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SECOND LESSON
Triplets Brilliant Execution
In this lesson the singer must be careful to accent the first note of the triplet a little more then the other two, both in forte and in ptano.

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

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THIRD LESSON
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12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

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FOURTH LESSON
Syncopation With great animation
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FIFTH LESSON
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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

SIXTH LESSON.
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SEVENTH LESSON
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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

EIGHTH LESSON
Runs, or Roulades. Forte and well accented.
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..

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

1.L.1 If.
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42

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

~ u H. ---.. ~
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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

1.u H.


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for Tenor or Soprano


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12 Lessons in Modern Singing ;:::...

for Tenor or Soprano


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45

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

~ ~ tI

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--

for Tenor or Soprano

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

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12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

NINTH LESSON.
Cadenza and Closing Cadence.
The cadenza is susceptible of a great variety of interpretation, depending entirely upon the ability and good taste of the executant. It is, therefore, necessary to warn against-Its misuse. Embellishments introduced not only in the cadenza but also in other parts of a piece must never conflict with the general character of the composition. It would be badly out of place to make a brilliant display of embellishments in a composition characterized by a high degree of passion, or in a composition expressive of tender melancholy. In such examples it is better to employ but very few interpolations, and these always in sympathy with the- character of the piece. It is also very important that the singer should economize the breath as much as possible, in order that the close of the cadenza may be delivered with a11 necessary firmness and strength. A weak ending destroys the effect of the cadenza., and thereby compromises the artistic perfection of the entire piece. The pupil will have already encountered various examples of the cadenza in the course of these lessons, but others are given here to make clearer still the manner of its treatment.

To be ended with force.

Voice.
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fJ

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if

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The same, ending above.

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Pianoforte.

· ·

I
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t':\ ~
49

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Another style, for graceful ending.

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it

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With force. Another style.
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tt

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The same, to finish with grace and lightness.
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50

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Double cadenza.
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Voice.

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Triple cadenza of the same kind.


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51

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

TENTH LESSON.
Recitative. Broad and well accented.
fl ,

Sostenuto.

Voice.
II

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52

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano I

. J
L~

r1 - bU - nl ist~n - ti a1 - me - no mo -ment, for-get - jUt f01" a

lei em she dwells


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rna-Ii e de' mi - ei. I botk have done iter.

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pray de - pa'rt

co - SI

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r ir to - St 0 non par- t"

da not, nor too soon let her


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son wa- ken, mer -

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it

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~~ 53

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· ·

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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

..

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.
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fleeting,

fa-be

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ma spen-to appena e na- to


ap-pear-ing for
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54

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

ELEVENTH LESSON
Expressive Singing. With' half -voice.
~ I

Andante.

Voice.


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Pianotorte.!

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k....
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pp

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forse Forse, ah AM per - luzps

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pen - sier in suo some fan - cy bright,


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of -fre un Tho' a
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vr

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so 'dream
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gno men it on
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fo - gner, 11/ prove,

...

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· ·
I

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qual- che But a

lar mo

va di ment 0/

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faour


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~al-che Im-ma 0,1/ re - mind

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SI,

,·r.l -c{. qua elm-rna

- gi - ne re - mind __ hoI' 0/

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55

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..

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

love.

mor.

Ah! for

Ah per lei, _

her_nor

me _

non
a

-======f
gleam

I"
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v'ha

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piu spe - ran - fa


of a Itap - PlI

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gio - ir,
is t#glt;

solo, ah
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from

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wa

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ra

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perpe

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will

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per __

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56

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q..

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

'1
4I~

~-i"
-na suf>

..III!!!!!!!

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-fer

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pato

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to

t a _!!!!!o
r

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J

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per and

mo - rir!

die!

penfor - se in suo Forse, ah some fan - ,cy All. per - kaps


I
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rr.
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gno men it on
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so ~f- fre un dream Tko' a


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gner prone,

qual-che But a

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57

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,
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Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

)0;.---.
from,

for Tenor or Soprano

.
ker

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sol wa

51
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dream

per
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per
and

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die,

rir,

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~ 58

1:

11

r:f.

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· · ·

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

TWELFTH LESSON
Animated Singing.
With the full voice.
'I
I

Allegro giusto.

Voice.

.
.. ..
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.
MoTko'
(.\.


I')

Pianoforte.

III

. . .

nec':::
I

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mo

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n01V '!Ve must die,


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ria - mo.e a - man - ti

r Spl - ri - t1
I.

spie - ghla
We'll float


·
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t~ fI _L

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like

spi - rUs free


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.

a - '!Vall

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v

on air - 11

.
pin

van -

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kas no do

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nl,
ion,

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- ve Where death
0

· ·
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fan -

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0

.ffve - fear

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non 6_
the

Nor fear
I
I

o - ve

lon

the heart

may

ti -

mor,
move,

nor

· ·

cresco

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f

heart

may __
(.\.

ti

••
59

f:\

I'}

-mor,
mone;

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano


I'} I

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Mo
And

n~.

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riam, __
find n~1i

che fom- bre there in tlte

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be -yond
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4

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mo
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rlam,
find

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cie
par 'I
I

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101- stes - so e a - molove, a - dise of

che
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60

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

1'\

a tempo ~(!:.
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61

--

f.\

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Plir mosso.
ah! To

find,

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- me,

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62

ih~{

1':'\

Rubini ~I

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Tempo I.


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63

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p

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

---"'

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41

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64

Rubini II
4
I

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

'P
I'

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,

mor l.;.,
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mo ..
a

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c..

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.:>
65

Rubini ~I ,

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Jr.

. ~..-",..


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-'ria '- moin - sleml par- a-disc of love.

... ...· ·
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I "

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of

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66

~>-!::,..

:: -=

::1= ::_ J:

Ii

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

GIOVANNI

BATTISTA

RUBINI

RISI, Malibran, Persiani, Alboni, Mario, Lablache, Ronconi, Tamburini, bini- those were the names ,that made famous the Theatre des Italiens of Paris in the early days of the nineteenth century. It was a group of singers possessed of remarkable voices and trained in the polished technics of the elder school of bel canto. To this training most of them had added through the development oflyric art something in the way of stronger dramatic accent, something in the manner of histrionic action. Grisi died in 1869, Mario in 1883, and there are people in this country who well remember their singing at the old Academy of Music, New York. Owen Meredith sang of Mario's power to charm a soul in purgatory, but after all the greatest tenor of his time was Giovanni Battista Rubini, who never trod the operatic hoards on this side of the Atlantic. Rubini was born at Romano, Italy, on April 7,1795. Just precisely how he acquired the vocal method which he seemed to understand so thoroughly, it is difficult to determine. His first instruction was obtained from his father, who was a music-teacher. At the age of eight the boy sang in a church and also played a little on the violin. Probably the study of the violin throws some light on the subsequent accuracy of his ear and his skill in phrasing. His childish voice must have seemed to be worth cultivating for choir purposes, for he was placed under an organist at Adro ; but that teacher soon dismissed him on the ground that he had no talent. The father now resumed the boy's instruction, and permitted him at the age of twelve to appear in a woman's part in the Romano Theatre, After that he went to Bergamo as a chorus-singer, and while he was there a drama was produced containing a difficult air. No one could be found capable of singing it till young Rubini was tried, and he delivered the aria with much applause. He then endeavored to get an engagement as a chorister in the opera at Milan, but was refused on the ground that he had not enough voice. His career was now for a time a checkered one. He was one of an unhappy strolling company; he went on an unfortunate tour with an obscure violinist; and at length he obtained engagements at Pavia and Brescia. Next he succeeded in gaining an entrance into the San Mose Theatre at Venice, and thence he went to Naples, whe~'e the former barber Barbaja was the impresario. This manager engaged Ruhini to sing in Fioravanti's" Adelson e Salvina" and another work, together with Pellegrini and Nozzari, He appears to have pleased the audiences, but Barbaja evidently made little account of him and was ready to let him go at the end of the season. Rubini consented to remain at a reduced salary. The secret of his willingness to remain at a sacrifice is to be found in the fact that he was studying with Nozzari. He profited much from this singer's instruction, and had brilliant successes in "La Gazza ladra" in Rome and Palermo. It was about this time, in the year 1819, that he married Mlle. Chomel, a singer known on the Italian stage as Signorina Comelli. 67

ne.

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

Rubini went to Paris to sing at the Italiens in 18!25,making his first appearan~e on October 6 in "La Cenerentola." His success in this work and in "Otello" and. "La Donna del Lago" was such that he wasacclaimed as the greatest of tenors. From this time forward his career was one of unbroken triumph. He was still under contract to Barbaja, and had to return to Italy to sing in Naples and Milan. He sang also in Vienna. It may now be understood that Rubini was a specialist in the school of Rossini. He was, however, to enter a new field-to become the chief exponent of the tender sweetnessof Bellini. It has been said that he and Bellini were made for one another, but Donizetti owed not a little to Rubini's voice and style. It was in his" Anna Bolena," written after twenty-nine failures, that Donizetti found success with the powerful aid of Rubini. The same tenor was the making of "Lucia" and "Lu('rezia Borgia." The recent popularity of' these works will give the student someconception of'the kind of roles in which Rubini excelled. Bellini wrote "II Pirata" for Rubini, and the tenor remained with him during the composition of the opera. "La Sonnambula " and" I Puritani" came from Bellini's pen while it was still under the influence of the famous singer. In 1831 Rubini visited England for the first time. He had at last outlived his contract with Barbaja, and, for the next thirteen years he divided his time between London and Paris. In England he sang not only at the opera, but at concerts and music festivals. His beautiful voice and exquisite style aroused enthusiasm everywhere. In 1843 he went with Franz Liszt on a tour through Holland and Germany. At Berlin they parted and Rubini went to St. Petersburg, where his success was immense. The Emperor Nicholas conferred upon him the title of "Director of Singing': and also the rank of Colonel. In the ensuing summer he returned to Italy, but in the winter of 1844 he visited Russia once more. His voice had now entered upou its decline, and he resolved to retire from the stage. He purchased an estate near his birthplace at Bergamo and there quietly spent the final years of his life. He died on March 3, 1854, leaving behind him a considerable fortune and the reputation of having been a man of a simple and lovable nature. In view of the pride and extravagance of so many famous musicians, these facts are well worthy of record. According to his contemporaries Rubini was a singer pure and simple. He either had no talent for acting, or he did not care to exercise it. He was not well favored for the stage, for he was short and squat of figure, awkward in action, and had plain features scarred with smallpox pits. He was by no means a master of recitative, and in singing he invariably worked entirely for effect. He reserved himself for climaxes, and in concerted numbers frequently went so far as to preserve silence. Sometimes he did not even take the trouble to open his mouth to make believe that he sang. At any rate, such is the testimony of Escudier, a critic of authority in his day. His voice was not robust, but of very tender quality, yet it was not incapable of occasional bursts of power. His chest compass extended from low E to high B flat, and he had a falsetto running up to high G. He made excessiveuse of his head tones, 68

Rubini -

12 Lessons in Modern Singing -

for Tenor or Soprano

but this was by no means a defect in the ears of his hearers. Escudier said of him that his emission was so exquisite that it was impossible to detect the passage from one register to another.e "Gifted with huge lungs," continues this critic, "he can control his breath so that he never employs more of it than is precisely necessary to gi~e the exact degree of sound he desires. So cleverly does he conceal the act of respiration that it is impossible to discover when the breath renews itself, inspiration and expiration being seemingly simultaneous, like 'filling a cup with one hand while emptying it with the other. Thus he can deliver the longest and most drawn-out phrases without any interruption of continuity." Chorley, in his "Thirty Years' Recollections," says: "He would walk through a good third of an opera languidly, giving the notes correctly and little more-in a duet blending his voice intimately with that of his partner (in this he was unsurpassed); but when his own moment arrived there was no longer coldness or hesitation, but a passion, a fervor, a putting forth to the utmost of every resource of consummate vocal art and emotion which converted the most incredulous, and satisfied those till then inclined to treat him as one whose reputation had been overrated." It will be understood from this that Rubini was a singer, not an operatic delineator. In fact, he never identified himself with the characters which he assumed, but, like the famous Brignoli of later years, was cont.ent to express himself in two or three principal arias. To these he devoted his study and on these he expended the inexhaustible riches of his art. He made remarkable effects by sudden transitions from piano to forte, and this in time became a pronounced mannerism. He introduced into singing the vibrato, without which no singer now regards himself as equipped for the stage. He was the first to use that peculiar sobbing break- of the breath, in the holding-note of a final cadence, which Italian singers now employ without rhyme or reason. But all those who heard him, even in his later years, when hisvoice was almost gone and his mannerisms had become exaggerated to the verge of grotesquery, agreed· that in finish of production, polished phrasing, and expression, he was a wonderfu I master. He formed a style which was the model of many successors; but it must be borne in mind that too many of them copied his mannerisms without being able to imitate the beauties of his delivery. His only publications were an album of twelve songs, entitled "L'Addio." and "1!2 Lezioni di Canto Moderno per tenore 0 soprano."

w.
69

J. HENDERSON