PETROLEOS de VENEZUELA - EASTERN EXPLORATION UNIT Maturin, Venezuela


Evaluated CO logging in a water flood-monitoring project in the Furrial Field
using TDT and RST technology.

PETROLEOS DE VENEZUELA - INTEVEP


Caracas, Venezuela
Performed technical supervision of petrophysicists, petroleum engineers and geol
ogists conducting formation evaluation projects. These projects were part of sev
eral integrated reservoir studies that were commissioned by PDVSA or Internation
al Oil Companies and ranged in size from 30-1500 wells. Formulated and applied
petrophysical models in both clastics and carbonates always working closely with
core data. Integrated the petrophysical models with geological, geophysical an
d reservoir engineering models in a variety of sedimentary environments. Provide
d step-by-step "hands-on" guidance to the geoscientists performing formation eva
luation on a variety of hardware and software platforms. Prepared and taught tr
aining courses in formation evaluation to PDVSA staff.

1999 SINCOR DE VENEZUELA-CONSORTIUM - TOTAL, STATOIL & PDVSA


Caracas, Venezuela
Hired Venezuelan petrophysicist and participated in hiring of Sincor staff. Est
ablished petrophysical model in Sincors area of Orinoco Tar Belt. Supervised an
d participated evaluation of 80 wells. Recommended stratigrahic and horizontal
well locations. Tested and proved model by using production test data. The Orino
co tar belt is Totals single largest investment worldwide.

1999 PETROZUATA DE VENEZUELA-CONSORTIUM - CONOCO & PDVSA

Participated in a multi -disciplinary team, which was commissioned to evaluate t


he "low production" of some horizontal production wells. Petrozuata have drilled
close to 300 horizontal wells in their area of the Orinoco tar belt.

Major Achievements:
Successfully established correlalation between seismic attributes (3D) and petro
physical results. Established new techniques for working with old E-logs. (Vene
zuela has logs dating from 1935 to the present day in PDVSA archives). Applied
neural networks to lithofacies recognition and permeability determination. Deve
loped a training model for Petrophysicists, which is also being applied to other
disciplines.

1994 - 1996 HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES


Fort Worth, Texas
Sales Manager - Concentrated on prospecting for new business in India, Russia an
d Europe. Focusing on new technologies such as EXCELL 2000 surface logging syste
m and Desktop Petrophysics. Installed Desktop Petrophysics on a portable noteboo
k size RS 6000 workstation (model N40), which has proved very successful both fo
r demonstrations and log analysis projects. Negotiated large multi-million dolla
r contracts.

1993 - 1994 HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES


Houston, Texas
Senior Petophysicist/Formation Evaluation Specialist/HRI Project Manager - Techn
ical Marketing Group - Conducted computerized log analysis in support of field i
nterpretation centers and marketed logging services. Coordinated field-testing o
f High Resolution Induction Tool. Identified residual error associated with low
resistivity measurements (< 1 ohm-m) on Dual Laterolog Tool. Study commissioned
by Agip Petroleum. Used finite element modeling to predict High Resolution Indu
ction log response in a variety of borehole and formation conditions. (Study com
missioned by Shell in the Gulf Coast). Processed and interpreted EMI (Electrica
l Micro Imaging) data on Silicon Graphics computer and assisted in field-testing
of this tool.
Major Achievements:
Assisted the Austin-Research Group in solving HRI tool response problems that ha
d not been observed or tested and introduced service to world market. Introduce
d tracking system for Log Quality Assurance Program in US domestic operations.

1992 - 1993 HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES


Houston, Texas
Executive Sales Representative - Primarily involved in prospecting for new busin
ess, negotiating large contracts in Algeria, Yemen, Tunisia, and Egypt reporting
to the VP of international operations.
Major Achievements:
Successful in generating $50 million in new business.

1986 - 1988 GO INTERNATIONAL OF SOUTH AMERICA


Caracas, Venezuela
Technical Manager-Latin American Region - Installed HP 1000 based log interpreta
tion centers in Caracas, Bogota and Lima. Staffed these centers and trained pers
onnel including log analysts and technicians. Introduced ULTRA (Stochastic log a
nalysis program) to computing centers and trained log analysts to use the progra
m. - Used various mechanical properties programs to predict sanding potential in
wells around Barinas, Venezuela. Duties also included technical supervision of
division engineers, maintenance technicians and log analysis centers in Bogota a
nd Caracas. Responsible for hiring/training field engineers, maintenance technic
ians, log analysts and computing center technicians. Traveled widely to operatio
nal bases in the region, conducting logging schools and seminars for company per
sonnel and clients. Made several marketing trips to West Africa and Europe.
Major Achievements:
Installed log interpretation centers in Caracas, Bogota and Lima. Introduced ne
w logging services to the Region. Mobilized exploration logging contracts.

1983 - 1985 GEARHART WIRELINE SERVICES, LTD.


London, England
Technical Marketing Manager Europe, Africa Region - Duties involved installation
and staffing log interpretation computing centers in London and Cairo. Trained
on ULTRA by its author Claude Meyer. Ran ULTRA routinely in the region. Worked
on unitization studies on BP's SE Forties Field in the North Sea. Used ULTRA and
adapted Comlith (CORIBAND equivalent) to suit specific reservoir requirements.
Reviewed and tested INCLINE (dipmeter processing using global correlation techn
ique) and recommended its purchase. Conducted numerous schools and seminars o
n log analysis in the region. Conducted market surveys in Europe and Africa. Pro
spected for new business in the region.
Did petrophysical evaluations for N. Sea fields including Piper, Claymore, SE Fo
rties, Magnus and Great Yarmouth gas fields
Major Achievements:
Substantially increased market presence in the North Sea and West Africa.

1980 - 1983 GO INTERNACIONAL de VENEZUELA (GEARHART INDUSTRIES)


Anaco, Venezuela
Senior Petrophysicist/Formation Evaluation Specialist -
Conducted log analysis and petrophysical evaluation on computerized data acquisi
tion system (DDL1). Conducted numerous schools on log analysis /technology in bo
th Spanish and English.

Major Achievements:
Introduced "Quick Look" Interpretation Techniques to Venezuela. Helped increase
monthly gross sales from $.8 to $1.5 millions.
1979 GO INTERNATIONAL
Talara, Peru
Managed logging operations reporting to the country manager who was based in Lim
a.
Major Achievements:
Commenced Open Hole Logging operations for Occidental. Increased gross monthly
sales from $50,000 to $300,000 in first 6 months.

1977 - 1978 ESSO AUSTRALIA, LTD.


Sydney, Australia
Petrophysicist-Senior Petroleum Geologist - Conducted computerized log analysis
for Australia & Malaysia. Supervised logging operations on critical wells in Bas
s Strait and the West Coast. Developed log interpretation applications for Esso
geologists and engineers on mini-computers. Worked on a forerunner to the stoc
hastic log analysis programs like ELAN & ULTRA called EXPLOIT.

Major Achievements:
Developed petrophysical models and interpretation procedures for Bass Strait Fie
lds. Trained Malaysian counterpart.

PROFILE:
Expert in log interpretation, petrophysics and reservoir description with proven
track record. Expertise gained in over 25 years of international and US domesti
c experience by working for 2 service companies, a major oil company, a national
oil company and as a consultant.
Excellent communicator. Quickly and easily establishes a working/instructional r
apport with individuals of various international backgrounds, cultures and profe
ssional levels. Multilingual - including Spanish, French and Greek. Highly effec
tive in writing technical manuals, bulletins, business proposals, and has writte
n several research papers on logging technology. Has taught numerous courses in
log interpretation and made numerous presentations on formation evaluation (in E
nglish and Spanish). Possesses both people skills and task expertise to efficie
ntly guide teams toward objectives.

Applies cutting-edge technology effectively. Quickly identifies and analyzes pr


oblems; designs and implements effective solutions utilizing " cutting-edge " lo
gging post-processing and data collection technology in both clastics and carbon
ates, using knowledge and experience gained in assignments around the world. App
lied neural network technology to better define reservoir permeability and for l
ithofacies description. Introduced log quality control program in Halliburton a
nd implemented PC based tracking system.

EDUCATION :
B.S., Geophysics, University of Melbourne, Australia, 1978
Research Project - Applied Stochastic Models to Better Characterize Petroleum Re
servoirs (1983-1984) Cetis Paris. Working under Dr. Claude Meyer and Dr. Yves Ke
rbat. Work sponsored by Gearhart Industries and resulted in development of ULTR
A- Universal Logging Transform Response Algorithm.
Research Project: Improved Electromagnetic Tool Response and Design (1993-1994),
Austin Research Center, working under Dr. Stan Gianzero, Dr. Robert Strickland
and Dr. J. Sinclair, sponsored by Halliburton Energy Services.
Research project was to Improve High Resolution Tool Response to skin effect, ca
ve effect and response to heavy minerals. Minimum entry degree Requirements: M
S in Engineering, Physics or Geosciences with ten years minimum of industry rela
ted experience.

INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS:


Developed training manuals for field engineers. Sponsored Schlumberger Overseas
June 1974 - Dec 1974, Jakarta Indonesia. Worked under Roberto Monti - Technica
l Manager Far East Region (Currently President of YPF-Argentina).
Developed new design for Dipmeter Tool Sonde HDS-F, Schlumberger Overseas Jakart
a Indonesia, 1974.
Developed Prototype for RFT Chamber to house HP quartz pressure gauge. Worked
with Robert Hanwright -RFT Specialist-Sponsored by Schlumberger Overseas 1977.
Developed Shaly Sand model COMSAND similar to SARABAND. Sponsored by Gearhart I
ndustries- Caracas 1982

CONTINUING EDUCATION:
Attended training in Clamart on Computerized Interpretation Methods. Schlumberg
er Overseas - July 1975, Paris
Attended training on New Logging Techniques-Schlumberger Overseas - September 19
75 - October 1975, Singapore
SPWLA symposiums participant in Tulsa, Corpus Christi, Calgary, New Orleans and
Lafayette.
SAID symposium participant, Paris, 1984
SPE symposiums participant in New Orleans and Dallas (Participant in Short Cours
e in RFT Pressure Interpretation).
ONGC Symposium, 1984, New Delhi, Author-Speaker, Symposium Organizer - "Geologic
al Application of Wireline Techniques".
SPWLA Symposium, Dallas, June 1984, Author-Speaker "True Resistivity and Depth
of Invasion Study - Approximate method based on Pseudo-Geometrical Factors".
SPWLA Symposium, London, October 1984 - Author-Speaker "Precision of Wireline Me
asurements".
SCA Symposium, September 1998, The Hague, Author-Speaker " Application of Log-Co
re Correlation and Artificial Neural Networks to Better Define Permeability, Por
osity and Lithology."
Caracas 1983, helped improve dipmeter clustering model NEXUS. Worked with autho
rs Stephanie Michaels and Patsy Wygal.

TEACHING EXPERIENCE:
Have presented 100 + courses worldwide on Petrophysics , Formation Evaluation
and petroleum engineering.

SOFTWARE EXPERIENCE: (WORKSTATION AND PC)


Proficient in Landmark Petroworks, Stratworks and Mapview, Halliburton, Desktop
Petrophysics including ULTRA and Petcom, Powerlog, Interactive pPetrophysics and
HDS. Geoframe: Elan +, Petroview+ , CPS3 and Petrel.
PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATIONS:
Member of SPWLA, SPE, AAPG, SCA (Society of Core Analysts), HGS (Houston Geologi
cal Society)
PERSONAL:
Australian citizen, US resident..
Married with 2 children.
RECOMMENDATION:
Personal and professional recommendations available on request.
PUBLICATIONS:
Integrated Multidiscipline Approach for Identification of Undepleted Reservoirs
on the Outskirts of Mature Fields in Western Siberia
Valentin Ivanov1, P. Mangazeev2, and S. Patniyot2. (1) Schlumberger DCS, Megion,
Schlumberger, Data and Consulting Services, McKenzie Lake Bay SE, Calgary, AB T
2Z2J2, Canada, phone: NA, fax: NA, ivanovv@telus.net, (2) Schlumberger, Data and
Consulting Services
SPWLA Dallas, SPWLA London Chapter, SCA (The Hague), Numerous NEWSLOGS & bulleti
ns for Halliburton. 1984
True Resistivity and Depth of Invasion Study-An Approximate Method Based on Pseu
do-Geometrical Factors - SPWLA, Dallas June 1984.
Precision of Wireline Log Measurements - SPWLA, London October 1984
Application of Core Log Correlation and Artificial Neural Networks to Better Def
ine Permeability, Porosity and Lithology- SCA, The Hague, September 1998.
Delaware and Groningen Effects on the Dual Laterolog-HLS. INT 004SP, June 1989.
Detection and Near Elimination of Groningen Effect for the DLL-F Type Dual Later
olog HLS. INT 013SP, January 1990.
Induction Logging - Evolution of the Technique - HLS. INT 014 SP, February 1990.
Review of the Field Testing Results for the High Resolution Induction- HLS. INT
021SP, August 1990.
The High Frequency Dielectric Tool - An Advance in Dielectric Logging- HLS. INT
024SP November 1990.
New Advances in Image Logging- Intl. Symposium Hosted by ONGC & OIL INDIA, New
Delhi, February 1995.
Apoyo de la Petrofisica en Los Estudios Integrados-Geofisica 99 Cumana Febrero 1
999.
Monitoring water Flood movement in a Heterogeneous Reservoir: A Case Study -
SPE Beijing, October 2000.
Geological Application of Wireline Techniques - New Delhi, 1984.
Gearhart Formation Evaluation Chart Book- 1985 Edition (Team effort)
Halliburton Log Interpretation Charts -EL 1001- Houston December 1991.
Open Hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation- Houston February 1991
Introduction to Log Analysis- Houston, July 1989 Symposium hosted by Unocal
Log Quality Assurance - Houston, December 1993- Manual and PC based failure-trac
king software.
Shaly Sand Log Evaluation- OGCI Reference Manual co-authored by Joe Goetz 1989.
Quick Look Interpretation at the Wellsite- Anaco 1981 Evaluacion de Formaciones
-Caracas 1982.
Patniyot, Stan. Modelo estatico de los yacimientos del area Urdaneta 01, Lago d
e Maracaibo/Jess A. Maguregui...[et al.]. 1999

Patniyot, Stan. Evaluacion petrofisica preliminar del area piloto de Ceuta area
2 sur / Carlos Andres Monsalve Jimenez...[et al.]. 1999

Patniyot, Stan. Fracture characterisation in the Carapita formations of the Oro


cual field / David Boardman..[et al.] 1998

Patniyot, Stan. Evaluacion petrofisica del campo Orocual somero, formacion Las
Piedras/Cesar Eulogio Velasquez Rodriguez, Erson Jose Ramirez Castillo, Stan
Patniyot. 1998

Patniyot, Stan. Evaluacion petrofisica de los yacimientos Carapita Superior e I


nferior, Campo Orocual / Jose Reinaldo Villa Piamo. 1998

Patniyot, Stan. Informe de auditoria tecnica (Fase I) / Andreina Isea...[et al.]


. LL-07, 1997.
Patniyot, Stan. Revision petrofisica del area norte del campo Ceuta 2 Sur / Sta
n Patniyot, David Jess Gonzalez Romero. 1997
Patniyot. Stan, Fracture characterization in the Carapita Formations of the Oroc
ual field / Javier Franquet, David Boardman...[et al.] 1998
Patniyot.Stan, Seleccion de areas prospectivas para aplicacion de perforacion ho
rizontal en la parte norte del yacimiento LL-07 / Jehovah Sorondo...[et al.]. 1
996

Patniyot Stan [et al.] An Improved Technique for Evaluation Deepwater of Thin,
Shaly Sands. Shell International Conference, Brunei March 2003.