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RETAIL FOOD SYSTEMS RESEARCH CONFERENCE

WRITING A HACCP-BASED FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FSMS) OPERATIONS MANUAL

Tuesday, January 8, 2008, 10:30 a.m. to 12:00 noon Peppermill Resort*Spa*Casino Reno, Nevada

O. Peter Snyder, Jr., Ph.D.

Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management 670 Transfer Road, Suite 21A; St. Paul, MN 55114 TEL 651 646 7077; FAX 651 646 5984

e-mail: osnyder@hi-tm.com

web site: http://www.hi-tm.com

THE UNIT AS A FOOD PROCESS SYSTEM

THE UNIT AS A FOOD PROCESS SYSTEM presentations: RENO2008: Jan08-Tue-writing rev 1/2/08 3:09 PM print 1/2/08

FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (TRAINING) MANUAL

Preface

Log of changes Reassessment

Operations Description

System description Organization Environment (picture) Facilities (plan) Equipment (list) Menu HACCP (processes)

AMC-HACCP Management

Food safety policy Responsibility and accountability HACCP team / QC Self-inspection Corrective action Training Emergencies Food security / sabotage

Prerequisite Processes

Personal hygiene

Employee illness reporting Hand washing

After toilet After touching raw food

Facilities, Environment

Cleaning, maintenance, and pest control

Equipment

Cleaning and maintenance of

food contact surfaces

Supplies

Source of supply Ingredients Supplier safe vs. cook made safe

Receiving inspection Storage: ambient, refrigerated, frozen Control of physical, chemical, and biological contamination

Food Process HACCP

Pre-preparation

Physical hazards

Chemical hazards

Allergens Thawing Fruit and vegetable washing Serving raw food

Preparation

Salad and hors d'oeuvres Pasteurization / sterilization

Ingredients to extend shelf life Hot holding Cooling Cold holding Leftovers / reprocessing

Distributing / serving food

Communicating safe handling

PROCESS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA-BASED AMC-HACCP SELF-INSPECTION

FOOD SAFETY PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

OBSERVATION

CORR. ACT.

  • 1. Management, Person In Charge (PIC)

   
  • a. Self-assessment using hazard and control checklist

  • b. Cooks trained, know hazards and perform controls and monitoring

  • c. HACCP team trained and meeting to verify records that processes are in control and to take corrective action and improve

  • d. HACCP plan validated and being followed

Prerequisite Programs

   
  • 2. Personal Hygiene

   
  • a. Ill employee control (no work if vomiting, diarrhea; tell PIC if sick; restricted

work if sneezing, coughing, runny nose; Call health department with hepatitis A, norovirus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.)

  • b. Hand sink is convenient, equipped, stocked

  • c. Employees clean (uniform; no body odor, short fingernails, etc.)

  • d. Double hand washing when coming into food prep area, 6 log reduction; Single hand washing when in kitchen working with food, 3 log reduction

  • e. Gloves covered bandaged wounds and cuts on hands; changed as necessary

  • 3. Environment / Facilities

   
  • a. Cleaned, maintained, pests controlled

  • b. Water, plumbing, sewage, trash controlled (no cross connections; backflow preventers / air gaps installed; water safe source; approved sewer and waste management)

  • c. Toxic items, chemicals controlled (separate storage; labeled)

  • 4. Equipment

   
  • a. Thermostats calibrated

  • b. Adequate capacity to process food (Cook, hot hold, cool, cold hold)

  • c. Safe construction materials

  • d. Food contact surface rinse, wash, rinse, sanitize, 5 log reduction

  • e. Maintained

  • 5. Food Source, Receiving, and Storage

   
  • a. Sources provide intervention strategies for ready-to-eat food

  • b. Food received 41ºF or 0ºF, undamaged / unspoiled or rejected

  • c. Stored, covered, raw on bottom, ready-to-eat on top 41ºF; 0ºF; cool dry; 6 inches above floor

  • d. Chemicals separated; rejected supplies separated

Food HACCP Processes

   
  • 1. Physical hazards reduced to an appropriate level

   
  • 2. Allergen control; know ingredients; do not add fresh to old

  • 3. Additives used according to CFRs

  • 4. Consumer advisory

  • 5. Double washing fruits and vegetables, 2 log reduction; or blanch, 5 log reduction

  • 6. Freezing for parasite destruction (-4ºF, 7 days)

  • 7. Cooking pasteurization, >5 log Salmonella reduction; roasts 6.5 log reduction

  • 8. Hot hold, transport, serve / catering >130ºF or <1 log increase in pathogens

  • 9. Inhibitors for spore pathogen control: pH <4.2, a w <0.92 Vegetative pathogen control: pH <4.2, a w <0.86

  • 10. Cooling, <2 inches thick, <1 gallon, <1 log increase in Clostridium perfringens

  • 11. Cold hold <7 days, transport, serve / catering, <1 log increase in pathogens (Bacillus cereus); fresh not added to old

  • 12. Salads mixed with ingredients, <50ºF for Staphylococcus aureus toxin control

  • 13. Leftovers reheat to 165ºF, <2 hours, hold 15 seconds

  • 14. Take out: Customers advised to eat in <4 hours or refrigerate immediately (<3 log increase Bacillus cereus)

FDA FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT HACCP DOCUMENT

AMC-HACCP VALIDATION OF THE SAFETY OF

_________________________________________

(Name and address of establishment)

(Report prepared by

_________

)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Summary Introduction to the process Recipe, flow chart Experimental validation data HACCP plan

Process step Significant hazard identification Control validation data Monitoring, frequency, method, records Corrective action if critical limits are not met Verification by PIC that HACCP plan is properly operated

Training

HACCP-TQM RETAIL FOOD SYSTEM Food market Restaurant Home Management Continuous HACCP Improvement Daily Operations Report INPUT,
HACCP-TQM RETAIL FOOD SYSTEM
Food market
Restaurant
Home
Management Continuous HACCP Improvement
Daily Operations
Report
INPUT, Baseline Hazards
H 0
Prerequisite Processes
FOOD HACCP PROCESS,
+ ΣI - ΣR
OUTPUT, FSO*
Food with TLR / ALOP*
Reduce hazard to a TLR / ALOP*

Personnel with disease

Environmental hazards

Pests, insects, birds Water contaminated with microorganisms, and at a high pH >8.0 Gas, solar, electric. water that can be interrupted

Facilities and equipment

cleaning and maintenance

Supplies and material with environmental and human hazards, contamination, various levels of nutrients and spoilage, receive and store

TLR = Tolerable Level of Risk

Food processes

I. Wash / trim, serve II. Fermented, pH, a w preserved food: cheese, yogurt, wine, sauerkraut, cider, cold smoked, dressing, salt, acid, etc. III. Pasteurized, serve Meat, fish, poultry, vegetable, starch IV. Pasteurized and pH / a w preserved: fruit / jams; BBQ; meat, poultry; salted / smoked fish, sausage; tomato, hollandaise sauce; bread, pastry V. Sterilized

Leftovers

ALOP = Appropriate Level Of Protection

Serve -- carry-out Transport / package

Consumer

Food with a good balance

among pleasure, safety, nutrition, convenience Consumer food abuse Consumer allergies, intolerance, etc.

Waste

Heat, contaminated air, smoke, grease Sewage, graywater Glass, paper, metal, plastic Food, grease

FSO = Food Safety Objective

RETAIL FOOD BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

Vegetative. cells (Reduce)

Spores

(Prevent

Parasites

(Reduce)

Viruses

(Reduce)

Biological

Toxins

Seafood

toxins

Germination)

(Prevent)

(Prevent)

Campylobacter jejuni, other campylobacters Diarrheagenic

Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp.

Giardia Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium

Cyclospora

Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis E

Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus cereus

Scombroid

Escherichia coli Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Staphylococcus aureus Shigella Vibrio Yersinia enterocolitica

Other Bacterial

Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens Clostridium difficile

parvum Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella

cayetanensis Anisakis sp. and related worms

virus Norovirus Other Enteric viruses Rotaviruses, and others

Clostridium botulinum

and Y. pseudotuberculosis

Diphyllobothrium spp. Nanophyetus spp. Acanthamoeba and

Ascaris lumbricoides

Pathogens:

other free-living

Aeromonas Arcobacter Nitrobacteria

amoebae

Trichuris trichiura

Helicobacter Mycobacterium Plesiomonas Streptococcus, and others

and others

RETAIL FOOD CHEMICAL HAZARDS (Prevent / Eliminate)

Biogenic

Toxins & Natural

Allergens

     

Chemicals, Fungal &

and

Other Natural Toxins

Residues

Prions

Amines, Toxins

Mushroom Toxins

Intolerance

Histamine

Lead

Milk

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids

Pesticides,

nCJD

Ciguatera

Mercury

Eggs

Phytohaemagglutinin

herbicides,

Paralytic shellfish

Radionucleides

Wheat

(Red kidney bean

hormones,

poison

Peanuts

poisoning)

antibiotics

Neurotoxic shellfish

Soy

Grayanotoxin (Honey

poison

Tree nuts

intoxication), and

Amnesic shellfish

Fish

others

poison

Crustacean

Tyramine Serotonin Catecholamine neurotransmitters Tryptamine

shellfish

RETAIL FOOD PHYSICAL HAZARDS (Reduce)

Broken Teeth

Choking

Cuts in Mouth

Burns

Bones Rocks Metal Twist ties / staples Pits / seeds

Plastic Wrap Large, insufficiently chewed pieces of food

Glass

Temperature of foods above 170ºF (77ºC)

TOXIC COMPOUNDS IN FOOD

Mycotoxins in grain

Cooking does not eliminate.

Kidney beans

Must be boiled 10 minutes to reduce phytohemagglutinin to a safe level.

Soybeans

Must be heated thoroughly to reduce heat-labile protease inhibitors.

Raw egg whites

Conalbumin and avidin can impair metabolism.

Mushrooms

Can cause cancer in mice.

Potatoes

Solanine and chaconine are heat stable.

Spinach, rhubarb

Oxalates inhibit calcium absorption.

Taro

Trypsin inhibitors destroyed by heat.

Parsnips

Carcinogenic and mutagenic psoralens not destroyed by heat.

Flavonoids

Can inhibit enzyme systems and respiration.

Alfalfa sprouts

Canavanine causes lupus disease.

Other examples of foods containing toxins: herbal teas, cottonseed; black pepper; hot pepper; oil of mustard and horseradish; heated milk protein; heated fats.

FOOD HAZARDS (H 0 ) AND FOOD SAFETY OBJECTIVES (FSO)

Hazards

Raw Product Contamination (H 0 )

Process Performance Criteria (ΣR)

Food Safety Objective (FSO)

MICROBIOLOGICAL (Reduce)

INFECTIVE Vegetative pathogens - infection

Salmonella spp. / E. coli O157:H7 (food) Shigella spp. (feces) (human)

10 3 cfu/g 10 6 cfu/g

10 -5 cfu/g - reduce 10 -6 cfu/g - reduce

10 -2 cfu/g or 1cfu per 100 g 10 cfu/g or 1cfu

Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum (food)

1 cyst

prevent / reduce

undetectable

Toxoplasma gondii (food)

1 cyst

prevent / reduce

undetectable

Trichinella spiralis (food)

1-500 larvae

prevent / reduce

undetectable

Viruses Hepatitis A (human)

>10 virus / g

prevent / reduce

undetectable

Norovirus (human)

>100 virus / g

prevent / reduce

undetectable

TOXIN PRODUCING Staphylococcus aureus (exotoxin) (human)

10 3 cfu/g

<10 3 cfu/g increase

<10 6 cfu/g (toxin dose: <1 microgram)

SPORES Clostridium botulinum (exotoxin) (food)

10 0 spores / g

<10 3 cfu/g increase

<10 3 cfu/g (toxin dose: 2 nanograms)

Bacillus cereus (exotoxin, enterotoxin) (food)

10 2 spores / g

<10 3 cfu/g increase

<10

5

cfu/g (toxin dose: unknown)

Clostridium perfringens (enterotoxin) (food)

10 2 spores / g

<10 3 cfu/g increase

<10 5 cfu/g (toxin dose: unknown)

CHEMICAL (Prevent / eliminate)

Sulfites

Variable

none added

<10 ppm

Nitrates

Variable

<500 ppm added

<500 ppm

Nitrites

Variable

<200 ppm added

<200 ppm

Monosodium glutamate

Variable

0.5 g / serving added

<3.0 g / meal

Aflatoxins (from mold)

<20 ppb

no increase

<20 ppb

Histamine (from fish, cheese)

<20 ppm

no increase

<20 ppm

PHYSICAL (Prevent / eliminate)

Hard foreign objects (broken tooth)

>1/16 inch diameter

prevent / remove

undetectable

Choking

>1/4 inch diameter

cut 1/4 inch

<1/4 inch

* cfu = colony forming units

VEGETATIVE BACTERIAL PATHOGENS

(5-log / 6.5-log Pasteurization or 2-log Wash)

               

Time 1-log

 
 

Min.

Max.

 

Min.

Max.

Min

reduction

Toxin

Bacteria

Source

temp.

temp.

pH

pH

a w

 

at 140°F

Destruction

 

(°F)

(°F)

   

(minutes)

Aeromonas hydrophila

Feces / food

 
  • 29.3 4.0

111

     
  • 7.2 m.

-

0.02

 

n/a

 

Feces / food

     
  • 29.3 4.4

113

     
  • 9.4 .92

 

3.8

m.

n/a

Listeria monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolitica

Feces / food

 
  • 29.3 4.2

111

   

10

.945

 

1.6

m.

n/a

Salmonella spp.

Feces / food

 
  • 41.4 4.2

115.2

       
  • 8.0 .94

 

1.7

m.

 

n/a

Shigella spp.

Feces / food / water

 
  • 43 4.8

116.8

     
  • 9.3 .96

 

1.7

m.

n/a

Escherichia coli

Feces / food /

 
  • 44.6 4.0

114

     
  • 9.0 .95

 

1.7

m.

n/a

O157:H7

water

   

Vibrio cholerae

Feces / food / water

 

109.4

  • 50 5.0

     
  • 10 .97

 

D 120 =8.15 m.

n/a

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Seafood / water

 
  • 41 4.8

111

     
  • 11 .94

 

D 120 =0.82 m.

n/a

Vibrio vulnificus

Seafood / water

 

109.4

  • 46.4 5.0

     
  • 10 .96

 

D 122 =0.66 m.

n/a

Campylobacter jejuni

Feces / food

 
  • 86 4.9

113

   

9.3

.987

 

0.25

m.

n/a

 

Staphylococcus aureus

Nasal cavity, skin,

             

growth

infected cuts,

122

  • 44.6 4.0

   

10

.83

 

3 m.

68.6 minutes at

toxin production

boils, wounds

     

118

  • 50.0 4.5

9.8

.86

 

210°F

SPORE-FORMING BACTERIAL PATHOGENS - VEGETATIVE STATE

             

Time for

   

Min.

 

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min

veg. cell

D-value (°F)

 

Toxin

Bacteria

Source

temp.

temp.

pH

pH

a w

destruction

Spores

Destruction

(°F)

 

(°F)

at 140°F

 

(minutes)

Clostridium

Soil, feces,

50

 

125

   
  • 5.5 .93

 
  • 9.0 D 210°F =

3.5 m.

 

n/a

perfringens

sewage,

 

31.4

min.

water, dust

Beef Gravy

(varies with

type)

Bacillus cereus

Soil, dust,

           

D 212°F = 3.1

D 132.8°F =

grains,

39.2

 

122

4.3
4.3
.92
.92
  • 9.3 min.

1 m.

5

min for

cereals

 

Skim milk

diarrheal

D 212°F =

illness

22 to 36

D 250°F =

min. in rice

90

min for

emetic illness

Clostridium

Soil

           

D 250°F =

D 174°F =

botulinum, type A,

50

118.4

  • 4.6 .935

  • 9.0 Not available

0.23

to 0.3

20

min.

and proteolytic B

min.

D 185°F =

and F

5

min.

Clostridium

Water,

           

D 180°F = 0.8

(same as

botulinum,

sludge

near

37.9

 

113

  • 5.0 .97

Not available

  • 9.0 to 6.6 min.

above)

type E, and non-

 

(depending

proteolytic B and F

bodies of

on type of

water

food.)

FOOD PROCESS HAZARD ANALYSIS

HAZARD ANALYSIS

Infective vegetative bacteria, viruses, and parasites found in meat, poultry, milk,

Chemicals, poisons, poisonous plants found in meat, fish, vegetables, casseroles,

Spores found in meat, milk, vegetables,

vegetables, fruit, etc.

and sauces

starches, cereals, and sauces

Purchasing (H 0 )

 

Illness Dose (FSO*)

Biological Toxins

Illness Dose (FSO*)

 

Illness Dose (FSO)

Receiving-Storage

Salmonella spp.

4 to 10 5 CFU

Staphylococcal toxin

10 5 to 10 6 CFU/g

Clostridium

perfringens

10 6 CFU

Vibrio spp.

10 3 to 10 10 CFU

(for toxin amount)

Clostridium

botulinum

10 3 CFU/g

Campylobacter jejuni Shigella spp.

400 to 500 CFU 10 to 100 CFU

Botulinal toxin Scombroid toxin (histamine)

10 3 CFU/g >50 mg/100g

Bacillus cereus

(for toxin hazard) 10 5 - 10 11 CFU

  • E. coli O157:H7

10 to 100 CFU

Fish Poisons

 
  • E. coli (enterotoxigenic)

10 6 to 10 10 CFU

Ciguatera poisoning

>1 mg. toxin

 

(for toxin and diarrhea

Listeria monocytogenes

100 to 1000 CFU

Paralytic shellfish poisoning

>80 µg/100g

hazard)

Hepatitis A, norovirus,

<10

Chemicals

 

Parasites, tapeworms,

<10

Monosodium glutamate

>0.5% (Amt. in

round worms, flukes

Sulfites

food) >10 ppm (Amt. in food)

Nitrate and nitrites

>200 ppm

Spores are not a hazard until the process

(Amt. in food)

allows the spores to germinate and multiply

PROCESS

     

CONTROL

 

Cold handling

Cook – hot

Cold handling

Cook – hot

Cold handling

Cook – hot

Preparation

 

Hazardous

Hazardous

No hazard

<6 hours to 130ºF

Thaw

  • 30 to 115ºF veg. path. mult.

Competitive

 

Spores activated but

Cut

Increases hazard

microorganisms

then, killed above

Wash

Washing fruits and vegetables

and time

130°F

reduces hazards

prevent significant

 

Cook

increase. Pasteurize, 5-log reduction. Veg. path. destroyed.

Post-cook process

  • 30 to 115ºF veg. path. mult. increases hazard

Cool. Only spore hazard; veg. path. destroyed

Hazardous

Hazardous

No hazard

Hot hold >130ºF, no hazard Cooling <6 hours, 120 to 55ºF – no hazard

Leftovers Reheat not required for

  • 30 to 115ºF veg. path. mult. increases hazard

<40ºF – no veg. path. hazard

Hazardous

Hazardous

No hazard

<41ºF – no hazard

safety

Prevent cross-contamination

Prevent cross- contamination

   

*FSO = Food Safety Objective

RETAIL HACCP PROCESS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

PREREQUISITE PROCESSES HACCP

Risk Proc System Processes H 0 + ΣI - ΣR = FSO / ALOP Hazard H
Risk
Proc
System Processes
H 0 + ΣI - ΣR = FSO / ALOP
Hazard
H
Critical
0
Sev
Det
Freq
FSO
Perf Crit
Critical Process
Name
Level
Limit
Sick employees
Strep throat:
-Cough into shoulder for 3-log reduction of
Streptococcus pyrogenes
Feces on fingertips:
-Double wash fingers coming from toilet and bowel
movement, 6-log Shigella reduction
Facility / environment
Contaminated water:
-EPA standards for chlorine and 3-log reduction of
viruses and parasites by filtration
Equipment
Contaminated non-food contact surface:
-Wash and rinse to visually clean <100 CFU / 50 sq.
cm.
-Wipe scraps from food contact surface; wiping cloth
in sanitizer solution
Contaminated food contact surface:
-Wash, rinse, sanitize – 5-log reduction E. coli (2
buckets, 3-compartment sink, dish machine)
Equipment controls inaccurate:
-Calibrate and maintain
Supplies
Cleaning and pest control chemicals:
-Secure chemicals
Ingredients (allergens, additives):
-Use IAW GMP / approved levels
Physical hazards:
-Reduce to <1/16 inch or small enough not to cause
choking
Pathogens in vegetables and fruit:
-No temperature requirement (no rapid and progress
growth)
-Double
Meat, poultry, control spoilage:
-Fish, control histamine

HAND WASHING HACCP

HAND WASHING HACCP Hazard: Toilet paper slips and tears, and a person can get 6 log

Hazard:

Toilet paper slips and tears, and a person can get 6

log pathogens on fingertips.

Control:

When coming from the toilet, do the double wash with a nail brush for a 6 log reduction by dilution.

  • 1. Nail brush friction, detergent, and water (45 to 110ºF), 3 log reduction

  • 2. Second wash, no nail brush, 2 log reduction

  • 3. Paper towel dry, 1 log reduction

  • 4. Water flow, no splash, 2 gallons / minute

  • 5. No touch controls are not necessary

Validation:

  • 1. Contaminate fingertips 7 log with non- pathogenic E. coli

  • 2. Double fingertip wash, 6 log reduction

  • 3. Petrifilm™ recovery E. coli <10 total

KITCHEN CLEANING AND SANITATION

FOR LISTERIA CONTROL

KITCHEN CLEANING AND SANITATION FOR LISTERIA CONTROL HAZARD: It must be assumed that the kitchen environment

HAZARD: It must be assumed that the kitchen environment will be colonized with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). The food contact surfaces in the cook-chill assembly and packaging departments for ready-to-eat food must be cleaned so that there is no measurable Lm (<1 CFU / 25 grams of food).

CONTROL

  • 1. Determine the niches in the equipment in the ready-to-eat assembly and packaging areas where Lm might become colonized.

  • 2. Establish a cleaning plan for this area.

  • 3. Chose a control alternative

    • a. Add a Lm chemical growth inhibitor such as sodium diacetate or potassium lactate and also, do a post- package heat treatment.

    • b. Just add the chemical inhibitor.

    • c. Use sanitation measures only. This is the best for retail, because it does not affect the product.

VALIDATION: Monthly, take 1 to 3 sponge samples of food contact surfaces and 1 to 3 samples of environmental surfaces (e.g., floor drains, scrubbies, floor scrubbers) and test for Listeria innocua. Follow the action flow chart, FSIS Dir 10,240.3.

FLOW CHART OF LISTERIA CONTROL

IN READY-TO-EAT FOOD PRODUCTION ROOM FSIS DIRECTIVE 10,240.3

FLOW CHART OF LISTERIA CONTROL IN READY-TO-EAT FOOD PRODUCTION ROOM FSIS DIRECTIVE 10,240.3 Day 1 Day
Day 1 Day 4 Day 7 1 st week of month: Take samples for Listeria spp.
Day 1
Day 4
Day 7
1
st week of month:
Take samples for Listeria
spp.
1-3 FCS (Food Contact
Surface)
1-3 Environment – If
environment is positive, do
environmental samples
until 9 in a row are
negative.
Day
Day
Negative Day 1 FCS sample,
Listeria spp.: Continue to
operate.
Day
Day
Negative Listeria spp. Day 4
FCS: Release Day 4, 5, 6
product. Continue to
2
3
Positive Day 1 FCS sample,
5
6
operate.
Listeria spp.: Clean,
sanitize.
Take 2 FCS samples for
Listeria spp.
Produce product.
Positive Listeria spp. Day 4
FCS, destroy product; best
corrective action.
t
Ship product
Hold product

If Day 4 test is positive for Listeria spp. on Day 7, test lots for Listeria monocytogenes (takes 3 days; best to destroy)

If negative Listeria monocytogenes test on Day 7, ship.

If positive, once can do more testing, but

cook or destroy is

recommended.

.

FOOD CONTACT SURFACE WASHING HACCP

(cutting boards, knives)

FOOD CONTACT SURFACE WASHING HACCP (cutting boards, knives) Hazard: Campylobacter jejuni from chicken (1,000 to 10,000

Hazard:

Campylobacter jejuni from chicken (1,000 to 10,000 on surface) and Vibrio from seafood

Control:

  • 1. With warm water running over the cutting board into a disposal, scrub with a brush for a few seconds;

    • 3 log reduction by dilution

  • 2. In the pot and pan sink, scrub again;

    • 2 log reduction by dilution

  • 3. Rinse to remove soap

  • 4. Sanitize, air dry

Validation:

  • 1. Put 7 log E. coli on the cutting board

  • 2. Wash and sanitize

  • 3. Swab 8 square inches, <10 E. coli

FOOD RECEIVING AND STORAGE HACCP

FOOD RECEIVING AND STORAGE HACCP Hazard: Pathogens from raw food can cross-contaminate ready-to-eat food. Control: •

Hazard:

Pathogens from raw food can cross-contaminate

ready-to-eat food.

Control:

Raw food: time and temperature not CCP;

washing or cooking makes food safe Ready-to-eat food on top

Air flow: 50 feet per minute holding; 1,000 feet

per minute cooling; 41ºF, 7 days; 45ºF, 4 days; 50ºF, 2.5 days; 70ºF, 18 hours; 110ºF, 4 hours Humidity 70% to prevent mold growth; 95% to prevent drying of fruits and vegetables

Validation:

Instant mashed potatoes with E. coli in a container; Store, measure temperature, measure growth

FDA VS. HACCP PROCESS CONTROL STANDARDS

Process Step

FDA Performance Standard

HACCP Performance Standard / Criterion

Receiving, storage, pre-preparation

41ºF.

Not a CCP. Receive at any temperature. 5D cooking reduces vegetative pathogens on meat, poultry, and fish to a tolerable level. Growth of pathogens on raw vegetables not an identified significant hazards. If food is to be served without washing or pasteurization, the supplier assures safety.

Preparation

   

Fruit and vegetable

None.

2D wash E. coli reduction; 5D surface blanch E. coli reduction.

washing Pasteurization Meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, bakery

130ºF, 112 min.: beef 135ºF, 27 min.; 140ºF, 9 min.;

5D Salmonella (E. coli) reduction.

Poultry

145ºF, 3 min.; 150ºF, 1 min.; 155ºF, 15 sec. 165ºF, 15 sec.

Hot hold, transport,

130ºF beef; 135ºF everything else.

<1-log increase Clostridium perfringens, which begins to

serve, package Cool

135 to 70ºF, 2 hr.; 70 to 41ºF, 4 hr.

multiply ~125ºF, and at 105ºF, multiply every 15 min. 120 to 55ºF, 6 hr. and continue to 40ºF (14.2 hr.) or <1-log increase of C. perfringens or Bacillus cereus (USDA).

Packaging ready-to- eat food

None.

No detectable Listeria monocytogenes (<1 / 25 g) in ~3 samples

Cold hold

41ºF, 7 days.

every 3 months. No standard. Until spoiled. <50ºF Clostridium botulinum control, <40ºF B. cereus control.

Shelf stable processed food

   

Vegetative cells

<4.6 pH C. botulinum,

<4.2 pH Salmonella, <0.86 a w Staphylococcus aureus.

Spores

<0.86 a w Staphylococcus aureus.

Reheat

41 to 165ºF, 15 sec., 2 hr.

<4.6 pH C. botulinum, <4.2 pH B. cereus, <0.92 a w B. cereus. No standard. Control not needed.

Consumer abuse

None.

<3-log increase B. cereus.

SUPPLIER CONTROLS FOR SAFE PRODUCTS

CONTROL STABILIZE HFO INGREDIENT Grown Pasteurize Allergen Ref. / Sort, Wash Other A w Safe Sterilize
CONTROL
STABILIZE
HFO
INGREDIENT
Grown
Pasteurize
Allergen
Ref. /
Sort,
Wash
Other
A w
Safe
Sterilize
(inform)
pH Acid /
Ferment
Freeze
Remove
Meat / poultry / fish /
seafood
Entrée / specialty foods
Dairy / egg products
Bakery products
Grain / mill products
Nuts
Fruits / vegetables
Non-alcoholic beverages /
juice / bottled water / other
drinks
Fats / oils
Sugars / sweeteners /
confections
Condiments / salad
dressings / vinegars
Gravies / sauces / soups
Spices / flavorings / food
chemicals
Gelatins / puddings /
dessert powders
Alcoholic beverages / bar
mixes

COOK CONTROLS FOR SAFE PRODUCTS

CONTROL STABILIZE B,C,P INGREDIENT HFO Sort, Pasteurize Allergen Ref. / Hazard Wash Other A w Remove
CONTROL
STABILIZE
B,C,P
INGREDIENT
HFO Sort,
Pasteurize
Allergen
Ref. /
Hazard
Wash
Other
A w
Remove
Sterilize
(inform)
pH Acid /
Ferment
Freeze
Meat / poultry / fish /
seafood
Entrée / specialty foods
Dairy / egg products
Bakery products
Grain / mill products
Nuts
Fruits / vegetables
Non-alcoholic beverages /
juice / bottled water / other
drinks
Fats / oils
Sugars / sweeteners /
confections
Condiments / salad
dressings / vinegars
Gravies / sauces / soups
Spices / flavorings / food
chemicals
Gelatins / puddings /
dessert powders
Alcoholic beverages / bar
mixes

MENU ITEM ALLERGEN ANALYSIS

Big Eight Allergen Ingredients Food Intolerance Milk Food Tree and milk Crustaceans Product Peanuts Eggs Soy
Big Eight Allergen Ingredients
Food Intolerance
Milk
Food
Tree
and milk
Crustaceans
Product
Peanuts
Eggs
Soy
Wheat
Fish
Sulfites
MSG
Other
nuts
by-
and
shellfish
products

PROCESS HURDLE TECHNOLOGY

Physical Hurdles

 

Physicochemical Hurdles

Heat processing (pasteurizing, blanching Storage temperature (chilling, freezing) Radiation [ultraviolet (UV), ionizing radiation (irradiation)]

Water activity (a w ) pH Redox potential (E h ) Salt (NaCl)

Glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) Chelators Surface treatment

Electromagnetic energy, EME (microwave energy, radio frequency energy)

Photodynamic inactivation

Nitrite (NaNO 2 ) Nitrate (NaNO 3 or KNO 3 ) Carbon dioxide

agents Ethanol Propylene glycol Maillard reaction

Ultrahigh pressure

(CO

2 )

products (MRPs)

Packaging (vacuum packaging, active packaging, edible coatings)

Oxygen (O 2 ) Ozone

Spices and herbs Lactoperoxidase

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) Aseptic packaging

Organic acids Ascorbic acid Sulphite or SO 2 Smoking Phosphates

Lysozyme Chlorine Chitosan

POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD / TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR SAFETY

The goal is to measure and control the process capability to the time of consumption, to achieve the following food safety objectives:

Vegetative Cells Staphylococcus aureus <3 log growth or no detectable toxin; H 0 2 log in ready-to-eat food Listeria monocytogenes <1 log growth (Ross says 100 / gram at consumption) Salmonella <l log growth Hemorrhagic E. coli <1 log growth Vibrio <1 log growth

Spores Bacillus cereus 3 log growth; H 0 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium perfringens 3 log growth; H 0 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium botulinum (C. sporogenes proxy) absence of toxin (probably 3 log growth)

pH

a w

4.4

0.990

4.5

0.955

4.6

0.935

4.7

0.920

4.8

0.913

4.9

0.907

5.0

0.902

5.1

0.900

5.2

0.898

POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD / TEMPERATURE C <a href=ON TROL FOR SAFETY The goal is to measure and control the process capability to the time of consumption, to achieve the following food safety objectives: Vegetative Cells Staphylococcus aureus <3 log growth or no detectable toxin; H ≤ 2 log in ready-to-eat food Listeria monocytogenes <1 log growth (Ross says ≤ 100 / gram at consumption) Salmonella <l log growth Hemorrhagic E. coli <1 log growth Vibrio <1 log growth Spores Bacillus cereus ≤ 3 log growth; H ≤ 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium perfringens ≤ 3 log growth; H ≤ 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium botulinum ( C. sporogenes proxy) absence of toxin (probably ≤ 3 log growth) pH a w 4.4 0.990 4.5 0.955 4.6 0.935 4.7 0.920 4.8 0.913 4.9 0.907 5.0 0.902 5.1 0.900 5.2 0.898 pH a w 4.8 1.000 4.8 0.988 4.9 0.978 5.0 0.973 5.1 0.968 5.2 0.964 5.3 0.961 5.4 0.958 5.5 0.955 5.6 0.953 5.7 0.951 5.8 0.950 5.9 0.949 6.0 0.948 6.1 0.947 6.2 0.946 7.0 0.946 Graphs adapted from: Evaluation and De finition of Potentially Hazardous Foods Appendix C: Scientific Data Used to Develop Framework 1. Determ ination of pH and water activity limits for TCS foods http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/ift4-ac.html presentations: RENO2008: Jan08-Tue-writing rev 1/2/08 3:09 PM print 1/2/08 25 " id="pdf-obj-24-107" src="pdf-obj-24-107.jpg">

pH

a w

4.8

1.000

4.8

0.988

4.9

0.978

5.0

0.973

5.1

0.968

5.2

0.964

5.3

0.961

5.4

0.958

5.5

0.955

5.6

0.953

5.7

0.951

5.8

0.950

5.9

0.949

6.0

0.948

6.1

0.947

6.2

0.946

7.0

0.946

POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD / TEMPERATURE C <a href=ON TROL FOR SAFETY The goal is to measure and control the process capability to the time of consumption, to achieve the following food safety objectives: Vegetative Cells Staphylococcus aureus <3 log growth or no detectable toxin; H ≤ 2 log in ready-to-eat food Listeria monocytogenes <1 log growth (Ross says ≤ 100 / gram at consumption) Salmonella <l log growth Hemorrhagic E. coli <1 log growth Vibrio <1 log growth Spores Bacillus cereus ≤ 3 log growth; H ≤ 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium perfringens ≤ 3 log growth; H ≤ 2 log pathogenic / gram Clostridium botulinum ( C. sporogenes proxy) absence of toxin (probably ≤ 3 log growth) pH a w 4.4 0.990 4.5 0.955 4.6 0.935 4.7 0.920 4.8 0.913 4.9 0.907 5.0 0.902 5.1 0.900 5.2 0.898 pH a w 4.8 1.000 4.8 0.988 4.9 0.978 5.0 0.973 5.1 0.968 5.2 0.964 5.3 0.961 5.4 0.958 5.5 0.955 5.6 0.953 5.7 0.951 5.8 0.950 5.9 0.949 6.0 0.948 6.1 0.947 6.2 0.946 7.0 0.946 Graphs adapted from: Evaluation and De finition of Potentially Hazardous Foods Appendix C: Scientific Data Used to Develop Framework 1. Determ ination of pH and water activity limits for TCS foods http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/ift4-ac.html presentations: RENO2008: Jan08-Tue-writing rev 1/2/08 3:09 PM print 1/2/08 25 " id="pdf-obj-24-218" src="pdf-obj-24-218.jpg">

Graphs adapted from: Evaluation and Definition of Potentially Hazardous Foods Appendix C: Scientific Data Used to Develop Framework 1. Determination of pH and water activity limits for TCS foods

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/ift4-ac.html

pH PROCESS CONTROL

pH

Description

14.0

Very alkaline

10.0

Dishwashing chemicals, Milk of Magnesia, vegetative pathogen death

9.0

Upper growth limit for bacteria (>9.0 bacterial destruction)

8.5

City water

8.0

Alkaline

Egg white, hominy, devil's food cake

7.0

Neutral

Soaps, hand wash detergents

6.0-7.6

Can cook in copper Human saliva

6.8-4.6

Low acid

Most vegetables (corn, peas, potatoes, beans, lettuce), melons, meat, fish lobster, poultry, milk,

6.8-6.5

cream, oatmeal, gravy, bread Chlorine sanitizer 100% effective

<5.0

<4.6

Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum type E stop growing Acid

<4.5

Most fruits (apples, oranges, grapes, berries, pineapple, tomatoes), Jell-O Clostridium botulinum types A and proteolytic B growth is stopped Staphylococcus aureus toxin production stopped

<4.2-4.0

Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes stopped

4.0

BBQ sauce, catsup, mayonnaise, mustard, hollandaise sauce, pickles, jams and jellies, pickled

2.0-3.0

pig's feet, carbonated beverages Lemons, limes, cranberry juice, vinegar

1.0-2.0

Very acid

Digestive, hydrochloric acid of the stomach

WATER ACTIVITY (a w ) PROCESS CONTROL

Minimal a w required for Bacterial, Yeast, and Mold Growth

Water activity

Food

 

1.0

Water

No restriction

>0.98

Fresh meats, poultry, fish Fresh fruits and vegetables Milk, canned fruits and vegetables.

Yersinia enterocolitica

0.975

  • 0.98 to 0.95

Cooked meat, fish and poultry, bread

Campylobacter spp.

>0.97

0.97

Clostridium botulinum, type E Clostridium perfringens

0.93-0.95

  • 0.95 to 0.91

Cured meat products, cheeses

Bacillus cereus

0.93-0.95

Salmonella spp.

0.92–0.95

Escherichia coli O157:H7

0.95

Clostridium botulinum, type A

0.94

Listeria monocytogenes

0.90–0.93

0.93

Vibrio spp. Most bacteria

0.91–0.88

  • 0.91 to 0.87

Fermented sausages, syrups

Most yeasts

0.88

Staphylococcus aureus

0.83

  • 0.87 to 0.80

Fruit juice concentrates, sweetened condensed

Toxin production

0.86

milk, flours, rice, dried vegetables (peas, beans)

 

0.80

  • 0.80 to 0.75

Jams, marmalade

Regular molds Halophilic bacteria

0.75

  • 0.75 to 0.65

Fudge, marshmallows, jelly, molasses

Xerotolerant molds

0.71

Xerophilic molds and osmophilic yeasts

0.62-0.60

  • 0.65 to 0.60

Dried fruits, caramels, honey

No microbial proliferation (growth)

  • 0.60 to 0.20

Dry pastas (vermicelli), spices, dry milk powder, dried egg powder, crackers

NON-HAZARDOUS-INGREDIENT PRODUCTS

DO NOT REQUIRE PROCESSING BY COOK FOR SAFETY

Protein

Dairy

CHO,

Fats, Oils

Fruit, Veg.

Herbs, Spices,

Funct. Addit.

Beverages

Starch, Sugar

Condiments

Bacon bits

Cheese, hard

Bagels

Oil

Fruits

Tater tots, hash

BBQ sauce

Dry spices

Coffee

Nut paste

Cheese, soft

Bread crumb, stuffing

Pan coating

Fruit pie fillings

Cooking wine

Fresh herbs and

Tea

Peanut butter

Cottage

Chips

Shortening

Fruit Juices

Garlic, canned

spices

Soda

Tahini

cheese

Chow mein noodles

Canned, dried and

Hot sauce

Ginger root

Alcoholic

Cured meats, all

Cheese cake

Crackers, pretzels

frozen fruits

Ketchup

Pepper

beverages

Pate Caviar Egg roll, Stuffed pasta, ravioli tortellini, etc. Leftovers Gravy Soups Soup or gravy stock Dried gelatin Nuts, seeds

Milk Condensed milk Cream Ice cream bar Sour cream Whipped topping Yogurt Flan Butter Evaporated milk

Dry breakfast cereals Dry grains, rice, pasta Bread, rolls, buns Ice cream cone Lefse Pie shell, Pizza crust Popcorn Taco shell, Tortilla (flour or corn) Dumplings Wonton skin Candy, Chocolates Ice cream toppings Marshmallows

Jams, jellies, and preserves Vegetables Capers Chilies Horseradish Olives, Pickles Dry beans, peas, lentils, etc Tempeh, Tofu, Miso Sauerkraut Guacamole Hummus

Salsa Mayonnaise Mustard Relish Salad dressings Soup base (dry) Vanilla extract Vinegar Worcestershire sauce

Salt Sugar Cornstarch

Water, ice

Frozen desserts: ice cream, sherbet, ices Cookies Honey Mousse, pudding, Jello Flour Syrup Molasses

Soy milk Rice milk Cooked vegetables Sauces, tomato, etc. (ready to use) Potato products:

browns, hush puppies

HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS

DO REQUIRE PROCESSING BY COOK FOR SAFETY

Protein

Dairy

CHO,

Fats, Oils

Fruit, Veg.

Herbs, Spices,

Funct. Addit.

Beverages

Starch, Sugar

Condiments

Meat

Raw milk and

None

None

Fruits, fresh

None

None

None

Uncooked meats,

any other

Berries

all (e.g., bacon)

unpasteurized

Citrus fruit

dairy products

Coconut

Fish

Fruit, non-citrus

Fish

Melons, all

Scallops, shellfish

Banana

Poultry

Vegetables, fresh

Fresh vegetables

Lettuce

Other

Spinach

Eggs

Non-protein-

bearing

vegetables

Onion

Peppers

Potatoes

Vegetables, low-

protein

RETAIL HACCP PROCESS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

FOOD PROCESS HACCP

     

Risk

     

Proc

System Processes

H 0 + ΣI - ΣR = FSO / ALOP

Hazard

Sev

Det

Freq

H 0

FSO

Critical

Perf Crit

Critical Process

Name

Level

Limit

Pre-prep Raw food bacterial growth – not CCP:

               

-Pasteurization controls w/ 5-log reduction

Salmonella

RTE food:

-Bacillus cereus <3-log growth, Listeria monocytogenes <2-log growth Fruit and vegetable: wash – 2-log wash / 5-log pasteurization reduction

Fermentation – control of pathogens Pasteurize – use integrated lethality 5-log reduction Salmonella (meat and poultry) 5-log reduction Vibrio (fish / shellfish)

Sterilize –

vegetables, 12-log reduction

Clostridium botulinum (250ºF, 3 minutes); seafood, crab, 6-log reduction C. botulinum (185ºF, 15 minutes) Hot hold / transport – 130ºF surface / center temperature, <1-log increase Clostridium perfringens Room temperature display (sushi, rice cakes, etc.) – <3-log increase B. cereus Cool food – hot to 120ºF in kitchen; 120 to 55ºF in 6 hours and continue to 41ºF no time limit, <3-log increase C. perfringens Cold hold – <3-log increase B. cereus; cook determines shelf life Ship food nationally – <3-log increase B. cereus until consumption

FDA FOOD CODE HOLDING / STORAGE RECOMMENDATIONS

WITH HITM MODIFICATION

Time (hours) 1.6 1.5 H ITM - ad apt ed F D A Foo d C
Time (hours)
1.6
1.5
H ITM - ad apt ed F D A Foo d C ode
0.4
1.4
y = 0 .03 2*( t em p o C - (-2 .9 2 4 ))*
0.5
(1 -E x p (0 .4 4 4 *(te m p o C - 52. 553 ) ) )
1.3
0.59
0.
6
9
1.2
1.1
0.
8
3
1.0
1
0.9
1.
2
0.8
Sp oila g e ba ct er ia
1.
6
y=
0. 01 6x-0 . 2 9
6 9
2.
0
0.7
0.6
B a ct er ia l Pa th og ens
y = 0.01 5x-0.4 3 6 4
2.
8
0.5
4.
0
0.4
6.
3
0.3
11
. 1
25
0.2
0.1
10
0
0
0
2 0
4 0
6 0
8 0
1 00
120
140
[1/generation (h)] 1/2

Tem p er atur e ( o F)

spoilbac/Chart9

Temp.

 

10

(°F)

1 Generation

Generations

 
  • 30 123.8 days

293.5

 
 
  • 35 19.3 days

45.7

 
 
  • 40 18.2

7.5

days

 
  • 41 15.6

6.5

days

 
  • 45 9.5

4.0

days

 
  • 50 5.9

2.4

days

 
  • 55 4.0

1.7

days

 
  • 60 2.9

1.2

days

 
  • 70 1.69

16.9

hrs

 
  • 80 1.11

11.1

hrs

 
  • 90 0.79

7.9

hrs

100

0.59

5.9

hrs

110

0.47

4.7

hrs

115

0.46

4.6

hrs

120

0.56

5.6

hrs

125

3.1

31.0

hrs

382

WASHING AND BLANCHING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

(VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) HACCP

WASHING AND BLANCHING FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) HACCP Hazard: Raw fruits and vegetables are contaminated

Hazard:

Raw fruits and vegetables are contaminated in the

pores of the surface. Chemicals do not affect pathogens in the surface.

Control:

The bacteria must be removed by brush friction or

water turbulence. The following reduces bacteria, parasites, and viruses about 2 log by dilution.

  • 1. Trim.

  • 2. Wash in turbulent water. Transfer to 2nd sink.

  • 3. Rinse in turbulent water, 2nd sink.

4. Spin dry. Chemicals can be used in a 3rd sink, but have a

limited effect, 1 log. Blanch fruit or vegetable in 160ºF water, 1 minute, for a 5-log reduction.

Validation:

Put E. coli on food and measure before and after treatment, using E. coli Petrifilm™.

FOOD PASTEURIZATION HACCP

(VEGETATIVE BACTERIA)

FOOD PASTEURIZATION HACCP (VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) Hazard: Pathogens contaminate raw meat, fish, and poultry. Control: Salmonella is
FOOD PASTEURIZATION HACCP (VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) Hazard: Pathogens contaminate raw meat, fish, and poultry. Control: Salmonella is
FOOD PASTEURIZATION HACCP (VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) Hazard: Pathogens contaminate raw meat, fish, and poultry. Control: Salmonella is
FOOD PASTEURIZATION HACCP (VEGETATIVE BACTERIA) Hazard: Pathogens contaminate raw meat, fish, and poultry. Control: Salmonella is

Hazard:

Pathogens contaminate raw meat, fish, and

poultry.

Control:

Salmonella is the target pathogen. Reduce Salmonella 5 log / 7 log. (Assumes the food is contaminated with about 1,000 / gram, and must be reduced to 1 per 100 grams.)

Validation:

Contaminate with non-pathogenic E. coli.

Take sample before heating, <70ºF. Take samples about 130ºF, 140ºF, and 150ºF. By 150ºF, there should be >5 log reduction.

DESTRUCTION OF SALMONELLA IN FOOD

DEATH CONTROLS Time and temperature Nutrients and acids Water activity
DEATH CONTROLS
Time and temperature
Nutrients and acids
Water activity

DESTRUCTION OF SALMONELLA SPP. IN FOOD

     

7D USDA

5D FDA

6.5D FDA

Poultry

Temp.

Hamburger

Roast beef

with 12%

°F (°C)

(100,000:1)

(3,160,000:1)

fat

  • 130 (54.4)

86

min.

112 min

---

  • 135 (57.2)

27

min.

35

min.

---

  • 140 (60.0)

8.7

min.

11.2 min.

35 min.

  • 145 (62.8)

2.7

min.

3.5

min.

13.8

min.

  • 150 (65.6)

52

sec.

67

sec.

4.9

min.

  • 155 (68.3)

16

sec.

21

sec.

1.3

min.

  • 160 (71.1)

5.2

sec.

6.7

sec.

26.9

sec.

  • 165 (73.8)

Instant

Instant

<10 sec.

1326

1326

COMPARISON OF D-VALUES

for Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7

 

Salmonella spp.

L. monocytogenes

E. coli O157:H7

Temperature

z = 10ºF

z = 11.28ºF

z = 8.30ºF

(F)

(C)

1D)

1D

1D

130

54.4

17.28

min

21.95

min

26.75

min

135

57.2

5.47

min

  • 7.91 min

  • 6.68 min

140

60.0

1.73

min

  • 2.85 min

  • 1.67 min

145

62.8

32.79 sec

  • 1.03 min

25.02

sec

150

65.6

10.37

sec

22.21

sec

  • 6.25 sec

155

68.3

3.28

sec

  • 8.00 sec

  • 1.56 sec

160

71.1

1.04

sec

  • 2.88 sec

  • 0.39 sec

165

73.9

0.33

sec

  • 1.04 sec

  • 0.10 sec

RETAIL FOODSERVICE SYSTEM PROCESS IDENTIFICATION

PROCESSES WITH SIGNIFICANT RISK; ABRREVIATED HACCP PLAN

PREREQUISITES

Processes with

Hazard

 

Significant Risk

(biological, chemical, physical)

Control

Cook / RTE food handler prepares

B: Staphylococcus aureus on skin, Streptococcus in throat, Shigella from

B: Wash fecal pathogens off fingers. Don't cough on food. Don't touch skin. Cover cuts.

for work

feces on fingers C: None

P: Not allowed.

Get equipment to prepare food

P: Jewelry B: Vegetative pathogens C: Leaching heavy metal P: Equipment parts

B: Wash, rinse, sanitize. C: Only stainless steel, wood, FDA plastic. P: Keep equipment repaired.

Buy food to be:

   

Eaten as

B: All pathogens

B: Supplier exclusion. No cross-contamination,

purchased

C: All hazards P: All hazards

H 0 +ΣI<FSO. C: Supplier exclusion. No cross-contamination, H 0 +ΣI<FSO. P: Supplier exclusion. No cross-contamination, H 0 +ΣI<FSO.

Raw, cook

B: Vegetative pathogens and spores

B: Cook washes, ferments, pasteurizes.

makes safe

C: All hazards P: All hazards

C: Allergens identified. Additives at safe level. P: Removed.

Store refrigerated food

B: No significant increase C: None P: None

B: Refrigerate at 41ºF; food spoils first.

RETAIL FOODSERVICE SYSTEM PROCESS IDENTIFICATION (CONT'D)

FOOD PROCESS HACCP

Processes with

Hazard

 

Control

Significant Risk

(biological, chemical, physical)

     

Cut up raw food on cutting board

B: Cutting board and hands contaminated with pathogens from raw food C: Chemicals P: Hazards

B: Wash, rinse, sanitize cutting board, hands, and utensils after contact with raw foods. C: Do not cross-contaminate. P: Remove physical hazards.

Weigh ingredients

B: None

 

C: Additives

C: Used at a safe level.

P: None

Food to be served without cooking

B: E. coli, Salmonella vegetative pathogens C: None P: None

B: Wash vegetables; ferment; acidify.

Cook

B: Vegetative pathogens; cooking activates spores C: None P: None

B: Pasteurize. Reduce vegetative pathogens 5 log. Keep >130ºF for spore control.

Hot hold

B: Spores

B: >130, spores can't germinate.

C: None

P: None

Cool

B: Spores

B: Cool <14 hours; spores can't germinate.

C: None

Time as control: 135 to 41°F, 4 hours, and throw away

P: None

controls spores.

If 41 to 70 °F, 6 hours controls Lm.

Mix cold ingredients, salad and sandwiches, or reheat

B: Spores, vegetative pathogens C: None P: None

B: Mix <50ºF. Prevent vegetative pathogen cross- contamination.

Take-out

B: Spores

B: Control spores by eating in <6 hours if at room temperature

C: None

or refrigerate.

P: None

Cold hold

B: Spores

B: Control spores by keeping 41°F or, if raw fish, <38°F.

C: None

P: None

FOOD GROUPS HACCP PROCESS ANALYSIS

 

HACCP Process Groups (USDA HACCP, 9 CFR 417) Prerequisite / GMPs working

Control

Shelf life

I

Not heat treated, not shelf stable (raw). Not PHF / no RPG:

Grown safe, with H 0 that meets

<14 days

sprouts; raw meat, fish; sushi, sashimi; eggs, raw fruits and vegetables

FSO. May require Temperature Control

(bact. spoilage)

II

Not heat treated, with inhibitors to make shelf stable.

for Quality. Grown safe, made safe by supplier,

>2 years, 70ºF

Water activity: flour, corn meal, nuts, salt, sugar, sugar icing, honey, spices and herbs, oil, lard; salted, dried fish, fresh pasta Fermentation: pepperoni, salami; olives; dairy (cheese, yogurt, sour cream / milk / crème fraîche); bread; sauerkraut; kimchee;

with H 0 that, with +ΣI-ΣR (5-log Salmonella), meets FSO. Does not require TCS because of product a w , pH, or additives.

(chem. spoilage)

beer, wine Acidified: salad dressing; cole slaw; salsa; condiments

III

Fully cooked, not shelf stable. hot or cooled, refrigerated ready-to-eat food; meat, fish, poultry; fruits, vegetables, dairy, pastry filling, pudding

Pasteurized (5-log to 7-log Salmonella) so that +ΣI-ΣR meets FSO.

41 to 135ºF, 4 hours or Cold 41ºF,

IV

Fully cooked, with inhibitors to make shelf stable. marinara sauce; fruit pie fillings; cake icing, bread and pastry, dry cereals, dry pasta, smoked fish; packaged, low-pH fruits and vegetables

Requires TCS. Pasteurized (5-log to 7-log Salmonella) so that +ΣI-ΣR meets FSO. Does not require TCS because of

14-90 days >5 years

V

Commercially sterile, shelf stable. "packaged" meat, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables, dairy / UHT milk

product a w , pH, or additives. Sterilized, Clostridium botulinum spores reduced 9 log to 12 log. Does not require TCS.

>5 years

PHF=Potentially Hazardous Food; RPG-Rapid and Progressive Growth; UHT=Ultra High Temperature; H o =Starting Hazard; FSO=Food Safety Objective; Σ=summary; I=Increase; R=Reduction; TCS=Temperature Control for Safety; a w =water activity

RETAIL PROCESS HACCP BASED ON FIVE USDA HACCP PROCESSES