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A Solution to Remote Detection of Illegal Electricity

Usage via Power Line Communications

P. Naveen Kumar A.Poorna Chandra

Ph.No: 9030624031 Ph.No: 9642341580

ABSTRACT: This paper describes detector system for

Power line communication (PLC) illegal electricity usage using the power
presents an interesting and economical lines based on the research work-taking
solution for Automatic Meter Reading place at the Central Power Research
(AMR). If an AMR system via PLC is Institute (CPRI), Bangalore. The target
set in a power delivery system, a Of this study is to discover new and
detection system for illegal electricity possible solutions for this problem.
usage may be easily added in the
existing PLC network. In the detection
India, the largest democracy with an
system, the second digitally energy
estimated population of about 1.04
meter chip is used and the value of
billion, is on a road to rapid growth in
energy is stored. The recorded energy is
economy. Energy, particularly
compared with the value at the main kilo
electricity, is a key input for accelerating
Watt-hour meter. In the case of the
economic growth. The theft of electricity
difference between two recorded energy
is a criminal offence and power utilities
data, an error signal is generated and
are losing billions of rupees in this
transmitted via PLC network. The
account. If an Automatic Meter Reading
detector and control system is proposed.
system via Power line Communication is
The architecture of the system and their
set in a power delivery system, a
critical components are given. The
detection system for illegal electricity
measurement results are given.
usage is possible .Power line
communications (PLC) has many new electromagnetic field of the current coils.
service possibilities on the data As is well known, the recorded energy is
transferring via power lines without use proportional to electromagnetic field.
of extra cables. Automatic Meter 3) Using the external phase before
Reading (AMR) is a very important meter terminals: This method gives
application in these possibilities due to subscribers free energy without any
every user connected each other via record.
modems, using power lines. AMR is a 4) Switching the energy cables at the
technique to facilitate remote readings of meter connector box: In this way, the
energy consumption. current does not pass through the current
The following sections will describe the coil of the meter, so the meter does not
proposed detection and control system record the energy consumption.
for illegal electricity usage using the Although all of the methods explained
power lines. The scheme is based on the above may be valid for
research work-taking place at “Central electromechanical meters, only the last
Power Research Unit (CPRI), Bangalore two methods are valid for digital meters.
”.In this section the discussion is on how Therefore, this problem should be solved
a subscriber can illegally use the by electronics and control techniques.
electricity and the basic building blocks
for the detection using power line 2 BUILDING BLOCKS FOR
communication. DETECTION:
Methods of illegal electricity usage: 2.1. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR):
In illegal usage a subscriber illegally use The AMR system starts at the meter.
electricity in the following ways, Some means of translating readings from
1) Using the mechanical objects: A rotating meter dials, or cyclometer style
subscriber can use some mechanical meter dials, into digital form is
objects to prevent the revolution of a necessary in order to send digital
meter, so that disk speed is reduced and metering data from the customer site to a
the recorded energy is also reduced. central point.
2) Using a fixed magnet: A subscriber
can use a fixed magnet to change the
Fig 1: Electromechanical movement to digital
Fig:2 AMR communication setup
signal conversion.
In most cases, the meter that is used in
2. Communications systems: used for the
an AMR system is the same ordinary
transmission, or telemetry, of data and
meter used for manual reading but the
control send signals between the meter
difference with conventional energy
meter is the addition of some device to
interface units and the central office.
generate pulses relating to the amount of
3. Central office systems equipment:
consumption monitored, or generates an
including modems, receivers, data
electronic, digital code that translates to
concentrators, controllers, host upload
the actual reading on the meter dials.
links, and host computer.
One such technique using optical sensor
is shown in above fig……
Three main components of AMR
Power line carrier communications take
system are:
place over the same lines that deliver
1. Meter interface module: with power
electricity. This technique involves
supply, meter sensors, controlling
injecting a high frequency AC carrier
electronics and a communication
onto the power line and modulating this
interface that allows data to be
carrier with data originating from the
transmitted from this remote device to a
remote meter or central station. Power
central location.
line communications has many new
service possibilities on the data
transferring via power lines without use
of extra cables. AMR is a very important mounted transformers and indoor
application in these possibilities due to transformers.
every user connected each other via High-speed PLC applications of the
power lines. In this power network, future include Automatic Meter Reading
every user connected to each other via (AMR), power system fault detection,
modems with data originating from the power theft detection, leakage current
remote meter or central station. detection, and the
Electrical power systems vary in measurement/control/energy-
configuration from country to country management of electrical power
depending on the state of the respective equipment for electrical power
power sources and loads. The practice of companies, as well as home security, the
using medium-voltage (11-to-33kV) and remote- monitoring/control of electrical
low-voltage (100-to-400V) power household appliances, online games,
distribution lines as high-speed PLC home networks, and billing.
communication means and optical
networks as backbone networks is
common place. Under normal service
conditions, they can be broadly divided
into open-loop systems, each with a
single opening, and tree systems with
radial arranged lines. In the case of tree
systems, connection points for adjacent
systems are provided in order that
paths/loads may be switched when
Figure 3: Schematic illustration of detection
necessary for operation. Additionally, in
system of illegal electricity usage
terms of distribution line types, there are
underground cables and overhead power
distribution lines. Where transformers
are concerned, they can be divided into
The proposed control system [1] for the
pole-mounted transformers, pad-
detection of illegal electricity usage is
shown in Fig.3. PLC signaling is only
valid over the low voltage VAC power that its control is easy. The main
lines. The system should be applied to procedure of the proposed system can be
every low-voltage distribution network. summarized as follows.PLC signaling
The system given in Fig. 3 belongs only must be in CENELEC standards. In
one distribution transformer network and Europe, CENELEC has formed the
should be repeated for every distribution standard EN-50 065-1, in which the
network. Although the proposed system frequency bands, signaling levels, and
can be used uniquely, it is better to use it procedures are specified. 3–95 kHz is
with automatic meter reading system. If restricted for use by electricity suppliers,
the AMR system will be used in any and 95–148.5 kHz are restricted to
network, the host PLC unit and a PLC consumer use. The recorded data in
modem for every subscriber should be kilowatt-hour meters for every
contained in this system. In Fig. 3, the subscriber are sent to host PLC modem
host PLC unit and other PLC modems via PLC modems, which is placed in
are named PLC1A, PLCNA and are used subscriber’s locations.
for AMR. These units provide
communication with each other and send
the recorded data in kilowatt-hour
meters to the PLC unit. In order to detect
illegal usage of electrical energy, a PLC
modem and an energy meter chip for
every subscriber are added to an existing
AMR system. As given in Fig. 3,
PLC1B, PLCNB and energy meter chips
belong to the detector. The detector PLC
s and energy meters must be placed at
the connection point between
distribution main lines and subscriber’s Fig4: illegal detector system of one subscriber

line. Since this connection point is

usually in the air or at underground, it is On the other hand, energy meter chips

not suitable for anyone to access, such are located at the connection points and
read the energy in kilowatt-hours and kilowatt-hour meter is converted to
also send the data to host PLC unit. This digital data using by optical reflector
proposed detector system has two sensor. Disk speed of the kilowatt-hour
recorded energy data in host PLC unit, meter is counted and obtained data is
one, which comes from the AMR-PLC, sent to PLC modem as energy value of
and the other, which comes from the the kilowatt-hour meter. At the system
PLC modem at the connection points. model, an illegal load may be connected
These two recorded energy data are to the power line before the kilowatt-
compared in the host PLC. If there is any hour meter via an S switch. While only a
difference between two readings, an legal load is in the system, two meters
error signal is generated. This means that are accorded each other to compensate
there is an illegal usage in the network. for any error readings. The host PLC
After that, the subscriber address and unit reads two recorded data coming
error signal are combined and sent to the from metering PLC units. If the S switch
central control unit. If it is requested, a is closed, the illegal load is connected to
contactor may be included to the system the system, and therefore two recorded
at subscriber locations to turn off the energy values are different from each
energy automatically, as in the case of other.
illegal usage.

The system model and simulation of the
detection system of illegal electricity
usage is shown in Fig. 4. It contains a
host PLC modem, an energy meter chip
and its PLC modem, an
electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter
Fig 5: System simulation and modeling of the
and its PLC modem, and an optical
detection system of illegal electricity usage for
reflector sensor system is loaded at the electromechanical kilowatt-hour meters
same phase of the power grid. The
energy value at the electromechanical
The host PLC unit is generated when it approximately U.S. $ 20–25 per
received two different records from the subscriber. It is very economical and is a
same subscriber. This is the detection of reliable solution when it is compared
the illegal usage for interested users. In with the economic loss caused by illegal
these tests, the carrier frequency is usage.
selected at 132 kHz, which is permitted
in the CENELEC frequency band. In 4. OVER VIEW OF THE
real applications the AMR systems may PROPOSED DETECTOR SYSTEM:
be designed in CENELEC bands. The The proposed detector system is the
data rate between the host and other PLC equipment and procedure for controlling
modems is 2400 b/s. more remote stations from a master
Data signaling between PLC modems control station. It includes PLC modems,
has a protocol, which includes a header, energy meters, control logics, and the
address, energy value data, error system software. The PLC modems are
correction bits, and other serial host and target modems for two-way
communication bits such as parity and communications to and from the host
stop bits. The protocol may also be station and the remotely controlled
changed according to the properties of targets. The energy meters include
the required system and national power metering chips and some circuit
grid architecture. Fig.5 shows the elements; the control and logic units
detection system for an compare and generate the error signal in
electromechanical kilowatt-hour meter the Illegal usage.
system. In the digital energy meter
system, the recorded energy may be The system software has two parts:
received in the digital form directly assembler program for the micro
using the port of the meter. Therefore, controller and the operating software for
there is no need for an optical reflector the management of the overall system.
system in digital meters. The results of Operating software may be downloaded
the tests show that this system may solve from a PC and should be placed in the
this problem economically because the main center of the system.
budget of the proposed system is An AMR system including an illegal
detector performs the following center station via phone lines, fiber-optic
functions. cable, or RF links.
1) Every user has two PLC modems; one
is for AMR and the other is used to send
the data from second energy meter chip
to host PLC modem.
2) An energy meter must be installed in
the connection box between a home line
and main power lines.
Fig 7: Bit-error probability with frequency
3) The host PLC unit must be placed in and load impedance for 1000-m.
the distribution transformer and the
configuration of the addressing format of Results and the variations of the
PLC signaling must be designed measurements are shown in Figs. 6–7.
carefully. The relations between frequency, length,
4) Operating software must be designed and bit-error probability are given in
for the information of every subscriber these figures.. Research work has been
in every sub power network: subscriber taking place in the CPRI, Bangalore for
identification number, billing address, the remote metering and detection of
etc…….. power theft and will soon be helpful to
5) The system has two values of the electricity boards in India.
energy consumption for every user, so if
there is a difference between them, an 5.CONCLUSION:
error signal is generated for the illegal The proposed detector system to
user, determine illegal electricity usage via
6) The proposed equipment is the only power line communications is examined
one distributed in the power network. So in the laboratory conditions. Results
this system should be repeated for all proved that if AMR and detector system
distribution power networks. All host are used together illegal usage of
units in each distribution transformer electricity might be detected. Once this
may be connected to only one main proposed detection systems are tried in
real power lines, the distribution losses
in India can be reduced effectively.

[1] I. H. Cavdar, “A Solution to Remote
Detection of …” IEEE Transactions on
power delivery, Vol. 19..
[2] I. H. Cavdar, “Performance analysis
of FSK power line communications
systems over the time-varying channels:
Measurements and modeling,” IEEE
Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 111–