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1 – Telecommunications & ICT

• Learning Objectives
Describe the use of telecommunication and information technology in
telephone systems

A long time ago, in a galaxy far far away. . .

Read the links here and here and think about all of the technology involved in
communication in the film star wars (or any other sci fi film).

List this technology and think about whether this technology would be possible
today. What do we have that is similar? Will this be possible in the future?
Does it exist now?

Task One
Using the link on the right hand side and any other resources you can find make
notes on the following questions:

• What is voice mail? How does it work? What facilities does it provide?
• What would voice mail have looked like 20 years ago?
• How does a telephone menu system work?
• What does VoIP stand for? Describe how this might be used.

Voicemail is a new facility on landline and mobile telephones where someone

can leave an audio message for someone else when they are not present to
answer the phone. The message is stored within the telephone system and
can be played back, deleted and saved whenever the number for voicemail
is called. This is normally 1571. The facilities of voicemail include the storage
of many messages and the deletion of messages either all in one go or

Voicemail would only have been in the early stages of development 20 years
ago and ICT has advanced since them.

Most companies use an audio menu system for handling incoming calls. This
involves a number of levels where buttons on the keypad need to be pressed
in order for the company to deal with the enquiry. For example, press 1 for
accounts, 2 for customer service and 3 to speak to an operator.

VoIP stands for Voice Over Internet Protocol and is used in interactive
systems. This is able to convert spoken words into binary data (1s and 0s)
and transfer them over the Internet.
Task Two
Draw a telephone menu structure for John Cleveland College that would be
more efficient than the current one. What features will yours provide?

Press 1 for Student Absences


Tutor Group

Why absent?

Press 2 for Staff Absences



Why absent?

Press 3 to speak to Reception

Press 4 to speak to a teacher

To speak to (teacher name) press (teacher number)

Press 5 for Other Enquiries

Exam Certificates

Bulletin Notices

o Teach ICT - Telecommunications


2 – Banking & ICT

Learning Objectives

- Describe the use of ICT in banking.

Task One

Choose TWO of the following topics (at the bottom) and research how ICT is
used in these areas. Be ready to feedback what you have found out to the
rest of the class next lesson. Your research should follow the following

o A description of the item and the process that you have chosen.
How would it be typically used/done?
o What technology is involved?
o How does ICT help/make it work?
o What would the same process/item be like without ICT?
o What are the implications for the bank and the customer?

The topics you can choose from are:

o Online banking
o Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)
o Electronic Bank Transfer (BACs)
o International Bank Transfers (CHAPS)
o Online Saving
o Automated Cheque Handling
o Debit and Cheque Cards

Task Two

1.) Describe two transactions that can take place at an ATM

Cash can be withdrawn from your account.

Statements can be requested and printed out.

2.) Describe the difference between a debit and a credit card.

A debit card is where the money is taken out of your account straight-away.
A credit card is where the money is lent to the person and it has to be paid back.

3.) Explain the cheque clearing process

The ink on the cheque is detected by a MICR reader; the value is then detected by the
OCR reader, which is recorded to complete the transaction. They are then grouped by
sort code for transfer.

Task Three - Production Control

Production control systems are used in manufacturing industries to automate the

production process. The production control systems can be configured to change their
role based on what is currently being produced. Systems vary based on the type of
manufacturing each individual company. Robots are usually used to carry out the actual

Use the WWW to research other production control systems. Be prepared to present your

o Banking and ICT
o Teach ICT
3 – GPS and Satellite Communications
• Learning Objectives
- Describe how ICT is used in global positioning systems and satellite

Task One

Using the GPS links in resources (on the right hand side) answer these

- Describe one problem with relying on GPS data to track stolen vehicles.

The signals can be blocked. Relying on GPS data to track stolen vehicles can
cause some problems because the GPS system may not have every single piece
of information required to track the vehicle.

- Describe the potential consequences of a GPS satellite failure

If the GPS satellite fails, there is little or no backup available.

- Explain what 'spoofing' is and how criminals may be able to use this method

Spoofing is where someone has sent a signal that does not seem to be from the
original person. They could use this method to falsely accuse someone else of
signal problems when it was actually them.

• Task Two

Working in teams or two or three, create an animation in PowerPoint or Serif

Draw Plus to describe how the satellite footprint affects use of a satellite

The documents to the right will help you.

• Extension/Homework
Using the documents "Satellite.doc" and "making a phone call via satellite.doc"
summarise the advantages and disadvantages of satellite communication in
150 words.

• Resources

o GPS and the future

o GPS - Over Reliance?
o GPS - Under Threat
o Weather Forecasting
o Simple Phone Description
o Satellite Communications

o NASA - GPS.mp4
Satellite Communications
o Making a Phone Call via Satellite.doc
4 – Weather Forecasting
• Learning Objectives
- Describe how ICT is used in weather forecasting

Task One
One main use of ICT in weather forecasting is data collection.

1.) How can ICT aid recording the temperature at hundreds of remote locations
around the world at regular intervals?

2.) What is an anemometer? How does it record data? What units would it
measure in?

An anemometer measures the wind speed and pressure for the atmosphere.

3.) Using this website, name three other devices used to measure and record
the weather. Describe what they are, what they record, how the record the
data and what units they measure in

• Temperature Tracker – measures temperature, relative humidity. It is a

versatile piece of equipment. This measures temperature in F and C.
• Pressure Port – Minimises pressure errors caused by a barometer.

Task Two
Using the link to the met office on the right, which shows the infra-red satellite
image for Europe, describe how satellite images can be used to predict what
the weather will be in the near future.

Task Three
Using the link to the BBC weather forecast for the Hinckley area and any other
resources that you can find, describe how ICT aids in the distribution and
delivery of a weather forecast.
Think about the ICT involved in a TV broadcast and how the public might be
able to get a more localised forecast if they so wished.

5 – Software Based Training Methods

• Learning Objectives
Describe how software and ICT can be used in training

Task One
Using the videos (also in RMShared > ICT > Video Library > A2 > e-learning) and
resources on the right or any other resources that you can find answer the following

1.) What is e-learning?

E-Learning is learning through interactivity with software, tasks and materials. It

is all the materials associated with electronically supported learning and

2.) E-learning can have different names. What does CBT stand for? Are there any other
names e-learning can have?

E-learning can also be known as CBT. CBT stands for computer based training.

3.) Research and describe what situations CBT and e-learning is best suited to.

4.) What benefits might this bring?

The benefits could be that:

• It will be easier to deliver the training.

• People are more engaged in the training.
• It can be delivered more effectively.
• It will bring an alternative method to a user guide, which is not used

5.) What are the limitations?

• There may not be any facilities to install the user guide.
• The interactivity may not work.
• The cost will be high.

Task Two

Research Web 2.0, finding out what it is and write a brief definition for it.

What does Web 2.0 mean for the way e-learning is created and used? Could it function
without it?

Web 2.0 enables all of the e-learning to take place.

Rich Internet Applications – Flash, Ajax – from a text based document to a rich
internet application.

Service Operated Architecture – Feeds, RSS, Web Services, Mash-Up – working

together to share the content.

Social Web – Interacting with the end user, is participating in the content (Wiki,
Podcast, Blogging).

Task Three
A large training company is looking at improving its CBT facilities and expand onto the web.

Research 'E-Learning 2.0' and write a short report to the director of software based training
detailing what it is, how it could be used and implemented and what the benefits are.

E-Learning is derived around Web 2.0. E-Learning uses web pages, blog
posts, wiki pages and RSS readers to display and portray information to
people in the most effective way possible so people can understand it. There
were 3 generations of E-Learning, namely E-Learning 1.0, E-Learning 1.3 and
E-Learning 2.0. Characteristics of these are displayed below.
E-Learning 1.0 E-Learning 1.3 E-Learning 2.0
Main • Courseware • Reference hybrids • Wikis
• LMSs • LCMSs • Social networking and
Components bookmarking tools
• Authoring tools • Rapid authoring • Blogs
tools • Add-ins

• Mash-ups
Ownership Top-down, Top-down, collaborative Bottom-up,
one-way learner-driven,
peer learning
Development Time Long Rapid None

Content Size 60 minutes 15 minutes 1 minute

Access Time Prior to work In between work During work

Virtual Meetings Class Intro, Office hours Peers, Experts

Delivery At one time In many pieces When you need it

Content Access LMS Email, Intranet Search, RSS feed

Driver ID Learner Worker

Content creator ID SME User

E-Learning has undergone a lot of development, from the zero development time to
being able to access this during work hours rather than prior to the working day. This
meant that E-Learning 2.0 can be accessed anywhere, thus making it a much better

o E-Learning
o Wikipedia
o Introduction to CBT
o E-Learning 2.0
o What_is_E-Learning.mp4
o Advantages_of_e-Learning.mp4
6 – Distributed Databases

Learning Objectives

- Describe how different types of distributed database systems are used

- Discuss security issues of distributed databases: interception of data, physical access
to data, consistency and integrity of data and describe methods of overcoming these


A large company that has branches all over the UK is looking to move to a system that
makes use of a distributed database for stock control.

The company is also interested in what security risks moving to a system like this may

As an ICT analyst it is your job to research what a distributed database is, what the
advantages and disadvantages are and how they are typically used and create a report
on your findings to hand to the chief executive.

You have been given the files on the right hand side to help you.

A distributed database is a database that allows part of a single database to be distributed onto
different computers. Distributed database systems are a collection of single databases that are
physically distributed over a network.

Advantages of distributed database systems include:

• Users in one site have control over their data

• Part of the database will still be available if the communication link fails
• The system can be expanded
• The performance of the database is improved due to the fact that the database is close to the

Disadvantages of distributed database systems include:

• The system is complex to install and needs specialist engineers.

• The hardware and software required for the database costs a lot of money
• The distribution of the software could be difficult as one category may merge into another,
making it difficult to separate out.
• The security and the control of the database could be an issue because the data would have to
be controlled.

Exam Questions

(a) Describe one advantage to the company of a centralised database of customer

accounts. [2]

(b) Describe one advantage to an office of a distributed database [2]

(c) Describe two ways in which the confidentiality of data being transferred between
distributed parts of the database could be ensured [4]

(d) Outline ways in which a distributed database could be implemented by the company

o Distributed Databases
o Wikipedia
o 29 Distributed Database Concepts
o Oracle
o Different Types of DD
o Different Types of DD

Distributed Databases

6 – Distributed Databases Lesson 2

• Learning Objectives
- Describe how different types of distributed database systems are used
- Discuss security issues of distributed databases: interception of data, physical access
to data, consistency and integrity of data and describe methods of overcoming these
Task One - Scenario
A large company that has branches all over the UK is looking to move to a system that
makes use of a distributed database for stock control.

As an ICT analyst it is your job to research what a distributed database is, what the
advantages and disadvantages are and how they are typically used and create a report
on your findings to hand to the chief executive.

You have been given the files on the right hand side to help you.

Task Two - Security Issues

Using a distributed database can pose certain security issues. Discuss the following and
add this to your report

- interception of data

- physical access to data

- consistency and integrity of data

describe methods of overcoming these issues

When you have finished, upload your report here

Task Three - Exam Questions

Click here to answer the following exam questions

(a) Describe one advantage to the company of a centralised database of customer

accounts. [2]

(b) Describe one advantage to an office of a distributed database [2]

(c) Describe two ways in which the confidentiality of data being transferred between
distributed parts of the database could be ensured [4]

(d) Outline ways in which a distributed database could be implemented by the company

Task Four
Complete the following table:

Distributed Database What does it mean? Advantages Disadvantages

Central with local indexes

Task Five
1.) Compare the storage implications for partitioned and replicated databases

2.) Compare local and global query processing for partitioned databases

3.) Describe how data can still be accessed by a site using a replicated database when the
communication link for the site is lost

4.) Explain the benefits of having local control to data

5.) Explain why back-ups are not necessary in a replicated database system

Task Six
1.) Describe three security implications of using distributed databases

2.) Why is encryption required with fragmented databases

3.) Describe how the integrity of data might be compromised within a replicated database

4.) Describe hwo the integrity of data could be maintained within a replicated database

o Distributed Databases
o Wikipedia
o 29 Distributed Database Concepts
o Different Types of DD
o Different Types of DD
o DDBS Security
Distributed Databases

9 – Digital Television Networks

Learning Objectives
Describe the range of services offered by digital television networks.

Explain the impact of these services on individuals, television companies and


1.) List seven services available on digital television

• Gaming
• Pay-per view programmes
• More channels
• Ability to record programmes

2.) Identify two advantages of pay per view to the individual viewer

• More exciting viewing packages that not very many people have
• People can watch a game at home and they do not need to spend more to actually
go to the ground, making it more convenient for them.

3.) Identify two impacts to broadcasters of enabling viewers to choose camera angles

• More expensive to run

• Better for the consumer as people able to see incidents more clearly than in a crowd
of people

4.) Identify one disadvantage to a television company that provides viewers with the facility
to vote for the favourite performer
• Less money would be made because every programme from the voting day onwards
would be focused on their favourite rather than all of the performers.

5.) Describe three features of an electronic programme guide.

• View programmes for next 7 days

• View statements
• Change security settings
• Record programmes
• Set reminders to programmes
• “Series Link” programmes
C:\Documents and Settings\Thomas Roe\My Documents\School\07TROE\Educational Documents2\Subjects\ICT\A2\G063 Theory\3.3.4 - Applications of ICT\10 - Personnel, Finance & Stock Control

1 – Custom Written vs Off the Shelf Software

Learning Objectives
- Explain the importance of involving the client when a custom-written
computer-based information system is to be produced, from the initial
meeting with the client to the installation of the system

- What is meant by custom-written software?

- What is meant by off-the-shelf software?

- Look through your notes and activities for the System Life Cycle. Note down all
of the stages where the user is involved in the process and what role they
play in that process, including what interactions they have and/or what data
or information they provide.

- In pairs consider the implications of supporting the customer with off the shelf
products when selecting and implementing a solution to an ICT problem. You
should create a Powerpoint and consider the following points.

o Cost to the end user

o Support
o Purpose
o Testing
o Availability
o Choice
o Upgrade
o New Staff
o Memory Footprint
I have purposefully left it up to you to find some useful web links. Include them
in your presentations. You will present next lesson.

Custom-written software is software that is tailored to a client’s requirements

stated in a requirements specification.

Off-the-shelf software is generic software that is available in stores

nationwide. It is made with every customer in mind and so it is not tailor
made to any customer.

Custom Written (Bespoke) Software

• Tailored to user
• Copyrighted to user
• Exclusive
• More efficient to needs
• Memory usage
• Minimal support
• Takes time to develop
• Expensive
• Specialist staff needed
• Difficult to update

Off the Shelf Software

• More widely available
• Cheaper
• More support
• Easy to share or collaborate
• Easier to update


• May have features that are not needed

• May not be perfectly suited to needs
• Wastes memory

Systems Life Cycle – Client Involvement

Definition – Client is involved in writing out the definition for the project and
explaining the brief to the designer.

Investigation – Client has involvement in the interview process.

Analysis – Client is involved in working out the problems with the current
system, the production of the requirements specification for the new system
and the production of different ways to meet the solution required.

Design – The client has to witness the design process and make any
recommendations for changes if necessary.

Software Development, Testing & Installation – The client should be involved

in the testing process for the new system, making sure that the system is the
best it can be.

2 – Implementing and Supporting

• Learning Objectives
- Explain how the expertise of staff, costs, benefits and current systems
affect decisions about upgrading or installing software and hardware.

For this task you may use the Oxford Revision Guide pages 154/155 or any web
resources that you can find

Watch the video clip located in RMShareDocs > ICT > A2 ICT > G063 Theory
> Implementing CBIS

1.) Describe how the expertise of staff affects the decisions about the
upgrading of software.

The more experience technicians and staff have about dealing with a specific
type of problem, the better advice they can give to the people requiring the

2.) Identify two factors affecting decisions which must be made when
upgrading hardware

• The complexity of the system for use – is it easier to use than the
previous system?
• The cost of the new package

Case Study

A small to medium size kitchen fitting business is looking to upgrade the way
they take orders, store jobs, allocate staff and keep track of time sheets. A
senior member of staff has a good amount of experience with ICT system
and is very confident, classing himself as an 'expert'. The rest of the staff has
limited office based ICT skills.

The company has been hit fairly hard by the credit crunch and is looking to
streamline their cash flow in order to save money and keep their heads
above water. The company currently uses a mixture of an off-the-shelf
solution and a paper based system, due to the off-the-shelf product not
being perfectly suited to their needs.

3.) Explain how the expertise of staff, costs, benefits and current systems will
affect the company's decisions about upgrading to a custom-written solution.

There is only one member of staff in the business that claims to be an expert in
ICT systems. This could be a problem if a complicated system is created
because he will be the only one that knows how to use it. To combat this
issue, training could be provided on more advanced ICT skills that could be
utilised in the system so the other employees could get to the same level as
he is at. He could provide the training.

The fact that the company do not like their system means that they are using a
paper-based system, and paper based systems have risks, like the fact that
it needs to be kept very safe in case of fire or accidental disposal. Also, it will
be very difficult to keep track of people because they will need to go into the
master folder and update the data. This brings up another problem. Backing
up and securing the files is much easier with a computer based medium than
with a paper based package, because it can all be done at the click of a
button rather than endless re-copying of files. It can also be done overnight
rather than having to do it in the working day.

• Your Projects

Explain how the expertise of staff, costs, benefits and current systems will
effect the installation and use of your system once you have completed it
and installed it ready to use. Will the user need any new hardware or other
software now, or in the future?

The developed system will be tailor-made to the customer’s requirements

and will allow them to carry out the tasks they need to do for the system.
The business will work better as a result because any problems customers
have will be specifically answered. The support that will be provided to them
will be limited as the system is unique to this one customer. The cost of the
new system will be quite high, however, this may be irrelevant as the system
will have performed the tasks that the customer requires, rather than tasks
every customer would need.
The benefits of the new system will outweigh the benefits of the old one
because the system is again made to the customer’s requirements so there
will be fewer complaints about any features that were not needed.

I would say that the user would not need any more hardware or software in
the short-term, but they will need some in the long-term in order to maintain
and update the system and the hardware and software that make it up.
However, if updates were required, the software could not be updated
because the system is tailor made and unique. If the system was off the
shelf, updates could be performed easily through the Internet, however, the
system is tailor-made so updates would need to be created from scratch.

3 – Implementation Methods

• Learning Objectives
Describe a range of methods for installing a new computer-based system:
parallel, phased, direct, pilot.

Discuss the choice of a particular installation method of methods for a range

of applications.

1.) Complete the starter activity that is located here.

2.) Add this information to your notes and using the internet add any other
advantages or disadvantages that were not listed of each different
implementation type.

3.) Complete the exam questions that are listed here.

Parallel Changeover
The old and new systems are run in parallel for a period of time, both processing
current data and enabling cross checking to be made.


If a problem is found with the new system it is possible for the organisation to
function as the old system is still in place and can be used.


Data is duplicated and staff undertake tasks twice.

Phased Changeover
Phased changeover involves selecting a complete section of the system for a direct
changeover, e.g. in an accounting system the purchase ledger. When this part is
running satisfactorily, another part is switched – until eventually the whole system has
been changed.


Problems or bugs are found within small sub systems making it easier to find
the error and correct it.


Very expensive in terms of staff and time costs. It is slow to commission the
complete system.

Direct Changeover
The old system is completely replaced by the new system in one move.

This may be unavoidable where the two systems are substantially different, or where
the cots of parallel running are too great.

While this method is comparatively cheap it is risky. The new system should be
introduced during a quiet period, for example over a bank holiday weekend or during
an office closure.


Potentially the cheapest in terms of staff and time costs.


Problems or bugs could lead to complete loss of data and/or the potential failure
of the organisation.

Pilot Changeover
Pilot operation involves selecting part or parts of an organisation (e.g. a department
or branch) to operate running the new system in parallel with the existing system.
When the branch or department piloting the system is satisfied with the new system,
they cease to use the old system. The new system is then piloted in another area of
the organisation.


If a problem or bug is found with the new system, these can be rectified before
implementation is continued.


Implementation could take a long time.

The advantages and disadvantages of the various changeover methods are outlined

Direct Changeover

• Quick
• Minimised cost
• Minimises work load
• Risky
• Could disrupt operations
• If fails, will be costly

Parallel running

• Safe, built in safety

• Provides way of verifying results of new system
• Costly-two systems need to be operated
• Time consuming
• Additional workload

Pilot operation

• Less risky than direct changeover

• Less costly than complete parallel running
• Can take a long time to achieve total changeover
• Not as safe as complete parallel running

Phased Changeover

• Less risky than a single direct changeover

• Any problems should be in one area other operations unaffected
• Can take a long time to achieve total changeover
• Interfaces between parts of the system may make this impractical

4 – Reviews and Maintenance

Learning Objectives

Explain the role of reviews during the life of a computer based information
system, describing how reviews may be planned for and carried out
Describe perfective, adaptive and corrective maintenance
Explain the need for maintenance during the life of a computer based
information system.
System Reviews Tasks

1. Read through the section to the right on system reviews and add this
information to your notes.

2. Investigate different types of external and internal changes which

could result in a system having to be changed.
System Reviews

This is the process of observing how the system is operating and deciding
whether the original performance specification is being met.

A system review will arise either if there are problems with the system or if it
has been pre planned (regular time intervals). The latter is more
advantageous, as improvements can be planned without having an
immediate problem to solve.

Time planned reviews will be determined by the complexity of the system

and how fast the needs of the organisation change. This could include
1. System needs to store more data
2. System needs to handle more customers
3. System needs to provide a faster response time
4. The system might not be cost effective
5. The system might not be able to use the latest telecommunication links.
6. Operating procedures might have changed, so the documentation is out of

The system review will identify

•Whether the system is still meeting performance targets
•Potential problem areas so that modifications can be planned before
problems develop

At the end of the review an action plan identifying a course of action should
be produced. This will lead to system maintenance or the system life cycle
starting over again. (Extreme case!)

Maintenance Tasks

1. Complete the matchup quiz that is located here.

2. Using the document that is located here write a definition of the term
'software maintenance' and write your own definitions of each different
type of maintenance.

3. What activities are involved in some typical maintenance of a software

system? Add this to your notes.

4. Answer the exam questions that are located here

Corrective maintenance is a process that involves diagnosis and correction of

Adaptive maintenance is an activity that maintains software to properly

interface with a changing environment (hardware and software).

Perfective maintenance is an activity for adding new capabilities, modifying

existing functions and making general enhancements. This accounts for the
majority of all effort used on maintenance.

Preventative maintenance is an activity that changes software to improve

future maintainability or reliability or to provide a better basis for future
enhancements. This type of maintenance is still relatively rare.

Maintenance is needed when the system isn’t operating properly or

efficiently in some way. It might be needed immediately or planned as a
result of a system review.

1. Corrective maintenance is used when the system isn’t working correctly.

This type of maintenance fixes bugs in the system.

2. Perfective maintenance makes the system work better. A procedure may

be re-written, for example, reducing the computer response time.

3. Adaptive maintenance is used when the needs of the organisation have

changed. For example, the organisation has expanded so that the system
can store sufficient data. It will also be necessary if the organisation has
changed the way it works.

Maintenance can be disruptive. The system might need to be taken off line.
This might not be possible. In this case, there might have to be two separate
computer systems, each capable of handling all operations. If one is taken
off line for a while, the back up can take over all operations for a short time.
This also provides security against the complete failure of one system.
1 – ICT Ethics
• Learning Objectives
Discuss ethics relating to ICT with reference to codes of conduct, for example, the
British Computer Society (BCS) code of conduct and the Association for Computing
Machinery (ACM) Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct;

Task One
An ICT training company has been asked by the British Computer Society to include
a recommendation for membership to the BCS in their training and recruitment
schemes. As a member of the BCS, delegates are required to follow a strict code of
conduct and code of good practise.

These codes are quite long winded and the training company would like a shortened down
summary version to be displayed in their BCS information area. Develop a poster or
leaflet that summarises the key points and ideas of the two codes in an easy to
understand way.

BCS employees should keep to the 10 Commandments of Computer Ethics, quoted below from

1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.

2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work.
3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's computer files.
4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.
5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.
6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.
7. Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization or
proper compensation.
8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output.
9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are
writing or the system you are designing.
10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and
respect for your fellow humans.

People employed at the British Computing Society should treat everyone with respect and
equality. They should be truthful about the computing skills they possess, and only
undertake tasks involving those skills. They should not distract others from their work.
Employees should carry out their work whilst adhering to the guidelines set by the relevant
authorities. They should not give out any information personal to them, or any information
that is not required by the authorities. People should respect different points of view and
only criticise pieces of work where required. Employees should offer encouragement and
support to their colleagues and notify the authorities if their colleagues are doing something
that is not required of them or breaches the code of conduct.

Task Two
Using the link on the right hand side called "BCS Services and Benefits", answer the
following question.

Explain why an ICT professional would choose to be a member of the British Computer
Society and discuss possible benefits to his/her career.

An employee may wish to join the British Computing Society (BCS) because:

• Their career as an ICT professional will be recognised by the BCS

• BCS have resources to enable the ICT professional to continue with and develop
their ICT career.
• The ICT professional will be able to join the global community and submit ideas to
help shape the world of ICT in the future.
• They can receive information from the BCS that will keep them up-to-date with the
latest developments in ICT.
• The employee can get discounts for being a member of the BCS. They can get
discounts on training courses, various hardware and software required for their job,
and a free e-mail forwarding facility to an e-mail address of the employee’s
• The employee can join the Member Network where they can submit ideas, queries
and comments to an expert in the field.

Task Three

Using the 'Little Gossip' news story on the right hand side discuss whether you think the
creator of the website violated any of the codes of conducts of either the BCS or the
ACM (if so which ones) or if you feel they violated any of the 'ten commandments' of
ICT ethics.

• Task Four
Investigate and summarise the main principles in the code of ethics and professional
conduct of the Association of Computer Machinery

o The Ten Commandments of ICT Ethics
o The British Computer Society
o Little Gossip Story
o BCS Code of Conduct
o BCS Code of Good Practise
o ACM Code of Ethics
2 – Managing Change
• Learning Objectives
Discuss the importance of consultation, participation and communication when
managing change


•Describe three reasons why employees might be resistant to change

They really like the old system.

They do not like the new system.

The new system may not do as much as the old system, or may not be as good as the old

•Describe three aspects of change that people within an organisation should be told
Changes to organisational structure, such as employees being promoted to new jobs or
new employees being hired.

Any changes to the computer system, such as any hardware and software replacements.

•Explain why consultation is an important part of change management

Consultation is an important part of change management because customers and

employees need to know when a change is taking place and what the change is so that
they can have their say on whether the change will be beneficial to them.

•Describe two ways in which people within an organisation could participate with the
management of change

They could advise people on the changes necessary to the organisation, if any and the
employees could take a vote on the changes that need to be implemented, where the
majority vote would have the change implemented.





•Discuss the importance of consultation when managing change. (11 marks: Jan 2010)

Consultation is important when managing change because employees need to know the
changes that are being implemented so they can keep on top of the news relating to
their company. The employees could suggest changes to the system and then they
could vote on what change would be most important to the company, if any. They could
get involved with any meetings that are taking place within the company.