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CHAPTERII

LITERATUR REVIEW

A.History of Jiwasraya insurance

Jiwasraya insurance was estabilished by deed of William Henry Herklos

notary number.185 dated December 31,1859,as well as beginning gait Jiwasraya

insurance in Indonesia,who was born with the name Levenverzekering Nederlandsche

Indische Maatschappijen lijvrente(NILLMIJ) and in 1959 as the first life company

insurance estabilished in Indonesia.The company was incoporated as a noble

pupose,namely to educate the comonity plan for the future.

Initially in 1973 PT (persero) Jiwasraya insurance are an amalgamation of

nine Dutch-owned insurance company,augmented by a national company,then

changed the status of State enterprises into limited liability company (persero)through

the intermediate stage since December 8, 1972 under government regulation no.33-

year-1972.

The change is effective on March 23,1973,According to Mohammad Ali no

Notarydeed 12 of 1973.Based on the Notary deed of Notarydeed may 12,1998 No.10

and dated 8 September 1998,which was approved by the Ministar of Justice of the

Republic of Indonesia with the decision number. C2-16563HT.01.04.TH98October

2, 1998, stands for the company name changed to PT Jiwasraya Insurance.


B.The Nature of Organization

likewise Jiwasraya insurance,ministry of finance of the Republic of Indonesia

is the owner or the sole shareholder of PT Jiwasraya Insurance (Persero). General

meeting of Shareholders(GMS)is the owner’s representative who has the authority to

take final decision about the company,including regarding:

a. Rafication of the work plan.

b. Ratification of articles of the company.

Organization structure is: The organizational structure is the arrangement of

the duties or responsibilities of any parts that are contained in a group of people who

work in achiving common goalli.

According Reksohardiprodjo and Handoko (2008: 6): "The organization is a

planning process that includes preparation, development and maintenance of the

structure or pattern of relationship-hubumgan work of the people in the working

group." Menurur While Amir and Budiyono (2004: 166): "Organization is the form of

every union man to achieve common goals". From the definitions, the organization is

a body, container, place of collection of people who work together to achieve certain

goals.

The organization needed a clear organizational structure with a view to

conducting its business activities to fit well with a predetermined plan, creating a

good working relationship and division of tasks and responsibilities in the name of the

organizational.
According to Amir and Budiyono (2004:168): "The organizational structure

can be defined as a system or network of tasks, reporting systems,and communication

linking together individual and group work”.

The organizational structure shows the position, duties, responsibilities of

employees who work in that organizations.The same organizational structure became

clear division of labor because of the specialization of labor, showing the functions or

activities relate to other each.In other to activities enterprise activity can proceed

smoothly necessary cooperative relationships between the existing sections,

organizing and management function inportant plays. In general corporate activities

consist of different jobs, so necessary to determine qualifications of personnel who

will carry out these activities.

C.The Nature of Marketing

1. Definisi of Marketing

Some people mistakenly think about marketing only as selling and promotion.

More than that,they are part of a large”Marketing Mix” a set of marketing tools that

work together to effect the market place.

Marketing is: activities undertaken to distribute products from producers to consumers.

Based on kotlar (1997:7) marketing is process appropriated with management

inside that individual and group get what they want and need by creating,bargaining

and exchanging the precious product with the other side.


Meanwhile,the National Association of Marketing Teacher in Spriegel

(1970:243) defines marketing include “those business activities involved in the poin

of production to the poin of consumption.”

Doman and Dennison (1997:12-15) give three purpose from market research:

1. Analysis of market

Analysis of market research helps us to make into consideration in market

potency to neutralize produce service.

2. Analysis of market response

Analysis of market response about our product of service. This analysis means

to take into consideration in our product and service potency

3. Planing strategy

Its purpose is to grow up market that has to develop and help us to meet what

product and service that succeed in market.

2. Definition of Marketing Strategy

Acording to Foltler (1981:24), marketing strategy can be decided by market

section in a company by making such as:

a. Which consumer or area will be served


b. What kind of good and service that will be offered and wanted by
consumers.
c. What kind of marketing mix that will be used for giving satisfaction to the
consumers.
Morever, according to Assauri (1992:163-165) marketing strategy can be

divided ito three types can be used by the company.

a. Undifferentiated Marketing
b. Differentiated Marketing
c. Concentrated marketing

on the other hand, Kotler and Amstrong (1993:221) the marketing strategy section

include four elements.These elements are described as below:

a.Product

Product is anything that can be offered to a market fo attention, acquisition, use, or

consumption and that might setisfy a want or need.

b.Promotion

Promotion is the process of liaison between producers and consumers to introduce the

product.

c.Price

Price is one of the major elements in the marketing of an enterprise’s product


directly affect both sales volume and profit.

d.Place

Place includes the factors that provide time and place utility to setisfy costumer.

Jauch and Glueek (1996:6)say that marketing strategy is some of decision the

company’s objective.

In the process of marketing a product, needed a strategy to achieve

the goals that wants to achieve, because the better the strategy used will affect
the results obtained.

Strategy is a way a business to achieve the desired goals.

E.The Nature of Management


In general, management come from word to manage that

means:man,maney,method, material,mechines anf market or most well know as 6M.

The arrangement of 6M should be done well,in order to get the result effectively and

efficienly. Management is social knowledge and only a facility to get the purpose that

wanted.

Management is a process conducted by a person in doing a particulat job or

activity. Example : a company or office.All work can be successful with either it take

the process,because what do all these people throught a process.

Management are characterizes the process of leading and directing all of part

of organization, often a business throught the deployment and manipulation of

resources (human,financial,material,intellectual and intangible).

There are so many concepts and explanations about management. The simple

explanation of it is management as a process to manage something.

According to Terry and Rue, management is a process that including how to direct and

control something into a group of people for the purpose of the organization or the real

purpose. The term management may also be used to describe the slate of manager an

organization, for example of coorporation.

Some one who does management or someone who manages something called

manager. Managers create and maintain an internal environment commonly called


organization a manager’s job consists of planning, organizing, directing, and

controlling the resources of organization. The job of every manager involves what is

known as the function of management. Carlos C. Hoenzana, M.A forward some

management functions such as planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The

following explanation:

1. planning

planning is a prosess in diciding what needs to happen in the future (today,

next week, next month, and next year) and generating plants for action. Planning

involves divising a systematic process for attaining the goal of organization. It

prepares the organization for the future. Planning should based on the data analysis in

order to answer the question” what, why, where, when, who, and how”. According to

Hasibuan (1994:4), planning is choosing actvity in some alternatives, but plan is some

decisions that used as a guide it catch the purposes.

2. organizing

Making optimum use of the resources required to enable the successful

carrying out of plans. Organizing involves arranging the necessary resources to carry

out the plan. It is the process of creating structure, establising relationships, and

allocating resources to accomplish the goal of the organization. In organizing, it is

important to establish job division, job relationship, kind of organization, and also the

delegation of authority. Organization chart gives information about them. The

products of organizing are organization that showed into the organization chart.

Organization is only a facility and basin in doing activities to reach the

purposes that wanted. According to Banard (1996:5), organization is a system of


consciously coordinated activities or forced of two or more person. If we look from

the purpose, organization divides in to public and business organization. Public

organization is social organization with the purpose to serve the public importance or

not profit motive. Meanwhile, business organization is organization that formed for

commercial orientation or profit motive.

3. Directing

exhibiting skills in this areas or getting others to play an effective part of

achieving plans is organizing. Directing involves the guiding, leading and overseeing

of employees to achieve organizational goals.

According to Terry (1996:6), directing actuating is setting all member of the

group to want achieve and to strike to archive the objective willingly keeping with the

managerial planning and organizing efforts. To get a good directing, a leader should

understand the problem, such as attitude, motivation, communication and human

relation.

4. controlling

controlling is monitoring-cheking progress against plans, which may need

modifiction based on the feedback. Controlling involves verifying that an actual

performance matches the plan. If the performance results do not match the plan,

corrective action is taken. According to Strong (1996:7), controlling is the process of

regulating the various factors in enterprise according to the requirement of its plans.

Meanwhile, Koontz (1996:7) said that controlling is the measurement and

correction of the performance of subordinates in order to make sure that enterprise

objectives and the plans devised to attain then are accomplished.


Management system is very useful in company’s activities. It supports all part

of company and helps a campany to grow up and develop quality in every aspect. If a

company has bad management system, its company can not grow well and hard to

develop its connection.