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The AustralianCentrefor Egyptology:Reports8

THE TETI CEMETERY


AT SAQQARA

VolumeI

Ka-aperandOthers
The Tombsof Nedjet-em-pet,

,:r-'
F.
l|?

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N. Kanawati and A. Hassan

With contributionsby P. Bentley,A. Cavanagh,N. Charoubim,


A. McFarlane,S. Shafik.K. Sowada,E. Thompson,N. Victor
THE TETI CEMtrTtrRY
AT SAQQARA
VolumeI
The Tombsof Nedjet-em-pet,
Ka-aperandOthers
r!.! 1.: ''
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'
'
)Jii ;
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. ir' ''

.l ii-1
("i
,a.,.,''' The AustralianCentrefor Egyptology
i,,

Reports:8
THE TETI CEMETERY
AT SAQQARA
VolumeI
The Tombsof Nedjet_em_pet,
Ka_aperandOthers

N. Kanawati and A. Hassan

With contributions
?V J Bentley,A. Cavanagh,N. Charoubrm,
A. McFarlane,S. Shafik,K- S;i;;u,-E. Thonlpson,N. Victor

Australian
Centrel-orEgyptology
-
Sydney.I 996
@ N. Kanawoti and A. Hasscrn1996. All rights reserved
ISBN: I -86108-2s9-3

Publishedby: TheAu,strctliunCentre.fbrEgyptology
Macquarie University,North Rytle,N.S.ly. 2109,Australia

Printed by: Adept Printing Pty.Ltd.


I3 ClementsAvenne,Bnnkstotvn,N.S.W.2200,Austrul.ia

Distributedby: Aris tmd Phillips Lttl.


ChurchStreet,Wunninster,Wilts, Englcrnd
CONTENTS

PREFACE

ABBREVIATIONS

THE MASTABA OF NEDJET-EM.PET


ll

THE BURIAL OF IBI


3l

THE MASTABA OF KA.APER


35

INSCRIBED OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS


53

APPENDIX: THE MASTABA oF GEREF/ITJI


69

INDEX
75

PLATES
17

.5
PLATES

Gcneralview of thc ccmetcryto thc north of 3 9. Necljct-crn-pet


T e t i ' sp y r a m i d ( a ) E n t r a n c e ,l i n t c l
2 Location of rccent cxcavationsto thc norih (b) Entrancc,clrum
o 1 ' T c t i ' sp y r a m t d (c) Entranccto room lll, rvestcloor
3 . Ncdjet-cm-pct thickness
( a ) E n t r a n c e .l i n t e l (d) Roorn l, wcst wall
(b) Entrancc,drum ( c ) R o o r nI . n o r t h w a l l
(c) Roont I. north willl 40. Ncdjct-crn-pct.rt)or11 V, l'alsccloor
4 . Ncdjet-crn-pctand Ibi ,1I . Ncdjet-crn-pet, room V
( a ) I b i , l a l s cd o o r s( r o o m I V . N e d j c t - n
et - p c t ) (a) North rvall
( b ) N e d j c t - e m - p ert o. o m V ' n o r t h w a l l (b) Fragmcnts
(c) Ncdjet-cnr-pct.shaft 6 42. Ncdjct-ern-pcl, room V, north rvall (dctail)
5 . Nedjct-crn-pet.roorn V. l'alsedoor ,13. Necljct-crn-pct, sarcophagusintcrior
6 . Nedjct-em-pet.room V, north wall (detail) ( h a n dc o P Y )
'7. (a) SideI
Ncdjet-cm-pct.toorn V. north wall (dctail)
a1. Ncdjet-cm-pct,sarcoPhagus ( b ) S i d c2
(a) Intcrior (c) Sidc 3
( b ) I n t e r i o r ,s i d c 2 ( d c t a i l ) + + . Nedjct-cm-pct,l.inds

9. Nedjct-em-pet.skelctalrctnainsin thc lbi (room lV. Ned.ict-cm-Pct)


s a r c o p n a gsu (a) Southcrnl'alsedoor
I 0. Ncdjct-cm-pct.finds (b) Northcrn l'alscdoor
I l . N c d j e t - c r n - p efti.n d s 4 6 . Ibi and Ka-rpcr, l-inds
I 2 . I b i ( r o o mI V . N e d j c t - e t n - P e t )
11
Ka-apcr.plln and scction
(a) Southcrnfalsedoor 4 u . K a - a p e r .s c c t i o n s
(b) Northcrn l-alscdotir , 1 9 . Ka-apcr,t:ntnutcc
I 3 . I b i a n d K a - a P e rf.i n d s ( a ) S o u t hj a r n b
I zl. Thc mastabaol' Ka-apcr,gencralvicw ( h ) N o r t hj a m b
I 5. Ka-aper,ctltrilnce 5 0 . Ka-aper,cntrancc
I 6. Ka-apcr,cntrance,north .iamh (a) Souththickncss
I 7. Ka-apcr,el)trancc.north -iamb(dctail) (b) North thickncss
I E. Ka-aPcr,cntrancc 5 l Ka-uper,room lll. l'alsedoor
(rt) Nollh thickttcs: 5 2 Ka-apcr,room III, sidesof false door
( b ) N o r t h t h i c k n e s s( d e t a i l ) (a) South
I 9. Ka-aper,cntrancc (b) North
(a) Souththickncss 5 3. Ka-aper.room lll, l'alscdoor niche
( b ) S o u t h t h i c k n c s s( d c t a i l ) ( a ) S o u t ht h i c k n e s s
2 0 . Ktr-aper,rrlotn II I, lalsc doot' (b) North thickness
2 1 . K a - a p c r r, o o n i l l l , f a l s ed o o r n i c h e 'n o r t h 54. Ka-apcr,roorrrlll, I'alscdoor niche
thickness ( a ) S o u t hi a m b
22. Ka-apcr,roonl III, [alsedoor niche ( b ) N o r t hj a m b
(a) South thickness 5 5 . K a - a p c r ,s a r c o p h a g u s
( b ) S o u t hj a m b (a) Lid, sidcI
2 3 . K a - a p c r .s i r r c o P h a g u s (b) SiclcI
( a ) S i d c3 ( c ) S i d c3
( b ) S i d eI (d) Side 1, interior
11 Inscribedobjccts. 1'alscdoors - 5 6 . l n s c r i b c do b j c c t s ,s t 6 l c n i a i s o n
2 5 . I n s c r i b e do b j c c t s .f a l s c d o o r s (a) FaEadc
2 6 . I n s c r i b e do b j c c t s .o l ' l c r i n gt a b l e s (b) Ilack
2 1 . Inscribeclobjccts, ol-f'cringtablcs (c) End
2 t t . Inscribed l-ragmcllts 5 7 . I n s c r i b c tol b j c c t s ,f a l s ed o o r s
2 9 . I n s c r i b c dl r a - u m c n t s 5 8. lnscribcd objccts,of'l'erin-u tablcs
3 0 . lnscribed fragments 59. lnscribcd l'ragtncnts
( r 0 . I n s c r i b e df r a g n t c n t s
3 1 . I n s c r i b e dl r a g m c n t s
3 2 . Inscribcd fragmcnts 6 1 . I n s c r i b e dl ' r a g t t t c n t s
( r 2 . I n s c r i b e df r a g m c n t s
3 3 . Inscribed l'ragnlcnts
- ) + . Inscribcd iragmcnts 6 3 . Inscribcdl'ragments
3 5 . Gercf, false door 6'1. Inscribeclfragmcnts
(r5. Gcrcf. falscdoor
3 6 . N c d j e t - c m - p e tP, l a n s
3 7 . Ncdjct-ern-Pet,scctlons
3 l J. Ncdjet-crn-pet.sections
PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The reign of Teti and the early Sixth Dynasty repl'esent an interestingancl
ir.nportant periodin Egyptianhistorywhich witncssed religiousand administrativc
r e f o r m s ,f o r e i g n a c t i v i t i e s ,u n u s u a le v e n t si n t h e p a l a c ca n d r n a j o r a r t i s t i c
achievements.However,our understanding of this period is restricteddr-reto the
incompleteexcavations and/ordocumcntation of the Teti Cemetery.While someof
the brilliantly decoratedmastabas to the north of the pyrantidof Teti are accessible
or at leastavailableto scholarsin publications,othereqr-rally importantmastabas
remain partly or totally unpublishcd.In addition,an importantsectionof this
cemeteryhas neverbeeninvestigatedand lies unclera mound o[ sandand deblis
resultingfiom earlierexcavations (seePl. 1).

The presentexcavationto the north of Teti'spyrarrid is a.joint projcctof the


AustralianCentrefor EgyptologyandtheEgyptianSupremeCouncilof Antiquities.
Its aimsare: a) to carryout an archaeologicalsurveyof the cet.netery of Teti and tcr
producea detailedmap with tomb locations;b) to excavatethe areadeflnedon the
eastby the temenoswall of the pyrarniclof Quecnlpr-rt.on the westby the mastaba
of Shepsi-pu-Ptah and on the sor-rth
by the mastabaof Ncl-er-seshern-Ptah; c) to
fully publishthe resultsof our excavations as wcll as completereportsof certain
known mastabas in this areawhich havenot reccivecl the attentionthey descrve;d)
to undertakea synthesisstuclyo1'thematerialfhm this ccmeterypertainingto the
Old Kingdomas well as laterperiods.This will includea detailedcxaminationol-
the humanremains,DNA analysis,carbondatingof certainorganicmaterialsand a
studyof theceramicsandotherobjcctsdiscovercd.

T h e e x p e d i t i o nb e g a n i t s w o r k i n 1 9 9 4 l v i t h t w o s e a s o n sM
, a y - J u n ea n d
November-December.A third seasonwas conductedin November-December
199-5.The currentvolumerecordsall thc Old Kingdomtombsand finds so lar
cleared. The level abovethesetombscontainednllmcrousburialsof latcr periods
which belongedto modestofficialsand their families. Materialfiom theseburials
will appezrin a separate volumenow in preparation.

In 1995a grid systemwas intrclduced which dividedthe cun'entexcavationsite


into squaresof 5m. x 5m. takingthc north-eastcornerof the mastabaof Kt-gnt-rt.j
as a startingpoint to the grid. Beginningwith the squareclosestto that mastaba,
the divisionson the N-S line weregivenalphabetical lcttersstartingwith A, while
the divisionson thc E-W line wereassignedarabicnumeralsstartingwith l. Fron-r
1995all finds were locatedon this grid.

In recordingceramicobjects,a numberof vcsselswele examinedandrecordecl as


accuratelyas possible,notingthe shape,surfaceI'inish,decorationand technology.
The colourdescriptions arebasedon MunsellSoil CrilourCharts(reviscded. 1994,
New York) and the fabricsareclassifiedin accordance with the ViennaSystem(D.
Arnold and J. Bourriau,An Introdttc'tionto Ancient Egv-ptuirtPottery [Mainz,
19931,168). Potswerecxaminedundera i0x handlenson a fi'eshbrcak,althor"rgh
appropriatesectionswere not alwaysvisible on contpletevessels. For these,
approximatefabric designationsaregiven.
Abbreviations used in the text elre as follows. unless otherwise noted:
H = maximumheight;W = maximurnwidth; L = maximumlength;D = diameter;
Th = thickness.

During the courseof our work we receivedgenerousfinancialsupportfrom


variousinstitutionswithoutwhich this pro.ject
cor"rld
nevcrhavebeenaccomplished.
Our most sincereappreciationis extendedto the NaitionalGeographicSociety,the
Egyptian SupremeCouncil of Antiquities,thc AustralianResearchCouncil,
MacquarieUniversityandthe RundleFoundationfbr EgyptianArchaeology.

The continuedand valr,rnble cooperationof the Egyptian SupremeCouncil of


Antiquitiesis gratefullyacknowlcdged.In this respectspecialthanksareextended
to the Chairman.ProfessorDr. Abd el-HalirnNour el-Din, and to the Director
Generalof Giza and Saqqara,Dr. Zahi Hawass. Thernksare also due to the
Directorsof Antiquitiesat Seiqqara,Mr YehyaEid and now Mr. MohamedHagras,
and to the inspectoratepersonnelfor their supportand help. We are most
appreciativeof the compctentand unsparingassistancereceived from our
accompanying inspectors, Mr Nour el-Din Abd el-Samadand Mr. Ezatel-Gendi,
who greatlyfacilitatedour field work.

A very dedicatedteam assistedon site and it is a pleasureto acknowledgetheir


rolesand contributions.Dr. AdeI Abd el-Aziz (Fayr-rm),
individLral Miss Trercey
Callaghan,Mr. Paul Cowie and Miss JaneRoy (Macquarie University)
actedas
field supervisors.The epigraphicwork was carriedout by Dr. Ann McFarlane,
Mrs. ElizabethThompson(MacquarieUniversity)and Mr. SarnehShafik (Sohag).
The finds were recordedby Ms. Karin Sowada(Universityof Sydney),and the
humanremainsby Mr. PaulBentley(MacquaricUniversity). Mr. Alan Cavanagh
and Mrs. Delma Cavanagh(Newcastle)took chargeo1'the surveyingand the
architecturalmeasurements.Mrs. Gael Callaghanand Miss Tracey Callaghan
(MacquarieUnivcrsity)wcre responsible lor theconservation work.

We would like to expressour deepappreciationto all who were involvcd in the


p r e p a r a t i o no f t h i s r e p o r t . M r . P a u l B e n t l e y ( M a c q u a r i eU n i v e r s i t y )w a s
responsiblefor writing the scctionon hurnanremainsand Dr. Ann McFarlanc
( M a c q u a r i e U n i v e r s i t y ) f o r t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a dl e s c r i p t i o n sa n d t h e c o l o u r
conventions.Ms. Karin Sowada(Universityof Sydncy)wrote the sectionson
finds and drew the pottery. The final line drawingsof the scenesand inscriptions
were executedby Mr. Nabil Charoubim(Cairo)and Mr. SarnehShaflk (Sohag).
The architectural drawingsarethe work of Mr. Alan CavanaghandMr. Kas Sroka,
(Cashmere Marler & Cavanagh, Newcastle)and of Mr. NaguibVictor (Sydney).
The photographs wereprovidedby Mr. Mr-rstafa Abd el-Maqsudand Mr. Nasserel-
Din Abd el-Monem (Egyptian Mnseurn, Cairo). Thc llnal artworkfbr this volumc
was preparedby Mrs. Joan Pollctt and Mrs. ElizabethThompson(Macquarie
University).The manuscript waseclitcd, with assistance fiom Miss JoanBcck,Dr.
DesmondBright, Mrs. JoanPollettand Mrs. ElizabcthThompson,and produced
fbr printingby Dr. Ann McFarlane.

Nacuib Kanawati and Hassan


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-52:
Bib!iograp16'rf Attt'ientEgt'lttitut Hierttglt'phiLTe-xts,Reliefsuntl Puinting,s(Oxlbrcl, l92l
s c c o n dc d . J . M d l c k , 1 9 6 0 - ) .
-
P o s e n e r - K r i 6 g e r- d c C e n i v a l ' ' l - h et \ b u S i r P t t p l r .i P o s c n c rK r i 6 g c r ,l ) . c l c C e n i v a l ,J -
L., Hieratic Pttpl'ri in the Briti.shMuseunt:Fifth Serias, Tlrc Abu Sir Pctptri (Lonclon, l96tl).
Sutlqarct'. J. E., E.u'ttt'ttticttts ttl S u t l r l u r u(,r v o l s .( C a i r o ,1 9 0 7 - 1 9 2 3 ) .
Quibelf, Quibcll,
- P v r u n r i d ,N o r r l t S i d .
Q u i b e l l - I i i y t e r . T e t i N o r t h : Q u i b c l l .J . E . H a y t c r .A . G . K . . ' l - e t i
( C a i r o ,1 9 2 7 ) .
Ranke, Personettttlnrcrt'.Rankc. H., Di e altti gt'ptiscltenPe rsrtnen n utnen, 3 vols. (Gliickstadt,
1935-11).
R o b i n s , P r o p r t r l i o nc m d S l Y l e : Robins, G., Proprtrtiort ttnd Style in Ant'ient Egt'TtticutArl
(London,1994).
R o c c a t i , L i t t i r u t u r e ' . R o c c a t i ,A.. Lu littirctture ltistrtrique sous l'Ancien Ertrpire /gtltticn
( P a r i s ,1 9 8 2 ) .
Roth. Palace Attentlunt.r: Rctth.A. M.. Girtt Mttslabu', Vttlunte6: A Centeteryol Pol(tce
Attendants(Boston,I 99-5).

q SAK: Srurlien zur Alttigt'1tti.schenKultur.


Sethe. Urfr.: Scthe.K., (/rkundent l e , yA I t e n R e i t ' l t e . s .r,,1o l s .( L . c i p z i g1, 9 3 2 - 3 3 ) .
Sinrpson, Qar uncl /r/a: SirnPson
( B o s t o n ,1 9 7 6 ) .
. W. K.. The Mastrtbrtsof Qar cntl ldu: G7 l0l tnd 7102

\" Simpson, WeisternCemetert".Sirnpson,W. K.. Mustrtbosrtf tlte WasternCentetert':I)art I


( B o s t o n ,1 9 t 3 0 ) .
Strudwick, Atlministratiorl: Slrudwick,N., T/rcAtlnini.vtrationo.l'Eglpt in the Old Kingdotrt
L
( t , o n d o n .1 9 8 - 5 ) .
ijb"luk"., HunrcutSkeletctlRentcins'.Ubclaker,D.H., HuntanSkeletulRenrttins:E.tcavution,
A r r n l r . s i . iI .n t e r D r e t a t i o i l( S r n i t h s o n i aInn s t i t u t i o nP u b l i c a t i o nN , { a n u a l so n A r c h a e o l o g y2 :
W a s h i n g t o nD . C . . l 9 u 4 ) .
Vaf loggia, M edorL'N efer'. V a l l o g g i a , B t L l t t t L ( M L t . \ t ( t l ,r(ltr 'M r ' t l , , r rN - t . l cr . 2 vols.(Cairo,
l9tt6).
Vandier. M antrel'.Vandier ManueI tl'ur<'It(olttgie{gt1ttienne, 6 vols. (Paris, r 9 - 5 2 - 7 8 ) .
Wb: Erntan.A. - GraPow, (eds.), lVdrrerbuch tler tigt'ptischen Sprctche, 6 vols.(l-eipzig,
1 9 2 6 -l3; n e wc d . l 9 7 l ) .
Z i b e l i u s , S i e d l u n g e n : Z i b c l i u s ,K Agyptist'he Siedlungen nat'lt Tc.rten des AIten Reiclte's
(Wicsbadcn,l97U).
Ziegler, Cataloguetles sti/es: Zieglcr. C., CtnaLttgucdes stiles, peintures et relie.fsdgtlttiens
de l'AncienEnpire et de lu Premi\re Plriode lntermidiaire (Paris' 1990)
THE MASTABA OF NEDJET.EM.PET

T H E T ON{ BOW NER AND HER FAMILY

The Tomb Owner

NAMES
'Nedjet-en1-pet'.
l- Ndt-m-pf I The namemay mean'a gift from heaven'or'one
'her
who is protectedfrom heaven'.2The samcnameis describcdas rn.s <t
greatname'in the inscriptionson side I o1the sarcophagus.
'Ttt ' .
2- T jt3'Tit', or Tjti+

TITLES

l- hm(t)-ntr Nt mhtjt jnb.s upt rrrut'prtestessof Neith, north of her wetll,


'north
openerof the ways'. Neith is occasionally described as of the wall',5or
'openerof the ways',6br-rtthe combintrtionof the two epithetsis uncommon.T
2- hnt(t)-ntr flrut-hr nbt nht'priestessof Hathor,lady of the sycatmore'.8
3- rlt nsrut'acquaintance of the king'.u

The name Nit-nt-pt is rare. It is carried,for example,at Giza by the wives of


Ztufrt andMru-kr.7,ll and by the motherof Mrtw-<t1b.t2An abridgedform, Ndf-
pf, is attestedfbr the daughterof <rrb,alsoof Giza,l3who is probablyearlie_r than
the abovementioned examples.l4 More importantly, in the mastaba
of Mrruu-k;.7 his
mother is depictedwith the name Ndf-tt-pt and the beautiful name ryf.t: The
infrequencyof the nameand the beautifulnameand the locationof Nit-m-pt's
mastabanearthat of Mrrurkr.7's in the Teti Cemetery,leaveslittle doubt that the
owner was Mrrzu-kt.j's mother. It is noticeclthat in her son'stomb N|t-m'pt ts
only given the title rbt nswt, while his wif-eheld the priesthoodsof both Hatlror

I Rirnke.Persotrettnanten l, 215:'/.
2 For a cliscussion sce.lunker,Giza 5, 152.
3 Ranke.Personennunren l, 318 19.
4 Ibid.378:25.
5 S c ef o r c x a m p l eJ u n k e r ,C i z u 2 , 1 6 2 ;v o l . 6 . 2 4 4 , l ' i g . 1 0 4 ;D u c l l ,M e r e r u k o ,p l . 4 6 .
6 J u n k e rG , i z a 3 . 2 0 ( t - 2 0 1v ;o l . 4 , 7 ; v o l . 8 , 7 2 ;K a n a w a tci L a l . . S n q q a r1a. p I . 3 6 .
'l
A s i n L e p s i u sD . e n k n t t i l eIrI , 8 7 ; J u n k c r .G i z a4 , 1 .
5 F o r a s t u d yo f t h c p r i e s t h o o od [ ' H a t h o rs e cG i l l a n r ., I A R C E3 2 I 1 9 9 5 ] .2 l 9 l ' i .
9 B r u n n c r ,S A K I | 9 7 4 1 , 5 8 f ' f 'F; i s c h e rV . ariu,8 n.15.
l0 Hassan,Giza 5, 251, 259.
ll J u n k e rG , i z a9 . 7 0 - 8 3 ,f i g s .2 3 . 3 8 ; F i s c h e rM, I O 1 [ 1 9 6 0 13. 1 0 - 1 2 .
l2 Tomb No. 7766 (infbrmationcourtcsyof the Muscurnof Fine Arts. Boston).
l3 J u n k e r ,G i z t t5 , 1 5 2 .l ' i g .4 4 .
l4 Thc type of chair usedby thc tonrb owncr anclhis wil-canclshown on the pancl ol'thc lalsc
cloor(ibici,iig. 4-5),with bull's legsand thc cushionbu1no back,woulclsuggestan early date.
For thc latterdetailseeCherpion,Mosldbdset ltt'1tog(e.r,28.
l5 D u e l l . M e r e r u k t , p l s . 1 5 0 .l - 5 9 .l 6 l . 1 6 6 - 6 7 .

ll
NEDJET_EM_PET

and Neith.l6 J[is, however,doesnot meanthat the motherdid not enjoy these
titles at the time, but may indicatean emphasison the positionof Mrrw-b.7's wife,
'king'sdaughterof his body' and who is regularlydepictedin front of
who was a
him while the motheris behindhim.

The Husband of Nedjet-em-pet

It hasbeensuggested that Nit-m-pt, the motherof Mrru-ki./, was possiblythe


sameas the wife of Mrw-kt.j of Grza.lT Had the name of the latter'seldestson
survivedin his tomb,it would havestrengthenedsucha likely identification.

The Son of Nedjet-em-pet

Mrrw-kt.jtS'Mereruka'.The nameis not preserved amongthe few inscriptions


surviving in the tomb of Ndt-m'pt. However,sincesheappearsas his mothel in
Mrrw-kt.j's largenearbymastaba,le the kinshipis safelyestablished.

The Daughter of Nedjet-em-pet

Httt-R<20'Hemet-Re'.Sheis depictedon the north wall of room V, claspingher


mother'slegs. A fragment recoveredfrom the debrisbelow the scene,which may
well belongto her,reads:[ztt.s?]sttsttt(t)jnufuu(t)Ilntt-R<'hercldestdaughtcr,
the honouredone, Hemet-Re'.

The Daughter-in-law of Nedjet-em-pet

Zizitzt'Seshseshet'.Fragmentsrecoveredfiorn the debrisin room V show the


headof a woman and at leastthreevertical lines of inscriptionsaboveher, each
ending wrth rn.s nfr Zizit'her beautifulnarne,Seshseshet'. As this nameis not
attributedto Ndt-tn-pt on her own lalse door <-trin Mrrru-kt.j's tomb, it seems
of the royal princess,Mrrul-kt.7'sown wife. The
likely that this is a representation
two women appearfrequentlytogetherin the latter'stomb,22and it is possiblethat
Mrrzu-kt.jandhis wife werealsodepictedin his ntother'schapel.

II DATING OF NEDJET-EM.PET

As statedabove,NQt-m-pt was almostcertainlyMrru-ks.j's motherand was


depictedin his tomb. Ndt-nt-pt's mastabais situatedimmediatelyeastof that of
Spsj-pw-Pth,23andto the north-east of that of Kt-gnt-n7, openingin the same
north-southstreetas the latter.24The main mastabasin this cemeteryappearto have

l6 t b i d ,p l s . 4 6 , 8 8 ,l 5 0 .
l1 Harpur,Decorotion,14.
I8 Ranke,Personennamen l, 162:27 .
I9 Duell, Mereruka,2 vols.,passim.
20 Ranke,Personennanten |,240:5.
2t lbict2 , 98:t.
22 D u c l l ,M e r e r u k a ,p l s . 1 5 0 ,1 5 9 ,l 6 l , 1 6 6 - 6 7
23 Abder-Raziq, Milanges2, 2l()fl.
24 -
Porter Moss, Bibliography'3. pl. -52.

12
NEDJET-EM-PET

been built during the reign of Teti, althoughsome were presumablycompleted


under Pepy I.25 Two mastabaslying immedjatelyto the west of that of NQt-m-pt
shouldbe considered.The first belongsto Spsj-pru-Pth26 who, like Mrrw-kt.j,27
Kt-gm-n.j28and N/r-sim-Pth,2ewas marriedto a womanwith the designationof
ztt nswt nt futfo who might be a daughteror a descendantof king Teti. Spsj-pw-
Pth probablybelongsto the reign of Teti.3l The secondmastaba,datedto the same
reign, is that of the overseerof Upper Egypt Nj-ktw-lzzj32 who is probably the
sameindividual mentionedin the decreeof Teti at Abydos.33

Suggesteddate:Reign of Teti, probablylate.

ilI ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

Pls.36-38.

The tomb of Ndt-m-pf coversa large areaand is composedof an entrance


vestibule,an opencouft, a corridor or stairwayto the roof and a small antechamber
which leadsto the offering chamber. Otherthan blocksof limestoneforming the
entrancedoorway,the falsedoor and elementsof the falsedoor niche in the offering
chapel,the mastabais constructedof black mud brick incorporatingsmall stones
and piecesof pottery. The upperpart is missingand nothingremainsof the vaulted
mud-brickceilingswhich presumablyroofedthe rooms. Few of the internalwalls
are preservedabove 1.20m.,so no heightsof walls, ceilingsor doorwayscan be
provided. The surfaceof the baserock on which the mastabais constructedis quite
uneven,and a fill of gravel and sandto level the floor is visible in the offering
chamberand in the areasurroundingthe main shaft. The brick wall betweenrooms
III and V as well as the side walls of the main shaftextendapproximately.75m.
beneaththe floor level of the mastaba.

The streetsalong the west and north walls were both extensivelyusedfor later
burials and there is also evidenceof intrusiveshaftsin the tomb itself. In the open
court and corridor areasare remainsof walls constructedwith a mixture of stone,
undressedchunks of limestoneand mud brick, most of which were probably
connectedwith intrusive shafts. The reconstructionof the original plan is
hypotheticalbut the exclusionof someshaftshas beenbasedon severalfactors.
Unlike the retainingwalls of the main shaftwhich riseonly .20m.abovethe present
floor level, the side walls of othersin room III remain to a height up to 1.00m.
above the mastabafloor, and interrupt accessfrom room I to room IV and the
offering chamber(room V) which suggesta lateruseof the areawhen rubble and

25 Kanawatietal.,SaqqaraI, i0; Lloyd etal.,suqqAraTontbs 2, passirn.


26 - Hayter, Teti Nortlt,20-23; Abcler-Raziq, Milcmges2,2l9lf.
Quibcll
27 Duell, Mereruka, pls.21, 46, 51, 64,83, 96.
28 v o n B i s s i n gG , e m - n i - k aIi, p l . 2 1 .
29 Capart, Rue rie totnbeaux2, pls. 9l-93.
30 Abder-Raziq , Mdlanges 2,221 |-ig.4,221 l'ig.6.
3l F o r a d a t c i n t h e m i d d l c o l ' D y n a s t y 6 o r l a t e r s c c P o r t e r - MBoisbst ,i o g r a p h y ' 3l,t-35;B a e r ,
R a n ka n d T i t l e , l l U 6 8 A l .
32 The mastabaremainsunpublishcd.Scc Kanawatict al.,Saqqara1,8-9.
3 3 G o e d i c k eK e o k u n t e n t e , 3 T - 4 0 , f i g . J3 a; r n e sH, i e r o g l t p t t i cT e r t . g1 , 3 3 , p l . 3 1 .
, c ) n i g l i c hD

l3
NEDJET_EM-PET

debrismay havefilled, at leastpartly,the courtyard.Somebrick courseshavealso


intrudedon and damagedthe original walls, as has the rnouthof the shaft of /b/
which was cut underand into the eastwall of room IV. Five shaftsalignedE-W
along the southempart of the mastabarnay be assumedto be contemporarywith the
originalbuilding,as they are designedwithin the structuralwalls and apparently
reachedby an adjacentflight of stairsto the roof.

Like the eastwall of the mastabaof Spsj-ptu-Pth on the oppositesideof the same
's
street,34the west and north faEades of Ndt-nrpf tomb were decoratedwith a
panellingof plain compoundnichcs. Constructed brick, they havc an average
in
width of .45-.55m.and a depthat the centralnicheo1'.25-.27n. Severalof the
nichesretainfragmentsof a whitewashwhich covereda coatof n-rudplasterbound
with straw,and it is possiblethat both faEadewalls receivedthc sametreatment.
Five of thesenichesareclearlyvisibleon the wcstwall anclthrceat the westernend
of the north wall. In the lesslvell preservedeasternpart of the north wall, against
which later shaftswere constructed, can be distinguished the remainsof two or
threeotherniches.

The dimensions of the mastaba's are I 1.75m.N-S x 9.60m.E-W.


superstructure
Althougha sectionof the faEadenorth of the entrancestill standsto 2.35m.,the
originalheightof the externalwalls cannotbe determined.Tlie entranceto Ndt-rtt-
pf 's tomb, like many othersin this part of the Teti cetnetery,was placed at the
southernend of the fagade.The walls on eithersideare darnagedand thereforeno
lines or measurements of the entrancedoorwaycan be provided. However,found
during the excavationof shaft8, which lies at the SW cornerof the mastabajust
south of the entrance,were parts of a limestonelintel, 1.054m.wide x .16m.
high,3-5 and drum, .40m.wide x.l35m. thick. Both are inscribedfor Ndt-m-1tt
and undoubtedly areelementsof the entrancedoorway.

The doorway leadsinto room I, a snall chamber2.4Am.N-S x 2.50m. E-W


which apparentlyservedas an entrancevestibule. All walls receiveda coat of
brown mud plasterwhich was overlaidwith a yellow taf-elplastermixed with straw
and then given a thin layer of creamywhitewash.The NW cornerof the roon is
reasonably well-preserved, standingto a heightof 2.10m.,and the westand north
walls retaina smallportionof scenesoutlinedin red paint. At the southend of the
eastwall is a doorway.50m.wide x .53m.thick within which are preservedtwo
steps.15-.20m.in heightconstructed ol brick anclplastered.The doorwayleadsto
'corridor',room II, which extendsto the externaleastwall of the
a long, narrow
mastabaand may originally have housedstairsleadingto the roof. It measures
5.25m.E-W x 1.05m.N-S. Betweenthe southwalls of roomsI and II and the
externalsouthwall are five squareshafts,separated by walls of mud brick, which
probablydateto the originalconstruction.

At the eastend of the north wall of room I a recess1.00m.wide x.l5m. deep


definesa doorway.65m.wide x .35m.thick, with fragmentsof painteddecoration
preservedon the west door thickness.The doorwayopensinto room III, a large

34
Quibell - Haytcr,Teti North.20-23.
3 5 A t G i z a t h e n o r m a l m a x i m u m s p a n o l ' a s i n g l c a r c h i t r a v ci s 1 . 2 0 - 1 . 5 0 r n( .R o t h , P c t l r t c e
Attenclants,l5).

l4
NEDJET-EM-PET

area which was probablyan open court. Irregularin shape,it measures2.60m.


N-S on the west wall x 4.10m.on the eastwall x 6.75m.E-W on the north wall
and 5.25m.on the southwall. Therearetracesof white plasteron the west,south
and north walls but no evidenceof any decoration.Cut into the floor of this court,
contiguouswith the north wall, is the largemouth of a shaft giving accessto the
owner'sburiai apartment.Two srnallershaftscut into the rock arelocatedin the SE
part of the cour-t,and the remainsof brick walls standingto nearlya metreabovethe
floor suggestthat theremay havebeenother,intmsive,burials.

A narrow doorwayat the easternextremityof the north wall of the court, .45m.
wide x .60m.thick, is definedon the northby a recess.85m.wide x .15m.deep.
The doorwayleadsto room IV, a smallantechamber which measures 2.05m.N-S x
1.65m.E-W. The west and north walls retainevidenceof plasterand red paint of
the dado. Two small falsedoorsinscribedfor an official namedlbj were placed
adjacentto eachother at the southend of the west wall, and an intrusiveshaftcut
underand into the lengthof the eastwall.

From this antechamberaccessis gainedto the offering chamber(room V) through


a doorwayat the north end of the west wall. It is .57m.wide x .38m.thick and is
definedon the west by a recess.85m.wide x .17m.deep. Both thicknesses retain
someplasterand on the north side are the remainsof a paintedscene. The offering
chambermeasures4. l5m. E-W x 2.05m.N-S. Tracesof plasterand paint remain
on the lower part of the eastwall and fragmentsof two figuresand the dadoon the
largely destroyedsouthwall, while the betterpreservednorth wall retainsa good
portion of the paintedscenesin the two lower registers.Set into the west wall of
room V is a large inscribedlimestonefalsedoor, 1.60m.wide and 2.62m.high,
which has a cavettocorniceand threepairs of jambs. The measurements of the
door are: upper lintel L2lm. x .22m.; central panel .385m. squarewith side
a p e r t u r eesa c h . 0 6 mw. i d e ,l o w e r l i n t e.l 5 2 m .x . l 9 m . ; d r u m . l l m . x . l 0 m . ; o u t e r
j a m b s . 2 1 m .x 1 . 9 6 m . m ; i d d l ej a m b s . 1 6 - . 1 7 mx. l . l 2 m . , i n n e r j a m b s. 2 0 m .x
Ll5m.; centralniche 1.00m.x .l lm. On eithersideis preservedone courseof
large limestoneblocks,.20m.wide and .455m.high, which formedthe sidewalls
of the falsedoor niche,its floor havinga stonepaving l0-.15m.high acrossthe
entirewidth. Placedon the stonefloor in front of the falsedoor rs a htp offering
table .98m.wide x .34m.deepx .225m.high in the westernpart and .26m.deepx
.20m.high in the easternpart.

IV BURIAL APARTMENTS

P l s . 4 c ,3 7 , 3 8 .

The main shaftis cut into the floor of the opencourt(roomIII). In the SE section
of the court two smallershaftswith burial apartmentshave brick retainingwalls
above the floor level and may have been constructedat a later time when the
mastabawas no longeraccessible.Otherbrick walls in thecourtmay belongto two
other shaftswhich haveno burial chamberand probablywere eitherunfinishedor
not very deep. Anotherburial apartmentis in room IV along the eastwall. Five
verticalshafts,two with burial apartments, are situatedbetweenthe southwalls of
roomsI and II and the southwall of the mastaba.Separatedabovethe rock level by

t-)
NEDJET-EM-PET

walls built of brick, thesemay have been part of the original constructionwith
accessprobablyfrom the roof. It is suspected that the areabetweenthe west walls
of roomsIII and V and the west faqadewall may includeothershafts. No attempt
was made to clear this areabelow a height of approximately1.00m.above the
mastabafloor as suchexcavations could haveunderminedthe larse falsedoor and
the fragile west and norlh walls of the courl.

From the burial apartmentof Nflt-m-pf were recoveredjars, jar standsand bowls
of pottery,numerousmodeljars anddishesof limestone,as well as severalitemsof
alabasterand copper. Threepots were recoveredfrom the shaft I I in room IV (see
Burial of Ibi) but noneof the other nine shaftsyieldedany finds.

I . Unlike most of the burial apartmentsin the Teti cemeterywhich were accessed
from the roof of the mastaba,the shaftleadingto the burial apaftmentof Ndt-m-
pf is locatedin an opencourlyardwithin the mastaba.The mouth of the shaft,
which occupiesa good portion of the floor areaof room III, measures2.15m.
N-S x 2.25m.E-W. As the bedrocksurfaceherefalls considerablybelow the
floor level of the mastaba,the uppermostpart of the shafthasretainingwalls, ca
.10-75m.high, constructedof mud bdsft.36The walls of the shaftcut through
the rock becomenanowerand twist slightly as they descendvertically to a depth
of 14.60m. At the shaft floor the walls measure1.65m.on the north, 1.85m.
on the eastand 1.30m.on the south. The entirewestwall and a goodportionof
the north and southwalls are cut away to provide an opening2.45m. wide x
2.25m.high which enableda largesarcophagus to be manipulatedinto position
in the burial chamber.This chamberis not cut at right anglesto the shaftor to
the mastababut is closelyalignedto the SaqqaraGrid North. The ceiling,floor
and west walls are quite evenly cut, althoughnot smoothed,while the north and
southwalls haverough surfaces.The burial apartmentmeasures5.50m. N-S
on the eastside and 4.65m. at the west wall x 3.75m.E-W on the north wall
and 3.20m.on the southwall x2.25m. high. A recessor ledgealongthe full
length of the west wall has a sill heightof 1.40m.,a depthof .llm. and a
heightof .80m.37

Placed in front of, and aligned with, the west wall is a massivelimestone
sarcophagus,its head end lying just beneaththe false door in the offering
chamber(room V). The chestmeasures externally2.94m.long x 1.35m.wide
at the top and 1.39m.wide at the bottomx 1.20m.high. The side walls are
approximately.28m. thick, and the internalmeasurements are 2.25m.long x
.75m.wide x .80m.high. The lid, still in place,
is 3.20m. long x 1.38m.wide
x .45m. thick. The exterior of the sarcophagus, reasonablywell cut but not
smoothed,hasno decoration.The interiorwalls are well finishedand a single
horizontalline of text betweentwo registerlines is inscribedon the headand
two side walls. Outlinedin black paint,the signswere given a coat of cream
washbut detailswere neithercarvednor painted. Near the headend on the east

3 6 In shafisat Giza walls constructed abovethc bedrockaregenerallyof stonc,and rarcly ol'mud


b r i c k( i b i d , 1 8 ) .
3 7 It has been suggestedthat a similar recessin thc burial charnberof ,nb-nt-r-Hr servcdas a
was readyto bc scalcd(Firth - Gunn, i'etl
shelf on which to rest the lid until thc sarcophagus
Pyr. Cent. l. 16).

l6
NEDJET-EM-PET

sideof the chesta breakmadebv robbershasrnaximummeAsllrements


of .70m.
x .40m.

2 . Contiguouswith theeastwall of themouthof shaftI andwith thenorthwall of


r o o m I I I i s a s h a f i 1 . 1 5 m s. q l r a r e .T h e b r i c k w a l l s a l o n gt h e e a s ta n d s o r , r t h
sidesremaincdto a heightof approximatelvl.00rn. anclthc shafi does not
extendbclow the presentlloor level.

3 . Shaft3 is cut into thecourtyardfloor clirectly!,i. ol tlratbelongingto Nit-nt-pt.


It hasa mouth.92n. E-W x 1.00m.N-S anda depthof 5.00ni. At the floor o1'
the shaft an openingin thc southwall, .9-5nr.
wiclex .95n. high, leaclsto a
burialareamcasuring.95m.E-W x 2.05nr.N-S x .9-5nr. high. The floor ol'the
burialchamberhasbrokcnthroughthc ccilingol'thc burialchambcrof shaft,l
below.
which lies irnmediately

4 . A largerverticalshaftin the SE cornerof the court with a rnouth Lzl-5nr.


squarc
descends rock
thror-rgh to a dcpth of-5.9-5m.whcrc an opcning in the west wall
l.45rn.wide x l.lOrn. high lcadsto an irrcgularlyshapcdbr-rrial chanrbcr.It
measures N-S on the eastwall and 2.40m.on the west wall x l.90nr.
2.35n-r.
E-W on the southwall and 1.60m.on the northwall. The ceiling,now with a
breakopeninginto the burialchamberof shafi3, hasa slightdownwardslopc
frorntheentrance to give a heightol' 1.00m.alongthewestwall.

5 . The easternpart of the north wall of the court appearsto havebeenlargcly cut
away in the proccssof constructingshaft-5. The brick walls of the shafi,still
standingto a heightof jr-rst
over 1.00rn.,surrounda mouth.80m.squareand
thereis no evidenceo1cLrttingbeneaththe f'loorlevelinto thebaserock.

6 . Oneof fivc shafisalignedE-W rvhicharecontiguous with the southwall of the


rnastaba, shaft6 at thc SE,cornerappeafsto havebeenlefi very incornplctc.It
h a s a m o u t h 1 . 2 5 m .E - W x l . 3 0 n i .N - S a n d a d e p t ho f 1 . 8 0 m . U n c u t r o c k
.30rn.wide x l.-50rn.high remainsalongthe northwall, and variouslevelsol-
cuttingareevidentin a sectionof rock .4-5m.wide alongthe eastwall.

Directly wcst of shaft 6, shaft7 has a mouth 1.0-5m. squareand a dcpth of


2.05m. In the north wall an opening.95rn.wide hasa ceilingcut at a sharp
angle which slopesfrom a heightof 1.05m.to .8-5rn.This entrancegives
accessto an irregularlyshapcdburialareameasllring.95n'r.E-W at the entrancc
and .60m.at the northwall x l.90rn.N-S, with a ceilingslopingdownwardto
.70m.at the north wall.

Shafi8 hasa mouth 1.30m.squareanda tnaxirnumdepthof 1.65m.The shaft


floor hassevelallevelsandthe cuttingappcarsunllnished.At the bottornof the
shaft were preservedthc lower four coursesol' an oval, domcd strllctllre
constructedof mud brick. It has a maximumlenethof 1.00m.and possiblv
houseda contracted burial.

9. Also unfinished,shaft t hatsa rnouth l.30rn. squareand a depthof 1.4-5m.


Remainingalongthe easterndpart of the southwalls,a triangularscctionof
uncutrock hasa hcishtof 1.35m..not lar belowthefirst courseof brickwork.

t1
NEDJET-EM-PET

1 0 . In the SW corner of the mastaba,abuttingthe faqadewall, is a shaft with a


mouth 1.20m.E-W x 1.30m.N-S which is cut into the rock to a depth of
2.60m. At the floor of the shaft uncut rock along the east and south sides
remainsto a height of .50m. An openingin the west wall L30m. wide x
which nteasufes1.7-5m.
.90m.high leadsto a burial errea N-S x .85m.E-W x
. 9 0 m .h i g h .

[. SeeBurialof Ibi.

V SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

The walls of the chapelwereconstructed o1-nudbrick. RoomsI, [V and V were


pllsteredand clecorated with scenes and inscriptions executedin painting. Both
blaster and decorationare very similar to those of Mtti now in the Louvre
museum.3SA thick layer of plasterlormed of mud and strawwas coveredwitrr a
layer, a I'ew millimetresthick, of yellowishargil mixed with sandand somefine,
smeillpiecesof vegetableflbre. This was thencoatedwith a thin, smoothcreamy-
white wash,on which paintedsceneswereexecuted.Most of the upperpartsof the
wllls havedisappeared and only in thc lowcr registersof certainsectionsarescenes
preserved.The areawas latercoveredwith an accumulation of sandand debris
abovewhich a layer (approximately -50cm. high) of clean,very compact gravelwas
laiclto providea siahlefoundation for a New Kingdom tomb built of rnudbrick
walls with a pavementand somearchitecturatl elements of stone, most of which
have now diiappearecl.The pressureof weight on the survivingOld Kingdom
walls is evident in some areaswhere the mud brick has yielded and certain
horizontalregistersnow havea wavy, undulatingappearance.The entrancelintel,
the entrance,lru* anclthe falsedoor in thc off-eringchamberareeach formed of one
limestoneblock decoratedwith incisedhieroglyphsand figures,with limited
modellingandcletails.

The Entrance

Pls.3tt, 3b, 39u, 39b.

The Lintel: jmtlut rn nnjt jmntjt furlnpu Ndt-tn-pt rn ...'the honouredone in


the westerndesert,beforeAnubis,Nedjet-em-pet, [her beautiful]name'..''.

The Drum: Two linesof inscriptions read:(1) lmr(t)-ntr"..ltm(t)-ntrNt wpt Turut


' ( l ) . . . t h e p r i e s t e sos f . . . , t h e p r i e s t e s o
sf
( 2 ) . . . w s j r N d t - n t - p tr n . s n f r T j t
Neith,op"n"t of the ways(2) ... Osiris,Nedjet-em-pet, her beautifulname,Tit'.

Room I

Pls.3c, 39c, 39d, 39e.

The decorationin this room is executedin red outlineonly andis now very poorly
preserved.On the north wall are the remainsof the two lower registersdepicting

38 Zieg.ler,Catalogue, l.
desstiles,32-36,123--5

l8
NEDJET-EM-PET

herdsmenleadingoxen in an animalprocession.Both the west wall and west door


thicknessto room III retainfragmentarysccncsof ofl'cringbearers,alsooutlinedin
red.

Room V

THE DOORWAY

Only the northernthicknessretainspartof its originaldecoration.In eachol-thc


two lower registersarc two incompletelypreservcdofl'cringbearersproceeding
towardsthe insideof the room (no facsirnile).

THE FALSE DOOR

Pls.5, 40.

Set into a recessin the west wall is a monolithiclimestonedoor with a torus


mouldingand surmountedby a cavettocornice. It was paintedred to simulate
graniteand the figures and inscriptionsretainsomeblue paint. However,the
coloursaremuch betterpreserved in the lower partof the door.

The UpperLintel: At the left is a ligureof the ownerholdinga lotusflower closeto


her nose whilc sitting on a chair with lion's legs. In fi'ont of the figure are two
horizontal(l-2) and two vertical(3-4) linesol'hieroglyphswhich read:( l) |ttp dj
nswt htp lrtpzulntj zl.t-ntrjmj zut tpj tlru.fnb t: t-lsrqrs.tj.sm ltrt-n[r (2) htTttlj
(3)jmtfuutbr ntr <t(4)
n.sm brt lrru r<nb3e
nsu,thtpdj WsjrfuntjDdruprt-furru
'(1) An
Ndt-m-pt rn.s nfr Tjt offeringwhich the king givesand an ofl'eringwhich
Anubis,foremostof the divinebooth,who is in the embalmingplace,who is on his
hill, lord of the sacredland (gives),that shebe buriedin the necropolis.(2) An
offeringwhich the king givesand an offeringwhich Osiris,loremostof Busiris
gives. May an invocationoffering corre forth for her throughoutthe courseof
every day. (3) The honouredone beforethc grcatgod, (4) Nedjet-em-pct,her
b e a u t i f unl a m e T
, it'.

The CentralPanel: The tomb owner sits at an offering table ladenwith fourteen
hall'loavesof bread. Sheextendsher right handto the tablewhile carryinga lotus
flower in her left. On one sideof the tableis a cwer in a basinplacedon a stand,
'one
and on the othersideis writtenfu t lt hnqt fu kt l1ttpd l.1tis l.1tmnbt thousand
of bread,one thousandof beer,one thousandof oxen,onc thousando1'lowl,onc
thousandof alabasterand one thousandof clothes'.Above the sceneis written
jmtfuw[t] l1r Wsjr Ndt-m-pt rn.s nfr Tjt 'the honouredone befbreOsiris,Nedjet-
em-pet,her beautifulname,Tit'.

The Lower Lintel: Two horizontallines ( l-2) end with a figure of the owner',
similar to that on the upperlintel. (1) rbt nsrtttl.utt(t)-ntrHwt-l.tr nbt nht (2)
jm:fuwtNQt-rn-ptrn.s nfr Tjt '(1) thc acquaintance of the king, the priestessol'
(2)
Hathor,lady of the sycamore, the honor-rred one, Nedjet-em-pet, her beautiful
name,Tit'.

39 For thc expressionfirt hnu r( /11,seeWb 3, 391.

l9
NEDJET-EM_PET

T'he Jambs: Each of the threejambs contains two vertical lines of hieroglyphs and
ends with a standingfigure of the tomb owner holding a lotus flower to irir nose.
The inscriptionson each of the coresponding right anclleft.jambs are identical.

TheOuterJambs:(l) (i Wsjr sim.tj.slJrwnutdsrku)tlppt jnullzuthr.sn ispt


jn tttr dj zrnjtjnmtjt.l.ttp
<_.s_ <i1tj.s
r.s (2) rbt nxut lJnt(t)-ntrHrut-l.irnbt nht ttnr(t)-ntr
Nt rnftj-tjrtb.su\tt tuttutjrntftrt,tbr wsjr Njt-m-pttrn.snfr Tjt ,(l) An offering
which osiris gives,that shebe guidedurponthe sacrcdi..-,a,lr, uponwhichthe
hontlttreclones travcl. that her hand/credentialca0
be accepledby thc god, that the
westcrndesertassistsher.4l (2) Thc acquaintance of the king, the priestessof
Hathor,lady o1'thesycamore,the priestess of Neith,northof hcr wali. openerof
the ways,the honottrccl onebeforeOsiris,Ned.jet-cm-pct,he-rbeautifulname,Tit'.

Thc Middle Jambs:(1) l.ttpdj rt_b_p.s


ltr unut nfrku)t nt jmnt ints.tj.sjrtknu.s
.n!r
jtru nfr u,.rtQ) rlt nsutt l.un(t)-n!rHtut-ltr nbt nlit ltnt(t)-ntr Nt mltjt jnb.s zupt
jrru[gzut
zu.tzut rn.s nfr Tjt 'tl) An of1'eringwhich rhe greargod
lr lnTtruNL_lt-nt-ptt
gives, that she may travel upon the bcautilirl roads of the west, that she be
accompanied by her kas havingrcacheda vcry goodold age. (2) The acquaintance
of the king, thc priestess of Hathor,laclyof the sycarnorc, the priestess of Neith,
northof her wall, openerof theways,thc honouredonebefbreAnubis,Ncdiet-em-
pet,her beautifulname,Tit'.

The lnncr Jaintrs: (1) rl.1ttrxut l.nn(t)-ntrHutt-ltr nbt nltt hnt(t)-ntr Nt ntt.ttjt
j n b . s n t p t t u t r t t t ( 2 )j m t l . 4 u tf u r n l r < t n b j m n t N d t - m - p t r n . s n f r T j t ' 1 1 ) i h e
acquaintanceof the king, the priestcssof Hathor, lady of the sycamore,the
priestessof Neith, north of her wall, openerof the ways, (2) the honoureclone
befbrethe greatgocl,lord of thc west,Nedjet-em-pet, her beautifulname,Tit'.

THE NORTH WALL

Pls.4b, 6. 7. 11. 12.

The upperpart of thc wall hasdisappcarecl


and only the lower two registersare
partlypreservedabovea bandeddado.

The top registershowsthc t-eetof a large,scatedf'emalefigure wearinganklets,


probablyN|t-nt-pt herself,and the renainsof a snrallkneelingl-emaleprobably
claspingthe legs of NtJt-rn-pt. Ft'agments of plasterrecoveredfiom the debris
immediatelybelow this scenepresurnablyidentify the srnallfigure as [ztf.s?]
jmtfirtt(t)!7ttt-R<'hcreldestclaushter,
strtsru(t) the honouredone,Hemet-Re'.In
fiont of the two wontenare sevcralstanclsholdingbrcacl,cuts o1-rneilt,geeseand
vegetables as wcll as containersof fooclandclrinks.At theeasternenclof-thc wall
are flve olfcring bearcrsadvancingtowarclsthe tomb owncr. In the bottomregister
at leasta l'urthertwcnty-fourofferingbearersaredepicted,all wcaringshort,tight
kilts. Sornewring thc necksol-geesc. son'rcsupportwith thcir hanclstraysol foocl
placedon their shoulders, while othersleadon ropcssmall animalsor carry live

4 0 D a v i c sc t a l . ,S u q q A r u T o r r r bl ,.(s) .
4 I L i t . ' g i v c si t s h a n t l st o h e r ' .

20
NEDJET-EM-PET

birds. Many bearersalsocarry in their hands,or hangingfrom the crooksof their


arms,bagsof food, forelegsof oxen,vegetables or lotusflowers.

guidelines,drawn in red, havesurvivcdwell in the sectiondepicting


The arrtist's
the offering bearers.Sevenhorizontallincs were drawn,markingthe positionsof
the crown of the head,the hairline of the lorchead,the join of the ncck and
shoulders,the armpits,the elbows,the wrists and the lower cLlrveof the buttocks,
and the knees. One axial verticalline passingthroughthe ear dividesthe body into
two parts.42While the horizontallines extenclthe entirelengthof the register,thus
fixing an equalheightto all otfbringbearels,Jlhe velticallinesare positionedat
different intervalsdependingon the spaccrequiredfor illustratingeach ofl'ering
bearerand the itemshe carries.

Alineof textrunsthelengtho t hf e w a l la b o v e t h e b o t t o m r e g i s tIet r e. a d s .: . . s


m njuwts nt Trnthtu ...wpt rnpt m pfiutjt m tpj rnpt rn Wtg m lfu Zkr m hb
Rkh m wt dt n jm'firut lr nlr ,t jmtbrut furlnpw tpj dzu.fNdt-m-pt r[n].s nfr f jt
'... her ... and her towns of the North ..., at thc openingof the year feast,at the
Thot feast,at the first of the yearfeast,at the Wag-l-east, at the feastof Sokarand at
the f-eastof the burning,in the extentof eternityfor the honouredone beforethe
greatgod, the honouredone beforeAnubis,who is on his hill, Nedjet-em-pet,her
beautifulname.Tit'.

Fragmentsrecoveredfrom the debriswhich filled room V show the head of er


womanwearinga flllet and streamerandat leastthreeverticallinesof hieroglyphs,
each ending with rn.s nfr Zizit'her beautifulname,Seshseshet'.It has been
suggested abovethat this might havebeena represcntation
of Nf,t-nt-pt'sdaughter-
in-law, the wife of but
Mrru-k1.7, whetherthe fragments
belonged to the north wall
or to the oppositesouthwall is unknown.

THE SOUTH WALL

Only the feet o1'twoofferingbearersin the bottom register and the remains of a
dadoarenow preserved.The restofthe wall and its sceneshave disappeared.

The Sarcophagus

Pls.8, 43.

Found in sittt in the burial chamberof the main shaft,the large sarcophagus o1
Nf,t-m-pt was cut fiom two blocksof limestone,one for the chestand another for
the lid. Both blocksarereasonably well cut, but neithcrsmoothednor inscribedon
the outside. The insidesurfacesarebetterfinishedand are inscribedwith a line of
hieroglyphsin black ink only on eachof sidesI (east),2 (west)and 3 (north).
Thereis evidencethat the initial inscriptionswere corrected,also in black ink, but
there is no reasonto believethat the sarcophagus changedownership. Such

1 2 F o r t h e s t u c l yo f t h c s c g u i d e l i n c ss c c I v e r s e n ,C o n o n o n d P r o p r t r t i o n s ,2 ' / l I . , R o b i n s ,
Proportion and Style, 64|l'.
43 The presentapparentdilf'crcncein thc hcightof certainl'igureson this wall was causcdby thc
prcssureof the accuntulated sandanddebrisas wcll as the wcightol-latcrbuildings.

2l
NEDJET_EM_PE'I

corections canbe seenin the repetitionof the sign l, in nsut, the replacementof
the suffix .rfwith that of .s in !p[fl.s on side 2 andin the re-writing of the sign f in
jmtfuruton side 3. In all threecasesthe originalsignsare slightly lighter in colour
than the rest of the inscriptionswhich appearto have been inked a secondtime,
perhapsin thecourseofcheckingandcornecting.

Ancient tomb robbersgainedentry to the sarcophagus by breakingthroughthe top


of the northernend of side 1,aawhich damagedthe inscriptionsin this section.
However,otherthan small areaspresumablycrushedduring the processof cutting
throughthe stone,the text can be completelyreconstructed with fiagmentsfrom the
missingsectionfound amongthe rubblein the burial chamber.No facsimileof the
inscriptionsinsidethe sarcophagus was feasible,but a handcopy of the textswas
produced.

Side 1: l.ttpdj nswt futttjzh-ntr jmj wt tpj dru.frtb tt dsr qrs.tj.sm hrt-ntr jmtfowt
'An offeringwhich the king givesand the foremost
furnlr g Tjtj rn.s <)Nf,t-m-pt
of the divine booth,who is in the embalmingplace,who is on his hill, lord of the
sacredland (gives),45 that shebe buriedin the necropolis,the honouredone before
the greatgod, Titi, her greatname,Nedjet-em-pet'.

Side 2: htp dj nsrutnb Ddu bp[.fl.546 nfv hr wtwt jptf nfr(w)t bppt jmtfuwthr.sn
'An offering which the king gives and the lord of Busiris (gives),that
Ndt-m-pt
she may travel well upon thesebeautiful roads,upon which the honouredones
travel,Nedjet-em-pet'.
''fhe of the king, the honoured
Side 3: rfut nswt jntfuwt NQt-m-pt acquaintance
o n e .N e d j e t - e m - p e t .

VI COLOUR CONVENTIONS

All walls were given a coat of black mud plasterwhich was coveredwith a yellow
plaster mixed with fine vegetablefibre, and preparedfor painting with a thin
creamy-whitewash. The remainsof scenesoutlinedin red are found on the north
and west walls of room I and on the westjamb of the door leadingto room III.
Paintedwall scenesarepreservedin the otferingchamber(room V) and fragments
of colour surviving abovethe dado in room IV indicatethat this room was also
decorated. In the offering chamberred guidelines,vertical and horizontal,are
presentin both of the registersremainingon the north wall.

IA
Comparc with the sarcophagusof Kr(.j)-<pr(rp),where attemptsto break into thc sarcophagus
were madeat threescparateplaces.
Althoughthc epithctsof Anubis arc given,thc nameof'thc god is ontittcd. The sarncis lbund
i n t h e c a s c o f O s i r i s o n s i d e 2 . I n t h i s c c m e t e r yM , r r w - k t . j , N y ' - s i r r - R ' a n dl J n t i - k t . i
inscribedon thcir sarcophagi and/or on thc walls of'their burialchanbersthc namesof the two
gods p h o n e t i c a l l yb, u t w i t h n o d e t c r m i n a t i v e(sF i r t h - C u n n , 7 ' e t iP t ' r . C e n t . 2 , p l s . , 5 8 , 6 0 ;
Duell, Meret-uko,pls.20l1l.; Jarnes. KhentiktL, pls. -1.5, 4(l\:Kt-gnr-trj .'ndrttb-nt<-Hromittcd
the nanres and refcrred to the gods by their cpithets (Firth - Gunn, Ieti Pyr. Cem.2, pls. 64,
-58,60;Badirwy, <Anklmfrhor, pl. 80).
46 The sutlix .f was writtcn flrst, thenthc .s in ink.

22
NEDJET-EM-PET

Dado: Redbandaboveyellow, separated by blackline,blackto f'loor.


Bandedfrreze: Blocks of red, brightblue and white separated by tri-partiteblocks
of black-white-black.
Registerandcolumnlines: Black.
Skin of malefigures: Cleiu ochrered with darkerred outline.
Skin of f'emalefigures: Yellow.
Hair: Black.
Eyes: Brow, eye outlineand iris black.
Kilts and dresses:White with red outline.
Jewellery:Tracesof blue on tomb owner'sanklcts.
Footrest:White.
Stands/tables for off-erings:Onewhite;one showsblackwood grainmarking.
Flat woventrays: White with red diagonallines.
Woven baskets: Two of the five basketscarriedover the crook of an arm retain
most of their colourand exhibit a varietyof weavesin the six bandsof each
basket.That in the upperregister:(fiom top) red;bhrewith blackdots;white
with red hatching;blue with blackhatching;red with white hatching;bluc
with black dots; outline and ropc handleblack. That at right in bottom
register:(fi'om top) red; white with red diagonallines; white (black dots
rnissing?);white u'ith red diagonallines;white with blackdots;white with
red diagonallincs;outlineandropcblack.
Containerswith fruit?: Carriedby sixthman fiom right in lower register,container
white outlinedin black;Iargefiuit yellow with sn-raller blue fruit (circles)
above.both or:tlinedin recl.
Containerwith lotustop: Middle of lower register,white ground;basespottedin
black;upperpart with blackhorizontallinesandred verticallines;flower on
top blue;all outlinedin black.
Tall jars: Onered with blacktop; oneblue with blackspots.
Jar: White with blackdetailandoutline.
Jarcarriedovercrookof arm: White with blacklinesandblackrope.
Lotus: Stemred, flower blue.
Papyrus: Upper part now white with red outlineand detail;lower portion (below
hand)red with blacklinesandoutline.
Onions: Stemsandbulbswhite outlinedin red"
Foreleg: Haunchred,leg orange-red (oncwhitc) with spottedblackmarkings,hoof
yellow.
Calf: White with blackmeu'kings, in black.
colletror,rtlined
Antelope?:Paleorange-red.
Calfs headon treiy: Yellow.
Trussedduck on tray: Yellow.
Geese: At right in upperregister,ycllow/brownbody outlinedin rcd with blue
shadingneartail; black markingson brcast;wing and wing tips blue; tail
f'eathersdark red with blue markingsand black outline;bcak rcd; red legs
with dark red diagonalmarkings. In piled offbringsupperregisterand in
lower register,blue body,rcd head;wing and tail tips red with red andblack
markings;onewith blackf-eet.
Loaves:r-loafyellow;squarish loal'whitewith yellowspots;roundloaf whitewith
black spots.
Fruit?: carriedby two offering bearerson woven flat tray - white with blr"respots.
Vegetable?:top no colour,stembandso[ yellow andwhite with blackoutline.

L-)
NEDJET-E,M-PET

HieroglyPhic signs
incisedon the entrance
Tracesof blue paint remainin severalof the hieroglyphs
+, and it mav be pl:t"l*
i;;, u,'1.,- that all were paintedthe
l;,";..,'[;, and inscriptions
with all the figure^s
samecolour. The falsedoor was painted-red
below atrerecordedin the offering
retainingtracesof biue colour. Afl signslisted
found on the north wall and a few are
chamber(room vl; ifr" vast majorit/are
pi"r"i".O on paintedplaster_ trigments recoveredfrom the debris in that room'
left of the tomb owner'sfeet are
Most of the hierogiypil, on the n"orthwall to the
likely that most of the signs were
now white with red fr black outline,and it is
given a white undercoatbeforeapplyingcolour'

Polychrome
red
A20 tif Fleshyellow;kilt whire;staffyellow;outlinedin
Dl fJ Facerecl;hair anddetailsblack
D39 tr..tr Arm red; t?lt Pot blue
F39 nqWhite groundwith red rib detailand outline
F40 ,A White groundwith red rib detailand outline
Grl t,,,1l.F a c e w h i t e w i t h r e d d e t a i l o n f o r e h e a d ; w i n g s ' t a i l a n d l e g s y e l l o w ;
in red
breastanclhockswhitewith blackdots;outlined
and legsred
G43 \]. Yellow with detailseye andoutlineblack;beak
Ig x.':== Yellow with blackhorns,eyeandoutline
two blackhorizontal
N26 Lj Light yellow with fine red dotsandoutlineabove
lines
N37 E-- Blue, outlinedin red - or underblue?
black;centresupportred
o22 li"jr Boothwhite with postbasesandropelashing
on blackbase
o32 :' L Top yellow with blacksurround;bottomwhite
'l pole
R8 Yellow with blacklashingon lowerhalf of
V4 I i Tie white,centreof ropered' endblue
W3 ',t"/'/ Yellow (onewhitc) with cliagonalred lines;black outline

Wl2 !l White with reddetailsandoutline


Y2rt')sdrPirpyrusrollwhitewithreddetail'outlinedinblack;sealblue

Red
D46 F35 o29 o34
D2l ' D36
I
s2e ll rr11
U -1-1
l
ll Aa2l

24
NEDJET-EM-PET

Yellow
uo ='l

White it is very likely thatall thesesignsoriginallyweregreen


Mrr i u| .,'1,' v28 ? v:r \--^ Aa f)

Green
v30 '- -7

Blue all outlinedin black


Nl Nl7 '-:'- U36 !t*il w24 0 XI

Black
E15 lta, N35 M

VII HUMAN REMAINS

Pls.8ct,9.

Humanremainswere foundin the sarcophagus of Ndt-m-pt. The wrappingsare


badly decayedwith a charredappearance, soft tissuesare completelylacking and
thereis no evidencethat the body was mummified. The boneswere found loose
but lay extendedon the back in the correctanatomicalposition. The skeletonis that
of a female,the long bonesindicatinga personof between149cm.(4 feet l0
inches)and 153cm.(5 feet) in height.aTThe skull and skeletonare small and
gracile,the muscleattachmentscarsareall small andthe skull architectureis smooth
with sharpedgeson the orbits. The pelvis is unambiguouslygynaecoidin shape
and proportions,the angle of the sciaticnotch is wide, the obturatorforamen is
small and more angularthanroundin shapeandthe preauricularsulcusis wide and
deep.

The individual is likely to havebeenover fifty yearsof age at death. There is


extremedentalattrition,and 1007oof the occlusalsurfacesof all remainingteethare
worn down to the dentine. When the molar teethare comparedto Brothwell'sa8
chartfor ageclassification, theyfall into the45+ agegroup. Accordingto Todd's4e
10 agephasesof the pubic symphysisthis specimenis a phase10,which indicates
an age of 50+. The cranialsutureshave almostcompletelydisappeared ecto-
cranially. The coronial suture is only faintly visible for approximately 2cm. on the
temples,the sagittalslltureis almosttotally obliterated, with a faint remainder in

wcremadctiom thc rnoditledTrotterandGlcserTablc in Krogrnan- Iscan,


11 Staturccalculations
The Hunan Skeleton,308.
48 Bass,HunrunO.steoktgt',239,
l'ig. 153
19 Krcrgman- Iscan,The Humun Skeleton,l5l.

25
NEDJET-EM_PET

places;the lamboidalsutureis just faintly visitrleover approximately40Voof its


length. The conditionof the sutureswould indicatea personof middle to advanced
age.50 However,becauseof the unreliabilityof ageingfrom cranialsutures,this
methodwasnotedbut not reliedupon.5l

As stated above there is severedental attrition, in addition to other dental


problems. Beginningwith the maxilla,the left first incisor(tooth 2.1) is chipped,
and the left canine(tooth 2.3) is worn down to the gum level with the canalexposed
and a periapicalabscessaboveit that opensinto the palatalside. Tooth 2.5 is just
holding in place,as a resultof a largeabscessabovetooth 2.6 which has eroded
throughthe maxilla on the palatalsideand emergesabovetooth2.l on the buccal
side. Teeth2.6 and2.J haveboth beenlost ante-mortem.On the right sideof the
maxilla,teethl. I and 1.2 areboth worn down to the canal,which hasbeenresealed
by secondarygrowth. Tooth 1.3is chipped,the canalof tooth 1.4is exposedto the
extentthat the tooth is almosthollow, and thereis a smallabscess beginningat the
apexof thetooth. Teeth1.6,1.1and 1.8are,tllworn almostto the gum level.

On the mandible,both first incisors(3.1 and 4.1) are missing,the root canals
have resealedand some resorptionof alveolarbone has taken place, leaving a
smoothsurface.Thus the alveolarboneis very thin in this area. Tooth 3.6 hasan
abscessbelow it, and teeth 3.7 and 3.8 appearto have been lost ante-mortem
though the condition of the bone makesit difflcult to tell. There appearsto be
periodontaldisease,with the bone retreatingfrom the roots of the molar teeth.
Tooth 4.8 is worn to the gum levelandhasa heavybuild-upof calculus.

There are slight arthriticchangesin the cervicalspine,most pronouncedon C5


and 6. Arthritic degeneration is nuch morein evidencein the thoracicspine,with
lipping and osteophyticgrowthon nearlyall of the rnargins.T7 is slightly wedged
to the anteriormargin and T8 and 9 are fusedby osteophyticgrowth on the anterior
longitudinal ligament that is beginningto continueonto T 10. There are large
osteophytes on L 3, 4 and 5. Somearthriticchangehadbegunin the acetabulum.

The pelvis,like all of the otherbonesin the skeleton,is extremelylight, giving the
impressionof osteoporosis.There is a fracturein the right pubis approximately
3cm. from the pubic symphysis,that wasbeginningto healat time of death. There
is a crack (approximately2crn.long) on the shaftof the right femurjust inferior to
the greatertrochanter. This also appearedto be healingat time of death. It is
probablethatthis is a womanof advancedyearswho had a fall andbrokeher pelvis
andhip, thenpossiblydiedfiom hypostaticpncumoniadueto beingimmobilised.s2

In summarythe skeletonis that of a f-emaleof advancedyears(at leastover 50)


who had a little arthritisin the neck,back and hip, which would have resultedin
somelossof mobility in theseareas,and somefairly seriousdentalproblems,that

so Ibid. I lo-23.
5 l F o r a c l i s c u s s i oon1 - t h eu n r c l i a b i l i t yo f a g e i n gl ' r c l ms u t u r ec l o s u r c ss e eU b c l a k c r ,H u n t a n
SkeletctlRenroins,59-60.
5 2 T h i s w a s a c o m m o nr e s u l to f a b r o k e nh i p o r p e l v i si n p e o p l co l ' a d v a n c e dy c a r su n t i l v c r y
r c c e n t t i r n c s w h e n s u r g c o n sb c g a n t o p i n b r o k e n b o n e s t h u s p r e v e n t i n gt h c n e e d l i r r
immobilistrtion.

26
NEDJET.EM-PET

TABLE 1. SKULL MEASUREMENTSOF NDT-M-PT

l. Glabello-occipital length l69m m .


2. Nasio-occipital length 168
3. Basion-nasion length 94
4. Basion-bregma height t36
5. Maximum cranialbreadth 134
6. Maximum frontalbreadth tt4
1. Biauricularbreadth 116
8. Biasterionic breadth 105
9. Basion-prosthion length 88
I 0. Nasion-prosthion height 62
I l. Nasalheight 45
12. Orbit height,right 35
I 3. Orbit breadth,right 39
14. Brjugalbreadth IOl
I 5. Nasalbreadth 25
16. Palatebreadth 64
17. Bimaxillarybreadth 92e*
18. Zygomaxillarysubtense 25
19. Bifrontalbreadth 91
20. Nasio-frontalsubtense t9
21 . Biorbitalbreadth 9l
22. Interorbitalbreadth 2l
23. Cheekheisht I9
24. Frontal(Nasion-bregma) chord 113
25. Frontalsubtense 26
26. Parretal(bregma-lambda) chord 113
27. Partetalsubtense 26
28. Occipital(Lambda-opisthion) chord 105
29. Occipitalsubtense 26
* e denotcscstimatc,whercthe boneis crackedor damaged
but still accuratelvmeasurablc
to thc ncarcstmm.

TABLE2. LONGBOAIEMEASUREMENTS
OF NDT-M-PT

Right Humeruslength 217mm.


Right Humerusheaddiameter 39
Left Ulna length 239
Left Radiuslength 2tl
Right Femurlength 395
headdiameter 40
midshaftdiameter,Medio-lateral z-)
midshaftdiameter,Anteriorposterior 24
Left Femurlength 395
midshaftdiameter.Medio-lateral z_)
midshaftdiameter,Anteriorposterior 24
Right Tibia length 321
Left Tibia length 321

21
NEDJET-EM-PET

may well haveeventuallyled to septicaemia.Sheprobablydied from complications


resultingfrom a fall and a brokenhip and pelvis,or from septicaemia.

VIII FINDS

All of the finds recordedbelow were recoveredfrom the burial chamberof Ndf-
m-pt exceptthe threeitemsdesignatedTNE94:l2l which were fbund in clearingthe
shaft. Thesejars probablydate to the First IntermediatePeriod or early Middle
Kingdom; the other finds may be ascribedto the lateOld Kingdom.

TNE94:102. PIs. 10. 44.


Large ovoid storagejar, with a slightly flaring neck and externaltriangularrim;
body taperingto a pointedbase. Remainsof a plastersealon the shoulder.Wheel-
made. The jar was full of lumpsof dark clay. Complete. H 29.5cm. W l5.0cm.
D rim 7.0cm.

TNE94:103. Pl. 10.


Large storagejar, similartype to TNE94:102,with tracesof plastersealingon
shoulder.Probablywheelmade,coveredin a light beigewash. Thejar was full of
a fine-texturedlight brown substance.Complete. H 32.8cm. W 1-5.8cm.D rim
8.5cm.

TNE94:101. Pls. 10. 14.


Large storagejar, similarto TNE94:102bLrtwith a morebevelledrim. Tracesof
plastersealingon shoulder. The jar was full of a dark substance.Complete.
H 3 1 . 2 c m .W l 7 . 5 c m . D r i m 8 . 8 c m .

TNE94:105. Pl. 10.


Large storagejar, sametype as TNE94:102. Remnantsof white plastersealing
self-slip.The jar
on shoulderandexteriorsurfacecoatedrvith a light greenish-grey
was filled with a dark substance.Wheelmadeof marl clay close to Marl 43.
Missingthe neckandrim. H 30.6cm.W l7.2cm.

TNE94:106. Pls. 10, 11.


Jar standwith roll rim and thickenedbase,concavo-convex walls. Incised
horizontalline aroundthe stand. Matt light grey wash (5YR l11) on surface.
Crudely wheelmadeand also built by hand; finger impressionsvisible on body.
Closeto Nile silt 82. Chippededgesbut otherwisecomplete.H 19.lcm. D rim
l 4 . 8 c m . D b a s el 3 . 6 c m .

TNE94:107. Pls. 10,44.


Fragmentarysquatjar stand,wider at thc top thanthe bottom. Convexsidesand
thickenedrim. Light grey wash (5YR 7ll) on exterior. Wheelmadeof Nile silt.
H 9 . 8 c m . D r i m l 7 . 0 c m . D b a s e1 5 . 0 c m .

TNE94:108. Pls. I 1, 44.


Tall jar stand,straightsides,with a plain flaringrim. Light reddish-brown(5YR
614)to reddish-brownwash (5YR 514)on exteriorsurfaceand someleachingalso
visible. The standis wheelmade,and thentwistedand stretchedby handwhen the

28
NEDJET-EM-PET

'stretch'marksare visiblein the interior


clay was wet to lengthenthe object,as
on surface. Nile silt 82. Broken at one end'
along with finger ii-rpressions
H l4.6cm. D rim l2.5cm.

TNE94:109.Pl. l0'
andplain rim at the
n*g-"nt of a jar standwith concavewalls,roll rim at oneend
otherl Probablywheeln-radeof Nile silt' H 14'5cm'

TNE94:I 10. Pls-I 1, 41.


llattened,slightly
S'rall bowl, with a wicleflat basc,convexsidesand slightly
wash (5YR 5/4) on interior anclexterior'
everteclrim. Nlatt redclish-brown
trimmecl with a knif'e. coarse
wheelmade,baseunevcnlyknife-cutanil cxterior
W l0'3crn' D rinr
Nile silt B2 borderingon Xit" silt C. Cornpletc.H -5.5cm'
"
l 0 . l c m . D b a s c6 . 2 c r n .

TNE94:111P . l s .1 1 , 1 4 .
rim. weak red wash
Small flaring bowl, with an unevenflat baseand plain
(2.5YR5/4)on exterioranclinteriorsurlace.Wheelmade of Nilc silt c, with string-
rim, but otherwisecomplete' H 5'2cm'
cut base. Missing a fragmentfrom the
D rim 9.4cm. D base5.0cm.

T N E 9 l : 1 1 2 .P l . l l -
L I l '5cm' W max'
one sideof a motherol'pearlbivalveshell'almostcomplete'
L2cm.

TNE94:1 13. Pl. I I.


Modeljars of limestoneetndcalcite,manycomplele:
A. Two ovoicllimestonejars with flat-toppecl ledgerims, flat bases,and remnant
-drilled
unoiercedhandleson one sicle. Jai inside to elboutl/3 of height'
H 7.5crn.D rim max.4.0cm' D base3'Ocm'
and flat bascs' Jatrs
B. Ten ovoicllimestonejars with flat-toppedledge rims
drilleclinsideto aboutl14of height' H -5'0-7'5cm'
C. Ten limestone jars,almostcylinlrical in shapebutwirh slightlyconvex.sidcs'
insideto about ll4 of
Flat-toppedleclge'rims.ndcliscbases. Jais clrilled
height. H crr.8.0cm.
rims and flat bases'
D. Two calciteor gypsumneckedjars with llaring tlat-topped
Jarsdrilledinsi"de'to almostll2 of height.H 4.7 ancl6.7cm.
E. Two flaring straight-sided cupsof fine basaltand quartz,with flat rims and
bases.53H Uasaticup 2.7cn-r'H cluartzcr-rp3'0crn'
F. Sixty-fivesmalllirne.stone dishes;drill marksvisibleon interior' D rim 4'l-
6.2cm.

TNE94:
- I11. (nor illustratetl)
into a massin the broken
Srnallqu"niity of cobaltbluc pigntcnt,now hardened
baseo1'avesselbearinga red slippeclsurfacc'L 6'-5cm'W 5'5cm'

'l-eti
5 3 F o r c x a r n p l c so l ' s i m i l a rc u p ss c cF i r t h - G u n n ' P t ' t C c m . 2 ,p l . l 5 A : V a l l o g g i aM
. edou-

n e l e r ,P | . 6 9 :I 0 3 7 .

2L)
NEDJET-EM_PET

TNE94:1 15. Pl. l l.


Copperjars and fiergments:
A. Slenderconcavo-convex kohi pot and stickinside,with appliedridgearound
neck. Pot filled with a pink substance.Basenow hollow with tracesof white
substance.Probablycore-formed.Good stateof preservation.H l0.0cm.
W 2.4crn.D rim 2.3cm. D basel.Ocm.
B . Onehole-mouthed jar with high shouldersanda flat base. Interioris lined with
a layer of plaster. Core-formed.Broken. H 6.6cm. W 4.0cm. D rim L2crn.
D base2.9cm.
C. Numerousfragmentsof coppervessels, includingbases,rims andneckpieces,
foundscattered in the burialchamber.

TNE94:l2 L Pl. 11.


A. Large taperingovoid bottle with a short verticalneck, thickcnedrim and
pointed base.54Worn matt red wash (2.-5YR5i6) on cxterior. Roughly
wheelmadeand probablyalsopartiallyhand-builtof Nile silt C. Cornplete
exceptfor smallchipson rim. [I 24.]cm. W I l.3cm. D rim -5.Ocm.
B. Large taperingbottleof the sametype anclware as TNE94:l2l A. Missing
fiagmentfrom neck. H 24.9cm.W 10.8cm.D rim 4.8cm.
C. Largetaperingbottleof the sametypeandwareasTNE94:121A. Missingthe
r i m a n dn e c k . H 2 2 . 8 c m .W 1 l . 4 c m .

54
Quibell lound largerbut cornparablcexamplcsduring work o n a s e r i e so l ' F i r s t I n t e r m c d i a t e
P e r i o d / e a r l yM i d d l c K i n g d o m t o m b s a t S a q q a r at o w h i c h thc presentvesselsarc rclated
(Excavations at Saqqu'a2. pl. 39:l, 3, 4).

30
THE BURIAL OF IBI

I THE TOMB OWNER

NAM E
'rot'.
Iblss
TITLES

l- jnj-r jpt nswt 'overseerof the royal harep'.-56


2- jrj nfr l.ut'keeperof the headdress'.The title i s u s u a l l ya s s o c i a t e d
with
attendance on the kins.-57
3- f trj - l th t ' l e c t o rp r i e s t ' .
4- smr zucti'solecomDanion'.

II DATING OI' ItsI

Although lbj settwo falsedoorsinto the west wall of room IV of Ndt-m-at's


chapel,their relationship, if any existed,is not known. The positionof the false
doors,at floor level of the room,may suggestthatthe chapelof Ndt-nt-p;/was still
perfectly cfear and accessible.The shapeof lbj's false doors is common in the
cemetery,-58 and thereis no justificationin clatingall suchexamplesto the end of the
Old Kingdom or later.-5e The inscribeclframearoundthe northerndoor and the T-
shapedpanel of both doorsare found in the falsedoor of ppjj-etdj.60rnostprobably
flntj-k\.j's son,clated_tothe reigno1'PepyI.6l It is interestingthat the unuiual long
pleatedkilt worn bVlbjon the southernfalsedoor is attestedin the tomb of ldw ot
Giza, also datedto the reign of Pepy 1.r,2It remainsuncertainwhetherthe burial
apartmentcut into the floor of this room oppositethe falsecloorswas associated
with Ibi or is intrusiveandof a slightlylaterdate.

Suggested
date: Reignof PepyI, or later.

-55 Ranke,Personennctmen 1,20:10.


:6 For a stucly o| this titlc see Juuker.Gizu I, l2zl; vol. ll. l2l-2r).
57 Seeibid 10, I t l; Helck,Beomtentitel,42.
- 5 8 S e ef b r c x a m p l e F
, i r t h - G u n n ,T e t i p y r . C e t r t . , 2p, a s s i r r ;K a n a w a tet
i al., Saqtlara, 2 vols.,
passim.
5 9 A s c l o e sS t r u d w i c kJ, E A 1 3 ( l g } i ) , 2 1 j .
6o Jnmes,Khentikct,pl. 42.
6l Strudwick,Aclninistration,18.
62 Simpson,
Qctrand lclu. fig.31.

3r
IBI

III BURIAI, APARTMENT

Pt. 36.

A shallowverticalshafi (shaft l1) was excavatcdin room IV of NQt-rrt-pt's


chapel,oppositethe two falsedoorsof lbj placcdinto thc brick-worko1'thewcst
w a l l . l t s m o u t h i s c u t i n t o t h e f l o o r a l o n g t h c l e n g t ho f t h e e a s tw a l l o f t h e
antechamber, extendingunderboth thc eastand southwalls. In order to itvoid
undermining the remaininglowercolrrscs ol-thcniudbrickwalls.this shaffwasnot
completclyexcavatcdso f'ewpreciscnlcasurelnents or cletails can be provided. It
measures2.20n. N-S with a deepstepdown at the southend, and the eastand
west walls are straightbut roughlycut. At the shaftfloor an irrcgularlyshapccl
burial areaextenclswestwardunderthc l-loorof the antecharnber for approxirnately
1.50m.The shapeof this shafi,rcctangular anclshallowwith a burialchambernot
far beneaththc chapelfloor, is cluitediff-erent from the othersin the tomb of Ntlt-nt-
pf which havea squaremouthandgencrallya greaterdepth. It is quitepossiblethat
it rnaybe datedslightly,althoughnot much,laterthanthe originalconstruction of
this mastaba.

IV SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

Pls. 4u. 12. 45.

The two small limestonefalsedoorsare inscribedforlbj. Both are of the type


with a torusmouldingandcavettocorniccandretainsc'rn-tc of their originalcoatsof
white plaster.The southerndoor includingthe fiatnehas a wiclthof .56m.and is
.39-5m.wide x .77m. high. The northern
.18m. thick; the door itself measr-rres
door,.06m.thick andplacedon a stonebase.06n-r. high,hasa wiclthat the baseof
.43rn.and at the top of .46rn.with a heightof .5,5rn.With the exceptionof the
sceneon the panelof the southI'alsedoor,which is in raisedrelief,the decoration
on both doorsis incisedwith minimumintcrnaldetails.No coloursarepreserved.

The Southern lralse Door


'An invocation
The Upper Lintel: prt-furutnt63stnr ructjjrj rfr htt firj-lrbtlbj
off'eringof thc solecompanion,the keeperol-theheaddre ss,the lectorpriest,Ibi'.
'The honourcdone beforeAnubis,
The Lower Lintel: jrtttfuru
lr lnpw tpj du.f
who is on hishill'.

The CentralPanel: Thc owner sits at an of1'eringtable. One horizontaland onc


'(l) Bread,
read: ( l) t bt ltnqt ly ryd $ (2) n jmsltu lbj
velticalline of inscriptions

63 Fcrrthe lbrmula prt lru lf ... see Lapp. Op.feftormel.$68, l60fi. For other cxantplcssce
F i r t h - G u n n , Z e l l P t ' r . C e n t .2 , p l . 7 3 :l : S i r n p s o r tQ, u r u t d l d u , l ' i g .3 2 ; K a n a w a t ic t a l . ,
S a q q 4 r cIt, p 1 . 2 3 ; E l - K h o u -l i K a n a w a t iS, a q t 1 u r a 2 . 1 t l . 2 2 ; . l a mKchse, n t i k c t , p l . 1 2J ;u n k e r .
G i z , a1 , f i g . 8 ; v o l . l l . l i g . 4 0 . I t i s i n t c r e s t i n gt h a t t h e s ec x a m p l c ss h a r cs o t t t cp o i n t so f
s i r n i l a r i t ya n d t h a tt h e r n o s tl i k e l y d a t co l ' a l l o 1 ' t h c mi s t h c r c i g no f P e p yI . W h i l e t h i s l i r r r t r
was perhapsnilt rcstrictedto this rcign. it appcarsto havebccn ntclreconlmonat that tirnc.

32
IBI

I one thousand,beer,one thousand,fowl, one thousand,(2) for the honouredone,


Ibi'.

The OuterJambs: Eachjamb containsone columnof hieroglyphsendingwith a


standingfigure of the owner, wearinga long, pleiitedkilt. The figure on the left
holdsa staff and a sceptre,while that on the right holdsa foldedcloth in the left
'The
hand. Inscribedon the right jamb is: jnulro br ntr <t nb pt smr uctj lbj
honouredone beforethe greatgod, lord of heavcn,thc solecompanion,Ibi'. The
'May
left.jamb reads: prt-ftrnt n sflIr ructjjrj nfr l.ut furj-l.tbtlbj an invocation
off'eringcome forth lor the solecompanion,the keeperol-theheaddress, the lector
priest,Ibi'.

The InnerJambs:Eachjarnbcarriedonc columnof text. The right reads:artr ru<tj


'The solecompanion,the lectorpriest,the honouredone, Ibi';
hrj-fbt jmtlw lbj
'Thc solc companion,the keeper
and the left: sffir rl<tj jrj 4, lut lbj of thc
headdress. Ibi'.

The Northern False Door

The Frame: The inscriptionsacrossthe top of the fiarr"re( l) continucdown the left
side (2) and end with a standingfigure of the owner holding a staff and sceptre.
The right sidehasa separate inscription(3) endingwith a figurelike thaton the left.
(1) htp dj nswt lttptu tpj dzu.fprt-furntn smr wctj (.2)jrj nfr htt jmj-r jpt rtszut
jmtly.u lr nsrut sntr zuctjlbj (3) jmil3ru fur Wsjr nb Ddw smr roctj furj-l1btlbj
'(1) An offeringwhich the king givesandAnubis,who is on his hill (gives).Miiy
an invocationoff-eringcome forth for thc solc companion. (2) Thc kceperof the
headdress, the overseerof the royal harem,the honouredone befbrethe king, the
solecompanion,Ibi. (3) The honouredone beforcOsiris,lord of Busiris,the sole
companion,the lectorpriest,Ibi'.
'The sole companion,the
The Upper Lintel: smr wctj jrj 4, lrt jntj-r jptt rtsrut
the overseerof the royal harem'.
keeperof the headdress,

The CentralPanel: Holclinga perfumejar to his nosethe ownel sits beforean


offeringtable,to the right of which is a ewer in a basin. Above the sceneis written
(1) sntr zuctjjrj nfr ltt hrj-hbt(2) jnulzu lbj '(l) The solecompanion,the keeper
of the headdress, (2) the honouredone,Ibi'.

The OuterJarnbs:Eachjamb is inscribedwith oneline of hieroglyphs endingin a


standingfigure of the ownerholdingthe staff and sceptre.The inscriptionson the
'The honoured
right jamb read:jmtfutufur Wsjr srnr ructjjrj hn lbj one before
"f,
Osiris,the solecompanion,the keeperof the headdress, Ibi', while thoseon thc left
'The honourcdone before the king, the solc
read: jmt!1w br nsut smr wctj lbj
companion,Ibi'.
'(l)
The Lower Lintel: (l') sntr wctj jntj-r jpt rrszut(2) jrj nfr l.utfurjJ.rbt The sole
companion,the overseerof the royal harem,(2) the keeperof the headdress, the
lectorpriest'.

33
IBI

The Inner Jambs: Eachjamb carriesthe inscriptionjnu'fizulbj 'The honouredone,


Ibi', fbllowed by a seatedfigure of the owner.

V FINDS

Three pots were found in the courseof clearing shafi I 1 but thesecannot be
regardedas necessarilycontemporarywith the tomb.

TNE94:49. PIs.13,46.
Squathigh-shouldered jar, body narrowingto a wide flat base. Oval spout on
shoulderbelow thickenedcollar rim.6a Red washon exteriorsurface.Wheelmade
o f N i l e s i l t , s p o u ta d d e db y h a n d . A l m o s t c o m p l e t e .H 1 4 . 1 c m . W 1 4 . l c m .
'7
D base9.5cm. D rim .5cm. L spoutca 2.25cm.D spout3.3-2.5cm.

TNE 94:50. Pls. 13, 46"


Large ovoid storagejar with roundedbase,short upright neck and thickened
evertedrim. Red wash over exterior surface. Probablywheelmadeof Nile silt.
Mud seal associated with.jar. Alnost complete. H 32.5cm. D max. 19.5cm.
D rim l0.0cm. Mud seal: D 6.5-7.0cm.H at centre3.5cm.

T N E 9 4 : 5 1 .P l . 1 3 .
Large ovoid storagejar of sametype and ware as TNE94:50. Missing minor
chiosbut otherwisecomplete.H 30.3cm.D rnax.18.3cm.D rim 9.5cm.

64 Squatspoutcdjars areknown in the Old Kingdomin bothcopperand ceramic(Bouniau, Urnnr


el-Ga'ah.-52,no. 8-5).In thc Sixth Dynasty,spoutson mctal cxampleswere somctimcslong
and curvcd (Hayes,ScepterI, 120,lig.74). Squatjars with shortspoutssimilar to TNE94:49
are also known fiom somcFirst IntcrrncdiatcPcriod/earlyMiddle Kingdom tombsat Saqqara
( Q u i b e lE
l , x c a v a t i o n s a t S u q q lu, rpul . 3 2 :l ; v o l . 2 , p l . 3 9 : 1 , 2 . ) , w h i c h c o u l d i n d i c a t e a S i x t h
Dynastyto carly Middle Kingdomdaterangefbr TNE94:,19.

34
THE MASTABA OF KA-APER

TIIE TOMB OWNER. HIS FAMILY AND DEPENDENTS

The Tomb Owner

NAME

Kt(.j)-<pr(w)65'Ka-aper'. The nameis consistentlywritten with I I ratherthan


\- -,if. The name was rathcr popr-rlarin the Old Kingdont,particularlyduring
Dynasty5.66

TITLES

1- jntj-r l.ttut-zurt'overseer of the greatcourt'. T'hetitle appearsto have been


connectedwith the legaladministration andis fiecluentlyassociated with that of
hrj-tp ltstut.61jntj-r hwt-utrt is basicallyhclclin the capital,68 althoughtwo
provincialofficials,who probablyalso had a periodof en-rploynentin the
Residence.are known to havecarricdi1.6e11"r.titlc in itself docsnot seemto
be a particularlyhigh one.yet in many'cascsits tenuleilppearsas 'a f-eature of a
man'scareerbeforehe was promotcdto the yl2isrnlg'.7t)
2- jmj-, zi < ttswt'overseerof the scribeso1'the king's clocuments'.This is
consideredas the most irnportantotfice in the scribaladministriition.In the
Fifth Dynastythe title was probablyhelclsimr-rltaneously by two rncn.one ol'
w h o m w a s t h e v i z i e r . w h i l e t h e o t h e r s u p c r v i s e dt h e d c t a i l s o f t h e
administration. From the lateFifth Dynasty,however,the titlc was heldonly
by the vrzier,ltan offlcewhichdoesnot appcarin thesurvivinginscriptions o1'
Kt(.j)-<pr(u).
'overscerof thc two fbwl pools'.72
3- j*j-, zituj
4- jntj-r ktt nbt nt nsrut'overseer of all thc works of the king'. The holdersof
this title wereresponsible for the organisation of all works,suchas buildings,
o) Ranke,Persctnennanren 1,338:24.
66 S c e f b r e x a r n p l cL c p s i u s ,D e n k t n t i l e r T , s x t I , 1 2 6 ;M a r i e t t c .M r t . s t a l t u . rl 2, l - 2 8 : F i s c h e r .
J N E S l 8 f l 9 . 5 9 1 , 2 3 3 i iH . ;a s s a nG, i z o 2 , l - 5 - 5 - . 5v8o;l . 6 : 3 , 1 5 5 - 6 2 ; J u n k cGr ,i z u 1 , 2 5 . 1v; o l .
6 , 3 2 . T h c n a m ei s a t t e s t e d a nunrbeo r f ' t i r n c si n t h c A b u s i r p a p y r i( P o s e n c r - K r i d g -c rD c
C e n i v a l ,T l t eA b u - S i r P c 4 t t ' r ip. l s . 6 2 - 6 3 ,8 2 , 9 6 ) . T h c s a r n cn a r n ch a sa l s o b c c n l i r u n c li n
otherreccntcxcavations at Saqqara andAhusrr.
61 Helck, Beantentitel,60; Struclwick.Atlntinistt'tttion. 182..
68 For a list of holclersscc ibid, 116-17,Tablc 7, to which rray bc aclclccl thc prcscntcascas wcll
i r s t h a t o l ' S i n t - n f r i n t h c T c t i c c m c t c r y( t h c l a t t c r .c x c a v a t c dh y t h c E g y p t i a nA n t i q u i t i e s
O r g a n i s a l i o ni s. u n p u b l i s h c cslc; cn o w K a n a w a tci t a l . .S a q q o r a1 , 9 ) .
69 H n r - M n t u ( K a n a w a t iE j jb (.BlackrnaM
, l - H c t v t ' u v t '-i .5s,pl rl . l , f i g . 7 ) t m d P 1 t j j " c 1l :l rf u n .e i r l .
-
p l s . 4 , A : 1 ,I - 5 ) . S e ea l s oK a n a w a t i M c F r r l a n c ,A k l : L . i t i |t.r r3 6 . 2 0 2 , 2 1 6 .
1O Strudwick,Aclninistrcttiorr. ltJlJ. As thc titlc was protrablyhclclby onc rnanat a tirne (ibicl,
t89), Kt(. j)tpr(zu) probablysucccedcdWfu ln-Ttj /Nfr-sitrr-Ptl.t,owncr ol' thc ncighbourirrg
mastaba.
7| W i t h o n l y o n e c x c c p t i o ni,n t h c r e i g no f P e p yI I ( i b i d ,2 1 4 ) .
72 W b 3 , 4 8 4 . B a d a w yt r t r n s l a t et hs e t i t l e a s o v e r s e e r otfh e t w o f b w l p o n d s( . A n k h n f a h o r , 5 ( \ )
and Jamesas oversccrof'thc two pools(Kfterrtifta, l0).
KA-APER

agriculture,crafls,etc. The title was heldby viziersand at the sametime by at


lJastone non-vizierwho assisted the vizier in his manyresponsibilities.T3
'overseerof the workcentre'.7aThe title appearstol"rerelatedin
5- jrnj-r gs-pr
roi"" way to the responsibilities of the imj-r ktt nbt nt nswt,75and might
representan earlierstageof Kt('i)*pr(w)'scareer'
jrj-prt 'hereditaryprince'. With a few exceptions,this rank is usuallyheld by
6-
uiri".t. Howevir, otherexamplesof non-vizierholdersof the title are known
in the Teti cemetery./o
'count'.
7 - lzrff-<
'privy to the secretof the houseof morning'. The title-
6- lrj-sitt n pr-dutt
opp"u.. to have beenheld by a rathersmall and speciallyfavouredgroup of
men within the royal court concernedwith personalattendance on the king in
the houseof morning.TT
g- thrj-slitt tt ttsrttt'privyto the sccretof the king'. The title seemsrelatedto the
precedingone.
l0- hrj-l.rbt'lectorPriest'.
tt - llij-tp nxut'royal chamberlain'.78

Kt(.j)*pr(ru)'scareermay be tracedin two stageswith markedadvancementin


his
both ttis honoriflcanclfunctionaltitles. Nowherein his offbringchamberor on
sarcophagusare the ranks of jrj-pct and httj-<.or.the particularly important
administrariveoffices of jrnj-r'zi i nxut andjmj-r ktt nbt nt nxut mentioned.
They are inclucledin the insciiptionson the entranceto the tomb wherethe rank of
iri-irt is especiallyemphasised. ttre qualityof reliefson the entranceblocksis also
fir'superiorto thatin the offeringcharnber.

The Son of Ka-aPer

NAME
'th\''
Ihjjle

TITLES

l- jmj-r of the workcentre"


"hrj-tpgs-pr'overseer
'royal chamberlain'.
2- nsztrf

He appearsin front of his fatheron the right entrancejamb with the designation
'his eldestson'. Anotherfigure,wearinga panther'sskin, is only partly
zt.f sm'sw

13 Kanawati,Gtt,ernntentttlRefornrs.25-21 .3c) n.44;Strudwick,Adnrinistratittn.2-39'


'74 ( . T e t iP v r . C e n t .l ,
, M J , 1 5 9 - 6 0 . F i r t h G u n n t r a n s l a t egss - p r a s ' r o y a ld o n r a i n s '
F i s c h e rM -
both Junkcr (Gi:rt 5"1U' l9ll) and
107),Lichthcirn1s'districtol'ficials'(Literctturel' 20), and
Roccati(Litty'rctture, 193)as'aclnlinistration''
T5 S t r u d w i c kA, d m i n i s t r a t i r t n , 2 2 2 .
pls' l7-
16 F o r i n s r a n c cN j , k n u - l z z j ( i b i c1l ,0 5 )a n d l i f i ( E l - K h o u l i -K a n a w a t iS, a q q a r t t 2 , 2 5 - 2 6 ,
t9).
j'7 ; c l c k ,B e a n t e n t i t e l , 4 3F; i s c h c rD , 3 7 - 3 8 .J a t n e s
, endertt1
B l a c k m a nJ, E A 5 l l 9 l 8 l , 1 4 8 - 6 5H
'Keeperof the sccrctsol'thc Bathroon'r' (Khentikr, l0).
trirnslates it as
1 8 H e l c k .B e l n t e n t i t e l ,6 0 ' 1 0 5 .
'79
Rankc.Personennunenl'44'.22'

36
KA-APER

preservedin the samepositionon the lelijamb. This may rcpresentthe same,or


anotherson,but no inscriptionssurvived.

The Dependents of Ka-aper

NAME
'ldu'
I dzuso .

TITLES

l- jmj-r pr 'overseer
of the house'.
2- jmj-r sir 'overseerof the linen'.
3- shd hnrkt'superintendent of the ka-servants'.

He is depictedfacing Kt(.j)-<pr(ru)on the right thickncssof the entranceto the


tomb.

NAM E

Nszu8l'Nesu'.

TITLE

lrp zh'directorof the food-hall'.

He is the only off-eringbearerdesignatedby namein the ofl-eringchamber.

II DATING OF KA.APER

In datingthe tomb of Kt(.j)-<pr(zo),its


locationin the so-called'ruede tombeaux'
shouldcertainlybe takeninto account. The datesof the otherthrec tombsin this
streethavebeenreconsidered by Strudwick,who reasonablysuggestsa datein the
reignof Teti for Nfr-sim-R<and<n!-rr<-Hr.82He thenemphasises the importance
of the third tomb, that of Wdt-l.u-TtjNfr-sint-Pth/55/,for the daringof the Teti
PyramidCemetery,pointingout that the tomb may be dividcdinto two parts,in the
first of which the titlesconnectthe ownerwith the pyramidof Teti, while in the
secondtheyconnecthim with both Teti andPepyL The tomb is accordinglyplaced
in the reignof Teti to earlyPepyI.83 While therecan be no doubtthat someof the
building and/ordecorationwas carriedout in the tornb of Wdt-ht-Ttj earlyin the
reignof PepyI, this shouldnot automaticallyinfluencethc datingof othertombsin
the cemeteryand particularlythosein the 'rue de tombeaux'. It appearsthat this

8o Ibid.-54: I o.
8 l I b i t t r. 7 3 : r 2 .
82 Administrcttion,J5, 100-101,
ll2. SccalsoKanawati,
Egt'ptitut
Atlntitri.strtttion.
152[60],
l-53fl901. Harpur,on thcotherhand.thinksthal<nb-nt-<-Hr
is tn bc diitcclto lateTeti-carly
Pepy| (Dec'oration,213[314D.
83 Strudwick,Atlministration,lll. This datc is supportcdby Hnrpur(Decorcttictn,2JS
SeealsoEditorialfbrewordin JEA (t6 ( 1980).2.
KA-APER

streetwas initially plannedas a single project, with areasof land allocatedto


favouredofficials and royal relativesat almostthe sametime. Howevet, it also
seemsthat work on certainmastabasstartedbefbreothers,but not by a long time,
perhapsas a result of the owner reachinga ccrtainage or status. Thus while the
mastabaof <nb-m-<-Hris built against,and therefbrelater than,that of Nfr-sim-R<,
archaeological evidencesuggests that he and W{t-ht-Ttjbuilt their tombsat the
same time as a single building project.8aThe relativechronologyof the tombs of
Wdrh-Ttj andKt(.j)-<pr(w)is not clear from extantarchaeological evidence,but
thereis no reasonfor thinkingthat Kt(.j)tpr(u) startedthe constructionof his
mastabalong afier his neighbour.The datafiorn Kt(.j)*pr(zu)'stomb shouldnow
be considered.

Although not lacking in Dynasty6, the nameKt(.7)-<pr(ru), as indicatedabove,


was rnorecommonin the Fifth Dynasty. As for his offices,Kt(.j)-<pr(w)doesnot
possessa sufficientnumberof the titles studiedby Baer in his ranking systemto
allow placinghim in a specificperio6i.tls The rnastaba
is constructedof mud brick,
'rue de tombeaux'.Althoughthe falsedoor,its nicheandthe
the first as suchin the
entranceto the tomb are fbrmed of monolithic blocks of good limestone,and
althoughthe relief,particularlyon theentrance,is amongthe finestin the cemetery,
the use crfmud brick for the externalwalls of the mastabasetsKt(.7)-<pr(ru) apart
fi'om the higherofficiiils of Teti,86and alsoapartfrom his immediateneighbourin
'rue de tombeaux',Wf,t-l.tt-Ttj/Nfr-sirn-Pth/Sij. There are, nevertheless,
the
alchitecturalsimilaritieswith the latter'stomb. In each,an entry vestibuleopens
northwardinto a small room leadingto an east-westoffering chamberin which a
high L-shapedoffering table/benchextendsacrossthe width of the west wall in
front of the falsedoor and alongthe northwall.87

Certaindetailsin the sccnesand inscriptionsare usefr"rlas dating criteria. The


carliestdatedexamplesof a shor-rlder-lengthwig coveringthe earsocculsin tombs
where the cartoucheof Teti is inscribed. However,this type of wig becomes
popular under Pepy I and Pepy II.ttE A perfumejar which is held betweenthe
fbrefinger and thumb is a ratheruncommonf'eatureand found mainly in tombs
datedto the periodlatel'eti-PepyI,8ealthoughisolatedexamplesexistfrom laterin
the Old Kingdom.eoThe representation on the panel of his false
of Kt(.j)-<pr(uL)

lJ4 Ibid.2.
85 Rank ancl Title,232ff. This rankingsystemnow nccdscompleterevision(seealso Franke,
J E A 7 9 t l 9 9 3 l , 2 9 1 )a n di s c u r r c n t l yb c i n gs t u d i e c l .
ll 6 In additionto the vizicrs of'the period,Kt(.j) ,pr(u) shouldbe cornparedwithNj-kno-lz:j ,
who was jrj prt jtuj-r Snr jmj-r ki rrlttnt nxpt and who ownecla f'ully decorateclstone
rnastaba(unpublishecl ; scc Strudwick.Adntini strctriorr,I 05).
87 Cirpart,Rue de tonbeuux 2, p|.94 Portcr - Moss, Blbllrlgraphl' 3, pl. -54;and pcrsonal
examination.
88 Chcrpion,Mostaba.tet ln'pogie.s,57-58.
8 9 D u e l l ,M e r e r u k u , p l .l l 7 ; J a r n e sK, h e n t i k t tp, l . 2 l ; C a p a r t .R u e d e t o m b e a u xp,l . 1 0 2( t h i s
falsc door is unlikely to bclong 1o a tomb in thc ruc cic lombeaux);Davies er al., Saqqlrct
Tontbsl, pl. l2; Sinrpson,Qur onclIdu, fig. 30; Davics,Deir a!-GebrAw'i 2, pl. l7 (lbr reccnt
d a t i n gs c c K a n a w a t -i M c F a r l a n eA, k h n t i n r1 , 6 2 - 6 8 ) ;K a n a w a t iE . l - H t t w a w i s l9t , 2 9 ; A l l i o t ,
Tell Edfou l9-13,pl. l4; Ziegler, Ccttctlog,ue r/e.r.st?1e.r, 78-81.
9 0 F o r e x a m p l ci n t h e t o m b o l ' M r i j - < t( K a n a w a t iE , L - H a g n r s 3o , 3 9 . p l s . 4 2 - 1 3 , 4 5 b ;t h c d c t a i l
, t h r i b i s ,p l . l ) .
i s n o t c l c a ri n P e t r i s A

38
KA-APER

door seatedon a chair with bull's legsis curious. This type of chair was gradually
superseded oy that with lion's legs,'rland at the provincialsite of Akhmim, where
the changeis documented,it is evidentthat it took placeroundthe reign of Teti.e2
In the Teti cemeteryat Saqqarathe new style with lion's lcgs was already
fashionable,e3 and Kt(.j)-<pr(zu) himself usedit on both.jarnbsof his entrance
doorway. The depiction of the chair with bull's legson the panelof the falsedoor
might be due to conservatism which seemsn"rorelikely to be shownon falsedoors
thanin wall scenes.94

At this stagea comparisonwith the tomb of lfuu at Giza (G7102;0-s rnightbe


useful. Llke Kt(.j)-rpr(u), ldzu wasboth ftrj-tp ttsiut and jntj-r lnut-urt. I Ic was
not jmj-r zi < nsrLtt,but was z! < nxttt fuft-|1r.Neither was he jntj-r ktt nht nt
nsutt, but his son Qrr wasjmj-r ktt ttbt andjmj-r zi n ktt nbt.e6 Both Kr(.7)-
,pr(w) andldru representchairswith bull's legson their falsedoors,br-rtnot in the
scenesof their chapels. ldw has an engagedbust statuein the lower part of his
falsedoor.eTThis highly unusualf'eatureis abscntin the cascof Kt(.j)*ltr(ru),but
his neighbour,Nfr-sim-Ptl.t,has a bust statllcin the panelof his falsedoor.esThe
palaeographyon the faqadesof the tombsof Kt(.j).pr(ztt) andJdwe'tshowsmany
similaritiesand the determinatives for the oryxesand thc oxcn arc the samein the
two tombs,wherefive thousands ol'fowl arerequested as offbrings.l(x)

Two unusualfeatulesattractattcntionin Kt(.j)-<pr(u)'stomb. The first is that


unlike the majority of officials,and certainlyall the higherones,buried in this
cemetery,Kt(.j)tpr(zu) doesnot hold any priesthood.In this rcspecthe may be
comparedwith other officials who are likely to date in thc transitionalperiocl
betweenTeti-Userkare-Pepy I.l0l Thc secondunusualltature in Kt(.j)*pr(ru)'s
tornb is the damagewhich the faEadeof his mastabahas;suffbred.Many tombs in
the Teti cemeteryhave the namesand l-rcquentlythe figures of their owners
chiselledout; but this was alwaysdonesystematically throughoutthe torlb and vcry
carefullyto the signsandfigureswithoutaffectingthebackground.This is believed
to be a sort of punishmenttor thesetomb owners,presllmablyas a resultof their
()l
Fischer,Varict.4. Thc earliertypc rcappcrircdin thc MiclclleKingclonr(Vanclicr.Mcutue!1.
84).
92 K a n a w a t i- M c F a r l a n eA, k h n t i n t1 , 3 0 .
93 It is interesting t h a t e l s e w h c r ci n t h i s c e r n c t e r yM r t u c h a n g c d / c o r r c c t e a dc h a i r i n h i s w a l l
scenes l i o r r b u l l ' s l c g s i n t o I i o n ' sl c g s ( l , l o y de t a l . ,S u t l q A r T
u ' o n r b2s, 1 5 ,p l . c ) ;M a l c k ,D E
20il 9er l, 99).
94 Comparelbr cxarnplcthc type of chair on thc lalsedoor ol'/dru (Simpson.Qar und ldu, l'ig.
, 1 0 )w i t h t h a t i n h i s w i i l l s c e n e s( i b i d , f i g s . 3 9 , . 1l ) , a n d t h c t y p c o n T f f ' s f a l s c c l o o r
( S i m p s o n ,W e s t e r nC e n t e t e r yl , l ' i g s . l 8 a n c lp c r h a p sl 6 ) w i t h t h a t o n h i s w a l l s ( i b i d , i i g s .
21,23-24). Seealso thc l'alsedoor of' Nfr-si'll-Ptl.tin thc EgyptianMuseum(Capart,llue de
Tontbeaur,pl. 102).
9 5 Sinrpson,Qar and ltlu, l9tf ., pls. l,5fl'.,l'igs.3311'.
9 6 I b i d , 1 8 . F o r a s t u d yo f t h c l a s tt w o t i t l c ss c cS t r u d w i c kA, t l t n i n i s t r u t i o n . 2 0 l l t . , 2 l l l .
()'/
Simpson,Qar and ldu, pl.29.
9 8 Capart,Rue cletontbeaux,pls. 9zl-96.
9 9 Sirnpson,Qar ond ldu, lig.33.
1 0 0 For a commenton thc numbcrof'lbwl requcstcdlbr of1'erings scc Lapp, Op.fulornrel,$211
El-Khouli - Kanawati, Quseir el-Anrurna,24.
Sec lbr exanrpleMhl (El-Khouli - Kanawari.Suqqurtt2, Hzjj (lbid, l8fT.) and /ifl
(ibid. 2-51.
KA-APER

involvementin one of the conspiracies againstTeti or PepyI.102The caseof Kt(.j)-


<pr(zu)is different in that the whole surface,not only the name and figure, was
chiselledout on the entireupperpartof the southentrance jamb, andthat the scenes
and inscriptions in the restof the tomb areintact. The exactimplicationof this is
not clear, but the evidenceseenlsto suggestthat Kt(.j)-rpr(u) lived at the
transitionaltime Teti-Userkare-Pepy I, when thereappearto have beenproblems
with succession andallegiance.

date: End Teti-earlyPepyI.


Suggested

III ARCHITECTURAL F'EATURES

Pls. 14, 17, 48.


'rue de tombeaux',approximately
The mastabaof Kt(j)-<pr(w) is locatedin the
l0 metresto the north of Nfr-sirrt-Ptl.tandon the samewesternsideof that street.
It is constructedlargely of tafel brickswhich incorporatepiecesof brokenpottery
a n d s t o n ec h i p sa n d m e a s u r e . 3 0 mx.. l 5 m . x . 0 7 m . , w i t h s o m ee l e m e n t sa t t h e
cntranceand in the offeringchapelformedof limestoneblocks. Internallythe brick
walls were coatedwith a layer.0l-.03rn.thick of Nile niud plasterbound with
somestraw and small stones.This was coveredwith a thinnerlayer of creamy
yellow tafel-likeplasterand then finishedwith a coat of fine hard white plaster.
Evidenceof plastcris preservedon the walls of all chambersexceptroom VI, but
the only evidenceof painteddecorationare traceso1 red colour, apparentlythe
remainsof threemalefigures,on the westwall of room V.

The dimensionsof the mastabasuperstructure are l0.l5rn. N-S x 8.80m.E-W.


The upper part has disappearedso no original heightsof walls, ceilings or
doorwayscan be provided. It may be assumcdthat the roomshad vaultedbrick
ceilings.The faEadewall, l.20rn.thick,presentlystandsto a maximumheightof
2.15m.,and that part forrningthe eastwall of room Il is largelydestroyed.The
entranceis locatedat the southernend of the eastwall of the mastaba,the jambs,
thresholdand intelnal door reccssall fornredof blocks of fine quality white
limestone,as were presumablythe now missinglintel and drum. Both doorjambs
and thicknessesarc decoratedin incisedrelief, but that on the southernjamb has
almostentirelybeenchiselledawaywith a very smallportionremainingin thelower
part. In front of the entrancea stonestep .07m. high spansthe full width of a
recess2.40m. wide x .15m. deep. Formed of two blocks of limestoneand
projectingslightly from the brick faEade, the stepmeasures .26m.deepat the north
end and .22m.at the southend. Into it arecut six smallofferingbasins,threeon
e i t h e rs i d eo f t h e d o o r w a y .F r o m t h e s o u t ht h e y l . t 1 e a s u r e . l 6 xm. .l 5 m . x . 0 2 m .
d e e p , . l 4 5 mx. . 0 7 , 5 mx. . 0 4 m . d c e p , . 1 4 mx.. 0 5 m .x . 0 3 r n .d e e p , . l 0 m x. . 0 6 m .
x . 0 3 m . d e e p , . l 3 m x. . 0 7 m .x . 0 3 m .d e e p , . 2 0 mx.. 1 - 5 r nx.. 0 3 m . d e e p .

The entrancedoorway,with a southjamb .92rn.wide and a northjan-rb.15m.


w i d e ,i s . 7 5 m . w i d e x . 4 5 m . t h i c k a n dh a sa p r e s e nht e i g h to f 2 . 1 0 m . T h e l i n t e l
anddrum havedisappeared, the latterperhapsoriginallyrestingin two smallledges,

I 02 11"nu*ut-i, idern,Saqqarctl. I I - I 2
Chron.d' Eg. 56 t 198I l. 2031'l'.:

40
KA-APER

. 1 0 m .x . 1 0 m . x . 1 5 m .h i g h , c u t a t t h e t o p o n t h e i n s i d ec o r n e r so f t h e d o o r
thicknesses.The entrancerelief was cut directlyinto the stonewith no plaster
facing,but a small sectionnearthe top of the southdoor thicknesswas repairedat
the time of constructionwith a hard white plasterinto which signssubsequently
werecarved. The two largeentranceblocksarecut to form an internaldoor recess
which measures1.28m.N-S x .52m. E-W on the southside and .62m. on the
north side,with a jamb on the southof .15m.and anotheron the north of .28m.
Cut into the stonethresholdjust insidethe north.jambis a socketfor a door pivot,
with a diameterof .15m.and a depthof .075rn.In both sidewalls of the internal
door recessat a heightof .90m.abovethe floor level areneatlycut holesfor a door
bolt, eachwith a width of .24m.,a heightof . 18m.,anda depthof .10m.

The doorwayopensinto an entrancevestibule(roomI) which mcasures1.80m.


N-S on the eastwall and 1.95m.on the west wall x 1.70m.E-W. The present
maximumwall heightis 2.45m. At the westendof the northwall a recess1.00m.
wide x .15m.deepand a small stonestepup of .04m.definesa doorway.70m.
wide x. 85m. thick. The door leadsto room Il which measures2.20m.N-S x
1.70m.E-W. At the eastend of the northwall of this chambera doorway.70m.
w i d e x . 7 0 m . t h i c k ,w i t h a r e c e s os n t h en o r t hs i d e . 9 5 mw
. i d ex . l 5 m . d e e p g
, ives
accessto the offeringchapel.

The offering chamber(room III) is 2.80rn.E-W x 2.75m.N-S and has a present


maximumheightof 2.80m. The westwall is occupiedby a lalsedoor setin a niche
which is 1.70m.wide x .55m.deep. Both the doorandthe sidewallsof the nichc
are formed of large limestoneblocks decoratedin relief and placed on a stone
offering bench. The false door, with two pairs ol' jambs, is l.30rn. wide and
2.40m.high to the top of the torusmoulding;the corniccabovehasdisappeared.
The measurements of the door are:upperlintel I .21m.x .29m.;centralpanel.58m.
x .44m. with side apertureseach .05m.wide; lower lintel .68rn.x .20m.;drum
. 1 4 5 m x. . 1 0 m . ;o u t e jra m b s2 . 0 0 m x. . 3 0 m . ;i n n e rj a m b s1 . 3 - 5 m
x . 2 6 m . ;c e n t r a l
niche 1.22m. x. l45rn. The side walls of the recess measure .50m. N-S x .55m.
E-W, that on the soLrth brokenabovea heightof l.2lrn. and on the north above
2.00m. The stoneplatform,.40m.high and .21m.deep,extendsthe full width of
the west wall and continuesalong the west part of the north wall for a length of
1 . 1 5 mw. i t h a d e p t ho f . 5 2 5 m .

In the west wall of the entrancevestibule(room I) is a doorway.80rn.wide x


. 8 3 m .t h i c k w h i c h i s d e f l n e db y a r c c e s sl . 1 0 r n .w i d e x . 1 5 m . d e e p . W i t h i n t h e
doorwayare two stonesteps,the first .30m.high x .60m.deepand the second
.20m.high x .35m.deep. The doorwaygivesacccssto room IV, a corridor-like
chamberwhich measures 4.70m.E-W x 1.50m.N-S and haser1'loorslopingvery
gentlyupwardto the west. Its walls havca prcscntnnximum heightof 2.25m.

In the middleof the northwall a doorway.-52m.wide x .80r.n.thick leadsto room


V which measures 2.10m.N-S x 1.90m.E-W. Fragmentary tracesof red painton
the west wall may be the remainsof male figuresin a slaughteringscene. To the
eastof the doorway,a nicheconstructed in the southwall hasa sill height.65m.
abovefloor level. The floor of the niche projects.12-5m.from the southwall and
measures .55m.wide (E-W) x .70m.deep(N-S). The ceilingis goneandthe back
wall is smoothedto an approximate heightof 1.10m.

4l
KA-APER

At the southextremityof the eastwall of room V is a half-archdoorway .57m.


wide with a height of .75m. at the north thicknessand 1.20m. at the sourh
thickness. This small doorway leadsto room VI which measures2.].om.N-S x
.80m.E-W. The functionof this room is uncertain,but this is the only chamberin
the mastabawhich retainsno tracesol plaster.

At the far west end of room IV anotherdoorwayconstructedin the north wall,


definedby an entrancerecess1.05m.wide x.l5m. deep,measures.65m. wide x
.65m.thick. It opensinto a small chamber(room vII) which is 1.05m.E-w x
l.l5m. N-S. To the northof this room is themouthof shaft1.

IV BURIAL APARTMENTS

PLs.47, 48.

Locatedto the southof the main burial apartmentand directlybehindthe north


wall of room VII is a small and r,rnflnished shaft with a mouth measurins
1.15m.N-S x.90m. E-w. Presumably it was enterecl
fiom the roof level,a--s
the shaft walls lined with mud brick standwell abovethe floor level of the
mastaba.It is cut into thenativerock to a depthof 6.00rn.wherework appears
to havebeenabandoned when its north wall brokethroushinto the SE corner
of the shaftof the tomb owner.

The main burial shaftis locatedat the NW cornerof the mastaba.directlvwest


of the false door of Kt(.j)-<pr(w) in his offering chamber(room V) ancl
presumablywas enteredfrom the rool'. The n-routhof the shaft is 2.80m.
square,andabovethe levelof the mastabafloor hasretainingwalls constructed
of mud brick which are presentlypreservedto a heightof 1.55m. The shaft
descends throughthe nativerock to a depthof 14.00m.at the floor of the burial
chamber. It is likely that roughly cut notcheson the eastwall functionedas
footholds. The upper half of the shaft is well cut throughsandstonebanded
with shale,but the walls of the lower half, cut in a harderrock formation,are
very rough and irregularwith no smoothsurfacesor cleancorners. The floor
of the shaftis unevenwith largeareasof uncutrock remainingon the southand
east,and is partly finishedonly in the northwestsectionwhich slopesdown
towardsthe burialcharnber.It would appearthatcuttingin the lower part may
have been restrictedto that requiredin order to lower verticallythe large
limestonesarcophagus of Kt(.7)-rpr(ru)and manoeuvreit into the burial
chamber.The entirewestwall and a goodportionof the north arecut away to
producean openingapproximately 3.50m.wide and 3.25m.high which gives
accessto the burial chamber.

OrientedN-S at a 40" angleto the westwall of the shaft,the burial chamberis


irregularly-shapedandincompletelycut with few smoothsurfaces.It measures
5.50m.N-S on the eastsidex 5.20m.on the westwall x 3.35m.E-W on the
north wall and 3.95m.on the southwall. The roughceiling,with many cracks
and flssures,slopesslightly downwardto give a heightof 3.20m.at the west
wall. The southwall is cleanlycut from the floor level to a height of about
.70m.and,abovethis, work was begunto extendthe wall furtherto the south.

A)
KA-APER

The west wall and a small sectionat the west end of the north wali are quite
well cut to a heightof approximately1.00m.abovethe floor level. The floor
area has been levelled and smoothed only in the area surrounding the
sarcophagus.Beneaththe sarcophagus is a well cut pit .80m.E-W x 3.60m.
N-S x .55m.deep. To the eastof and parallelto the pit a sectionof the floor
with maximummeasurements of .60m.wide at the southend and 2.35m.along
the west sideis cleanlv cut to depthsof .45m.in the westernpart and .22m.tn
the eastempart.

Restingon loose stonesand rubble abovethe pit is the large sarcophagus of


Kt(.j)*pr(w), cut from good quality limestone,but with the surfacesonly
roughly finished. Foundempty and damagedby tomb robbersthereare several
breaksin the sarcophagus, particularlyat the northernheadend wherepieces
have also beenbrokenfrom the lid. Most of thesefragmentswere recovered
during the excavationsto enable a completerecord to be made of the
inscriptionsincised on the sarcophagus and its lid. The chest measures
externally3.10m. long x 1.63m.wide x 1.40m.high. The internal
measurementsare 2.22m. long x .70m. wide x .66m. high, with the
thicknessesof the four sidesvarying from .40-.50m. The lid has a width of
1.63m. and an averageheight of .56m.; the length cannot be accurately
measuredas the norlh end is missins.

V SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS

The chapelis constructedof mud brick, thenplasteredand whitewashed, but the


only evidenceof painted decorationare fragmentsof red colour, perhaps the
remainsof male figures,preservedon the westwall of room V. Monolithic blocks
of good quality limestoneform eachof the two sidesof the entrancedoorway,the
falsedoor, the falsedoor nichethicknesses and the offeringbench. The architrave
abovethe entranceandthe corniceof the falsedoor arenow missing.Most of these
blocks receiveddecoration. All inscriptionsare incisedwhile the figures are in
sunkenrelief with good modelling,and detailsof body muscles,as well as the
structureof faces,hands,feet,etc,arewell rendered.The hieroglyphicsignsshow
a greatdeal of internaldetails. In general,the work on the entranceblocks is far
superiorto that on the false door and the offering chamber. It is likely that the
fagadewas the last to be decorated,l03 and thereKt(.j)-,pr(w) holds higher titles
than thoseattributedto him on his falsedoor and sarcophagus.

The North Entrance Jamb

P l s .1 4 - 1 7 ,4 9 b .

The upperhalf is occupiedby sevenvertical( I -7) and one horizontal(8) lines of


hieroglyphswhich read: ( 1) mrr(zo)ttswt pru mrr(w) Inpw tpj dw.f pu rm! nb
hm-b (2) swt.tj.fjhr wtt tn m ld bsft st n(.j) mw (3) rdj n(.j,)t hnqt m ntt m-fut.fn

lo3 5"s also James,Khentiko,13.

43
KA-APER

j., nf, n wnn t hnqt mruto4m:fit.ln r05(4)


dcl.kt.tnm r.!n zodnto6nt <.tnlu m t
hnqt (5) fotm r fu m lrp lt m zt bt m sr futtn mniut (6) m ftB-hdln 1r,'nr'irryros
bt
t:.,.r,r1.,! lyj-tp.ttstut.j,yjht.ut<urt
0) ljfifuw l-rr'nstut
.:,!,,:f,
<tnbFt.p, l fir Jnpiutpj
Qzu.J
'(1)
!7rn[r (8)
l.ntrrt jrj-p,t jmj-r
httj-< gs-pr furj-tpnszutKt(.j)-rpr(u)
Belovedof the king andbelovedof Anubis,*to ir onhis hill, is ony p".lon ot.
a ka-servant(2) who shallpassby this roadin travellingdownstreamor upstream.
Pour water for me (3) and give breariand beer to me from that which is in your
possession.If there are no bread,beer anclwater in your possession
1+; 1t"nen.y
'shall_you
saywith your mouthand makeofferingwith your 1lun6.roo a thousando1,
breadand beer,(5) a thousandof /-geese,a thousandor 1rp-ge"re,a thousandof
zf-geese,a thousandof sr-geese,a thousandof pigeons, a tnousancl of oryxes,
16j
a thousandof oxen and pure incensefor the ouerGe,of the workcentre,the ioyal
chamberlain,the overseerof the greatcourt,(7) the honouredone beforethe king,
beforeAnubiswho is on his hill, and beforethe greatgod lord of the west'.

The horizontalline (8) is a captionidentifyingthe tomb owneras: 'the hereclitary


prince,the count,the overseerof the workcentre,the royal chamberlain,Ka_aper,,
who is shownseated,facingtowardsthe entranceand invoking.il0 The gestureof
his right handmay be interpretedas an invitationto the pas"r-Ly to enterhis tomb
and-perhaps presenthim with offeringsas indicatedinthe insiriptionsafsys.l r
dd.f 'he says',written beforehis face,might ref'erto the words aboveas well as ro
thoseon the adjoiningnorthentrancethickness.

simjlar invoking figuresare found o.nthe lagadesof a numberof the large


mastabas in the Teti.cemetery.Kt(.j)*pr(ru) sitson a chairwith lion'slegsand low,
cushionedback. He wearsa shoulder-length wig, a beard,a collar, tiracelets,a
sashacrosshis chestand.a-pleated kilt. Like the figureof flntj-kt.jpreservedon his
northernentrance.jamb,tt2 Kt{.iS-jrr(zu)invokeswith one handon,inotO,a sceptre
in the other. As thereis no evidenceof a staff nearhis feet on the south iamb it
seemsthat, unlike flntj-kt,j and orhers,tt3Kt{.i;*rr(ro) js clepictedon rh; sourh
jamb invokingbut alsoholdinga sceptre.

On a separatebaseline in front of the tomb owner standsa small male flsure


wearinga shoulder-length wig, a collar,a sashand a pointedkilt. He is identiied
as zt.f smsw j*j-, gs-pr hrj-tp nsr.otjnrl,lw lhjj 'his eidestson, rhe overseerof the
workcentre,the royal chamberlain, the honouredone.Ihi'.

104 pot the expression 'bread,


becrand watcr'secJantcs,Khentika,39,pl. 6; Lloyd et al.,S1c1q[ira
T o n t b . s2 . o 1 . 2 2 .
105 pn. the usc of m-l3tscc EtJcl,
Grtmmrcttik, \797.
t , 0 6 r u d n i s e l l i p t i c a lf o r r u d n . k t . [ r( ri b i d ,
$ 5 - 5 3b, ) .
1 0 7 1 6 . d e t e r n t i n a t i v ics i c l c n t i c a l
t o t h a t i n t h c t o m b o l ' l r l w a t G i z a , w h c r e t h e a n i n r a li s
idcntiflcdas nrrhd (Sirnpson, Qttr and ldu,20-21,lig. 33).
l0ti 4n iclentical dercrminarive in rherornboI'ldw is idcn-tified asizru(ibid).
109 1t;t probablynlcansthatthc spokcnworcls
shouldbc accornpanied by thc apprgpriate gesture
of of lbring (Lloyd et al.,SutlqAraTonilts2, 38 n.3).
I I0 pur this posturcseeHarpur,Decorcrrion,l2g--10;
LA 2, -57-l-g-5.
l l I S i l n i l a r l yH a r p u r e x p l a i n st h c d c p i c t i o n s
c l f ' t h et o m b o w n c r o n t h e c n t r a n c et h i c k n c s s c s
facingoutwardsas 'awaitingtheapproachol'visitors'(Decoruti.,,53).
I I 2 Jar"r, Khentiko. ol. (t.
I I 3 16;,1, pl. -5;Baclaw y, <Ankhnfahor, t'ig.2-j.

AA
KA_APER

The South Entrance Jamb

Pls. 14, 15,49a.

Apart from the bottom part of a sceneon the lower sectionof this jamb, all the
inscriptionson the upper part have been completelyremovedby deliberate
chiselling.The decorationsurvivingin the lower part showsthe pleatedkilt and
feetof the tomb ownerseatedon a chairwith lion'slegs. Standingat his f-eetis part
of a smallmale figure,perhapshis son,wearinga leopard'sskin.

The North Entrance Thickness

P I s . 1 8 ,5 0 b .

The upperhalf is occupiedby four vertical(l-4) andtwo horizontal(5-6) linesof


text that read: (l) pr.n(.j) m njzot(.j)ht.n(.j) m sptt(.j)jr.n(.j) (2) m{t n nb.s
shtp.n(.j)nlr m mrrt.f (3) rdj(.j) t n l.tqrhbsn htjj snu(.j)tt (4) m jwtj tttllnt.fjnk
'(
Qdnfr wtun nfr (5) jnufuwlr nlr <t(6) jrj-pct jrnj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(w) l) I came
forth from my town, and descended from my province. I carriedout (2) justicefor
its lord, and satisfledgod with what he loves. (3) I gavebreadto the hungry and
clothing to the naked. I broughtto land (4) he who had no ferry-boat. I was one
who said what was good and who reportedwhat was good. (5) The honouredone
beforethe greatgod, (6) the hereditaryprince,the overseerof the workcentre,Ka-
aper'.

The tomb owner is depictedin the prime of life, but is representedwith


abbreviated shoulder,which is mostlyassociated with older-lookingfigures.ll4 He
wears a cap wig, a long, projectingkilt, braceletsand sandalsand holds a staff.
Kt(.j)-<pr(u)is shown here,as on the oppositethickness,ta_cing outwardswhich,
conirary to the earlierinterpretationof leavinghis tomb,ll5 is now explainedby
Harpuras standingat the entrance,awaitingthe approachof visitors.ll6 Facingthe
tomb owneris a smallfigureof a man presenting him with ahz-jar. He is labelled:
j*j-, pr jmj-r sir shd hm-kt ldzu'the overseerof the house,the overseerof the
linen,the superintendent Idu'.
of the ka-servants,

The South Entrance Thickness

Pls. 19, 50a.

Four vertical(l-4) andtwo horizontal(5-6)linesof hieroglyphsoccupythe upper


spaceand read:(l) [jmj]-r zi <nxut jmj-r bt nbt nt nsut (2) hrj-tp nsut jmj-r
j*j-, ziwj (3) brj-hbt l.trj-sittn pr-dutt (4) jmtfuu lr Wsir nb Ddwl t'7
l.tr.ut-wrt
'(1) The overseer
(5) jmtfuwlr lnpru tpj dw.f (6) jrj-pct jntj-r gs-pr k(.j)*pr(w)
of the scribesof the king's documents, the overseerof all the works of the king, (2)
the royal chamberlain,the overseerof the greatcourt,the overseerof the two fowl

Harpur,Decorutiort.I 33-34.
H a s s a nG, i z . a3 , 1 0 1 - 1 0 2v; o l . 6 : 3 ,
Decoration,53.
TontbsI, f ig. 26
For thc writing ol'Ddu as Ddru in this cernetcrysceDaviesct al.,SctqqAra
KA-APER

pools, (3) the lector priest,the one who is privy to the secretof the houseof
morning,(4) the honouredone beforeOsiris,lord of Busiris,(5) the honouredone
before Anubis, who is on his hill, (6) the hereditaryprince, the overseerof the
workcentre,Ka-aper'. Below the inscriptionsis a standingfigure of the tomb
ownerdepictedin the samemanneras on theoppositethickness.

Room III: The Offering Chamber

THE FALSE DOOR

P l s .2 0 , 5 1 .

The UpperLintel: Two horizontal(1-2)and one vertical(3) linesof hieroglyphs


read: (1) lttp dj nsrut htp lnpru tpj du.f jmj wt nb tt isr (2) htp dj nsrut Wsjr lntj
'(l)
Qdw qrs.tj.f m ftrt-ntr (3) jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)-<pr(ru) An offering which the
king gives and an offering which Anubis, who is on his hill, who is in the
embalmingplace,lord of the sacredland (gives). (2) An offeringwhich the king
givesand Osiris,foremostof Busiris(gives),that he be buriedin the necropolis.
(3) The overseerof the workcentre,Ka-aper'. To the left is a figure of the tomb
ownerholdinga staffand sittingon a chairwith bull's legs.

The CentralPanel: The tomb owner sits on a chair with bull's legs wearinga
shoulder-length wig and ershort,tight kilt. He stretcheshis right hand to an
offering table with lourtcenhalf-loavesof bread and holds in his left hand a
perfumejar with his forefingerand thumb. Two ewersin basins,two jars and a
calf s headon a tray are alsodepicted.Above the sceneis written:jmtlru furnlr <t
hrj-tp nsrut k(.j)-rpr(zu)'The honouredonc before the great god, the royal
chamberlain,Ka-aper'.

The Lower Lintel: The arrangement is similarto thaton theupperlintel,exceptthat


the figure to the left is standingand holding a stailTand a sceptre. (1) jntfuru fur
'(l)
flntj-jmntjut (2) jnulw ftr nxut fur nlr <tnb pt (3) jntj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(zt')
The honouredone beforeKhentiamentiu, (2) the honouredone beforethe king arrd
beforethe greatgod, lord of heaven,(3) the overseerof the workcentre,Ka-aper'.

The Drunr:Kt(.j)-<pr(w)'Ka-aper'.

The Jambs: Eachjamb containstwo vertical(l-2) and one horizontal(3) linesof


hieroglyphs, the lerstcontainingonly the tombowner'sname. Below this,in each
case,is a depictionof Kt(.j)-<pr(zrr)
wearinga shouider-length
wig, a beard,a collar
and a pointedkilt andholdinga staffanda sceptre.

The Right OuterJamb: (1) l.ttpdj rtsitttlnpu tpj dru.fjntj ut nb tt lsr lntj spt (2)
'(l)
prt-furwn.f m ltrt-nlr jmj-r gs'pr furj-tpnswt jrnj-r l.trut-rurt(Z) K:(.j)-,pr(nt)
An offeringwhich the king givesand Anubis,who is on his hill, who is in the
embalmingplace,lord of the sacrcdland,forernostof Sepall8 lgives). (2) May an
invocation offering come fbrth for him in the necropolis. The overseerof the
workcentre,the royal chamberlain, the overseerof the greatcourt,(3) Ka-aper'.

llti p . r r a < J i s c u s s i o nt hoef p o s s i b l c l o c a t i o nSocf p a s e e Z i b e l i uZsi ,e d l u n g e n . 2 0 g - l l .

16
KA-APER

The Left Outer Jamb: (I) htp dj nsut Inpw funtj zh-ntr bp.f hr wtwt jptf (Zl
nfr(w)t nt jmnt lppt jmtfuwhr,snllejtnj-r gs-pr (3) Kt(.j)-<pr(w)'(1) An offering
which the king givesand Anubis,foremostof the divinebooth (gives). May he
travel upon thosebeautifulroads(2) of the west,upon which the honouredones
travel,the overseerof the workcentre,(3) Ka-aper'.

The Right Inner Jamb: (l) jmtfirubr ntr g nb pt (2) jm{l3w|3rWsjr nb Ddw (3)
'(l)
Kt(.j)*pr(w) The honouredone beforethe greatgod, Iord of heaven,(2) the
honouredone beforeOsiris,lord of Busiris,(3) Ka-aper'.

The Left Inner Jamb (l) jmtfuwfurlnpw tpj dw.f (2) jntj-r gs-pr hrj-tp nswt jmj-r
'(l)
Ltwt-rurt(3) Kt(.j)tpr(w) The honouredone beforeAnubis,who is on his hill,
(2) the overseerof the workcentre,the royal chamberlain,the overseerof the grezrt
court,(3) Ka-aper'.

SIDESOF THE FALSE DOOR

Pl. 52.

On either side of the false door the traditionaloils are depictedin superposed
registers,eachcontaininga jar and the nameof the oil. The north side reads:...
'...hknw orl,sft
hknw sft nhnm trutwt h*t nt ll.mw oil,nfunm oll,twtrut orl,
best Libyan oil'. The southside lists the sameoils, but trttnutis replaced by l.utt
'best
, ? f( 5 c e d a ro i l ' .

THE FALSE DOOR NICHE

P l s .2 1 , 2 2 , 5 3 ,5 4 .

Two monolithic limestoneblocks,now brokenin the upperpart, form the sidesof


a niche into which the false door is set. Each thicknessis decoratedwith a large
figure of the tomb owner facing away from the falsedoor, while thejambs of the
niche show offering bearers. (Seealso TNE94:F25 which may have originated
from the southsideof this niche.)

The North Thickness:The uppersectionis partly missing,but the remainingpart


s h o w st h r e ev e r t i c a (l l - 3 ) a n dt w o h o r i z o n t a(l4 - 5 )l i n e so f t e x t : ( l ) . . . ( 2 ) . . . L t r j -
'(l)
hbt (3) ... fi.trj-slittn nsntt (4) jmtfttobr ntr <t(5) jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(w)
... (2) ... the lectorpriest,(3) ... privy to the secretof the king, (4) the honoured
one beforethe greatgod, (5) the overseerof the workcentre,Ka-aper'.Below this
the tomb owner standswith the staff and sceptre.He wearsa shoulder-length wig.
a collar and bracelets, a leopard'sskin anda short, pointed kilt.

The SouthThickness:The uppersectionis missing. The lower sectionshowsa


holdingthe staff and sceptreand wearinga sashand a short,
figure of Kt(.j)-<pr(zu)
pointedkilt.

ll9 Lopp, Opfetformel,579-80

11
KA-APER

The North Jamb: The figuresof four offeringbearersin superposed registersare


preserved,all depictedwith cap wig, beardand shortkilt. All carry a forelegof an
ox and possiblyanothercut of meat. Only the man in the lower registeris labelled
as lrp zh Ns::u'thedirectorof the fbod-hall,Nesu'. A verticalline of inscription
jrutt m Trnthw Srn'run kt jntj-r
explainsthe actionof the men as: ... [pr] n dt120
'...121of the houseof dt, which is broughtfrom
gs-pr hrj-tp nsrutKt(.j)-<pr(u,)
the North and South ['or the ka of the overseero1'the workcentre,the royal
chamberlain,Ka-aper'.

The SouthJamb: Similarin compositionto the northjamb, only the two lower
rcgistersof the southjamb are preserved.In eachis depictedan offering bearer
with a shortwig carryinglotusflowersin the right handanddifferentofferingitems
in the left. A smallgazelleaccompanies the man in the upperregister.The vertical
inscriptionbeforethem reads:... n jmj-r gs-pr llrj-tp nswt jntt'ftrulr nlr g Kt(.j)-
<pr(zu)'... for the overseerof the workcentre,the royal chamberlain,the honoured
one beforethe greatgod, Ka-aper'.

The Sarcophagus

Pl,s.23. 28. 55.

The chestof Kt(.j)tpr(u)'s sarcophagus is madeof one block of limestone,and


both of which werelell unsmoothed.Inscriptions
its lid of ernother, exist outside
on side I (east)
of the lid and the and
chest on side 3 (north)of the and inside
latter,
on side 1 of the chest.l22All signsand theruitt-eyesare incised,but very poorly
executedl23 andpresumablyunfinished.The left handsectionof the lid is alsovery
rough and partly damaged.If the text was left unfinishedin this sectionit would
haveprobablybeendueto superstition ratherthana prematuredeath. A comparison
betweenthe titles writtenon the sarcophagus and thoseon the entranceshowsthat
Kt(.j)-<pr(w)presumablywas promotedto a higherlevel in his careerafter his
sarcophagus was inscribed. Certain signs,particularlyhuman ligures in the
inscriptionshave, as on other contemporarysarcophergi, been suppressedor
modified,possiblyfor theprotectionof the deceased.

Tomb robbersenteredthe sarcophagus by breakingthrough in three different


l o c a t i o n s , a t t h e t o ptohfe n o r t h e r n e n d o ifd el , a t t h e t o p o f s i d e 3 t o g e t h e r w i t h
s
side 3 of the lid, and from the bottom of the chest. Two inscribedfragments
recoveredfrom the rubble of the burial chamberhave been incorporatedin the
facsimileof the text inscribedon the siucophagus.

The Lid: The inscriptioncontainsan addressby Kt(.j)-<pr(u) to the priestsand


cemeteryworkers(?)who areto takechargeof buryinghim, askingthem to secure
'mother',i.e. the chest. The appealis ratherunusual,but
his heavy lid on its
similar inscriptionsare found on the lids of <tilt-m-<-Hrandflnti-kt.i.tz.+The text
I 20 gn the significanccof thc houseof 1f scePercpclkit't, Privuteigentunt, l58ll'.
l2l The lacunamay be reconstructcd as'bringingthc choicclbod by the ka-scrvants', or thc likc.
1 2 2 5 i . 1 1 " . a r r a n g e m e ni st f c l u n do n t h e s a r c o p h a g uosl ' ( n l r n t - < - H r ,w h o i n a d d i t i o ni n s c r i b c d
t h e i n s i d eo l ' s i d e3 ( F i r t h- G u n n ,T e t i P v r .C e r r . l ' 9 8 ) .
123 16" sarncis obscrvedin the cascol <ttll-m-< Hr (ibid, 99).
l 2 a 1 6 ; , 1 , 9 8 1vf .o; l . 2 , p l . - 5 u ; J a m eKs ,h e n t i k a , 6 5p, l . 3 9 ; S c t h c {, . / r f t l.' 2 0 5 '

48
KA.APER

reads:...ltrj-tp ttsrotjmj-[r] hrut-rurtKt(j)-<pr(w)dd.f j fuj-hbt wt rntt ucbt rm!


B0 ... (2) ...jj nxut zunnjnul1.lnnfr ftr nlr,t djdj.tn n(.j) s pn l.trmwt.f jqr jnk
'(1) ... thc royal charnberlain, the ovcrseerof the greatcourt,
Kt(.j)tpr(zu)n mrwt
Ka-aper,he says:O lectorpriest,enrbalmer, menof theembalmingcharnberandthe
8 0 m e n [ o f t h e n e c r o p o l i s ] 1 2. .5. ( 2 ) . . . o f t h e k i n g a n d y o u r h o n o u rt o b e w e l l
before the great god, then you shouldplace for me this lid upon its mother,
excellently.I am the beloved,Ka-aper'.
'Ka-aper
Side l: Kt(.j)-<pr(zu)[rudtt-eyesljrnj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(ur) [zr.rlrf-eyes],
the overseerof the workcentre,Ka-aper'.

Side 3: jmfly.u UJlr nstut jmj-r gs-pr Kt(.j)*pr(zu)'the honouredone before the
king, the overseerof the workcentre,Ka-aper'.

Side I (inside): jmj-r gs-pr hrj-tp nszut Kt[(.j)*pr(w)l'the overseerof thc


workcentre,the royal chamberlain,Ka-aper'.

VI FINDS

The tomb of Kt(.j)tpr(w) appearsto havebeenemptieda numberof times,the


'ruede tombeaux'at the
most recentof which was by Loret duringhis work in the
very end of the last century. The fill of the shali containeda numberof objects
which arecertainlyout of context.

TNE94:69.Pl. 13.
Assortmentof smallcoppertools,severalintactbut mostlybroken,all moderately
oxidisedon the tr11nce.l26
A. One large adze,with a splayedblunt end andblade. L l2.0cm. W 2.6cm.
B. Five spatulateadzeswith roundedblr-rntends.String marksare visiblc on the
narrowends,wherethe objectswerehafiedonto a strafl. L 7.8cm. W 2.5cm.
C. Six squareaxes,one edgeslightlyrounded.L 4.8cm. W 4.0cm.
D. Fragmentsof awls/styli(numberindeterminate).L 3.8-7.5crn.W 0.2-0.3cm.
E,. Miscellaneous smallfragments.

TNE9{:70. (not illustrated)


Numerousfragmentsof coppermodel dishesandjars, body, baseand neck(?)
fragmentsdiscernible.Moderatesurfaceoxidisation.Th 0.1-0.2cm.

TNE9{:71. (not illustruted)


A. Blue-glazed faienceshabti,glazediscolouredto black. H 14.3cm.W 4.0cm.
B. Fragmentof a mouldedblue-glazedfaienceshabti,head and upper torsc'r
wearsa tripartitewig with lappetsovcr
remaining. Featuresindistinct;figr"rre
the shoulders. Some abrasionand discolourationon surface. H 4.7cm.
W 4.0cm.

I 25 por this expressionsccref-ercnccs in previousnote.


126 A sirnilarcollectionof coppcrtoolswas tbundduringACE work at Saqqarain l9it3-U,at thc
t f l l . r j - m2 3 . / ( K a n a w a tei t a l . , S u q q a r a l , 2 3 , p 1 . 9 , S U 3 : U 8 ) S
b o t o m o f ' t h e s h a l 'o . e ca l s t ' r
F i r t h - G u n n .T e l l P t ' r .C e m . l . 1 3 , 1 9 , 2 2 , 2 5 , 3 5 .

49
KA-APER

TNE94:72.Pl. 13.
Three circularlimestoneobjects,with roundedtops and concaveunderneath.
Probablyjar stoppers. Tracesof yellow paintremaining.Complete.
A . D 5 . 3 c m .T h l . 6 c m .
B . D 7 . 0 c m .T h 2 . 0 c m .
C. D 7.5-8.0cmT . h l.7cm.
Threefragmentsof jar stoppers.D 5.8cm. Th max. l.2cm.

TNE94:73.Pl. 13.
Model calcitejar. Cylindricalshapewith slightlyconcavesides,flat-toppedledge
rim andflaringbase.Complete.H 5.3cm. D rim 4.2cm. D base3.5cm.

TNE94:74. (not illustrated)


Stoneobject,circularwith concavesides.D 2.3-2.2cm.H L5cm.

TNE94:75. (not illustruted)


Palegreenstone(feldspar?)rzn-pot amulet. H 0.8cm. W 0.7cm.

TNE9(:76. Pl. 13.


Roughly-modelled small squarecontainerof Nile mud with a lid, unfired and
hand-formed. Traces of powderywhite paint on two sides. Insidethe box was a
crudehand-formedfigureof Nile mud. Figureand lid broken. Box: H 5.8cm.
L 8 . 5 c m . W 8 . 5 c r n .T h o f w a l l l . O c m :L i d : L 7 . 5 c m . W 7 . - 5 c m T
. h0.5cm.

TNE9{:77. Pl. 13.


Roughly-n-rodelled small oval shapedcontainerwith lid, handmadefrom Nile
mud, unfired. Lid broken,now mended.H incl. lid -5.6cm.L 9.9cm. W 6.2cm.
T h o f w a l l 0 . 5 c m -l . 0 c m .

TNE96:78.Pl. 13.
Roughly-modelled rectangular containerwith roundedcornersand lid, handmade
of unfired Nile mud. Each side of the box is piercedby two holes about0.5cm.
from the rim, possiblyfor threadingto securethe lid. Tracesof white paint or
plasterremainingon box and lid. Insidethe box was a crudelyfashionedclay
figure, left foot broken and a model clay headrest.All limbs on the figure were
distinguishedand crudedelineationof the facial featuresvisible; prominentmale
genitaliapresent.Basecomplete,but lid brokenin two halves,now mended.Box:
H 3 . 6 c m . L 9 . 9 c m . W 7 . 0 c m . T h o f w a l l s 0 . 9 5 c mL. i d : L l 0 . l c m . W 6 . - 5 c m '
: 7 . 5 5 c m .H e a d r e s t2: . 8 5x 2 . 2 c m .
I h . o f l i d 1 . 1c m . F i g u r e L

T N E 9 4 : 1 0 0 .P l s . 1 3 , 4 6 .
Squatceramicvesselwith a flaring neck and fluted rim, long spout narrowing
towardsthe end and recessed foot showingmarksof tripod support. Rounded
handleattachedfrom top of neck to shoulder.Very glossy,srnoothturquoiseblue
glaze over exterior surface. N{endedfrom fragments;handleand spout broken.
The natureof the glazepointsto an Islamicdatefor this obiect. H 8.5cm. W max.
7 . 8 c m . D b a s e5 . 5 c m .D r i m 4 . 2 c m .

50
KA-APER

TNE94:101PIs. 13,16.
Squatceramicvesselwith a long spoutnarrowingtowardsthe end, flaring rim
and a recessedfoot. Flat strap handle rvith thumb-restapplied from neck to
shoulder.Raisedridge below handlearoundneck. Dark green-blueglazeover
exteriorand interiorsurf-aces,
indicativeof an Islamicdate. Spoutbrokenand other
'7.Zcm.
surfacewearevident.H 8.0cm. W max. D basc5.lcm. D rim 4.'7cm.

-51
INSCRIBEDOBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

Duringthe excavation seasonsof 1994-95, numerousinscribedlimestoneobiecrs


were found in the compactearthand debriswhich filled chupclsand shalisoi the
Old Kingdom mastabasand also in the looscr sarrdabovc them. In 1994 the
cxpeditionfocusedon clearinga sectionwherethc mastabaol-Ndt-nt-pf was later
found,and the majorityof fragrnentswerediscovcredin that vicinity. The tomb of
Kt(.j)-<pr(w)was previor"rsly
cleared,althoughnot fully recorcled,
by Loret, hence
very few objectsor fragmentswererecoveredin this area. Unlessotherwisestertecl
the small fragmentsfound in 1994arrefrom the fill above or in the irnmediate
surroundingsof the tomb of Nf,t-m-pt; only cornpleteor nearcompleteobjectsare
given a lnoreexactlocation.A grid systerninstigatedin 199-5hasenablcdthe finds
of that seasonto be morepreciselylocated.

The inscribeditemsaredividedinto threecategoricsand arelistedbelow with the


fbllowing ref-erences:
TNE (Teti CemeteryNorth-East);SM (stdlemaison),FD
(falsedoor),OT (oif-eringtable)or F (fragment)plLrsthe individualregistration
number. Find spotsof objectsfoundin thc 1995scason,within the grid systcm,
areprovidedin parenthesisat the beginningof eachcntry. Translationsareoftered
where texts are complete,but transliterationonly wherethe contcxt is lacking.
Unlessotherwisenotedthereareno remainingtracesof paint.

The greatmajority of the inscribedobjectsrecoveredduringthe cxcavationsmay


be datedto the late Old Kingdomand thescare presentedbelow. Numerousother
fiagmentswill appearin a future volume devotedto latcr burials and related
materialsrecordedlrom the sameareaof the Teti Cemeterv.

I STtI,E MAISON

TNE95:SMl. P|.56.
This object,now storedin thc pillaredcourt ol'/5/ which forms part o1'the
mastabaof his father,<nh-m-<-Hr, was found by the EgyptianSurpreme Council of
Antiquities,presumably in thc near vicinity. As a re-publication
o1'thisrnastabais
includedin our currentploject,it seernsalsoappropriatcto makeknown the prescnt
interestingobject. This type of monument,called 'stblemaison'by Jiquier is
currentlyotherwiseattestedonly in the cemctcryof PepyII and generallydatedto
the end of Dynasty6.127 The presenceof one of tiresemonumentsin thc Teti
cemeteryis thereforeof interest.Thereis no doubtthat the cemeteryremainedin
useby successive generationsduring thc reign of Pepy II and later,and fragment
TNE94:F8recordsthc cartoucheof Nef-erkarc.But this cemetcry,limited in area,
appearsto have beentotally plannedand allociitedunder Teti himself, although
somemastabaswere completedunderPepyI. Later officialsand faniily members
had to dig new shafisand add stelacto existingmastabas.The present'stdle
maison'shouldbe seenin thiscontcxt.

1 2 7 J d q u i e rO
, u t l j e b t e n , 2 6 - 3i1d;c r n ,P c t r t i t ' t i l i e r . s ' , l 1 2 -Z1i e
4g; l c r .C t f t u k t g u e
t l e ss t i l e . s , 1 9 1 - g g .

-53
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

The monumentis formedof oneblock of limestonewith a rectangular base69cm.


long x 34cm.wide at the baseand 3l.5cm. wide at the top of the verticalsides
which are 37cm.high. Above this the long sidescurve inward to form an arched
top, resultingin a total heightof 43cm. J6quierthinksthis type of objectrepresents
a simple,one room housewith vaultedroof, henceits name.l28Vandier,fbllowing
Miiller, however,reasonablyrejectsthis interpretationand thinks that the object
doesnot representa stelaor a house,but a miniaturemastaba.l29Decorationin
incisedreliefwith little detailis partiallypreserved
on threesides.

The Long Side, FaEade

The faEadeis decoratedwith a false door of the type with torus moulding and
cavettocornice,flankedon eithersideby a figureof the ownerseatedat an offering
table.The inscriptionson the falsedoor readas follows:

The Upper Lintel: prt-furu n jm:'fuwlhirto'May an invocationofferingcome forth


fbr the honouredone, Ihi'.
'onethousand
The CentralPanel:fu t futlmqt fu k:'futmnfit n jnt*3rulhj of bread,
one thousandof beer,one thousand of oxen,one thousand of clothesfor the
honouredone.Ihi'.

The Lower Lintel: jrufurulhj'The honouredone,Ihi'.

The Left Outer Jamb: j*j-, pr-in'131hrj-hbt jmtfuw Hhittz'The overseerof the
departmentof stores,the lectorpriest,the honouredone,Hehi'.
'Thehonouredonebetorehis lord, ...'.
The Right OuterJamb:jmtfutofurnb.f ...
'lne honouredone,Hehi'.
The Inner Jambs:jrufutu(Hhj)

To the left of the false door the owner is depictedseatedon a chair with lion's
legs,wearinga shortkilt, broadcollar and a long wig which doesnot coverhis ear.
One of his handsis held clenchedto his chestand the other is open and extended
towardsan off-eringtablewhich is apparentlyunfinished,showingsix loaveson the
left half but noneon the right. Underthe tableon the far sideis a cheston which
are piled items of food and aboveare two trays,the lower with threejars and the
upperwith loavesof bread. The inscriptionsabovethe sceneread:lgtt l3thnqt fu kt
'one
fu rytlfut mt-hd $ is [!t] nmlt n jm:ftru fur Wsjr ll.tj thousandof bread,one
thousandof beer, one thousand of oxen, one thousand of fowl, one thousandof
oryxes.one thousandof alabaster andone thousand of clothes for the honouredone
beforeOsiris,Ihi'.

The off-eringtablesccneto theright of the falsedooris damagedin the lower part.


The seatedfigureof the owneris clad in a sirnilarmannel'to that on the lefi but also
128 o u d j e b t e n , 2.1
129 7v4n,run1 2, 435-36.
13 o B o n L " ,P e r s o n e n n a m el ,n1 4 : 2 0 .
l3 I F o r t h i s t i t l c s e eK a n a w a t -i M c F a r l a n eA, k h n r i n tl . 2 3 l .
I 32 Rankc,Personennrunen 1, 254 12.
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

wearsthe sashof a lectorpriestand bracelets.One handrestson his lap and the


otheris extendedtowardsa tablewith 13loavesof bread.Beneathit to the lefl area
ewer and basin. The 'onethousand...'fbrmulais identicalto that on the lcfi side
and is followed by: n jmtftzulr nfr <tnb pt flfuj 'for the honouredone befbrethe
greatgod, lord of heaven,Hehi'.

The Back Side

On the opposite'back'sidethe only survivingdecoration,at the lower lctt encl,is


a smallportionof the legsof a standingmalefigurefacingleft andof two columns
of inscriptionsin front of him. The signsread:I) ... hrjJ.tbtjmjt-r) ...2) ... m ...
l ) . . . t h e l e c t o rp r i e s t t, h e o v e r s e e.r. . 2 ) . . . n 1. . .

The End

A standingfigure of the owner is depictedfacing left and weziringa shoulder-


length,curledwig whichdoesnot coverhis ear,l33 a beard,a collar,bracelets
anda
projecting,pleatedkilt. He holds a staff and a sceptreand is accompaniedby one
horizontal(l) and two vertical(2-3) linesof hieroglyphsthat read:(l) jmtfuu.tfur
Inpw jm{bw} (3)br nlr <tHhj rn.f nfr ll1[j]
tpj dru.flhj @ j*j-, pr-in<furj-ftbt
'(l)
The honouredone beforeAnubis,who is on his hill, lhi. (2) The overseerof
the departmentof stores,the lector priest,the honouredone (3) before the great
god, Hehi, his beautifulname,Ihi'.

il FALSE DOORS

The streetbetweenNit-m-pt anclSpsj-ptu-Ptllis iully occupiedby shafts


presumablydating betweenthe late Old Kingdom and First IntermediatePeriod.
Theseare characterised by small mouthsand are arrangedin an orderly fashionto
maximiseuse of the limited space. A numberof small lalse doorsand offering
tableswere foundin the loosedebrisfilling this streetandthe areaabovethe chapel
of Ndt-m-pt to a height of 3.0m. It seemslikely that sr"rch inscribedobjects
originally belongedto theseshaftsand were moved,perhapsat the tirne that this
cemeterywas first robbed. The areato the eastof Njt-m-pt has not yet been
completelycleared.The intrusiveburials(to be published)were all laterthanthese
objects,evenif sometimes they weredug to a lower dcpth.

TNE94:FDI. Pls.24.57.
The upper part of the false door of Nw-hjj-futot-knuwas fbund near the SW
cornerof NQt-m-pf'smastabaat a heightapproximately2.50m.abovefloor level.
Of the type with torusmouldingandcavettocornice,it is decoratedin incisedrelief
of goodstyle. W 44.5cm.(W cornice47.0cm.)presentmax.H 38.0cm.

1 3 3 T h i c t y p c b e c a m ep a r t i c u l a r l yl i e q u e n td u r i n g t h e r e i g n so f P e p y l - P c p y I I ( C h e r p i o n .
M astabaset hypogdes, 57-58).

55
OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS

The Upper Linrel: (l) dj


(3) Spsj nsrot smr pr 4t! ryxutl.ttpdj lnpru
'( r)
prt-furw.ftt+(\ m jtntfuzul3r nlr <t
Nzu-hjj-hws-fu7p135 An off-eringwhich the kiig gives
and an offeringwhich Anubisgives. May his invocationofieringcomefortf,
Dl o.
an honouredone beforethe greatgod, (3) the noblemanof the king, the companion
of the house,l36\s-[i-ilewet-kau'. To the left is a standingfigure of the o*n"r.
holdingthe staff andthe sceptre.

The CentralPanel: Only the Llppersectionis preserved, wherea title and the name
of the owner read:... snrr pr Nu-l.tjj-hrut-knu'...,the companionof the house,
Nu-hi-hewet-kau'.

Date: Dynasty6.

TNE94:FD2. Pls.24, 57.


Found in the debrisapproximately2.00m.abovethe centralpart of Ndt-m-pt,s
mastaba,the falsedoor of Hjj is almostcomplete,exceptfor the cavettocornice
which is partly brokenabovethe torusmoulding. It is decoratedin incised,and
now weathercd, reliefof poor style. W 3l.Ocm. presentH 45.0cm.

TheUpperLintcl: lltp dj nsut dj lnpzutpj fdru.fprt-furw n] jmtbwHjjt3i e)


jmtlu furnb.f...Hjj\t 1
'(l) An offering
whichrhekinggivesanclAnubis,
w'hois on
[his hill] gives. [May an invocationofferingcomeforth fbr] the honouredone, Hi,
(2) the honouredone beforehis lord ...,Hi'.

The CcntralPanel: The ownersitsat an offeringtableandholdsa perfumejar close


to his nose. He is describedasjmj-r pr Hjj 'Theoverseerof the house,Hi'.

The Right outer Jamb: jnufuu lr lnpw lntj zh-nfr jntj-r pr Hjj 'The honoured
one beforeAnubis,foremostof the divinebooth,the overseerofthe house,Hi'.

The Left OuterJamb: 'fn"


1nufirufur [Ptl.t?]smr wctj Mnzu-jnw(?)tta4y.7te Hjj
honouredonc before[Ptah?]the solecompanion,Min-inu(?),his df, Hi'.

The Lower Lintel: lmt.f [m]rtt.fl Wdrt... n 'His wife, his beloved,Wedjat... n'.

The Right Inner Jamb: jmil3w fur nlr ,t Hjj 'The honouredone before the great
god, Hi'.

I 34 p,l. the lbrm sccLapp, Oplefinrnret.g162.


Ttrt-furut
1 3 5 T h i c n a t n ci s u n a t { c s t cidn R a n k c ,P e r s o n e n n t t n e rbru, t r a t h c r
a s i r n i l a rn a m c ,N z u h - k t t ur s
lbuncionce in thc tomb of Ptl.tlltp (D62) at Siiclqara(ibid l. 182:29:Maricrrc,Mnstubtts.
3 - 5 2 ) ,d a t c c lt o t h c r c i g n o f D j c d k a r e( B a c r . R a n k c u r t l T i t l e , 7 4 - j 5 l l 6 0 l : S t r u d w i c k ,
Atlntin i.st rutir.rn,t37-t38 [49]).
136 p1t.1.t..hasobscrvccl thatthe lasttwo titlcsareusuallycornbined(Denclertt,98-99).
I 3 7 R a n k e ,P e r s o n e n n u n t el .n2 3 3 : 1 6 .
1 3 8 1 6 i . 1l,- 5l : 1 6 ; v o l . 2 , 3 6 0 . I f ' t h i s r e a c l i n g i s c o r r ctchre n b . fo f H j j
isMrnu-jnru,rheowner
ol' a tonrb recentlycliscoveredin thc samc areawhich datcsrnostprobably tit thc reign of
Pcpy I (kr be publishcdshortly).
139 pn, tl.tctcrnr
L/f see Mcnu-Harari,CRIPEL 2 |()741. l42fl.; Perepclkin,Prit,ctteigerttunt,
nassim.

56
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

The Left InnerJamb: jnrhzu furnb.f Hjj 'Thehonourecl


one befbrehis lord. Hi .
Date: Dynasty6

TNE94:FD3. Pls.25, 57.


Found in the debris,.ofNit-nt-pt's tomb near TNE94:FD2,
thecompletefalse
door of Mr.srnb is of the type with torusmoulclingancl
cavetto corniceand has a
T-shapedpanel' Decoratedin incisedrelief with "minimum
details,the owner is
shownseatedat an offeringtableon the pane^l and is depictedstandingand holdrng
a lotus flower to her nose at the bottom of each of-t'he
four 1ambs. w at base
30.0cm. W aftop 3l.Ocm. H -52.0cm.

The UpperLintel and Lefi outer Jamb: The inscriptions


on the former (l) continue
on thelatter(2). (1) di nsw.t crw j (2) n jnur3iui
\!l
Mr.s-'nbt+0 '(l) An offering ,lnyru.tpj Ttrt-r3rzu r3rntr,t
which the king giutJ aniAnubis, who is on his hill
(gives). IVIayan invocationoffering comefoitf, (2) for
the honouredone beforethe
greatgod, Meres-ankh'.

TheRightOuterJamb:jnufuwt!1rpth Mr.s_<nl3'Thehonoured
one beforeptah.
Meres-ankh'.

The CentralPanel: lg t fotl.tnqtp3t futtpd kt is nntfut


fu fu ftt n Mr.s-<nh'One
thousandof bread,one thousandof beer and cake, one thousand
of tbwl. one
thousandof oxen, one thousancl
of alabasterand one thousand of clothes. fbr
Meres-ankh'.

Lower Lintel: jmtfiut Mr.s-<nfu 'Thehonouredone,Meres-ankh,.

The Inner Jambs: The szrmeinscriptionsare writtenon


both inner.jambs:bkrt
nswt Mr.s-<n! 'The royal o.nament,Meres_ankh'.

Date: PepyI, or later.

III OFFERING TABLES

The offeringtables,both completeand incomplete,areof the


type with a l.ttp_stgn
and two basins,exceptfor or3 which is a singl^e
basinwith a flat rim.
TNE94:OT1. Pls. 26, 58.
A completeoffering table inscribedlbr Tmzj/IJrtJtmt-n-brzuwas
fbund ne.r the
easternwall of NQt-m-pt'smastabaat a heightapproximaGtyz.:0,,-'.
abovefloor
l e v e lI.n s c r i p t i o n s i n c i s e d o n 1 l . e . b t T t $ g n i enasdi t:i"i (i iri)i h
i "t"p' tap1l
prt,.pyr!
dwf '(l) jyntlw.Trnrj.,o,,
n-'ftrTu An".f
! .i) iritt3wt3,ni j tifs1]'nswt
offeringwhich fhe king'giv". uno un
hri!6i u[t_h,n,_
nir..ing which Anubis,who is
on his hill, gives. May an invocationofferingcomefbrth f'oi hi-,
for the honourecl
one Tjemst. (2) The honouredonc befbrehis lord, the noblernan
of the kinc. the

1 4 0 R a n k e ,P e r s o n e n n u n r e n
l. l5U:6.
| ' 1I I b i d , 3 9 1: l o .

57
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

Eachinscriptionendswith a seatedfigure of
lectorpriest,Kheret-hema-en-kheru'.
the owner. W 29.8cm.L 43.7cm.

TNE94:OT2. Pls.26, 58.


The offeringtableof Zzjis brokenon one side. Preserved betweentwo basinsis
most of a vertical line of incised inscriptionsending with a seatedfigurc
'The honouredone before
determinative.It reads:jmtfurufurlnpzutpj dw.f Zzjl42
Anubis,who is on his hill, Sesi'.W l7.0cm. presentmax. L 22.0cm.

TNE9l:OT3. Pls.26, 58.


The right lower cornerof a singleofferingbasin retainsinscriptionsroughly
i n c i s e do n t h e f l a t r i m a r o u n dt h e e d g e . T h e y r e a d( t ) . . . z i l r j r + z Q ) l . r m t . fj . . .
' ( 1 ) . . . t h e s c r i b eI,r i . ( 2 ) h i s w i f e , t a x .W 2 l . 5 c m . L 1 6 . 0 c m .
i . . . . . P r e s e nm

TNE94:OT4. Pls.27, 58.


A small fragmentof an offeringtablehasremainsof a horizontalline of incised
'...
signswhich reads:... prt-furw Ftkt-ttt11 invocationofferings(for) Feteket-ta'.
Presentmax.W 8.5cm. L l0.0cm.

TNE9{:OT5. Pls.27, 58.


An offering table of Sbkruis damagedon threecornersbut retainsmost of its
incisedinscriptions. They read: (l) jmtlut Sbkwt45(D htp dj nszutlnpzu tpi
'(1) The honouredone,Sebeku.(2) An off-eringwhich the king givesand
dwt.fl...
. ' l 3 . 5 c m . p r e s e nm
A n u b i s ,w h o i s o n h i s h i l l ( g i v e s ) . . . ' W t a x .L l 6 . 5 c m .

TNE94:OT6. Pl. 58.


Two pieceswere found of a brokenoffering table,but the right side is missing.
Little remainsof two horizontallinesof incisedinscriptionswhich read: ( l) ... prt-
' ( 1 ) . . . i n v o c a t i o no f f e r i n g s( f o r ) . . .( 2 ) . . . t h e
ftrw ...(2) ...[jmtb]u lr Wsjr...
honouredone beforeOsiris...'. Presentmax.W 2l.0cm. L 33.0cm.

TNE94:OT7. Pls.27, 58.


The right half of an offering table inscribedin black ink only was found to the
north of the mastabaof Ndt-m-pt at a height of 2.00m. The single line of text
'An offering which the king gives and
begins: htp dj nsut lrtpw tpj dwf ...
Anubis,who is on his hill (gives)...'. W 26.3cm.presentmax' L 32.5cm.

TNE94:OT8. Pl. 58.


A completeoffering tablewas found nearthe SE cornerof Nflt-m-pf's mastabaat
a heightof approximately3.00m.abovefloor level. Crudelyincisedfor an official
no-"d Hzjj ihe inscriptionsread: ( t) htp dj nsrot Wsjr prt-furron ipsj nsut jmil3w
'(l) An offeringwhich the king gives and Osiris (gives).
Hzjjr+6 (2) jmtfuw...
May an invocationoffering come forth for the noblemanof the king, the honoured
one.Hesi. (2) The honouredone ...'. W 32.0cm.L 36'0cm.

l a 2 1 6 i , 12, 9 i : 2 2 .
l a 3 1 5 ; , 14,1' 1.
l a a 1 6 i , 11, 4 j . 1 .
1 , 1 5t b i d , 3 0 6 : 3 .
I a6 15;,1.254:29.
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

IV FRAGMENTS

A greatnumberof fragmentsfbund nearto eachother in the fill and debrisabove


the centralpart of Nflt-ttt-pt's tomb were formed of a hard, slate-colouredrock and
had inciseddecorationof a similarstyleand size. Two (TNE94:F21,F43) bearthe
name lpj,to, and it is believedthat the majority belong to the samemonument.
Their registrationnumbersarenot in consecutive orderand to facilitatestudythey
have been groupedat the beginningof the following descriptionsand their
photographsand line drawingsappeartogetheron the sameplates.
( T N E 9 4 : F 4 I, l , 1 3 - 1 4 ,1 6 - 2 1 , 2 6 - 2 73, 0 - 3 1 ,3 7 - 3 8 ,4 3 , 4 5 , 5 2 , 6 4 , 6 ' / - 6 9 , 7 6 ,
89 Pls. 28-30, 59)

TNE94:F4. Pls.28, 59.


Partsof rows of an incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinativesfacing
left. Blue-greybackground.W 14.lcm. H l2.5cm. (oins F52 and belongswith
F l 7 , F 2 0 ,F 8 9 )

TNE94:F11. Pls.29, 59.


Lower left portionof falsedoor with torusmoulding;legsand feetof male figure
facingright at bottomof jamb;no colour. W l6.7cm. H l2.5cm.

TNE9{:F13-14. Pl. 59.


Two fragmentsfitting togethershow an off-eringtablewith food itemspiled above
and a'ewer and basin,jar, and tray with fruit below. Above the scenepartially
preservedsigns read ... tbtl t fu hnqt fu k:... , and to the right a column of
inscriptionretainsthe signs dj, jandp (htpl dj [nswt] lnpw?). Loaves,base
undertable stand,jars and meatred; someyellow at top of offerings(vegetable?);
tracesof blue-green in signs.W 19.0cm.H22.5cm.

TNE94:F16. PI. 59.


Incisedsigns,includingt andd, retainingno colouron red ground. W 9.lcm.
H 4.6cm.

TNE94:F17. PIs.28, 59.


Partof rows of offeringlist with incisedsignsand kneelingfiguredeterminatives
facingright to left of verticalbandedfrieze. Groundblue-grey;bandedfriezewith
blocksof green-red-blue-green, etc. W l4.0cm. H l3.7cm. (oins F20)

TNE94:F18. PIs.29, 59.


Remainsof incisedsignsreading...lnpu tpj dru.f...on blue-greyground,with
'/.6cm.
somered discolouration.W 8.0cm.H

T N E 9 l : F 1 9 .P 1 . 5 9 .
Remains of incised signs readingjmfuwt Qhwtj ... on blue-grey ground.
W 10.2cm.H I .2cm. (similarin styleto F I 8)

ta7 6i6.22.15.

59
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F20. PL,E. 28, 59.


Part of rows of incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinatives
and
verticalbandedfriezeon right. Blue-greyground;friezewith tracesof greenand
r e d . W l 2 . l c m . H . 1 2 . 3 c m .( o i n s F 1 7 a n dF 8 9 )

TNE94:F21. Pls.29, 59.


Fragment incised with jmt'ftzu and t h e n a m eI p j , o n blue-grey gror"rnd.
W 1 7 . 1 c r nH
. 7.5cm.

TNE94:F26. Pls.29, 59.


Lower portion of offering table scenewith baseof stand,lower part of legs of
seatedfigure and leg of chair. Greyish background,legs red. W l6.0cm.
H l3.6cm. (oins withF27)

TNE94:F27. Pls.29, 59.


Torso and arms of male figure seatedon a chair. Skin red. W l5.4cm.
H l5.0cm. (oins F26)

TNE94:F30. PL. 59.


Partsof largeincisedsignsd-t-tt-rt; no colour. W 8.0cm.H 7.8cm.

TNE94:F31. Pls.30. 59.


Partof right handcolumnof incisedinscription;no colour.W 8.3cm.x l6.5crn.
(face);W 16.5crn. x H 23.0cm.(whole).

TNE94:F37and15. Pl.. 59.


Two fragmentsfrom the upperrightjamb of a falsedoor with bandedfrieze,torus
moulding. The singlesign preserved,an incised^rw,is the beginningof thehtp dj
/1s?rfformula. Backgroundblue-grey,torus moulding and frame red, frieze
bandedin orange-red,blue and dark red. W 23.0cm. H 32.5cni.

TNE94:F38. Pls.30. 59.


Partsof two male standingfiguresfacingleft eachcarryinga staff in right hand,
the first wearinga long pointedkilt, collar and shortcap wig, the second(less
complete)wears a short pointed kilt. Probablylrom right jambs of false door.
Blue-greybackground, skin red. W 25.0cm.H l6.8cm.

TNE9(:F43. Pls.30, 59.


End of horizontalline of incisedsignsreading... n [j]mfuu lpj; nn colour.
W l4.6cm. H l5.0cm.

TNE94:F45. SeeTNE94:31

TNE94:F52. Pls.28, 59.


Partsof registersof an incisedoffering list with kneelingfigure determinatives,
beneatha horizontalbandedfrteze. Blue-greyground. W l5.5cm. H l8.7crn.
(oins F4)

60
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE9(:F6,4. Pl. 59.


Fragmentof cornerpiecewith part of the incisedsign zuon one sideand vertical
banded fneze and cornice on other. Blue-grey background;bird, register and
column lines red, frtezeblocksretainred and yellow, frameorange-red,corniceleaf
green. Right sideW l0.7cm. H I l.5cm.,left W 4.0cm. H l-5.9cm.

TNE94:F67. PIs. 30, 59.


IncisedwStt eye aboveline of inscription(sign7 ?). Paleblue-greenon blue-grey
g r o u n d .W l 0 . 7 c m . H 1 8 . 2 c m .

TNE94:F68. PIs.30, 59.


Incisedinscriptionjmdbwl below the itemst hnqt b ryd. Blue-greyground,blue
i n s i g n s .W 1 1 . 5 c m .H l 3 . 0 c m .

TNE94:F69. Pl. 59.


Cornerof falsedoor cornicewith red and blue leaves,sign for di with tracesof
blue. W 20.0cm.H 11.0cm.(mayfit with F68)

TNE94:F76. Pl" 59.


Cornerpiecewith bandedfriezeon one sideand tracesof signson the other;no
colour. Right sideW 7.3cm. H 13.0cm.,left W 6.6cm. H l3.0cm.

TNE94:F89. Pl. 59.


and vertical
Fragmentof incisedcffering list with kneelingfiguredeterminatives
bandedfrieze. Blue-greyground,tracesof greenin signs,greenand red remaining
on friezeblocks. W 8.0cm. H 8.5cm. (oins F20)

T N E 9 4 : F 1 . P l s .3 1 , 6 0 .
Partsof piled offeringsconsistingof vegetables, fowl and a calf s headon a tray
betweentwo stands,that on the left retainingtracesof red. W l7cm. H l6cm.

TNE94:F2. Pls. 31,60.


Upperpart of two columnsof hieroglyphs,the first with the frameof a cartouche
and the secondreadingmrwtth a correction/reversal of the first sign. In front of
the inscription is preservedthe raisedarm of a female offering bearerholding,
possibly on the head,a basketand a duck. Backgrounddark grey; arm yellow,
tracesof blue on braceletand beak of bird, tracesof red on basket,orange-red
groundto eye. Cartoucheframeblue with tracesof illegibleblue hieroglyphson
r e d g r o u n d .W 2 4 . l c m . H 1 4 . 5 c m .

TNE94:F5. P1.60.
Lower legs and feet of a man facing lefi; fragmentsof horizontalline of
hieroglyphicsigns remain at top o f r e s i s t e rb c n e a t h . S k i n r e d . W 2 l . 7 c m .
H l0.0cm.

TNE9(:F6.P\.60.
of signs;nocolour.W l6.5cm.H 7.8cm.
Partof threecolumns

6l
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

T N E 9 4 : F 8 . P l s . 3 1 ,6 0 .
Partially preservedcartoucheof Neferkarein column of signsl no colour.
W 9.0cm.H 8.8cm.

TNE94:F22. P\.60.
Head and shouldersof man with shortcurly wig facing left, with bundlesof
foldedlinenon shoulders;
no colour. W l6.0cm. H 6.8cm.

TNE9l:F23. P|.60.
Remainsof signsin horizontalinscriptionabovehornsof two goatsfacing right.
Dark grey ground,dark yellow on signsfor slt and i. W 8.5cm. H 7.6cm.

TNE94:F25. P\.60.
Cornerpiecewith vefticalbandedfnezealongone edge,with sign to left, and on
7
othersideremainsof largerincisedsignsin verticalcolumn,includingr and,sw; no
c o l o u r . R i g h r s i d e w 9 . 0 c m . H . 2 8 . 7 c m . ,l e f t w g . 6 c m . H 2 g . 0 c m . T h i s
fragmentis possiblyfrom the left sideof the falsedoor niche of Kt(.il'pr(w).

TNE94:F32. P\.60.
Partof largeszusign,very deeplyincised;no colour. w 4l.Ocm. H 9.gcm. The
size and depthof the inscriptionresemblesthat on the faqadesof the mastabasof
Mrrw-kt.j andKs-gm-n.j.

TNE94:F33. P\.60.
Remainsof two standingfiguresfacingleft: of the first only left arm remains;the
secondcarriesobjectsover crook of eacharm and holds anotherin left hancl;no
c o l o u r .W 2 9 . 0 c m . H 6 . 5 c m .

TNE94:F34. Pl 60.
Fragmentwith piled offeringsand incisedoffering list to the right; no colour.
W 2 0 . 0 c m .H l 9 . 5 c m .

TNE94:F35. P\.60.
Remainsof two columnsof incisedinscriptionwhich retainthe signsj, s andw;
no colour. W 18.6cm.H4.2cm.

TNE94:F36. PI.60.
Remainsof threecolumnsof incisedinscriptionretainingseveralsigns;no colour.
W 27.0cm.H 6.3cm. (maybelongwith F35)

TNE94:F40. P\.60"
Remainsof horizontalregisterretainingsignsreadingm pr dt.f prt-!1ru, no
c o l o u r .W 3 2 . 5 c m . H l 0 . 0 c m .

TNE94:F41. PI. 60.


Lower legs of standingmale figure facing right and handof anotherfigure facing
left, eachhold a pestleand betweenthemis a mortar. Blue-greyground,red skin.
W l2.6cm. FI l4.6cm.
OBJECTS AND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F47. P\.60.
Lower part of legs of malefigure facingleft; beneathregisterline are remainsof
part of horizontalline of hieroglyphicinscription.Backgroundblue-grey,
the r"rpper
skin red. W 45.3cm. H 10.8cm.(maybelongwith F48 andperhapsF5)

TNE94:F48. PI 60.
Lower part of two pairs of legs of male figuresand the front part of the foot of a
third,facingleft. Blue-greyground,red skin. W 33.5cm. H 1l.0cm. (similarto
F41)

TNE94:F53. P|.60.
Incisedsign r; no colour. W 9.0cm. H 9.0cm. Possiblylrom sarcophagus
of
Kt(.j)-pr(w).

TNE94:F55. PI. 61.


Partof horizontalline of largeincisedsignsof a seateddeity followedby htp: no
colour. W 24.0cm. H 36.9cm.

TNE94:F56.P\.61
upturnedarm. Skin red,nail
Piledofferingson a tray restingon an extended,
w h i te .W 6 .4 cm.H 1l .5 cm.

TNE9{:F57. P\.61.
Fragmentwith partof smallofferingtablewith containers below on eithersideof
stand;directly abovethe tableis a trorizontalline of incisedinscriptionsretaining
shd ... pr-<t;at top probablyanotherhorizontalline of largersignsbut only the stand
of Anubisis preserved.Loavesyellow. W 4.4cm. H 15.5cm.

TNE94:F59.Pl.61.
Corner fragment with vertical incised inscriptionnb.f and perhapsfalcon
determinativeon one side. Tracesof light blue-greenin signs. W l6.2cm.
H 9.7crn.

TNE94:F60.P\.61.
Partsof threecolumnsof inscriptionsincluding 1)j-p-n 2) part of a bird 3) part
of n; no colour. W 9.0cm. H 8.5cm.

TNE94:F62.PI. 61.
Fragment sceneof birdseatinggrain;no colour.W l2.3cm.
froma (fowling?)
H 5.7cm.(probably
frorr sameasF63)

TNE94:F63. Pl. 6l
Fragment with bird and grain; no colour. W 2.6cm. H. 9.0cm. (probably
belongswith F62)

TNEq4:F66. Pl. 61.


Fragmentwith hand holding oval object,possiblyfrom sccneof'picking fruit.
Tracesof red on hand. W 5 . 5 c m .H 9 . 4 c m .

63
[-

OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F72.PL.6l.
Lower partof a pair of legswalkingright;in registerbelow remainsof largesigns
i n c l u d er ; n o c o l o u r .W 5 . 6 c m .H 2 l . O c m .

TNE94:F75.PI.6l.
Torso and armsof male figurewearinga kilt, facing leti. Tracesof red on skin.
W l 3 . 6 c m .H l l . 2 c m .

TNE94:F77.P\.61.
Partof horizontalregisterwith incisedn1r sign and seatedgod determinative;no
c o l o u r . W 1 0 . 8 c m .H l 5 . 0 c m .

TNE9l:F81. PI. 61.


Part of an inscriptionincludingf, bird (probablyt) and a cartouchewith sign f ,
probablyof Teti; no colour. W 6.4cm. H 7.0cm.

TNEgl:F86. P1.61.
Partsof two columnswith incisedsigns 1) b, tp (possibly hrj-hbt l.trj-tp) 21
m?, t andz5; no colour. W l5.5cm. H 8.4cm.

T N E 9 4 : F 8 8 .P l s . 3 1 .6 1 .
Panther's head;no colour. W -5.5cm.H 8.7cm.

TNE9l:F9l . Fl. 6l .
Partof columnwith signsreadingjmtfuru; traccsof relief decorationon right; no
c o l o u r . W 1 l . O c m .H 2 0 . 0 c m .

TNE94:F91. Pl. 61.


Part of two columnsof inscriptions,one with lzfp signsand the other with legs
and lowerbody of quailchick;no colour. W 29.0cm.H I l.2cm.

TNE94:F95. Pl. 6l .
Fish;no colour. W I l.2cm. H 6.5cm.

TNE94:F96. Pl. 6 I .
Top part of a pile of offeringsincluding lettuce,ribs and a iar; no colour.
W 2 5 . 4 c m .H 1 8 . 0 c m .

TNE94:F97. PI. 6l
Leg of a stridingmale figurewearinga kilt, holdingan objectin the lefi hand.
Leg paintedred,blackregisterline with red beneath.W 7.9cm. H l6.5cm.

TNE94:F98.P\.61.
Remainsof one column of incisedsignss(mr) ru,ti ; on red ground. W l2.0cm.
H 2l.5cm.

TNE94:F107. PIs.3I-32, 62.


Fragmentsof falsedoor found in fill of a shaftabuttingthe southwall of NQt-m-
pf's mastaba.Incisedsignsblue,baseandcolumnlinesblack,toruslashingblack,
corniceleaveswhite.red.blue.outlinedin black.
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

a) horizontalline of signsreadingjmt'fint.W 20.2cm. H 12.2cm.


b) tblr tPlth tblr abovecavettocornice. W 17.7cm.H 9.9cm.
c) / abovecavettocornice. W 9.6cm. H 8.0cm.
d) three loavesfrom an of fbring table and the items ..!t tpd l,1tt hnqt. W 8 . 9 c m .
H l0.3cm.
e) smr. W 6.4cm.H 6.3cm.
f) partsof 3 registersof signs l7 m jmllTltl 2) nt Zkr 3) n - b7 - j. W l 7 . 0 c m .
H 10.5cm.
g) Anubison stand.W 6.9cm. H 4.6cm.
h) torusmoulding. W 8.2cm. H l6.7cm.
i) horizontalline retainingsign r, abovecavetto.W l7.0cn"r.H 8.8cm.
j) rL,- t? beneathblackregisterline. W l3.7cm. H 5.0cm.
k) d beneathblackregisterline. W 10.8cm.H 6.3cm.
l) part of (sntr) ru,tj andjmj-(r). W 8.5crn. H 3.Scm.

TNE94:F108. Pls.32, 62.


Head and shouldersof malc figurc facingright fbllowedby another,only the face
remaining,who carriesa small gazelle. Red on face,black on hair. W l 3 . 0 c m .
H l6.2cm. (found southof Nflt-nt-pt)

TNE94:F111. Pl. 62.


Middle part of the bodiesof two male figureswearingplain kilts; no c o l o u r .
W 7.lcm. H 8.3cm.

TNE94:F113. Pl. 62.


Parts of line of incised signsnjutt - nb - fr; pale pink in signs. W 8.6cm.
H 8.0cm.

TNE94:F115. Pl,s.32, 62.


Parts of four horizontal lines of incised sisns. Some traces of vellow.
W 3 3 . 5 c m .H 3 7 . 3 c m .

T N E 9 4 : 1 8 - I 1 9 . P l s . 3 3 ,6 3 .
Two large limestoneblockswhich fit one abovethe otherwere found neareach
other at the southernend of Nf,t-nt-pf'smastabaat a heightof 2.30m.abovefloor
level. Decoratedon two sideswith incisedhieroglyphs,thereis at presentno trace
of colour on eitherpiece. Thesecornerelementsprobablyfbrmedpart of one side
of a falsedoor niche.l48A singlecolumnof hieroglyphson the thicknessreads:
'The sole companion,the lector priest,
smr wctj hrj-hbt jnufuw Ttj-ht-jit.f +v the
honouredone, Teti-ha-ishetef. Beneath the column is a standingfigure of the
ownerwho wearsa shoulder-length wig, a beardand a pointedkilt. The inscription
on the jamb is damaged,but may be amendedas [jj.tt.j m njru]t(.j) flt]t.n(.j) [nt]
'I came from my town
sptt(.j) jr,n(.j) [mt]rt mrrt ntr s[htp].n[.j sw] ... rrj and
descended from my province. I carriedout justice which the god loves. I satisfied
him ... rri'. W at baseof thickness 48.0cm.of jarnb9.9cm. W at top of thickness
33.5cm.of jamb 7.8cm. H at corner108.4cm.

148 5"" El-Khouli - Kanawati,Sctqclara 2, pls.20-21, lbr conrparison.


1 4 9 R a n k e ,P e r s o n e n n a n r e n 2 , 3 3 0 : 1 T
6h. c n a m ei s a t t e s t c dc l s c w h c r ci n t h c c c r n c t c r y( e . g
Porter- Moss, Blbllography3:2, -548,563).

65
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE94:F123. Pl. 64.


The right end of a door lintel with a singleline of hieroglyphswith somedetails
was found SW of NQt-m-pt'smastabaat a heightof 1.50m. The inscriptionsread:
l.trj5 n mrt-Ttj zi n zt pr-9 ...'He who is in chargeof the lake of the Meret-temple
of Teti, the scribeof the phyleof thepalace...'. W'71.0cm.H 11.0cm.

TNE95:F128. PIs.34, 61.


(F2.11,F2.12) Two decoratedblockswhich fit together,retainingIower partsof
four offering bearersproceedingto right, each wearing a plain short kilt and
carryinga foreleg. Red paintremainson skin. W 68.0cm.H l9.5cm.

TNE95:F129. Pls. 34, 64.


(C4.2, C5.4) Two fragmentswhich fit togetherof falsedoor with verticaltorus
moulding and the remainson the left outerjamb of one column of incisedsigns
which read ... kt.f thrl wrut dsr(w)t ...' ... his ka on the sacredroads...'. Some
red colour on torus. W 15.0cm.H25.2cm.

TNE95:F130.P\.64.
( C 4 . 1 ) R e m a i n so f t h r e el i n e so f i n c i s e ds i g n s :l ) . . . q r s . f. . . 2 ) . . . n h r c un b . . .
3 ) . . . m j * ( ? ) . f . . . . W 2 0 . 0 c m . H 2 5 . 0 c m . ( T N E 9 5 : F 1 3 0 - 1 3133, - 5p o s s i b l y
belonsto the sameobiect)

TNE95:F131. P\.64.
a\
(F4.4) Parisof two registers signs: 1)
with incised,weathered
W t g. . . . W l l . 5 c m . H l 9 . 0 c m .

TNE95:F132.P1 64.
r i t h i n c i s e ds i g n s. . .p n . . . . . W l 0 . 3 c r n .H 8 . 2 c m .
( E 3 . 1 ) P a r to f r e g i s t ew

TNE95:F133. Pl. 64.


s i t h i n c i s e ds i g n s :l l . . . 2 ) . . . f u rs m j t . . . 3 ) . . . w
( E 3 . 4 ) P a r t so f t h r e er e g i s t e rw
m r . . .. W 9 . 0 c m . H 2 3 . 0 c m .

TNE95:F135. Pl. 61.


(F2.10) Partsof threeregisterswith incisedsigns:l) ...jmthzu(?)br ...2) ...m
h t p b r . . . 3 ) . . . r . . . . W 1 7 . 0 c m .H 1 6 . 0 c m .

TNE95:F136. PIs.34, 64.


(F3.2) Scenein marshwith front part of papyrllsboat,weedbeneath,and two
unclothedmalefigureswith lock of youth standingon the deckboth holdinga bird
by the wings in each of their hands. In front of them, and behind the boat, is
probablythe papyrusmarsh,with one droopingumbel and part of a bird in flight.
N o c o l o u r . W 3 1 . 0 c m .H 2 4 . 5 c m .

TNE95:F137.P\.61.
(E4.13) Thick block of limestonewith partsof two verticalcolumnsof clearly
i n c i s e ds i s n s1 ) . . . n t n . . . 2 ) m m i t t r . . . . N o c o l o u r . W l 6 . 5 c m . H 1 l . 4 c m .

oo
OBJECTSAND FRAGMENTS

TNE95:F138. PL.64.
(84.45) Fragmentwith torsoof offeringbearerfacing right with right arm at side
and left holding young calf(?). Backgroundblue-grey,skin red. W 10.0cm. H
8.4cm.

TNE95:F139. P|.64.
(H2.5) Offerings,with jar which retainsred paint on lower half andblack at top.
W 16.0cm. H zl.J cm.

TNE95:F140. P\.64.
(F4.46)) Piled offerings,jar at left with red on lower part and black on top, ribs
red, loavesyellow, onionsstemswhite/nocolour and bulbs red with red outline.
W 2l.0cm. H9.lcm.

TNE95:F141. Pls. 34, 64.


(Fl.8) Thick limestoneblock with kilt and foot of incisedmale figure facing right
and wearing a calf-lengthpointedkilt and holding a staff. The end of a column of
inscriptionin front of the figure retainsa few signs,possiblythe namelrui.tso *o
colour. W 18.2cm.H 21.0cm.

TNE95:F142. PL.64.
(F2.I1) Part of large incised signs in two columns; no colour. W 13.0cm.
H 7.5cm.

I 50 punL", Personennamen
l, 391'.1.

61
APPENDIX

THE MASTABA OF GEREF/ITJI

A shortseasonof excavations was conducteddLrringApril-May 19911 with the


pulposeof completingwork in our earlierconcession to the northof the mastabaof
Mrrztt-kt.jt5l beforethe start of the presentproject. The excavationsrcvealecla
continuousmud brick wall built immediatelyon the nativerock andextendingeast-
west at the northernend of the site. If thc samewall is found to be extending
furthereast,underthe cumentexcavations, it would indiciitesomekind of enclosure
wall partly or completelysurroundingthe cemetery.The two largestonejambs ('l)
still standingto the southof the'rue de tombeaux'rnighthaveoriginallyfbrmeclan
entranceto the cemeteryand not simply to this streetof tombs.

Clearingthe north-eastern sectionof the concessionl52 revealedalso a part of a


mud brick rectangularoffering chamberwith an inscribedlimestonefalse door
which had fallen to the ground. As thc greaterpart of thc mastabalies outsideour
concession,l53i, was not possibleto completeits clearanceand to produce
architecturalplans. The falsedoorof Grf/ltjis pLrblishedherewith someadditional
informationon his family gainedfrom a photographof an architravefound in the
nearvicinity,l-54
andbeiongingto a man with identicalnamesandtitlesto the owner
of the falsedoor.

THE TOMB OWNER AND HIS FAMILY

The Tomb Owner

NAI',TES

I
Grftss 'Geref'.
Itirso'Itji'.

l - 5I F o r a r c p o r t o n t h c r c s u l t s o ft h e s c c x c a v a t i o n s s c c K a n a w a t i c r , ' t l . S c t cl ;lE q lo- rKah o u l i -


Kanawati,Sctclqara2.
1 5 2 I b i d .n t . t .
l-53 16" aiea to the eastol'this conccssionand to ths westof thc currcntpro1ect,i.e. irnntcdiately
to the north of thc mastabaol-Kt-gnr-n/,was cxcavatedby M. Abder-Raziqof the Egyptran
A n t i q u i t i e s O r g a n i s a t i o nw
, h o h a s n o w r c s u n r e chl i s w o r k u n d e r t h e i i u s p i c e so l ' t h e
Universityof the SuezCanal.
1 5 4 C o u r t e s yo f M r . H a s a b a l l ac l - T a y c b ,p h o t o g r a p h car t S a q q a r a .T h c i n s c r i p t i o n si n s e v c n
horizontallines,arc sirnilarto thoscon the architravcof Ml.tj (El-Khouli- Kanawati,Saqqora
2 , p l . 6 ) , w h i l c t h e a r r a n g c m c not f t h e f ' a r n i l yg r o u p t o t h e l c l ' t i s s i r n i l a rt o t h a t o n t h e
architraveof /rl (ibid, pl. 3). Thc thrcctornbsare wilhin closeproximity of eachothcr.
155 ths namcis unattcstcd in Ranke.Personenntmren.
1 5 6 1 6 1 611. 5 2 : 2 9 .

69
GEREF/ITJI

TITLES

l - jryj jcru;r nb nsrutdjdjrupt qrnnuf; 'overseerof all the king's breakfast,and


.r
of that which heavengivesandearthproduces'.
a j*j-, pftruu'overseer
of the marshlands'.
3 - j*j-, lnot-jhrut'overseerof the 6n11ls ss1n1s'.1-57
sfutjhtp(t) 'ovelseerof the two fields of offerings'.15t3
^ j*jn
+-
j*j-, sqbbzuj pr-<i'overseerof the two cool chamb"ruof the palace'.r5e
6 - jmj-r in t: nb 'overseer of all vegelnlisn'.160
t- jmj-r s/ 'overseerof a department'.
8 - jrj ,tf, htt'keeperof the headdress'.
9- hm-nlr 1d-swt-Ttj 'priestof the pyraniid"one steadfast of placesis Teti"'.
t0- hrj-sitt n nswt m st.fnb(t)'privyto the secretsof thekineln his evervDlace'.
1 1 -smr ructj'solecompanion'.
t2- smr pr'companionof the house'.
t3- ipsj nszut'noblemanof the king'.l6t

Gr/s titles seemconsistentwith his responsibilities


in attendingat the king in the
morning. He was responsiblefor the bathroomsin the palice, for th6 royal
headdress, for the king's breakfastand as suchwas in chargeof certainsources-
the marshlands,the fields of offerings,the vegetationanclof all that heavengives
and earthproduces.

The Wife of Geref

NAM ES

I- :i,i."^fl^,i'.,",Wnt-nfrrI62'yrran.t-nefert,.
2- t:,-r-il:: Wntwt63'Wentu'.This nameis describedas rn.s nfr,her beautiful
name'. The wif-eis depictcdon the architrave,equal in size to her husband,
with one handon his shoulderand the otherholdinehis arm. Sheis described
as ltmt.f 'his wife'.

TITLES

1
t- rfut nxttt'acquaintance
of the king'.
a
L- hnt(t)-ntr Hrut-hr'priestess
of Hathor'.

r) / Fischer,'Lp.22-23,no. -5. Sotneexamplcs


oflnut Tflzrfseernto rcf'erto the capitalof Nornc
3 o f L o w e r E g y p t ( H e l c k , G o u e , I - 5 3 - - 5 - 5 ; Z i bSci e l i du lsu, n g e n , 1 4 9 - - 5 l ; L I o y a
cle
. ,tS a q q t ) 1 r
T o n r b s2 , 2 4 n . 3 \ .
l 5 i i p o r t h i s r c a c l i n gs c c K a n a w r ie L a l . ,s a q q c r r r r
l , l - 5 .r 9 n . l l ; F i s c h c r ',1 p , 2 3 ,n o . g . L l o y d e t
'ovcrseer
al., translateas of the ol'fcringol-thc two Sckhets',and see thc S/3f as the 'Fcn-
g o d d c s sa' n d t h c d u a l n u m h e rr c p r e s e n t i nag c l i v i s i o ni n t o w e s t a n c le a s to l ' t h e D c l t a . t h e
rnarshcsin eachbcing undcrthe protcctionof a s/3f(saqqira'fombs 2,24 n.4).
t " . t h c r c a d i n go { ' t h i st i t l c s c ci b i c l ,7 , p l . 9 , w h e r c . s q b b w . j iws r i u e np h o n c t i c a l l y .
]1]6l 0
H e l c k ,B e a m t e n t i t e ! , 6 6F;i s c h e rD, e n c l e r a|,j 2 , 2 3 4 ; i c l c m /, p , 2 3 , n o . 6 . T h e t i t l e i s a l s o
transfatedas 'oversecrof all hair of thc carth'(Lloyd ct al.,Sctqqara Tombs2,7).
l6l 16" title is usuallycombinedwith that tol'sfiff;rr (Fischer,
Denclera.gg-99).
162 6n1t the ntasculinelbrm cl1'(hcnamcis attestccl in Ranke,Per.sonennturten l.'/():19.
I 6 3 t b i a .8 0 :t 2 .

10
GEREF/ITJI

The Son of Geref


'V-, '5s1.ji-rnkh'.
i Stj-rnbl64 Describedas zt.f 'his son', a small figure is
depictedon the architravebeforeGrf andholdingon to his staff.

The Mother of Geref

NAMES

t - -:1.r :,,i,i) T Et-db165'Jjn1-6Js['.


'\,'[s1st-ites'.
\ ", ,'.-- filii,utrt-it 5|66
a
L-

3- -==-.=.iAfdtt6T'Khefdjet'.

The tomb owner is designatedon his false door as Grf njsu m J[j jr n Ttt-db
'Geref,who is called
Itji, born to Tjat-deb'. In line 6 on the architravehe is
describedas Grf njsru m Ilj jr n Mrt-jt,s'Geref, who is calledItji, born ro Merer-
ites',and aL.ovethe family groupon the samearchitravehe is Grf jr n flfdt'GeLef,
born to Khefdjet'.Therecanbe no doubtthatthe threenamesbelongedto the same
woman, but it is interestingthat he referredto his motherthreetimes,eachwith a
differentname.168

II DATING O}' GEREF

The excellentstyleof inscriptionson the architrave(unlike thoseon the falsedoor)


and their similarity to other inscriptionsin the vicinity, the shapeof the falsedoor
and particularlyits elongatedpanel,l6eandtheproximityof the tomb to otherbetter
datedmastabasin the areasuggesta dateat the end of Teti's reign or early under
Pepy I.

III SCENESAND INSCRIPTIONS

P L s .3 5 ,6 5 .

As indicatedabove,only the false door was discoveredby our expedition.


Formedof one pieceof limestone,this door is of the type with cavetlocorniceand
torus moulding. The upper lintel is uninscribed,the remaindcrof the door is
decoratedin incisedrelief with no details.The standingfiguresof the ownerat the

t61 Ibid,322:19.
165 Thc namc is unattcstcdin ibid.
r66 Ibid I, l-58:8.
161 Thc namc is unattcsted in ibid.
r68 Although Mltj,owner of a ncighbouringtornb,ref'erredto hirnselfonly asjr n fJntj 'born to
K h c n t i ' ( E l - K h o u l i- K a n a w a t iS , a q q a r a 2 , p l . 6 ) , a s n r a l l a l s ec l o o ri n h i s c h a p e l ,p o s s i b l y
bclongingto his rnothcr,showsthat shehad two namcs.fltttj andT{ (ibid. pl.9).
1 6 9 Strudwick,Administration,18. For someexantplcssccJunker,Giz.a8,l'igs. 32, 34; Jantes,
K h e n t i k a ,p l s . l 8 - 1 9 ; E l - K h o u l i- K a n a w a t iS , a t l q a r u2 , p l . l l ; A b d e r - R a z i q ,M d l a n g e s2 ,
ol. l.

7l
GEREF/TTJI

bottom of eachjamb are for the most part left unfinished,in black paint only, and so
are the lashingson the torusmoulding. All standingfiguresof Grf wear shoulder-
lengthwigs and projectingkilts. Six figureshold a staff in one handand a cloth in
the other,while two, thoseon the innerjambs,havetheir handsby their sides.

The CentralPanel: The tomb ownersitson a chair with lion'slegsand a low back.
He stretcheshis right handto an offering tablewith eight half-loavesof breadwhile
placinghis left handon his chest. Beneaththe tableon the oppositesideis a ewer
in o Uisin placedon a stancl.Above the sceneis written: Spsjnswt-imi-r.st.Grf
'The noblemanof the king, the overseerof a department,Geref. ... fu mnfutfutkt
'...,one thousandof clothes,one thousandof oxen'.

The Middle Lintel: Two horizontal(1-2) and one vertical(3) lines


'(1)
of hieroglyphs
fornlr <t(2)jmtfowfurwsjr (3)ipli nsy:t.Grf
read:( t) jrnfuzu The.honoured
one befoie thi greatgod, (2) the honouredone beforeOsiris,(3) the noblemanof
the king, Geref. To the left is a seatedfigure of the tomb owner holding a staff.
'The noblemanof the king, Geref . To the lefl is
The Lower Lintel: Spsjnsrut Grf
a similar figure to that on the middle lintel.

The Right Outer Jamb: (I) smr wctj ipsj nswt mrrw !?.f hri-sitt.n .nswt m st'f
nb(t) ir(w).f hrr r-nbtll ipsj nswt Grf (2) i*i-, sqbbwi pr-<t jmi-r i'zu.-r nb
nswt djdjzupt qmtw tt jmi-r sfutjlltp(t) Iti']).The solecompanion,the nobleman
of the't<ing,'Ueioved oi his lord, he who is privy to the secretsof the king in his
every plac-e,whom he loves,one who satisfieseveryperson,the noblemanof the
king, Geref, (2) the overseerof the two cool chambersof the palace,the overseerof
all ihe king's breakfast,and of that which heavengives and earth produces,the
overseerof the two fields of offerings,Itji'.

The Left Outer Jamb: Two horizontal(1-2) and two vertical (3-4) lines of
hieroglyphs read:(r) imtfujjpw (2)rm! nbdd't|.f O t l.tnqtry;!tl nswt.Grfnjsw
m ltili i Ttt-dbrn.f itfr lij tq jnkjs (i sic.)imtfuwmj wnt d1tir tp tt ink wryntir
tttii sttj,r* crf 'ti) An honoured one he is (2) anymanwhowill say:(3)bread
und b"". for th6 noblemanof the king, Geref,who is calledItji, born to Tjat-deb,
his beautifulname,Itji. (4) I was indeedan honouredone, as that which was said
upon earth. I was indeed one who achievedgraciousness and who attained
honours,Geref .

The Right Middle Jamb: jmj-r plwru imi-r l1wt-il1wtjmj+ st ltj,'The overseerof
the overseerof the cattieestate,the overseerof a department,Itji'.
the manshlands,
'The
The Left Middle Jamb: i*i-, st Spsjnsut smr pr smr wctj jri nfr htt.Grf
overseerof a department,the noblemanof the king, the companionof the house'
Geref'
the solecompanion,the keeperof the headdress,
'The^prie-stof the
The Right Inner Jamb: hm-ntr ild-swt-Ttj ipsi nswt^Grf
of placesis Teti", the noblemanof the king, Geref'
pVramid"One steadfast

1 7 0 p o 1 .' r : - \ - . 'j e d c rM u n d = iedermannsce trVb2,390:3, wherethe earliestattestcdexamples


areliom DynastY18.

12
GEREF/ITJI

The Left Inner Jamb'.smr wctj jmj-r in tt nb hrj-sitt n nsrutm st.f nbt ipsj nswt
'Tne
Itj sole companion,the overseerof all vegetation,he who is privy to the
secretsof the king in his everyplace,the noblemanof the king, Itji'.

t-)
INDEX

DEITIES Mrjj <t(El-Hagarsa) n.90


Mrw n.93
Inpw 18-21,32-33,43'41, 55-59 Mrw-kt.j(Giza)l1-12
Wsjr 18-20,33, 45-41,54,58,12 Mrrru-kt.j I l-13,21,62, 69;n.45
Pth 56-57,65 M l . r jn . l 0 l ,n . 1 5 4n, . 1 6 8
Mt<t 45 Mrt-jt.s 1l
Nf I r-r2 Mff (t-ouvre)l8
Ntr-e 19-22,33,44-49,55-51,12 I'Ij-knu-lzzjI 3; n.76,n.86
H w t l r 1l ; n . 8 Mu-L-krr n.l3-5
flntjjmntju 46 Nu -11 ut -kuu -5-5-5
j j -1.n 6
Zkr 65 Nfr sim-Pth seeWQt ht Ttj
S!f n.158 Nfr-sim-R<37-38;n.45
Phwtj 59 Nsru 37,48
IxlStpt(Giza)I l
KINGS Nit nrpt (.Giz.a) 11-12
Nit-m-pt 1t-14,16-22, 25,21-28,31-32,53,
Djedkaren.135 55-59,64-66
Neferkare53,62 Hjj s6-s1
P e p yI 1 3 ,3 2 ,3 1 - 4 05, 3 ,5 1 , 1 1 n , .63, Hnt-Mnzu (El-Hawawish) n.69
n . 8 2n, . 1 3 3n, . 1 3 8
Hmt-R< 12,20
P e p yI I 3 8 ,- 5 3 , 5 5n;. 7 1n, . 8 2n, . 1 3 3
Hhj s4-ss
Teti 13,37-40,53,1l
Userkare39-40 Hzzj 58;n.l}l
afdt 7l
INDIVIDUALS fJntj n.168
u n t j - k t . j3 l , 4 4 , 4 u n; .45
I b j t 4 - 1 6 ,r 8 , 3 1 - 3 4 IJrt-hnrrr hrru seeTnej
lpj se-60 Zruf(Giz.a)1l
lri 58;n.154 Zzj 58
fuj sa-ss Zizit 12,21
lhj-m-zt.f n.126 Sim-nfr n.68
fitjj 36,a+ Sbkw58
lifj s3;n.76,n.101 Sti 'r1t , t
Itj 6e,11-13 tpsj-pru-Ptl1t2-t4, 55
ldtu 37,45 Kt gnt-n.j l2-13,62;n.4-5, n.l-53
n ,n . l 0 7 - 1 0 8
] d w ( G i z a )3 1 , 3 9 ; n . 9 4 Kt(.j)'<pr(w)35-40,42-49,53,62-63;n.44,
<nft(Giz,a)11 n.70n , .U6
,nh-nt-r-Hr37-38,48,53;n.37,n.4-5, n. 82, Q:r (Giza)39
nn.l22-123 Grf 69-72
Wtrt-nfrt 70 Tjt il, r8-2r
Wntw l0 Tjtj n,22
WQtJu-TtjNfrsim-Ptl.r/Sij13,37-40;n.70, rtj-t.u-jit,f 6s
n.94 Ttt-db1t-12
Wdtt...tr56 Tntj 67
Ppjj'<nful.rrj-jb (Mcir) n.69 lntzj/IJrt lmutt-finu 51-58
Ppjj-ddj zt Ttj (Giz.a)n.94,n.I 6it
Ptl.tJ.ttp n.135
Ffkf-r 58 TITI,ES
M m u - j n u 5 6 ;n . 1 3 8
Mttw-rtt!(Giza) ll jntj-rj<w-rnb trsrutdjdjwpt qmru tt 70,12
Mr.s <tt[ 57 jnrj-rjpt rtsrut31,33

15
INDEX

jnrj-r pr 31, 45,5(t l . t n t ( t ) - n tNr t (mhtjtjnb.s)wpt iuriuf ll, 18,


jnl r pr-in< 54-55 20
jnrj-r plnuu 70,72 I.tm(t)-ntrHwt-l.rr l0
jmj-r l.nut-jluut 10, 12 I.tnt(t)-ntrHwt-l.trnbt nht I 1, l9-20
jnrj r l.nut-utrf35,39,44-11,19 l.trj-sittn pr dwtt 36,45
jmj-r zi <nsrut 3.5-36, 39,4-5 Irrj sitt tt trsrut 36, 4'/
jmj-r zi n ktt ttbt 39 l.trj sitt rr rtsrutm st.f trb(t) 10,72-13
jntj-r ziwj 35,45 hrjinnrrt-Ttj 66
jntj-r sltj-lttp(t) 10,12 llrp z.lt 37, 48
jntj-r sir 37,45 I t r j - l t u t 3 l - 3 3 , 3 6 , 4 5 ,4 1 , 4 9 , 5 4 - - 5 5-,5 7 ,6 . 5
jmj-r sqbbwjpr<t 70,72 Irrj l.rbtl.trj-tp 64
jnrj r st 70,72 Itrj-tp ttstut 35-36, 39, 44-49
jmj-r Sm, n.86 ltkrt nxut 5l
jnj-r in b nb 10,13 ztt nxut nt lt.f 12-13
jntj-r ktt nbt 39 zi -58,64
39,215;
jnrj-r k:t rtbtrtt ttstut3-5-36, n.86 zi , ttstutlft l.tr 39
jnrj-rgs-pr 36,44-49 zi rr zt pr-s 66
jrj-P't zo' 44-45;n 86 sntr 65
jrj |ut 3t-33,10,12 s n t r u c t j 3 l - 3 3 , - 5 6 ,6 1 - 6 5 ,1 0 , 7 2 - 1 3
rut"f,
49 s n t rp r 5 6 , 7 0 , 1 2 ; n . 1 6 l
rfutnsrut I l, 19-20, 22.10 sl.tjltnrkt 31,45
l.utj-<36,44 sl.tQ ... pr-<t 63
l.rntntr dd-xtttTtj 10,12 ipsj trsrot 56-58,70, 12-13

76