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CARDIOVASCULAR

CONTROL, PART 2
Bio Sci E109
Human Physiology
What matters to
cardiovascular homeostasis?
-
Stimulus Blood pressure Exercise: commands from the
motor cortex

Proprioceptors, muscle
Sensor Baroreceptors spindle organs

Integrating Medulla oblongata


center

Autonomic pathways

Effector
Heart Stroke Peripheral
rate volume resistance
EFFERENT PATHWAYS
Autonomic
Adrenal
Sympathetic sympathetic Parasympathetic
Spinal
cord
Nicotinic Adrenal Nicotinic
receptor ACh gland receptor ACh

Ganglion Ganglion
Blood E
stream
Effector NE ACh
organ
α receptor
β1 receptor β2 receptor Muscarinic
receptor
Smooth & cardiac muscle
Glands & adipose tissue
If Ca2+ Slow K+
AUTORHYTHMIC
Opens at Vm = -40 mVCELLS
Opens at Vm = -60 mV Opens at high Vm
K+ K+
Out

In
Na+ Ca2+

+20

0
Vm
(mV)

-40

-60
0 600
Time (ms)
CONTROL OF HEART RATE
+20 Membrane potential of
autorhythmic cell in
SA Node
0

Vm With
(mV) Norepinephrine

-40

-60 Pacemaker potential


0 ms 800 ms

Sympathetic
NE release
β1 in SA Node
If duration

Heart rate
CONTROL OF HEART RATE
+20 Membrane potential of
autorhythmic cell in
SA Node
0
With ACh

Vm With
(mV) Norepinephrine

-40

-60 Pacemaker potential


0 ms 800 ms

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node Musc. receptor
in SA Node
If duration
? PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Heart rate


FRANK-STARLING LAW
Effects of NE on myocardial cells (β1 - receptors)
1. increases [Ca2+] when activated Increases contractility
2. shortens duration of activation
300
With Norepinephrine
(sympathetic pathway)
Stroke
volume
(mL)
Heart increases force
70
production to clear all blood
that enters the heart

0
0 135 400
Resting value
Ventricular end-diastolic volume (mL)
EFFERENT PATHWAYS

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular Musc. receptor
myocardium in SA Node
If duration Contractility
? PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


EFFERENT PATHWAYS

Smooth muscle
Sympathetic neuron α receptor
around arteriole

Action NE
potentials

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular Musc. receptor
myocardium in SA Node
If duration Contractility
? PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


EFFERENT PATHWAYS
Increased sympathetic stimulation causes
vasoconstriction and high peripheral resistance
Smooth muscle
Sympathetic neuron α receptor
around arteriole

Action NE
potentials

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


EFFERENT PATHWAYS
Decreased sympathetic stimulation causes
vasodilatation and low peripheral resistance
Smooth muscle
Sympathetic neuron α receptor
around arteriole

Action
potentials

Sympathetic Parasympathetic
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


INTEGRATION CENTER

Medulla
Blood pressure control oblongata

NE release ACh release


β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


SENSORY ORGANS
Baroreceptors sense Mean
Arterial Pressure (MAP)
via strain in major arteries
Carotid artery
Baroreceptors
Baroreceptors

Aorta Medulla
oblongata

NE release ACh release


β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


BARORECEPTOR REFLEX
Baroreceptors sense Mean
Arterial Pressure (MAP)
Blood pressure
via strain in major arteries

Baroreceptors

Medulla
oblongata

NE release ACh release


β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


BARORECEPTOR REFLEX

Blood pressure High Blood Pressure


-
Baroreceptors

Reduce Medulla Activate


sympathetic oblongata parasympathetic
pathways pathways
- +
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasodialation
Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


BARORECEPTOR REFLEX

Blood pressure Low Blood Pressure


-
Baroreceptors

Activate Medulla Reduce


sympathetic oblongata parasympathetic
pathways pathways
+ -
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


REGULATING BLOOD VOLUME
Blood volume

Blood pressure Low Blood Pressure


-
Baroreceptors

Osmolarity Kidney
of urine
Medulla &
hypothalamus
Drink water Thirst

+ -
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate


REGULATING BLOOD VOLUME
Blood volume control Blood volume

integrates across the Blood pressure High Blood Pressure


cardiovascular, urinary, -
musculoskeletal, and Baroreceptors

digestiveOsmolarity
systems.
of urine
Kidney
Medulla &
hypothalamus

- +
NE release ACh release
β1 in SA Node β1 in ventricular α in arteriole Musc. receptor
myocardium sm. muscle in SA Node
If duration Contractility Vasodialation
Vasoconstriction PK+ PCa2+

Heart rate Stroke volume Peripheral resistance Heart rate