Anda di halaman 1dari 19

Updated 7/8/2005

Previous update 2/27/2004

Approved Corrections and Changes for the


Highway Capacity Manual 2000

TRB Committee AHB40, Highway Capacity and Quality of Service


Unless stated otherwise, corrections apply to both the U.S. Customary and Metric versions.

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
Î Chapter 6 Update variable symbol and definition according to changes 10/13/2004
made in Equation 20-16.
7-3 Last sentence on Change the last sentence to read “The space mean speed is 1/13/2003
page 38.3 mi/h, calculated as (60)[3 ÷ (2.0 + 1.5 + 1.2)].”
7-6 4th paragraph Change first sentence to read "The slope of any ray line 6/29/2002
drawn from the origin of the speed-flow curve represents the
inverse of density, based …"
8-2 Pedestrian Change the third sentence to read “An average walking speed 1/13/2003
Characteristics of 4.0-ft/s is appropriate…”.
8-12 Exhibit 8-12 Change Facility descriptions for Detroit, MI to be “I-96 1/13/2003
Jeffries Freeway at Warren” and “Lodge at W. Grand Blvd.”
10-10 Exhibit 10-7 Correct service volumes (see attached tables). 6/29/2002
10-11 Exhibit 10-8 Delete middle yellow interval and associated dotted line to 7/26/2003
reflect a standard green-yellow-red phasing sequence (see
attached revised exhibit)
10-24 Correct chapter Change the third sentence following Exhibit 10-19 to read: 1/12/2004
reference “Chapter 16 provides…”
10-36 Reference 6 Add at the end, “…1982, specifically citing Mekky, A., On 1/13/2003
Estimating Turning Flows at Road Junctions, Traffic
Engineering and Control Journal, Vol. 20:10, October 1979,
pp. 486-487.
10-45, Equations A10-1 Correct equations A10-1 and A10-3 and associated text and 1/13/2003
10-46 and A10-3, Exhibit A10-9 for the Quick Estimation Method for
Exhibit A10-9 Signalized Intersections in Appendix A (see attached
material)
Î 12-15 Replace Exhibit Replace with Figure 7, NCHRP Project 20-7 (160). (See 10/13/2004
12–7b attached material.)
13-18 1st paragraph Revise first sentence to read "Procedures in Chapter 24 6/29/2002
generally apply to weaving segments between 500 to 2,500 ft
long." For the metric version, "…segments between 150 to
750 m long."
15-2 Exhibit 15-1 Revise first item in Input box to read “Define segments” 6/29/2002
15-8 Equation 15-6 Replace with Equations 15-6a and 15-6b and redefine terms 6/29/2002
(see attached material). For the U.S. Customary version of
the manual, substitute English units for the metric units
shown.
15-16 Example Prob. 1 In the table under Step 1, column two, change PF = 0.0 to PF 6/29/2002
= 1.0.
15-19 Example Prob. 2, Revise worksheet numbers, metric version (see revised 6/29/2002
Worksheet material)

Page 1 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
15-20 Correct appendix Change the fourth checked sentence under The Facts to read: 1/12/2004
reference “Segment lengths…described in Appendix B,”
15-22, Example Prob. 4, Revise value in Step 4 for k = 0.4. Revise calculated values 6/29/2002
15-23 solution steps and based on this change in other steps and worksheet on next
worksheet page (see revised material).
15-24, Example Prob. 5, Revise formula in Step 3 for d. Revise value in Step 4 for 6/29/2002
15-25 solution steps k = 0.4. Revise subsequent values in other steps based on
these changes (see revised material).
15-25 Appendix A Revise step 3 under LOS analysis to be: 6/29/2002

3. Convert the hourly directional volumes to through-


movement 15-min flow rates by subtracting the turn
movement volumes served by exclusive turn-lane lane
groups and then divide this difference by the PHF.
15-25, Appendix A Revise the second set of seven steps under the planning 6/29/2002
15-26 analysis procedures (see revised material)

15-27 Appendix B Redefine steps 2, 4, and 5: 6/29/2002

2. Determine the appropriate FFS for each street segment.


4. Make test-car travel time runs over each street segment
during the…
5. Total travel speed for the entire urban street section
should also…
16-19, Equation 16-10, Apply the following constraints for the delay and queuing May 2001
16-152 Equation G16-8 progression factor formulas:
(i) PF ≥ 1.0 and PF2 ≥ 1.0 for Arrival Types 1 and 2
(ii) PF ≤ 1.0 and PF2 ≤ 1.0 for Arrival Types 4 to 6
(iii) P ≤ 0.95 (Rp ≤ 0.95/u) for both PF and PF2
(iv) Rp ≤ 0.95/yL for both PF and PF2
(v) PF2 = 1.0 for yL ≥ u (XL ≥ 1.0)
(vi) Rp ≥(1 − 0.95*(1 − u)/yL)/u for both PF and PF2, and
(vii) Rp = 1.0 (P = u), therefore, PF = 1.0 and PF2 = 1.0 for
yL ≥ 0.95
(viii) If conditions (iii), (iv) and (vi) create inconsistent
constraints on Rp and P, set Rp = 1.0 and P = u,
therefore, PF = 1.0 and PF2 = 1.0
16-39 Box 19 Change v/c to v/s Feb. 2004
16-47 Capacity Add flow ratios to WB direction = 0.313 Feb. 2004
worksheet And to NB direction = 0.289
16-50 Box 24 Change v/c to v/s Feb. 2004
16-61 Example Prob. 2, The EB left effective pedestrian green time should be 23.4 7/28/2001
Supplemental seconds. The subsequent calculations for the EB left will
Worksheet for change slightly, with no change in the final ped-bike left turn
Ped/Bike Effects adjustment factor. The WB right is already shown as 23.4
on Permitted Left seconds, thus no change is required.
and Right Turns

Page 2 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
16-73 Capacity Add flow ratios:
worksheet NBpro = 0.084
NBper =0.000
SBper = 0.418
SBThRt = 0.322
EBper = 0.237
EBThRt = 0.170
WBThRt = 0.233.
16-144 Correct Equation The last part of Equation F16-3 should read: 1/12/2004
[1 − min(1, X )]
F16-3 (both cT
versions) ...u = 1 −
Qb
16-151, Equations G16-2 Replace NLG in the denominator of each equation with 1/14/2002
16-152 through G16-5 (fLU*NLG)
16-153 Equation G16-9 All places where (XL−1) appears should be replaced with 1/14/2002
(XL−1) + QbL/(cL*T). All places where kBXL appears should
be replaced with kBX. The results should be expressed in its
simplest form.
16-153 Terms under Define kB as "second-term incremental factor" 1/14/2002
Equation G16-9
17-7 1st paragraph and Change the third sentence in top paragraph to read "Base 7/28/2001,
sidebar values of tc and tf are shown for two- and four-lane major 6/29/2002
streets. Due to limitations in the available data, this
procedure is not applicable to intersections with six-lane
major streets."

Delete the sidebar - "Base values for a six-lane major street


are assumed to be the same as those for a four-lane major
street." and replace with "This procedure is not applicable to
intersections with six-lane major streets."
17-15 Equations 17-18, “ The time to discharge the vehicles that arrive during the 6/29/2002
17-19 and red is given by Equation 17-18.
surrounding text
v C (1− P)
g q1 = (17-18)
s

where v is either vT or vL,prot.

The time to discharge the vehicles that arrive on the


green and join the back of the queue is given by equation 17-
19.

v C P g q1
g q2 = (17-19)
s geff − v C P

where v is either vT or vL,prot.”

Page 3 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
17-16 Exhibit 17-12 Replace with two figures (see attached figures). 6/29/2002
17-16 Redefining f “f = the proportion of through and protected left turn traffic 6/29/2002
which departs the upstream signalized intersection and
subsequently arrives at the subject two-way stop-
controlled intersection with respect to the through and
protected left turn traffic departing the upstream
signalized intersection. If there are no opportunities for
vehicles to leave the roadway between the upstream
signalized intersection and the TWSC intersection, then
f is equal to 1.”

17-16 Add Equation 17- “The downstream flow after a period equal to the green time 6/29/2002
21b and text after the platoon reaches the unsignalized intersection is vc,g
and is given by:

g −gq
v c, g = vR p f + ( v c, max − vR p f )(1 − F)

Again, v is either vT or vL,prot

17-17 Equation 17-22 Replace with the multi-part equation and following text (see 6/29/2002
attached material).
17-19 Equation 17-28 The equation 17-28 should read 6/29/2002,
modified
7/26/2003
⎧ v c , x − 1.5v c , min (1 − p x )
⎪ if v c , x > 1.5v c , min (1 − p x )
v c ,u , x = ⎨ px
⎪0
⎩ otherwise
Remove the definition “s” under equation 17-28 and add

“vc,min = as defined on page 17-17”

Page 4 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
17-19 New Equation Below equation 17-28 and the references to the 7/26/2003
17-28a variables in the equation, insert the following:

“The user can provide values of the proportion of


unblocked time for a particular unsignalized intersection
movement caused by upstream signals, the px values.
Similarly the flow in the blocked period can also be
given as vblock in veh/h. The appropriate conflicting
flow for the unblocked period is given by Equation 17-
28a.

⎧ vc , x − vblock (1 − p x )
⎪ if vc , x > vblock (1 − p x )
v c ,u , x =⎨ px
⎪0
⎩ otherwise

(see attached material)


17-21 Flared Minor- Modify procedure (see attached material) 6/29/2002
Street Approaches
17-36 4th paragraph, 2nd “The volume on the subject approach is increased 1/12/2004
sentence incrementally until the degree of utilization on any one
approach exceeds 1.0.”
17-53, Correct Worksheet Correct Worksheet 5a and 5b by changing the left column 1/12/2004
17-61, 5a and 5b heading under “Movement 2” and “Movement 5” to VT
17-62, instead of VT,prog.
17-71,
App. A
18-24 Correct Example The top equation in step 4 should read: 1/12/2004
Problem 3, Step 4 vtot = 48 + 27 + 40 + 21 + 20 = 156 p/cycle
18-25 Correct Example The last equation in step 5 should read: 1/12/2004
Problem 3, Step 5 46.0 ⎛ 14 ⎞
t = 3.2 + + ⎜ 2.7 * ⎟ = 17.1s
4 .0 ⎝ 16.0 ⎠
Î 20-1 Revise text Paragraph to be added after the first paragraph under the 10/13/2004
section titled - Limitations of the Methodology
" The operational analysis methodologies in this chapter are
not intended to address capacity and traffic flow on two-lane
highways in developed areas. Typically, two-lane highway
segments in these areas (for example, a two-lane highway
through a small town) are subject to lower speed limits and
have few to no passing zones. In addition, the effects of
operations at signalized and/or unsignalized intersections,
which may be significant, are not accounted for in the current
methodology."

Page 5 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
20-3 Correct sentence Change the second sentence, sentence paragraph, under 1/12/2004
LEVELS OF SERVICE to read: “Exhibit 20-2 reflects the
boundary maximum values of percent…”
Î 20-10 Equation 20-7 To reduce the potential for misunderstanding, HCM Equation 10/13/2004
(20–7) should be rewritten using the exp function, as shown
below, rather than as e raised to a power:
BPTSF = 100 (1 – exp (–0.000879vp))
Î 20-20 Replace Equation Replace with Equation 7, NCHRP Project 20-7 (160). (See 10/13/2004
20–16 attached material.)
20-22 Equation 20-17 To reduce the potential for misunderstanding, HCM Equation 10/13/2004
(20–17) should be rewritten using the exp function, as shown
below, rather than as e raised to a power:
BPTSFd = 100 (1 – exp (avdb))
Î 20-23 Replace Exhibit Replace with Table 10, NCHRP Project 20-7 (160). (See 10/13/2004
20–20 attached material.)
Î 20-24 Replace Exhibit Replace with Table 9, NCHRP Project 20-7 (160). (See 10/13/2004
20–21 attached material.)
Î 20-39 to Update Example According to changes in Exhibit 20-20 and 20-21, and 10/13/2004
20-41 Problem 3 Equation 20-16.
20-41 Correct exhibit In the fourth box under “Average Travel Speed,” change the 1/12/2004
references references to “(Exhibit 20-7 or 20-13)”
Î 20-42 Correct equation Change the coefficient to 2 as the multiplier for 1.7 in the 7/24/2004
in Step 2 denominator (numerator not shown) of the ATSpl calculation
as follows:

⎛ 1 ⎞ 2(1.7)
1 + 2 .3 + ⎜ ⎟+
⎝ 1.11 ⎠ 1 + 1.11
Î 20-42 to Update Example According to changes in Exhibit 20-20 and 20-21, and 10/13/2004
20-43 Problem 4 Equation 20-16.
22-19, Correct box In the hexagonal box titled “Adjust HCM capacities?” delete 1/12/2004
22-46 numbering the number 5 reference to a step.
Î 22-56 Correct term in Revise the last term in the equation to read: 10/13/2004
equation A22-3 …− OFRD (i − 1,p)
23-5 Exhibit 23-3 Correct Exhibit 23-3 figure to comply with Exhibit 23-2 6/29/2002
values [no curves going beyond max flow rate of 2400
pc/h/ln nor dropping below 50mph; LOS A density line
angled to the left to intersect the 55mph curve at 600 pc/h/ln]
(see revised figure)
24-8 Exhibit 24-7 Correct the Nw equation for Type C configuration: the 6/29/2002
middle term should be … 0.00011L … and not 0.00011.
25-3 2nd paragraph Revise first bullet to read "Maximum total flow approaching 6/29/2002
a merge or diverge area on the freeway (vF)"
25-6 Exhibit 25-5 Correct Equation 2 under 6-lane freeways: the third term 6/29/2002
should be …–0.003296SFR … and not –0.003296.
25-17 Equation 25-12 Change the units in the definition for vF to (pc/h) from 6/29/2002
(pc/h/ln)

Page 6 of 7
Updated 7/8/2005
Previous update 2/27/2004

APPROVAL
NEW PAGE ITEM CORRECTION DATE
27-10 Top paragraph Revise last sentence of top paragraph to read, “For certain 1/13/2003
special conditions, users should multiply the base values by
1.2 (12) for heavy two-way flow (25-50% of passengers
moving in the opposite direction) through a single door
channel, and by 0.9 (16) for a low-floor bus. For primarily
single-direction flow through either double-stream doors or
two single-stream doors, the exhibit reduces the base values
for a single door channel by a factor of 0.6 (14,15).”
27-38 Correct chapter In the first checked sentence under “Comments” change the 1/12/2004
reference last reference to “(from Chapter 16);”
30-6 to Equations 30-5, Correct equations and exhibit under section titled 6/29/2002
30-8 30-6, 30-7, 30-8, “Determining Link Speed” (see attached material)
Exhibit 30-4
30-35 Correct Equation Correct Equation A30-15 by adding brackets as shown: 1/12/2004
A30-15 (both
3600 X ⎡ 8X2 ⎤
versions) D=5+ + 900T ⎢( X − 1 ) + ( x − 1 ) 2 + ⎥
v ⎢⎣ Tv ⎥⎦
Î 31-31 Add a reference Add an additional reference after number 1: 10/13/2004
1a. Elefteriadou, L., G. List, J. Leonard, H. Lieu, M.
Thomas, R. Giguere, R. Brewish, G. Johnson. Beyond
the Highway Capacity Manual: A Framework for
Selecting Simulation Models in Traffic Operational
Analyses. In Transportation Research Record 1678,
TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.,
1999, pp. 96−106.

Page 7 of 7
Highway Capacity Manual 2000

RECOMMENDED CHANGES FOR ERRATA (US CUSTOMARY)

EXHIBIT 10-7. EXAMPLE SERVICE VOLUMES FOR URBAN STREETS


(SEE FOOTNOTES FOR ASSUMED VALUES)
This table contains
approximate values. It is Service Volumes (veh/h)
meant for illustrative Lanes A B C D E
purposes only. The values
are highly dependent on Class I
the assumptions used. It 1 N/A 850 920 1010 1130
should not be used for
operational analyses or 2 N/A 1710 1850 2020 2280
final design. This table 3 N/A 2570 2770 3050 3420
was derived using
assumed values listed in 4 N/A 3440 3700 4060 4560
the footnote. Class II
1 N/A N/A 670 840 880
2 N/A N/A 1470 1690 1770
3 N/A N/A 2280 2540 2660
4 N/A N/A 3090 3390 3550
Class III
1 N/A N/A 480 780 840
2 N/A N/A 1020 1600 1680
3 N/A N/A 1560 2410 2530
4 N/A N/A 2130 3220 3380
Class IV
1 N/A N/A N/A 780 800
2 N/A N/A N/A 1570 1620
3 N/A N/A N/A 2370 2430
4 N/A N/A N/A 3160 3250
Notes
N/A - not achievable given assumptions below.
This table was derived from the conditions listed in the following table.
Class
I II III IV
Signal density (sig/mi) 0.8 3 5 10
Free-flow speed (mi/h) 50 40 35 30
Cycle length (s) 110 90 80 70
Effective green ratio 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Adj. sat. flow rate 1850 1800 1750 1700
Arrival type 3 4 4 5
Unit extension (s) 3 3 3 3
Initial queue 0 0 0 0
Other delay 0 0 0 0
Peak-hour factor 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92
% lefts, % rights 10 10 10 10
Left-turn bay Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lane utilization factor According to Exhibit 10-23, Default Lane Utilization
Factors

Chapter 10 - Urban Street Concepts 10-10


Signalized Intersections
Highway Capacity Manual 2000

RECOMMENDED CHANGES FOR ERRATA (METRIC)

EXHIBIT 10-7. EXAMPLE SERVICE VOLUMES FOR URBAN STREETS


(SEE FOOTNOTES FOR ASSUMED VALUES)
This table contains
approximate values. It is Service Volumes (veh/h)
meant for illustrative Lanes A B C D E
purposes only. The values
are highly dependent on Class I
the assumptions used. It 1 N/A 830 940 1030 1130
should not be used for
operational analyses or 2 N/A 1690 1900 2060 2270
final design. This table 3 N/A 2550 2850 3110 3400
was derived using
assumed values listed in 4 N/A 3410 3800 4150 4530
the footnote. Class II
1 N/A N/A 710 840 870
2 N/A N/A 1540 1690 1750
3 N/A N/A 2370 2540 2630
4 N/A N/A 3210 3390 3510
Class III
1 N/A N/A 570 800 830
2 N/A N/A 1230 1610 1680
3 N/A N/A 1930 2430 2520
4 N/A N/A 2650 3240 3360
Class IV
1 N/A N/A N/A 660 780
2 N/A N/A N/A 1460 1570
3 N/A N/A N/A 2260 2370
4 N/A N/A N/A 3050 3170
Notes
N/A - not achievable given assumptions below.
This table was derived from the conditions listed in the following table.
Class
I II III IV
Signal density (sig/km) 0.5 2 3 6
Free-flow speed (km/h) 80 65 55 45
Cycle length (s) 110 90 80 70
Effective green ratio 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Adj. sat. flow rate 1850 1800 1750 1700
Arrival type 3 4 4 5
Unit extension (s) 3 3 3 3
Initial queue 0 0 0 0
Other delay 0 0 0 0
Peak-hour factor 0.92 0.92 0.92 0.92
% lefts, % rights 10 10 10 10
Left-turn bay Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lane utilization factor According to Exhibit 10-23, Default Lane Utilization
Factors

Chapter 10 - Urban Street Concepts 10-10


Signalized Intersections
Replace Exhibit 12-7b with the following figure:

100

90

Opposing Flow = 1600 pc/h


80

70
Percent Time-Spent-Following

60

Opposing Flow = 200 pc/h


50

40

30

20

10

0
0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000
Directional Flow Rate (pc/h)

7/7/2005
Replace Exhibit 20-12 with the following:

Exhibit 20-12. Adjustment (fnp) To Percent Time-Spent Following for Percentage of No-
Passing Zones in Directional Segments

Two-way Increase in percent time-spent-following (%)


flow rate, No-passing zones (%)
vp (pc/h) 0 20 40 60 80 100
Directional split = 50/50
≤ 200 9.0 29.2 43.4 49.4 51.0 52.6
400 16.2 41.0 54.2 61.6 63.8 65.8
600 15.8 38.2 47.8 53.2 55.2 56.8
800 15.8 33.8 40.4 44.0 44.8 46.6
1400 12.8 20.0 23.8 26.2 27.4 28.6
2000 10.0 13.6 15.8 17.4 18.2 18.8
2600 5.5 7.7 8.7 9.5 10.1 10.3
3200 3.3 4.7 5.1 5.5 5.7 6.1
Directional split = 60/40
≤ 200 11.0 30.6 41.0 51.2 52.3 53.5
400 14.6 36.1 44.8 53.4 55.0 56.3
600 14.8 36.9 44.0 51.1 52.8 54.6
800 13.6 28.2 33.4 38.6 39.9 41.3
1400 11.8 18.9 22.1 25.4 26.4 27.3
2000 9.1 13.5 15.6 16.0 16.8 17.3
2600 5.9 7.7 8.6 9.6 10.0 10.2
Directional split = 70/30
≤ 200 9.9 28.1 38.0 47.8 48.5 49.0
400 10.6 30.3 38.6 46.7 47.7 48.8
600 10.9 30.9 37.5 43.9 45.4 47.0
800 10.3 23.6 28.4 33.3 34.5 35.5
1400 8.0 14.6 17.7 20.8 21.6 22.3
2000 7.3 9.7 15.7 13.3 14.0 14.5
Directional split = 80/20
≤ 200 8.9 27.1 37.1 47.0 47.4 47.9
400 6.6 26.1 34.5 42.7 43.5 44.1
600 4.0 24.5 31.3 38.1 39.1 40.0
800 4.8 18.5 23.5 28.4 29.1 29.8
1400 3.5 10.3 13.3 16.3 16.9 32.2
2000 3.5 7.0 8.5 10.1 10.4 10.7
Directional split = 90/10
≤ 200 4.6 24.1 33.6 43.1 43.4 43.6
400 0.0 20.2 28.3 36.3 36.7 37.0
600 -3.1 16.8 23.5 30.1 30.6 31.1
800 -2.8 10.5 15.2 19.9 20.3 20.8
1400 -1.2 5.5 8.3 11.0 11.5 11.9

7/7/2005
Replace Exhibit 20-21 with the following:

Exhibit 20-21. Values of Coefficients Used in Estimating Percent Time-Spent


Following for Directional Segments.

Opposing demand flow rate, vo (pc/h) a b


≤ 200 –0.0014 0.973
400 –0.0022 0.923
600 –0.0033 0.870
800 –0.0045 0.833
1000 –0.0049 0.829
1200 –0.0054 0.825
1400 –0.0058 0.821
≥ 1600 –0.0062 0.817

Replace Equation 20-16 with the following:

⎛ Vd ⎞
PTSFd = BPTSFd + f np ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟
⎝ d
V + V0 ⎠

where:

PTSFd = percent time-spent-following in the direction analyzed,


BPTSFd = base percent time-spent-following in the direction analyzed,
fnp = adjustment for percent no-passing zones in the direction analyzed
Vd = directional passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h)
V0 = opposing direction passenger-car equivalent flow rate (pc/h)

7/7/2005
Highway Capacity Manual 2000

fN = adjustment for number of lanes from Exhibit 23-6 (mi/h); and


f ID = adjustment for interchange density from Exhibit 23-7 (mi/h).

EXHIBIT 23-3. SPEED-FLOW CURVES AND LOS FOR BASIC F REEWAY SEGMENTS
80
Free-Flow Speed, FFS = 75 mi/h
70 mi/h 1300
70
65 mi/h 1450
Average Passenger-Car Speed (mi/h)

60 mi/h 1600
60
55 mi/h 1750
LOS A B C D E
50

40
ln
mi/
pc/

30 n
i/l
11

p c/m i/ln
ty =

m
20 18 6 pc/ /mi/ln
nsi

2 5 pc
3 pc/mi/ln
De

45
10

0
0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400
Flow Rate (pc/h/ln)
Note:
Capacity varies by free-flow speed. Capacity is 2400, 2350, 2300, and 2250 pc/h/ln at free-flow speeds of 70 and greater, 65,
60, and 55 mi/h, respectively.
For 70 < FFS ≤ 75
(3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ 2400
 2.6 
 160   vp + 30FFS − 3400  
S = FFS −   FFS − 
 3   30FFS − 1000  
 
For 55 ≤ FFS ≤ 70 and for flow rate (vp )
(3400 – 30FFS) < vp ≤ (1700 + 10FFS),
  v + 30FFS − 3400  
2.6
1
(
S = FFS −  7FFS − 340  p
9 )
 40FFS − 1700  

 
For 55 ≤ FFS ≤ 75 and
vp ≤ (3400 – 30FFS),
S = FFS

BFFS
Estimation of FFS for an existing or future freeway segment is accomplished by
adjusting a base free-flow speed downward to reflect the influence of four factors: lane
width, lateral clearance, number of lanes, and interchange density. Thus, the analyst is
required to select an appropriate BFFS as a starting point.

Adjustment for Lane Width


The base condition for lane width is 12 ft or greater. When the average lane width
across all lanes is less than 12 ft, the base free-flow speed (e.g., 75 mi/h) is reduced.
Adjustments to reflect the effect of narrower average lane width are given in Exhibit
23-4.

23-5 Chapter 23 - Basic Freeway Segments


Methodology
Highway Capacity Manual 2000

where
c = capacity (veh/h),
PHF = peak-hour factor, and
g/C = effective green time per cycle.
Refer to Equation 16-4 for definitions of all other factors.

See Chapter 16, “Signalized Intersections,” for the adjustment factor values. See
Chapter 10, “Urban Street Concepts,” for default values and approximation procedures
for adjustment factors.
For arterials with all-way stops controlling the link capacity, procedures in Chapter
17, “Unsignalized Intersections,” should be used to estimate the through movement
capacity at each intersection.

Capacity Tables
The accuracy of the speed estimates are highly dependent on the accuracy of the
estimated capacity for the facility. Consequently, it is recommended that each analyst use
capacities that are specific to each link whenever possible. However, it is recognized that
this procedure is not always feasible. The analyst may select sets of default values for the
various capacity adjustment factors that vary by functional class (freeway, highway,
arterial, collector, local), area type (downtown, urban, suburban, rural), terrain type
(level, rolling, mountainous), and other conditions. These default values may be
substituted into the above capacity equations to develop tables of link capacity values that
vary by functional class, area type, general terrain, and number of lanes.

Determining Link Speed


Traversal time plus node
delay equals segment The vehicle speed for the link is computed using Equation 30-4.
travel time L
S= (30-4)
D
R+
3600
where
S = link speed (mi/h),
L = link length (mi),
R = link traversal time (h), and
D = node delay for link (s).

See Appendix A for


methods to estimate Node delay is computed only for signal- or stop-sign-controlled intersections at the
node delay end of the link. All other intersection-related delays that occur in the middle of the link
are incorporated into the link traversal time calculation. The node delay estimation
procedure is described in Appendix A. The calculation requires information on all of the
intersection approaches at the node in order to compute the delay on each link feeding the
intersection.
If the available travel demand model software package is unable to compute node
delay, it can be approximated by using the node approach capacity rather than the link
capacity in the computation of traversal time. In this situation the node delay is set to
zero in Equation 30-4.
The link traversal time, R, is computed using Equation 30-5.
 16 J * X * L2 
See following page for R = Ro + Do + 0. 25T (X −1) + (X −1)2 +  (30-5)
new equation  T2 
 
where
R = link traversal time (h),
Ro = link traversal time at link FFS (h),
Do = zero-flow control delay at signalized intersection (h),

Chapter 30 - Areawide Analysis 30-6


Methodology
Revisions
[new equation]
(30-5)

 2 
( X − 1) 2 16 J ∗ X * L 
R = Ro + Do + DM + 0.25 NT (X − 1) + +
 N 2T 2 
 
where: [add the following]

DM = segment delay between signals (equals zero if no signals)(h)


N = number of Signals (equals one if no signals)
Highway Capacity Manual 2000

T = expected duration of demand (typically 1 h) (h),


X = link demand to capacity ratio,
J = calibration parameter, and
L = link length (mi).

The link traversal time for free-flow conditions (Ro) is computed from the FFS,
using Equation 30-6.
L
Ro = (30-6)
So

where
Ro = FFS link traversal time (h),
L = link length (mi), and
So = link FFS (mi/h).
Place "Note that the free flow speed..." text on the following page here.
The zero-flow control delay for signalized intersections (if any) on the link is
computed using Equation 30-7.
2
N C g
Do = * DF * 1 −  (30-7)
3600 2 C
where
Do = zero-flow control delay at signal (h),
N = number of signals on link,
3600 = conversion from seconds to hours,
g/C = average effective green time per cycle for signals on link (see Exhibit
10-12 for default values) (s),
C = average cycle length for all signals on link (see Exhibit 10-12 for
default values) (s), and
DF = adjustment factor to compute zero-flow control delay (0.9 for
uncoordinated traffic-actuated signals, 1.0 for uncoordinated fixed-time
signals, 1.2 for coordinated signals with unfavorable progression, 0.90
for coordinated signals with favorable progression, and 0.60 for
coordinated signals with highly favorable progression).
Place "Insert 1" text here
Calibration parameter J is
The calibration parameter J is selected so that the traversal time equation will predict used to arrive at a predicted
the mean speed of traffic when demand is equal to capacity. Substituting x = 1.00 in the mean speed when demand
equals capacity
traversal time equation and solving for J yields Equation 30-8:
See new equation for 30-8 (R − R )2
J = c o
(30-8)
L2
where
J = calibration parameter,
Rc = link traversal time when demand equals capacity (h),
Ro = FFS link traversal time (h), and
L = link length (mi).

See Appendix C for


Exhibit 30-4 shows values for J that were selected to reproduce the traversal times at alternative approach using
capacity predicted by the analysis procedures in Part III of this manual. Some older BPR curve
software may not be able to implement Equation 30-8, so the formula and recommended
parameters for the more traditional BPR curve are provided in Appendix C as an
alternative method for estimating link traversal times.

30-7 Chapter 30 - Areawide Analysis


Methodology
(30-6)

Note that the free flow speed (SO) for signalized streets is defined as the mid-block free flow
speed between signals. For this reason a zero flow control delay (DO) and a segment delay (DM )
are added to the link travel time at zero flow.

(30-7)
Insert 1:
The segment delay between signals (DM) is computed by subtracting the Segment Running Time
per mile (TR) (obtained from Exhibit 15-3) from the free flow travel time per mile for the
signalized urban street and multiplying the result by the total length of the street. DM equals zero
if there are no signals on the street or if they are so far apart that they do not affect the speed of
traffic between signals.

The segment delay (DM) is computed according to Equation 30-7a.

DM = L • (TR − To ) 3600 (30-7a)


where: [add the following]
DM = segment delay (h)
L = link length (mi)
TR = running time per mile (sec)
TO = running time per mile at free flow speed (sec)

The running time per mile (TR) is obtained from Exhibit 15-3 according to the urban street class,
free flow speed, and the average distance between signals on the link.

The running time per mile at free flow speed (TO) is computed according to Equation 30-7b.

To = L S o (30-7b)
where:
L = Link length (mi)
TO = running time per mile at free flow speed (sec)
SO = free flow speed (mi/h)

(30-8)
(Rc − Ro − Do − DM ) 2

J=
L2

where: [add the following]


D0 = zero flow control Delay (h)
DM = segment delay between signals (h)
Highway Capacity Manual 2000
See revised Exhibit
30-4 on the following EXHIBIT 30-4. RECOMMENDED PARAMETERS FOR TRAVERSAL TIME J
page
Facility Type Signals per mi Free-Flow Speed Speed at Capacity J
(mi/h) (mi/h) (h 2/mi2)
Freeway N/A 75 54 2.69 x 10-5
Freeway N/A 70 53 2.10 x 10-5
Freeway N/A 65 52 1.48 x 10-5
Freeway N/A 60 51 8.65 x 10-6
Freeway N/A 55 50 3.31 x 10-6
Multilane Highway N/A 60 55 2.30 x 10-6
Multilane Highway N/A 55 51 2.03 x 10-6
Multilane Highway N/A 50 47 1.63 x 10-6
Multilane Highway N/A 45 42 2.52 x 10-6
Two-Lane Highway N/A 69 44 6.91 x 10-5
Two-Lane Highway N/A 63 38 1.14 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway N/A 56 31 2.02 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway N/A 50 25 4.00 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway N/A 44 19 9.29 x 10-4
Arterial Class I 0.2 50 33 5.67 x 10-5
Arterial Class I 0.6 50 19 4.68 x 10-4
Arterial Class I 1.6 50 10 3.32 x 10-3
Arterial Class II 0.3 40 25 1.28 x 10-4
Arterial Class II 0.6 40 18 5.02 x 10-4
Arterial Class II 1.3 40 11 2.03 x 10-3
Arterial Class III 1.3 35 11 2.24 x 10-3
Arterial Class III 1.9 35 8 4.55 x 10-3
Arterial Class III 2.5 35 6 8.13 x 10-3
Arterial Class IV 2.5 30 6 8.12 x 10-3
Arterial Class IV 3.1 30 5 1.37 x 10-2
Arterial Class IV 3.8 30 4 1.82 x 10-2
Note:
N/A = not applicable.

Determining Performance Measures


Computation of performance measures for intensity, duration, extent, variability, and
accessibility is described.

Intensity
The possible performance measures for measuring the intensity of congestion on one
of the highway subsystems (freeway, rural highway, and arterial) are computed from one
or more of the following: person-hours of travel, person-hours of delay, mean trip speed,
and mean trip delay. If average vehicle occupancy (AVO) data are not available, the
performance measures are computed in terms of vehicle-hours rather than person-hours.
Equation 30-9 is used to compute person-hours of travel.
Li
PHT = AVO i * v i * (30-9)
Si

where
PHT = total person-hours of travel,
vi = vehicle demand on Link i,
AVOi = average vehicle occupancy on Link i,
Li = length of Link i (mi), and
Si = mean speed of Link i (mi/h).

Chapter 30 - Areawide Analysis 30-8


Methodology
Revised information for:
EXHIBIT 30-4. RECOMMENDED PARAMETERS FOR TRAVERSAL TIME J
J
Facility type Signals per mi Free-Flow Speed Speed at Capacity
(h2/mi2)
Freeway 53 2.95 x 10-5
Freeway
Freeway
Freeway
Freeway
Multilane Highway
Multilane Highway
Multilane Highway
Multilane Highway
Two-Lane Highway 65 40 9.04 x 10-5
Two-Lane Highway 60 35 1.39 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway 55 30 2.24 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway 50 25 3.89 x 10-4
Two-Lane Highway 45 20 7.48 x 10-4
Arterial Class I 0.5 2.21 x 10-5
Arterial Class I 2.0 2.04 x 10-4
Arterial Class I 4.0 1.25 x 10-3
Arterial Class II 1.0 4.99 x 10-5
Arterial Class II 2.0 2.00 x 10-4
Arterial Class II 3.0 7.91 x 10-4
Arterial Class III 3.0 8.01 x 10-4
Arterial Class III 5.0 1.78 x 10-3
Arterial Class III 6.0 3.18 x 10-3
Arterial Class IV 6.0 3.17 x 10-3
Arterial Class IV 8.0 4.99 x 10-3
Arterial Class IV 10.0 7.11 x 10-3
Note:
N/A = not applicable

[please add the following]

This table is provided for the convenience of the analyst and should be considered approximate.
Precise values of “J” can be computed using Equation 30-8.