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Andhra University


Master of Journalism and Mass Communication
(MJMC) Degree Examination
Semester system (with effect from 2007-2008)
1. The course for the MJMC degree examination shall be of 2 years duration, consisting
of four semesters.

2. Candidates seeking admission into the MJMC Course shall be required:

a) To have passed any Bachelor degree of this university (other than BFA) and
any other university recognized by the Academic Council.

b) To have passed the entrance test conducted by Andhra University

subsequently to become eligible for the purpose of admission. The question paper
shall include the following:
I) Journalism and Mass Communication
II) Current affairs and general knowledge Language skills
III) Language skills

3. Admission Procedure:
Admission into the course shall be made according to the rules as
prescribed by the University from to time to time.

4 Academic Requirements:
a) The two-year study consists of four semesters, covering theory papers
and practicals. (See Annexure)
b) Every student shall be required to attend 75% of theory and practical
classes in all the four semesters.
c) Every student shall work for the practice journal or news bulletin and
studio-video cassettes under the guidance of the teaching faculty of
the department.
d) All the students are required to participate in the professional tour of
media centers arranged by the department and submit a tour report to
the department.
e) No student shall be allowed to appear for the examinations both the
theory and practical unless he/she produces a certificate of
completion of all the academic requirements (practice journal or,
news bulletin, audio and video cassettes and professional tour) as the
case may be.
f) Students are required to take active part in the seminar wherein they
should present papers and participate in the discussion that follows.
Necessary alteration, if any, may be affected on the seminar paper in
the light of the discussion held for the purpose of evaluation.

g) The students in the fourth semester shall undergo an internship in any
media organization for a period of three weeks and produce a
certificate to that effect from the organization concerned.
5. Examination Evaluation:

a) All the theory papers in the four semesters shall be valued by the
external and internal examiners.
b) Practical examination papers/assignments (if any) shall be valued by
the internal examiners in the respective semesters.
c) The oral (Viva-voce) examination shall be conducted by both internal
and external examiners.
d) The medium of instruction and the examination shall be in ENGLISH
e) A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examination he/she
obtains not less than 45% of the total marks in all the semesters put
together. A candidate shall be declared to have passed the examination
if he obtains not less than 40% in each paper, including practical.
f) Candidates who have completed the course in each semester with
required attendance after fulfilling other academic requirements shall
be permitted to continue the next semester course irrespective of
whether they have appeared or not at the previous examination (s).
Such candidates may be permitted to appear for the examinations of
earlier semesters with the examinations of later semesters
g) If a candidate is unable to appear or fails he/she shall be allowed to
have two more chances in the coming two years following the
h) If he/she fails in theory papers, he/she may be allowed to appear for
theory examination, which includes all theory papers in the respective
semesters. Similarly, if he/she fails in one of the practical papers,
he/she may be allowed to appear for the practical examination only. In
any case, the candidates need not have to submit dissertation and
seminar papers afresh.

6. Improvement provision

The candidates declared to have passed in the examination of the MJMC

course might re-appear for the same examination after completing the course
to improve their marks in the succeeding two years.
7. Classification
The classification for pass divisions is:

a) 60% and above --- First class

b) 50% and above, but below 60% -- Second class
c) 40% and above and below 50% -- Third class

Scheme of Examination

Subject Subject title Theory Duration Mid-term Total

code papers exams Marks
Max Marks Max marks
Semester I
MJ 01 History of Journalism 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 02 Reporting and Feature 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 03 Communication theory 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 04 Advertising 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 05 Science Communication 85 3 hours 15 100
Classroom records
Reporting and feature 50 50
Adverting 50 50
Viva 50 50
Total 650
MJ 01 Radio Journalism 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 02 Media Laws 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 03 Editing and print media 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 04 Media management 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 05 Women and Media 85 3 hours 15 100
Class room record
Radio journalism 50 50
Editing and print 50 50
Viva 50 50
Total 650
MJ 01 Cultural 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 02 Development 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 03 Public Relations 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 04 Environment 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ05 Television 85 3 hours 15 100
TV Cassette 50 50

Tour 50 50
Viva 50 50
Total 650
MJ 01 International 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 02 Traditional 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 03 Research 85 3 hours 15 100
MJ 04 Human Rights and 85 3 hours 15 100
Dissertation 100
Internship 50 50

Seminar 50 50
Viva 50 50
Total 650

Semester I

Paper 1
History of journalism

Unit 1
Origin of press - News books – evolution of modern newspapers - Growth of newspapers
in India - Hickey’s Gazette – Bombay Chronicle

Unit 2
Early journalism in Bengal-Bombay and Madras presidencies – Growth of national press
– Press in 19th century - Raja Ram Mohan Roy - BalagangadharTilak

Unit 3
Indian press and freedom movement – Gandhi’s contribution to Indian journalism –
Nehru era – Government v/s Press – Indian Press and Emergency –Recent trends in

Unit 4
Contribution of National eminent newspapers - Amrit Bazar Patrika - Kesari – Hitvada –
The Times of India – The Statesman – Free Press Journal- The Hindu

Unit 5
Origin and development of Telugu press – Telugu press and freedom movement
_Kandukuri Veeresalingam – Kasinadhuni Nageswara rao – K.Ramarao – Khasa Subba
rao – Tapi Dharma Rao –Mutnuri Krishna rao – NarlaVenkateswara Rao- Telugu Press
after 1970’s – Recent trends

1. Nadig Krishna Murthy (1966). Indian journalism Mysore, Mysore UniversityPress
2.S.Natarajan. Indian journalism
3 R.Parthasarathi.(1991) Modern Journalism in India. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers.
4. JV Seshagiri rao. Studies in the history of journalism
5. R.Anand Sekhar. Journalism charithra vyavastha
6.Publication Division: Five Eminent Editors
7.Banglore: Telugu journalism charithra
8.S.C.Bhatt(1999): Indian Press since1955. New Delhi, Publication Division

Paper II
Reporting and feature journalism

Detailed analysis of news – definition – concepts- components – values – sources- press
conference – Interviews – qualifications and responsibilities of reporter – ethical aspects

Reporting special events – disasters and accidents – crime – sports – budget – courts –
legislature reporting – speech reporting – investigative reporting – science reporting –
moffussil reporting

Features – definitions – scope – types of features- news features – historical features –
seasonal – how - to - do it – photo features – scientific features – human interest features
– profiles – syndicate features

Reviews – definitions – scope – types of reviews – books – films – music – theatre – TV
programmes – performing arts – contemporary trends in reviews

Column writing – writing creative middles – language as a tool of writing – art of
translation – practical exercises – beats

Reference books
1.Emery, Adult & Ages: Reporting and writing the News
2. John Hohenberg: The professional journalist
3. Ralph S. Izard: Reporting the citizen’s news
4.M.V.Kamath: Professional journalism
5.Curtis Macdougall (1953): Interpretative reporting. New York George Allen & Unwin
6.Patanjali Sethi: Professional journalism
7.Tom Wolfe: The New Journalism

Paper III
Communication Theory
Unit 1
Definitions of communication – scope – Communication process – Variables of
communication – Source - Message – Channel - Receiver – Feedback – Basic models of
communcation – Shannon & Weaver – Lasswell -Berlo
Types of communication –interpersonal – group – mass communication – mass
communication – charectersitics of print, radio, Television , film

Unit 2
Advanced models of communication – two step flow of communication opinion leaders –
charectiristics – Diffusion of innovation – Rogers and Shoemakers model of
Gate keeping models - White’s model, Galtung and Ruge model of selective gate
keeping – Models of communication – Verbal and non-verbal

Unit 3
Market communication concept –characteristics- reinforcement – sleeper effect.
Organizational communication – Newcomb’s balance theory – congruity – Dissonance –
Social judgement model
Mass theory – Society -Magic bullet theory – Theories of selectivity.

Unit 4
Normative theories – Authoritarian – Libertarian – Communist – Social responsibility –
Development media – Democratic participant theory.

Unit 5
Sociological theories of communication – Cultivation theory – Agenda setting –
Socialization – Dependency theory

Reference books
1. David Berlo(1960). The Process of communication. London.
2. Uma Narula (1976). Mass Communication Theory and Practice. New Delhi : Har
3. Denis Mcquail and Windhal. Communication models .

4. John Fiske : Introduction to communication studies London: Routledge.
5. Denis Mcquail (1993) Media performance. London: Sage
6. Denis Mcquail (2005) Mass communication theory. New Delhi: Sage.
7. Defluer and Ball Rockech: Theory of mass communication

Paper IV
Evolution of advertising - socio economic effects of advertising – types of
advertisements – Various phases of advertising – advertising agency system -market
research – vocational aspects of advertising

Planning and campaigns – Media selection – newspapers – Magazines – Radio _
Television - Direct mail - Outdoor advertising - Hoarding - Bus panels- spectacular-

Outdoor advertising in India -Commercial advertisings over - All India Radio -
Doordarshan - Recent trends in Indian Advertising - Legal and ethical aspects of
advertising - Advertising policy

Advertising copy – Visualization – Illustrations – Layout – Headlines – Text – Colour –
Graphics – Psychological factors in advertising – Trade marks – Slogans – Evaluation of

Advertising – problems of measurements – Opinion ratings – Concurrent methods –
Recall test – Recognition test – Audience evolution for various media – Advertising code

Reference books
1. Cohen: Advertising.
2. Dunn: Advertising its role in modern society -
3. Hepner: Advertising psychology and research –
4. Warner et a: Advertising.
5. Chunna Wallah: Fundamentals of advertising
6. Mahendra Mohan: Advertising Managemnet Concepts & Cases
7. Wright: Advertising campaigns
8. Thomas Jefkins: Advertising made Simple
9. Leon Quera: Effective advertising

Paper V
Science communication

Science communication – Definition – Nature – Scope and need – History of science
communication – Key elements

Science communication and development – Science and technology in the ancient
world- In ancient and medieval India – Diffusion of science and technology in British
India – Progress in science and technology in post 1947 India communication and
communication in modern India

Introduction to science writing – Science writing in media – Introduction and skills –
Expanding fields for science writing – Science news – Writing science news – How to
write a story

Scientific temperament –Science convention –three principles of usefulness – Science
reporting in radio – Newspapers – Magazines – Television – Communication for health
and medicine – Communication Technology in delivering health messages

The new technologies of power and the alternative systems of communication and
development – Science and censorship-Safeguarding the future – Population and human

Reference Books
1.Bertrand Russell (1954): Scientific Outlook. London : George Allen & Unwinf Ltd
2.J V Vilanilam (1993): Science Communication and Development. Sage Publications.
New Delhi
3.D.W.Burkett (1973): Writing science news for the mass media, Gulf publishing
company, Redas, Texas, USA

Semester II
Radio Journalism
Brief history of broadcasting in India –characteristics of radio – objectives of radio – AIR
code – stages in programme production – writing for radio – news features – interviews –
audience profile – special audience programmes - women – children – youth – industrial
workers – farm and home programmes

Unit 2
Studio operations – sound and acoustics – tapes and recording – recording different
formats – dubbing techniques –AM and FM broadcasting

Audition – microphone talents – mikes – Outdoor broadcast – Covering special events –
Festivals – Sports - Radio Bridge

Who is who in radio – station director _ Asst . Station Director – Programme Executive
– Transmission Executives – Announcer – Other crew

Autonomy – Prasara Bharathi – commercial broadcasting – Non-lapsable Fund (NLF) –
local Radio concept – Radio and the people - Change agent

Reference books
1. P.C.Chatterji: Broadcasting in India. New Delhi: Sage.
2. U.L.Barua: This is All India Radio.
3. Mehra Masani: Broadcasting and the People.
4. H.R.Luthra: Indian Broadcasting.
5.G.C.Awasthi: Broadcasting in India.
6.Keval Kumar: Mass Communication in India.

Paper II
Media Laws
Unit 1
Indian constitution – Salient Features – Fundamental rights – Article !9 (!)(A)- freedom
of the press

Unit 2
Official secrets Act , !923 – Books and Registration of newspapers Act, 1956 – Working
Journalists Act , 1955 Press and Publication ( Parliamentary Proceedings ) Act , 1976

Unit 3
Press Council of India Act , !978 – Indian Cinematography Act, 1950 – Law of
defamation – Contempt of court

Unit 4
Freedom of the press – Ramesh Tapar vs state of Madras – Brij Bhushan vs state of Delhi
– Virendra vs state of Punjab – Ramji Lal Modi vs State of Uttar Pradesh - Sakal
Newspapers vs Union of India – Benett Coleman and Co vs Union of India _ Indian
Express vs Union of India (1986)

Unit 5
Censorship Law and Internet – Laws and Cyberspace – emerging trends – Laws relating
to cable and satellite TV

Reference books
1. B.N.Pandey: Indian constitution, Cental Law Publications.
2. D.D.Basu: Introduction to Indian constitution.
3. D.D.Basu: Press laws.
Paper III
Editing and Print media
Principles of writing – Rules of grammar – Writing news – Editing speech reports –
accidents – Floods and other disasters – Education – Culture – Business – Labour and
Editor – News editor – Sub-editor- their responsibilities – Editorial writing – Letters to
the editor – Leads – Principles of rewriting – Rural news editing

Fundamentals of copy- editing – editing and proof - reading symbols – Style sheet –
Headlines – Types of headlines – Modern trends in headlines

History of photography – Photo editing / cropping – Layout and design of different pages
– Magazine production techniques

Journalism ethics- accuracy-fairness-completeness- code of ethics- Jouranlism and
objectivity- the influence of news values- objectivity in practice- redefining objectivity-
objectivity as a perspective- use of language.

Reference books
1. Bruce Westley: News Editing. New Delhi: IBH Publishers.
2. Frank Barton (1989): The newsroom: A manual of journalism. New Delhi: Sterling
3. R. ParthaSarathy: Basic Journalism. New Delhi: McMillan

Paper IV
Media management
Types of organistaion – functions – newspapers departments – editorial circulation –
advertising – Production – Types of ownership pattern – Advantages and disadvantages

Newspapers finance and control – newspaper registration – RNI – Recruitment policy –
training – Wage policy - Wage boards – Readerships surveys – ABC-Advertising policy

Press commissions - Recommendations –– Press Council of India – structure –
Composition – Guidelines

Origin and growth of radio network – All India radio and Doordarshan – Prasar bharathi
– Organizational structure – FMRadio.

Telivision – Growth – Private TV – Cable TV- DTH- CAS- TV ads. Regulations

Reference books
1.Herbert Lee: Newspaper Organisation and Management. New Delhi: Surjeet
2. P.C.Chatterji (1988). Broadcasting in India. NewDelhi. Sage Publications
3. ULBarua: This is All India Radio.
4. Mehra Masani (1986); Broadcasting and the people. New Delhi. National Book Trust.
5. HRLuthra: Indian Broadcasting.
6. Reports of Information and Broadcasting Ministry.
7 First press commission Report , Vol I & II.
8 Second press Commission Report Vol I & II.
9. Vanita Kohli (2006) The Indian media Business: New Delhi. Sage.

Paper V
Gender and Communication

Unit 1
Gender and communication – Need for the study – Gender values – Feminism – Three
waves of feminism – Gender and mass communication in a global context

Unit 2
Feminist communication theories - Structuralism and feminist communication theories –
The structuralist paradigm – Muted group theory – Stand point theory- Post structuralism
and feminist communication theories- The post structuralist paradigm – Performance and
positioning theory – Transgender and Cyborg theories

Unit 3
Communication, organization and public sphere – Rethinking negotialism – feminist
views of communication and exchange women - Ethnic and language minorities and
mess media – Women and international communication – WIN news, WINGS, FIRE -

women communicating globally - Communication, socialization, domination - women &
technology- Transforming communication and democracy - multi cultural literacy

Unit 4
Communicating in culturally diverse organizations - Active research, implications for
gender- Screening and reporting violence - Effects of violence in media - News and
mythology of anti woman violence - unusualness and crime news- Reforming the news -
News, violence & women

Unit 5
Development & communication – Active research - Feminist communication
methodology structuralism and methodology - Conversation analysis – Critical discourse
analysis – Post structuralism and methodology – Post structuralism discourse analysis
and transverse discourse analysis

Reference books
1. Donna Allen, Susan J Kaufman, Ramona, R. Rush (Ed). Women transforming
Communications. London: Sage Publications.
2.Patricia M Buzzanell. Rethinking organizational and managerial communication from
Feminist perspectives
3. Karen Boyle.(2002) Media and Violence . London: Sage Publications.
4. Marian Meyers. Engendering Blame: News coverage of violence against women.
London: Sage Publications.
5. Pamela Creedon. Women in mass communications
6. Charlotte Krolokke and Anne Scott Sorensen. (2005). Gender Communication:
Theories and Analyses Sage Publications.

Semester III
Paper I
Cultural communication
Unit 1
Intercultural communication – Origin – Need – Approaches – Behaviouristic –
Humanistic – Moderate – Components – Definition - meaning

Unit 2
Models in inter - cultural communication – Aristotlean – Cybernetic- Biological –
Psychological modes – Perception of the world – Senses – Influence of culture – Greek –
Hindu - Buddhist

Unit 3
Retention of information – ancient and modern views – Verbal communication –
Language – Hindu – Buddhist – Greek and Islamic theories - industrial – non industrial

Unit 4
Inter cultural communication – Non verbal communication – Hindu theories and modern
theories - Cultural institutions – Family – School- Mass media

Unit 5
Role of media in intercultural communication – Traditional and mass media – Inter
Cultural Broad casting – Communication technology – Cultural change – technology and

Reference books
1. Frank J.Lechner and John Boli (2005). World Culture: Origins and consequences
London. Blackwell Publishing Company.
2. Meenakshi Gigi Durcan And Douglas M. Kellener (2001). Media and Cultural Studies
. London : Blackwell Publishing Company.
3.James Curran (2002). Media and Power. London : Routledge.
4.Amarthya Sen(2005). The Argumentative Indian. New Delhi. Penguin India.
5.Samuel P.Huntington.(1996). The class of Civilizations and The Remaking of world
order. London: Penguin Books.

Paper II
Development communication
Unit 1
Development – Different concepts – causes for under development – theories of
development – economic theory – Walt Rostow – Sociological theory - Modernization
theory - Dependency theory - Dominant paradigm – New paradigm of development-
Sustainable development - Development dilemmas- Millennium development goals –
diffusion of innovations - An over view

Unit 2
Development journalism – origin – growth – developmental journalism - concepts- case
studies – development news – Different concepts – Development reporting – problems –
Indian Press and Development journalism

Unit 3
Development communication – definitions- nature- scope- merits and demerits – case
studies of SITE and Jabua development communication project– Development support
communication – an overview – Communication and Human development – literacy –
population control- Sanitation – Gram panchayat - AIDS

Unit 4
Participatory development – Communication – Participation and development /
community development – social capital – and theories – participatory communication
research – case studies

Unit 5
Multi media approach to development issues – Interpersonal communiation – traditional
communication - Mass communication – Radio – Video- films – case studies

Reference books

1. Avik Ghosh ( 2006): Communication technology and Human development : New

Delhi : Sage publications
2. DVR Murthy (2006): Development Journalism: What Next New Delhi: Kanishka
3. Srinivas Melkote (2001): Communication for development in the third World:
New Delhi: Sage publications
4. N.Jayaweera and S. Ammugave (1989) Rethinking development communication :
Singapore: AMIC
5. Jean Serves et al (1996): Participatory communication for social changes New
Delhi: Sage Publication
6. Richard Peet (2005): Theories of development Jaipur: Rawat publications

Paper III
Public Relations
Unit 1
Definitions – nature – scope- Evolution of PR in India – A historical appraisal – publicity
– Public opinion – propaganda –
Advertising – PR a comparative evaluation – Social and psychological impact of PR –
dynamic role of PR in public affairs – PR management

Unit 2
Components of PR – Principles of persuasion – effective communication – attitude
change – application of communication techniques for PR media – PR for print ,
electronics and film, oral,open house, photography , campaigns , demonstration,
exihibitions, trade, press – press conference – special events

PR organisations – structure – PR policy – consultancy agency system – planning – fact
finding – implementation- Feedback analysis – methods of PR – Press relations –
periodicals – controlled electronic communication – advertising as a component of PR –
direct communication methods – books and other publications

Applied PR – International PR – Pr for central government –state government – local
bodies – PR and extension – employees relations

Unit 5
Preparation of literature for PR campaigns through mass media house journals – case
studies – professional organizations of PR PRSI, PASA, IPRA, BPRA – A brief survey
of PR in India – PR research areas – techniques – evaluation – Laws and ethical aspects –
recent trends – PR education

Referene books
1.Cutlip & Centre(2005) Effective public relations. New Delhi : Pearson.
2 Bertrand R .Canfield : Public relations.
3 Stephenson: Handbook of public Relations.
4.Sam Black: Practical public relations.
5.J.H.Kaul: Public relations in India.
6.Leslie: Public relations Handbook.
7.Finn: Public relations and the management.
8.J.E.Marsen: Modern public relations.

Paper IV
Environmental Communication

Unit I
Environmental communication- nature, scope and definition
Environment- citizens and community groups
Environment groups- scientists, corporations, business lobbyists, anti-environmental
Global environmentalism-environmental movements in India, USA and Europe
Media and environmental journalism.

Unit II
Environment –causes and factors of environmental pollution - Constitutional and legal
provisions in India - Environmental act, Environment (protection act, 1996) – Sustainable
development - Commission on sustainable development - Earth summits- UN and climate

Unit III
Public participation in environmental decisions – The right to know and access to
information – The right of public comment – Citizens communication and public-
participation – Criticisms of traditional forms of public participation – The emergence of
alternative forms of public participation - Collaboration and consensus in environmental

Unit IV
Media coverage of environment – Media depictions of nature - News production and the
environment – Political economy – Gate keeping – Newsworthiness – Media frames –
Norms of objectivity and balance – Media effects – Direct transmission – Agenda setting

– Narrative framing and cultivation analysis – Rise of alternative environmental media -
Newspapers – Films - Professional societies for environmental journalists

Unit V
Risk communication –Assessing risk – Media reporting of risk – Environmental
advocacy – Case studies- Dilemmas of environmental advocacy – Green marketing and
corporate campaigns

Reference Books
1.Robert Cox. (2006). Environmental communication and public sphere. London: Sage
2.Binod Agarwal et al (ed). Global Negotiations Vol I and II. Centre for science and
3. L. Wallack et al. Media Advocacy And Public Health. London: Sage publications.

Paper V
Television and film production
Unit 1
TV as medium of communication – Origin and growth - Characteristics – Audience –
stages in TV programme production – Script writing – types of scripts – programme
production techniques – TV studio – types of cameras – lenses – Basic shots –micro
phones – lighting –floor planning – duties of the TV crew

Unit 2
TV News – principle code – sources of writings – New telecast techniques – programmes
for special audience – women – youth – children – farmers – students – panel discussion -

Unit 3
Shooting – Indoor – Outdoor – Location survey – Documentaries – Dramas – Variety
programmes – role of producer – Studio operations – SITE -ETV - cable television –
Video revolution

Unit 4
A brief history of films – Characteristics – Silent era – Talkies – Popular cinema – New
wave cinema – Types of films – stage in film making – Sound Recording – post
production – Animation techniques – film reviews – film appreciation

Unit 5
Problems and prospects of the Indian Film industry - Film organization - FTII : NFDC –
censorship & laws – Khosla committee report – Film policy

Reference books

1. G.B.Millerson: TV Programme production.

2. R.N.Acharya: Television in India.
3.Breyer – Johnson: Making a television programme.
4. B.S.Bhatia: TV for Education and Development.
5. S.P. Singh: Now the headlines: S.P. Singh.
6. I.E.Fang: TV News writing, Editing, Filming, Broadcasting.
7. B.W.Welsh: A Handbook for script writers. B.W.Welsh.
8. Satyajit Ray: Our films and Ttheir films.
9. Kabita Sarkar: Indian Cinema today.
10. Lindgrad: The art of film.
11. James Monaco: How to read a film.
12. Armour: Film – A reference guide.
13. Feroze Rangaoonwallah: 75 years of Indian cinema.
14. G.D. Khosla: Film censorship.

Semester IV
Paper I
International communication
Unit 1
International Communication- nature and scope- historical evolution
Emergence of long-distance communication- early communication channels- post-
traditional forms- newspapers- news agencies- telegraph-telephone-
Types and channels of communication- interpersonal-technical and global
International communication and national identity

Unit 2
Dimensions of international communication- global village- war of ideas- communication
and national sovereignty- increasing concentration and Trans nationalization-
International news system- international news flow and controversy- news values
controversy- media imperialism- communication policies-
UNESCO – mass media declaration- New World Information and Communication Order-
McBride Commission- emergence of IPDC
Propaganda and forms of propaganda –use of mass media

Unit 3
Satellites- comstats- emergence of CNN and its impact on world of communication
War and media-public diplomacy and political warfare- new ways to report the world

Unit 4
Globalization and media – different phases of globalization-mediating globalization-
Media and communications- emergence of STAR TV- Globalization and ICT

Unit 5
Media organizations- International Press Institute- International Telecommunication
Union-British Broadcasting corporation- Voice of America-European Broadcasting
Union- Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development

Reference books
1. Ingrid Volkmer (2001): News in the global sphere. A study of CNN and its impact
on global communication, Luton. University of Luton Press.
2.William Hachten (2002): World News Prison. Iowa. Iowa state press,
3. Tehri Rantaner (2006): Globalisation and Media. London: Sage Publications.
4 Howard H Frederick (1993): Global communication & International relations.
5.Anos Owner Thomas (2006): Transnational media and controlled Markets. Sage
publications, New Delhi
6.Cees Hamlink(1996): The Politics of World communication. London. Sage
publication. London

Paper II
Traditional communication
Unit 1
Traditional media – nature – meaning – Definition – Historical background –
characteristics – Classification of formats – Different phases -

Unit 2
Traditional media and communication-communication models – Folk arts and social
perspectives – Folk arts and religious communication

Unit 3
Folk arts in India – Jatra Yakshagana – Tamasha – Koodiayattam – Palla therkuttu –
other popular folk arts in different regions

Unit 4
Folk formats in Andhra pradesh – Origin and growth – Harikatha – Burrakatha –
Jamukulakatha –
Street plays (Veedhi Natakaalu ) _ Tolu bimmalatalu ( Puppetry ) – Tappetagalu _
Yallamma Jatra – Oggukathala –

Unit 5
Folk arts and political communication – Traditional media in Health education and
Communication – Folk media in promoting tourism – Environ - Change agents –
Traditional Media and social relevance

Reference books
1. Shyam Parmar: Traditional folk Media.
2. Durgadas Mukhopadhya. Folk arts and social communication: Delhi: NBT.
3. Usha Rani. N. Folk Media for development.
4. B. Ramaraju.: Folk lore of Andhra Pradesh.
5. Nagabhushan Sharma. M: Folk performing arts of Andhra Pradesh.
6. RadhaKrishna Murthy, Mikkilineni: Telugu vari Janapada Kalaruupalu.
7. N.Vijaya: The role of traditional folk media in rural India.

Paper III
Research Methodology
Unit 1
Introduction to mass communication research – meaning of research, scientific method –
characteristics – steps in research identification and formulation of research problem in
communication research

Unit 2
Basic elements of research – concepts – definitions, variables, hypothesis and causation -
hypothesis – type of hypothesis – characteristic of good hypothesis – hypothesis testing
– research designs in mass communication research outlines of important designs ,
approaches : Survey research , content analysis and historical method . Measurement:
meaning - levels and types of measurement

Unit 3
Sampling in communications research, types , their applications and limitations
Methods of Data collection :Interview, Questionnaire, observation and case study -
application and limitations of different methods

Unit 4
Use of statistics in communication research, basic statistical tools: measures of central
tendency) mean , mode and median: measure of dispersion ( standard deviation ,
correlation and chi-square).

Unit 5
Data processing, analysis, presentation and interpretation of data. Use of graphics in data
present ion – Writings a research proposal; writing research report – components and

Reference books
1.Winner and Dominic (2002) Mass media research, an introduction. Singapore:
Thomson publishing company.
2. A. Hansen et al (1998). Mass Communication research Methods London: Palgrave.

3. S.H.Priest (1996) Doing Media research: An Introduction. London: Sage
4. B. Gunther (2000). Media Research Methods London: Sage Publications.

Paper V
Human Rights and Media

Unit I
Human rights – Concept – Meaning – Evolution – Kinds of human rights – Civil and
political rights – Economic, social and cultural rights - Human rights under UN Charter –
Commission on Human rights – UN high commissioner for human rights – International
coverants on human rights

Unit II
Universal declaration of human rights – International bill of human rights - Preamble-
Enumeration of rights in the declaration - Civil and political rights – Economic rights
and social rights – India and the universal declaration

Unit III
International conventions on inhuman acts – Genocide – Apartheid- Torture and other
cruel , inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment – Slavery- Slave trade – Forced or
compulsory labour- Traffic in person and prostitution – Elimination of racial
discrimination – Death penalty

Unit IV
Vulnerable groups and human rights – women, rights of the child – Child labour – Rights
of the migrant workers – Refugees- Stateless persons – Disabled persons – Indigenous
people – Older people – Human rights commissions in India – NHRC – SHRC – Human
rights courts in districts

Unit V
Human rights and media – Newspapers – TV and Films - Agenda setting – Framing of
issues - Newsworthiness - Assessment of reports – Reporting and writing of human
rights report

Reference Books
1.Gopala Bhargava (2001). Human rights concern of the Future. New Delhi: Gyan
2.H.O Aggarwal (2000) International Law & Human rights. Allahabad: Central Law
3. NJ Wheeler and Timothy Dunne (1999).Human Rights in Global politics. London:
Oxford University Press.