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In Internet Software Systems 1068475

Introduction/background ............................................................................................................... 2

Project scope ................................................................................................................................. 3

Technical Plan ................................................................................................................................ 5

Project schedule and budget .......................................................................................................... 6

Organization & personnel ............................................................................................................ 13

Risk analysis ................................................................................................................................. 16

Quality discussion ........................................................................................................................ 17

Philip Crosby’s contribution to Software Quality Management................................................. 17

Configuration management plan .................................................................................................. 20

Final Project Report ..................................................................................................................... 22

Appendix A .................................................................................................................................. 23

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Give a brief introduction to the project plan and the background of the EPOWER ERP project. [3]

This project plan contains:

1. Overview
2. Project scope
3. Technical plan
4. Project schedule and budget
5. Organization and personnel
6. Risk analysis
7. Quality discussion
8. Configuration management plan
9. Final project report

The content of each of these sections is considered in detail through the document.

Regarding to the background of the project, EPOWER Ltd is dedicated to fabricate and maintain
machinery for power generation. It is based in the UK but it has operations in 11 places around the
world. All these companies have autonomous computer systems for production planning,
procurement, supply-chain management and finance. They are standardized but without a central
repository, so it is difficult to get global information to make strategic decisions.

As EPOWER had to renegotiate licenses and upgrade its hardware in all the companies, the Board
of Directors hired consultants to prepare a business process re-engineering study and a strategy to
replace its systems. After a SWOT analysis, defining EPOWER requirements and reviewing them
with the Board, consultants suggested to implement an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system
called Baan with a central repository, finances and procurement centralized with high levels of
security and control.

The Board followed the consultants’ recommendation about implementing an ERP for the whole
organization but they chose SAP R/3 instead of Baan because it was implemented in the recently
acquired 12th operating company, MINIPOWER.

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For the project the Board acted as the Steering group and each company appointed its own
project manager. An Indian company, TECHCO, with the cheapest proposal was selected to
implement the ERP due to its familiarity with EPOWER business processes, although it had no SAP
experience. EPOWER and TECHCO agreed a fixed price contract with July 2002 as the end of the
project. TECHCO was to implement the defined requirement in the SAP R/3 package, however any
additional work would be charged at a daily rate. In the case of MINIPOWER, as they had
experience with SAP, they were to implement changes in the system by themselves. To monitor
the project The Steering Group, project managers and TECHCO project manager decided to meet

The implementation plan started in three companies consecutively with partial releases of the ERP
system for testing and user acceptance every six weeks. According to the plan, after these three
implementations the requirements were to stabilize and part releases would not be necessary for
the next three companies.

Finally, to involve staff in the project and to let them know the benefits of the new ERP systems,
each project manager started a publicity programme.

Project scope
i. Identify the key objectives for the project using information in Appendix 2. Show how the
objectives have been derived from the results of the analysis in Appendix 2. [8]

Key objectives for the project are:

1. Reduce running cost and overhead creating a global repository with common systems
across all sites.

Address weakness (Companies operate autonomously increasing running costs and

overheads), reduce threat (Future mergers may not be possible if the system
infrastructure is not improved) and take advantage of an opportunity (Implementing
an ERP system would reduce running cost and facilitate future).

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2. Provide better security and control centralizing procurement and finance

Reduce threat (Poor security of systems could lead to financial loss) and take
advantage of an opportunity (Centralizing procurement and finance would reduce
running costs and provide better security and control)

3. Improve strategic decision making organizing wide management information

according to EPOWER Ltd requirements

Address weakness (Poor strategic decision making owing to lack of organization wide
management information)

ii. Identify 4 or 5 alternative strategies to satisfy the objectives defined in (i) above and choose
the most appropriate strategy to satisfy these objectives. Justify your choice. Note that you
can choose a strategy other than the approach adopted in the case study, alternatively if
you feel the strategy adopted in the case study is the best alternative you can choose that
strategy, but you must justify your choice.
Reduce running Provide better Improve strategic decision
cost and overhead security and making organizing wide
creating a global control management information
repository with centralizing according to EPOWER Ltd
common systems procurement and requirements
across all sites finance
Implement Baan ERP
Implement SAP R/3 ERP
To renegotiate licences
and upgrade hardware
To keep the existing
infrastructure making
some improvements in
security and control.
W = Weak Link M = Medium Link S = Strong Link

Table 1 Matrix diagram relating key objectives to strategies for achieving them

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So, the best strategy is to implement Baan ERP system because it is the best fit to EPOWER
requirements. It provides a global data repository and centralizes finance and procurement with a
high level of security and control. Additionally, it is the best fit to EPOWER requirements.

Technical Plan
What type of project life cycle has been employed in this project? Has the life-cycle been used
with any other approaches to software engineering? Is this the best life-cycle and approach to
software engineering for this project? Justify your conclusions. [8]

The type of project life cycle employed in this project is incremental with reuse (COTS products)
and concurrent engineering. There is some evidence of initial prototyping to define requirements.



 Requirements defined initially and increments planned

 Delivers part product which build on previous versions

Evolutionary why not?

 Increments planned
 Requirements well known

Waterfall why not?

 Implemented in increments

Prototyping why?

 There is evidence of clarifying requirements with a prototype done by consultants

Reuse why?

 There is evidence of use of COTS products

Concurrent engineering Why?

 There are two teams working simultaneously. TECHCO and MINIPOWER teams.

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According to David Boddy’s project profile tool, core projects and those with outside links tend to
use incremental rather than evolutionary life-cycles.

Significance Margin 1 2 3 4 5 Core

Solution Familiar 1 2 3 4 5 Novel
Pace Gradual 1 2 3 4 5 Rapid
Intentions Uncontroversial 1 2 3 4 5 Controversial
Changing goals Rare/minor 1 2 3 4 5 Often/major
Outside links Few 1 2 3 4 5 Many
Senior stance Supportive 1 2 3 4 5 Unsupportive
Other changes Few 1 2 3 4 5 Many

Structured projects Unstructured projects

Easy of project management Difficulty of project management

Waterfall Incremental or evolutionary

Justification for choice of life cycle:

So, as this is a core project with outside links, the best project life-cycle is incremental.

Project schedule and budget

This section relates to the implementation of the system in MINIPOWER Ltd. [33]

i. Prepare an activity-on-arrow network, an initial resource loading char and draw the
corresponding earned value diagram for the activity data given in Appendix 1, at a point in
time before the project started. At this stage assume unlimited resources for the project.
Show all your work and state any assumptions. Clearly identify the project duration, the
peak resource required and the project budget calculated from the prepared schedules.

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Project duration 22 weeks

6 J=2
20 22
3 7 8
6 22
C=4 20

0 A=1 1 B=1 2
0 F=4
1 2 H=2
1 2 18
0 14 G=4
5 6
14 18

D=2 10

Earliest event
Scheduled activity Node
Critical activity identifier

Dummy activity

Units: weeks Latest event


Figure 1 Activity-on-arrow network in MINIPOWER Ltd

Activity EST EFT LST LFT Float

A 0 1 0 1 0
B 1 2 1 2 0
C 2 6 2 6 0
D 2 4 12 14 10
E 6 14 6 14 0
F 6 10 10 14 4
G 14 18 14 18 0
H 18 20 18 20 0
I 6 9 17 20 11
J 20 22 20 22 0
Table 2 Activity data

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Peak resource is 5
6 between weeks 6 and 9

4 D F

2 C E G
Time [weeks]
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
Figure 2 Initial resource loading chart

Activity LST Duration Staff Budgeted Cost £

A 0 1 0 0
B 1 1 1 se 500
C 2 4 3 se 6000
D 12 2 1 se 1000
E 6 8 3 se 12000
F 10 4 1 se 2000
G 14 4 3 se 6000
H 18 2 1 uat, 1 se 5000
I 17 3 1 se 1500
J 20 2 2 se 2000
Subtotal 36000
Project manager [22 weeks, 1 pm] 11000
Project budget 47000
Table 3 Project Budget table

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Weeks A B C D E F G H I J Spend in BCWS

nos period £
1-5 500 4500 1000 6000+2500 8500
6-10 1500 6000 2000 1500 11000+2500 22000
11-15 6000 1500 7500+2500 32000
16-20 4500 5000 9500+2500 44000
24-25 2000 2000+1000 47000
Total - 500 6000 1000 12000 2000 6000 5000 1500 2000 36000+11000 47000
Table 4 Activity data







Time [weeks]
0 5 10 15 20 22
Figure 3 Earned value diagram

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ii. Redraw the resource loading chart to take account of the resource limitations described in
Appendix 1. Explain the rules used for rescheduling and show all your work. Clearly
identify any changes to project duration and budget after any rescheduling.

According to resource limitations, MINIPOWER project manager leads a team of 2 software

engineers, a trainee software engineer and a user acceptance team. Under these circumstances,
to reduce the peak resource from 4 to 3, the start of activities G, H and J has been moved 4 weeks.
Also, activities D, I and F have been moved to week 14, and as it is the activity with the biggest
floating, it will be carried out for the trainee software engineer. As a result, new project duration is
26 weeks and the peak resource is 3 from weeks 2 to 8 and from 10 to 22.


Time [weeks]
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

Figure 4 Resource loading chart with resource limitations

Activity LST Duration Staff Budgeted Cost £

A 4 1 -- 0
B 5 1 1 se 500
C 6 4 2 se, 1 tse 5200
D 16 2 1 tse 600
E 10 8 2se, 1tse 10400
F 14 4 1 se 2000
G 18 4 2se, 1 tse 5200
H 22 2 uat, 1 se 5000
I 21 3 1 se 1500
J 24 2 2 se 2000
Subtotal 32400
Project manager [26 weeks, 1 pm] 13000
Project budget 45400
Table 4 Activity data

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iii. Appendix 1 includes some progress and cost information for the project collected at week
10. Calculate the earned value information at week 10 and identify actions that the project
manager should have taken to manage a project in this situation. Assume that the planned
duration and budget of the project at week 10 is still as calculated in (i) above (remember
that in the case study the project manager didn’t re plan the project so the values
calculated in (i) will be used in assessing progress).

As PB = £47000. And at week 10, BCWP = £18500 and ACWP = £22500,




32000 ACWP


8500 BCWP

Time [weeks]
0 5 10 15 20 22
Time now ECD


Figure 5 Complete earned value diagram

Cost variance (CV):

CV = BCWP – ACWP = 18500 – 22500 = £ -4000. This means that the project is over budgeted.

Schedule variance (SV):

SV = BCWP – BCWS = 18500 – 22000 = £ -3500. This means that the project is behind schedule.

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Estimated cost at completion (ECAC):

ECAC = PV – CV = 47000 + 4000 = £ 51000 (Assuming the original estimate)

ECAC = PB*(ACWP/BCWP) = 47000*(22500/18500) = £57162.16 (Assuming same cost/budget


Schedule-performance index (SPI):

SPI = BCWP/BCWS = 18500/22000 = 0.841 (<1 means behind schedule)

Estimated completion date (ECD):

Time now is 10 weeks. Then, we need to find the time at which BCWS equals to value of BCWP at
time now. From the graph that time is 8.7 weeks.

Slippage is deduced graphically. So, slippage = 10 - 8.7 = 1.3 weeks

ECD = original ECD + slippage = 22 + 1.3 = 23.3 weeks (Assume no further slippage)

ECD = original ECD * time BCWP / time BCWS = 22 * 10/8.7 = 25.29 weeks (Assume slip at same

The project manager should:

1. Update Gantt
2. Check cause of problem
3. Consult with stakeholders
4. If overspend is not authorized release staff
5. If it is necessary to complete the project on time contract more resources

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Organization & personnel

i. Design the ideal management structure for the EPOWER ERP project. Note that the
management structure adopted in the case study may not be the best approach. [12]

Project Board
Senior Consultants (who
Production planning completed Business
Procurement Board of Directors process re-engineering
Supply-chain management study and defined
Finance requirements)

Project Assurance Team (external

A Consultant auditors, representatives of
shareholders, functional
departments and QA)

Work Package Managers (TECHCO

PM, IT Managers, other functional
department managers)

Figure 6 PRINCE Management Structure

The project management shouldn’t be divided in 13 people. It should be carried out by a

consultant with experience in the SAP R/3 package. If one of the consultants who completed
the business process re-engineering study and defined requirements for EPOWER has this
experience, he or she might be the project manager. In other case, the project manager
should be another consultant.
The Executive is the Board of Directors because they are paying for the project.
The Senior Users are all the managers of areas directly involved in the ERP system
implementation. In this case, production planning, procurement, supply-chain management
and finance managers.
The Senior Suppliers are people who provide expertise to implement the project. For EPOWER
ERP, consultants who defined the strategy for the future of EPOWER systems should be the
suppliers, because they know the business processes and requirements for the new systems
across all of the operating companies.
The project assurance team has to provide an independent point of view about the progress of
the project, hence external auditors (specialist or technical assurance) and representatives of
shareholders (business assurance), functional departments (user assurance) and QA should be
part of this team.

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ii. Prepare a stake holder map for the project.

External Auditors Shareholders

The Board of
project staff Software engineers

TECHCO Project Manager EPOWER ERP Project Management MINIPOWER IT Trainee software engineer
companies user MINIPOWER user
acceptance team acceptance team

Production planning managers Supply-chain managers Procurement managers Finance managers Other functional department

Department staff Department staff Department staff Department staff Other operating companies
Key stakeholder

Other stakeholder
Figure 7 Stakeholder map

This is the stakeholder map for the ideal management structure for the EPOWER ERP project in i).

The consultants will encapsulate requirements coming from across the organization so the project
manager will have only a point of contact for requirements.

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iii. Choose three stakeholders from the stakeholder map and analyse their potential impact
on the project. Describe how the project manager could ensure that each stakeholder
contributes to success project. Choose stakeholders with varied interests.

Stakeholder Goals Past Behaviour -ve Likely reactions Ideas for action
Reactions or
Operating Increase the Accustomed Didn’t pay -ve Ignore change until Involve in
companies’ pace of their to changes in much implementation. prototyping and
staff. activities in their attention to testing.
the job. computer the
systems. implementa
The Board Finish the Enthusiastic Keen to be +ve Worried for delays Check every new
of Directors. project at the in project involved and reluctant to pay requirement
estimated cost implementati and additional costs for across the whole
and time. on. monitor implementing many organization to
progress. new requirements. justify that it is
really required and
apply across all
TECHCO Gets They were Failing on -ve Charge any Use external
supplier. experience familiar with detect additional work at auditors to
implementing EPOWER future daily rate. estimate cost and
standard SAP business problems impact of any
package and processes. due to they additional work in
keep the had no the standard SAP
relationship experience package.
with EPOWER with SAP
as software R/3
supplier. package
Table 5 Stakeholders analysis

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Risk analysis
Identify three risks associated with the EPOWER ERP project which might have been identified at a
point in time before the project started. These risks must be specific this project and not just
general risks like the project being late or over budget. For each risk identified, suggest actions
that the project manager could take to deal with each risk. Identify the type of risk management
strategy that you have suggested for each risk. [9]

Risk Strategy Strategy Type

Difficult to detect at the beginning of Each new requirement must be approved Probability reduction.
the project that standard SAP R/3 by each operating company before
package may be unsuitable for developing it.
EPOWER’s requirements. Each part of the ERP system released by
TECHCO for user acceptance and review
must be validated across all organization,
before implementing it.
If TECHCO charge any additional work Contract consultants to determine the Impact reduction
at daily rate, it might be difficult to amount of work required for any
control and the project might be easily additional activity on each release.
over budgeted.
Uncontrolled enhancements in Contract external auditors to validate in Probability reduction
standard SAP R/3 package might advance each enhancement developed in
create dependency with TECHCO and order to avoid future dependency with
difficulties to upgrade the package to TECHCO and reduce difficulties to upgrade
future versions. to future versions.
TECHCO may not anticipate Contract a consultant with experience in Impact reduction
implementations problems due to its SAP R/3 package implementations to
lack of experience in SAP R/3 package accompany EPOWER.
A split project management and Implement video conferencing; create a Probability reduction
remote location of all project project website, use blogs, wikis and social
managers might cause difficulties to networking.
control and monitor the whole
Table 6 Risk analysis table

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Quality discussion
This section doesn’t relate specifically to the EPOWER ERP project and is an opportunity for you to
carry out some minor research into quality management. Marks will be awarded in this section for
quality of research and presentation. Please provide references for your work. Word limit for this
section is 500 words.

How has the work of experts such as Deming, Juran, Crosby, Taguchi and Feigenbaum affected
software quality management? Discuss the work of just one or two of these experts. [10]

Philip Crosby’s contribution to Software Quality Management

Philip Crosby (1926 -2001) is one of the most important contributors to Quality Management. He
developed his quality theory around four main principles:

1. Quality is defined by accomplishing requirements.

2. Prevent defects instead of verifying them.
3. The standard to produce something should be zero defects.
4. Quality is measured by the price of non-compliance with requirements and not by indices.


Prevent defects

Quality Principles

Produce zero

Measure price of
non compliance

Figure 8 Quality Principles - Philip Crosby

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Software quality management is focused on meeting client expectations. It includes quality plan,
quality assurance and quality control processes, always taking the following aspects into account:

1. Improve quality of product by testing, validation and verification.

2. Improve quality of process by the use of standard development methodologies and
certifications for development, management processes and the level at which the
company operates.
3. Improve quality of people by measuring their competence and continuous training.

Applying the first principle of Philip Crosby for software quality management, we have that the
project manager should define the methodology, standards and procedures for the project in
order to provide the tools for the project team to accomplish the expected requirements. Also, he
should motivate people to always improve their work because according to Crosby, quality
includes all the members, from the project manager to the lowest level in the team.

Regarding the second principle, it is more difficult to correct errors with patches and new releases
than avoiding defects. For this reason software should be tested to identify if it works as expected,
to find bugs and correct them and to check performance and usability. Using appropriately the six
kind of testing: unit testing, integration testing, subsystem testing, system testing and regression
testing; a project team is avoiding programming defects and in the first software release (doing it
right the first time).

Taking the third principle into consideration, one way to assure no defects is to carry out QA
activities such as reviews and inspections. Quality reviews consist on checking if defined
procedures, standards, design, specifications, etc. are being followed. Program inspection is an
activity carried out by team members using a checklist of programming errors to look for defects.
Both review and inspections are part of the validation and verification processes. Verification is
the checking process to identify if the software accomplishes functional and non-functional
requirements. On the other hand, validation is more general because its aim is to ensure that the
software is meeting customer’s expectations. Although, Crosby refers only to verification process
in the case of software sometimes there is a slightly difference between requirements and what
the client really expects.

Finally, the fourth principle is related to mechanisms to measure the price of non-compliance
which is the money that the project spends correcting errors in comparison to the price of

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compliance which is the money invested in producing well developed software. Examples of price
of non-compliance are the time spending for people involved in configuration management plan
to produce a new release o patch to correct the mistake, the price of the time spending for the
client checking more than once if a software release meet his requirements, etc. On the other
hand, examples of price of compliance are the price of training for team members, the price of
certification processes, etc. In any case, price of compliance always is cheaper than non
compliance. What is more, there are other values more difficult to estimate like prestigious and
user satisfaction.


1. Crosby, P. (2010) Absolutos de Calidad de Crosby, [Online], Available: [20 Dec 2010]
2. El Rincón del Vago (2010), Calidad, [Online], Available: [20 Dec 2010]
3. Sommerville, I. (2010) Software Engineering, 9th edition, London: Pearson, Chapters 8 and
4. Field, M. and Keller, L. (2010) Project Management, London: The Open University, Chapter
5. Wikipedia (2010), Software Quality Management, [Online], Available: [20 Dec 2010]
6. IBM (2010), Quality Management in 3 Minutes, [Online], Available: [20 Dec 2010]
7. Gestiopolis (2010), Quién es Philip Crosby?, [Online], Available: [20
Dec 2010]

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Configuration management plan

Describe the procedures that should be introduced to manage change in this project. Clearly
identify the responsibilities for each stage of the change process. Note that the most appropriate
procedures may not have been adopted in the case study. Word limit for this section is 500 words.

Steps in change management process Responsibility

User acceptance team in one of the companies Functional department manager of that
identify possible change operating company
CA analyze the possible change and pass it to Configuration administrator (CA). CA is one of
other operating companies the consultants who complete business
processes re-engineering and requirements.
Operating companies user acceptance team CA, functional department managers of each
defines possible change for all the organization company
Change request form (CRF) partially completed CA, functional department managers and
with a unique identifier EPOWER Project manager
Dependent items and their item controllers CA using Clear Case
Item controllers are notified of the change by Functional department managers group is
email Change Control Board (CCB) for requirements
The EPOWER Project Manager is item
controller for table
EPOWER Project manager appoints someone to EPOWER Project Manager appoints the
assess the change representative of TECHCO, TECHCO project
manager, as assessor
Assessor records the impact in the CRF Assessor, TECHCO project manager
Item controllers approve the change TECHCO project manager as representative of
software supplier approves the table change
CCB approve the requirements change
CA records the approval in the CRF CA records approval
CA notifies all concerned by publishing the CA publishes the change

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change in the details of next release

EPOWER project manager asks TECHCO to EPOWER project manager
make the change
TECHCO project manager appoints a developer TECHCO project manager
from TECHCO team
TECHCO developer makes the change and test someone appointed by TECHCO project
it manager
Systems testers test the change together with Operating companies user acceptance team
other changes for the release and systems testers from TECHCO staff
TECHCO project manager notifies that the TECHCO project manager
change is ready
Item controller approves new release CCB
Configuration administrator notifies all users of CA notifies Project Manager and all others
the new release users
Table 7 Change management process

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Final Project Report

Assume that the purpose of this section of the plan is to help improve the standard of project
management generally in EPOWER Ltd. Identify three good features and three points of weakness
associated with the management of this project and make recommendations for the management
of future projects in EPOWER Ltd. Word limit for this section is 500 words. [12]

Three good features:

1. Appointed consultants to define a strategy for the future of EPOWER systems.

2. Contracted external auditors to get an independent point of view of the project.
3. Launched a publicity programme to make staff understand the benefits for the company
of adopting the ERP approach.

Regarding the good features the recommendations for the management of future projects are:

1. Consultants should elaborate a project plan according to Appendix A.

2. External auditors should be hired as soon as the project starts in order to avoid getting and
independent point of view when the project is finished. They should monitor the progress
according to schedule, budget and risk analysis of the project plan.
3. Publicity programmes should show benefits not only for company but also for staff members
in order to get more attention from them.

Four points of weakness:

1. To split the project management in each operating company and software supplier. What
is more, all of them were geographically distributed in different places.
2. To decide implement SAP ERP when consultants recommended Baan ERP because this one
was the best fit to EPOWER requirements.
3. To pay TECHCO for any additional work at a daily rate without defining neither activities
nor metrics for these additional works. This way, the software supplier was in a
comfortable situation charging any additional work. It was never pressured to assume its
responsibility for his lack of experience in SAP.
4. Not include in the project management someone with experience in the ERP system to

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Regarding the good features the recommendations for the management of future projects

1. The project management should not be split into many people without a state global view of
the project. Additionally when there are teams geographically distributed, the best option is to
implement video conferencing; create a project website, use blogs, wikis and social
2. Future decision about implementing systems should be based on the software which better
support business processes and EPOWER requirements.
3. Before contracting a software supplier, activities should be clearly defined. If activities of the
project are clear enough, it will never be necessary to accept works charged at a daily rate.
4. It is recommendable that people know both platform and business processes are involved in
project management.

Appendix A
1. To elaborate a project plan with the following sections:
1.1. Project scope and contract
1.2. Technical plan
1.2.1.Define project life cycle and software engineering approaches using SWOT analysis,
cause and effect diagram, David Boddy's profile tool and matrix diagram to link
solution strategies to objectives.
1.2.2.Feasibility study using the figure of merit (FOM).
1.3. Project schedule
1.3.1.WBS and estimates.
1.3.2.Prepare an activity on arrow network, resource loading chart, Gantt and milestones.
Take into consideration, to schedule according to calendar time and resource
1.3.3.Draw the earned value diagram.
1.3.4.Monitor the project updating activity on arrow network, Gantt and earned value
1.4. Project budget
1.4.1.Estimates, monitoring mechanisms, earned value diagram

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1.5. Organization and personnel

1.5.1.Manage the structure of the project using PRINCE Project Board. Take into
consideration a project assurance team.
1.5.2.Identify or choose the appropriate project team type
1.5.3.Draw a stakeholder map
1.6. Quality plan
1.6.1.Identify software quality practices which contribute to improve the quality of
product, process and people.
1.7. Risk analysis
1.7.1.Identify risks; take into consideration top ten risks according to Hall.
1.7.2.Analyze risks
1.7.3.Manage risks taking into consideration the six types of risk management strategies.
1.8. Configuration management plan
2. Keep this project documentation in one place available for clients, senior management and
project team.
3. Elaborate a final project report for each project.

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