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                        ISSN : 2085‐2517 

 
Jurnal Otomasi, Kontrol & 
Instrumentasi 
Journal of Automation, Control and 
Instrumentation 
 
Volume 1, No.2, Tahun 2009 
 
 
 
 

Diterbitkan oleh/Published by :
Masyarakat Otomasi, Kontrol dan Instrumentasi
Society of Automation, Control and Instrumentation

2
                                    

 
                                                                                                          

Jurnal Otomasi, Kontrol & 
Instrumentasi 
Journal of Automation, Control and 
Instrumentation 
 
Volume 1, No.2, Tahun 2009 
 
 
 
 

Masyarakat Otomasi, Kontrol dan Instrumentasi


Alamat : Litbang (ex.PAU) Lt.8 Jl. Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132, Indonesia
Tel. +62-22-2514452 Tel / Fax. +62-22-2534285.
Email : jurnal_oki@instrument.itb.ac.id
Tim Editor 
(Board Editor) 
 
[Ketua/Chairman] 
Deddy Kurniadi 
(Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia) 
 
[Anggota/Member] 
Bambang Lelono 
(Institut Teknologi Sepuluh November Surabaya, Indonesia) 
Bolo Dwiartomo 
(Politeknik Manufaktur Bandung, Indonesia) 
Estiyanti Ekawati 
(Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia) 
Mitra Djamal  
(Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia) 
Parsaulian Siregar 
(Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia) 
Riza Muhida 
(International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia) 
Satriyo Nugroho 
(PT. Petrokimia Gresik, Indonesia) 
Sudarto Ramli 
(PT.Yokogawa Indonesia) 
Suprijadi 
(Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia) 
Togar MP Manurung 
(PT. Pertamina, Indonesia) 
Titon Dutono 
(Politeknik Elektronika Negeri Surabaya, Indonesia) 
Son Kuswadi 
(Institut Teknologi Surabaya) 
Waskita Indrasutanta 
(PT. Wifgasindo Dinamika Instrument, Indonesia) 
Yudi Samyudia 
(Curtin University of Serawak, Malaysia) 

ii
Kata Pengantar
 
Dewasa ini penelitian-penelitian dalam bidang otomasi, kontrol dan instrumentasi
telah mendorong perkembangan yang sangat pesat pada teknologi industri
manufaktur, energi, makanan, kesehatan, transportasi, militer dan sebagainya.
Teknologi tersebut mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting untuk meningkatkan
kualitas baik produk maupun proses di industri serta untuk menjaga kelestarian
lingkungan dan kesehatan, yang pada akhirnya sangat menentukan daya saing
suatu industri maupun daya saing bangsa.

Dengan maksud untuk lebih mengenalkan hasil-hasil penelitian dalam bidang


otomasi, kontrol dan instrumentasi ke masyarakat serta memberikan sarana untuk
bertukar informasi bagi para peneliti, praktisi dan pengguna teknologi tersebut,
kami dari Masyarakat Otomasi, Kontrol dan Instrumentasi (Society of Automation,
Control and Instrumentation) menerbitkan jurnal ilmiah yang dikhususkan pada
bidang yang disebutkan di atas.

Pada penerbitan jurnal kedua ini, makalah-makalah ilmiah yang dipublikasikan


merupakan hasil kegiatan riset di lingkungan Institut Teknologi Bandung,
perguruan tinggi baik dalam dan luar negeri. Kami sebagai pengurus jurnal telah
mengundang para ahli/pakar baik sebagai peneliti dari berbagai universitas
maupun praktisi dari industri sebagai anggota tim editor. Kami juga mengundang
para peneliti, praktisi dan pengguna teknologi di bidang yang dimaksud untuk
menerbitkan makalah hasil penelitian yang dilakukan di jurnal ini.

Jurnal ini akan didistribusikan ke berbagai universitas, lembaga penelitian, industri


serta individu terkait. Kami berharap dalam beberapa tahun ke depan, jurnal ini
sudah dapat diajukan untuk diakreditasi. Dengan demikian, diharapkan misi jurnal
ini sebagai bagian dalam pengembangan dan diseminasi ilmu dan teknologi
otomasi, kontrol dan instrumentasi dapat tercapai.

Terakhir, kami sampaikan terima kasih yang sebesarnya kepada para penulis yang
telah mengajukan makalahnya untuk diterbitkan di jurnal ini dan kepada para
pengurus Masyarakat Otomasi, Kontrol dan Instrumentasi yang telah menginisiasi
jurnal ini. Tidak lupa kami sampaikan juga terima kasih kepada para ahli/pakar
atas kesediaanya menjadi editor jurnal ini.

iii
Preface
 
Automation, control, and instrumentation are the key to the advancement of
science, engineering, and technology. Progress in these fields have become
thoroughly integrated into all aspects of technology in our modern lives - from
agriculture, health to national security. These have a vital role to improve the quality
of both industrial products and processes and to preserve the environment and
health of which ultimately determines the competitiveness of an industry and a
nation. Therefore, the Society of Automation, Control and Instrumentation has
published this journal as a part of our responsibility to introduce the results of
researches to the community and as a means to exchange information between
researchers and users of this technology.

In this second edition, published papers are the results of research activities within
the Bandung Institute of Technology and other universities. We have invited
researchers and practitioners from industries as a member of the editorial team.
We also invite researchers and practitioners to publish their research in this journal.

This journal will be distributed to various universities, research institutions, industry


participants and contributing authors. We hope in the next few years, this journal
has been filed for accredited. Thus, the mission of this journal as a part of the
development and dissemination of science and technology of automation, control
and instrumentation can be achieved.

Finally, we thank to the authors who have submitted papers in this journal and to
the Society of Automation, Control & Instrumentation who has initiated this journal.
Our gratitude also goes to the researchers and practitioners on the willingness to be
the editor of this journal.

iv
Daftar Isi/List of Content 
 
Tim Editor/Editor Board ii

Kata Pengantar/Preface iii

Daftar isi/List of Content iv

1 Development of Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar 1


Sensor Mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

M. Baharuddin, P.R. Akbar, J.T.S. Sumantyo, H. Kuze

2 Electric Traction Motor Drive Modelling for Electric Karting 7


Application Using Matlab / Simulink Software

D. Istardi

3 Feasibility Study of Solar Power Massive Usage in Indonesia : 21


Yield versus Cost Effective

M.A. Setiawan

4 Modelling and Designing The Model Predictive Control System of 29


Turbine Angular Speed at Hydropowerplant UBP Saguling PT
Indonesia Power

R.K.A. Kusumah, E. Joelianto, E. Ekawati

5 Performance Analysis of Finger Flexor and Finger Extensor 41


Muscles on Wall Climbing Athletes trough Electromyography
Measurement, Handgrip Strength, Handgrip Endurance and
Lactate Acid

H. Susanti, Suprijanto, F. Idealistina, T. Apriantono

6 Study on Voltage Controller of Self-Excited Induction Generator 49


Using Controlled Shunt Capacitor, SVC Magnetic Energy Recovery
Switch

F.D. Wijaya, T. Isobe, R. Shimada

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Development of Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar


Sensor Mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

M. Baharuddin, P.R. Akbar, J.T.S.Sumantyo, and H. Kuze


Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory, Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba
University, 1-33, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 Japan, merna5@graduate.chiba-u.jp

Abstract
This paper describes the development of a circularly polarized microstrip antenna, as a part of the
Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP-SAR) sensor which is currently under developed at
the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MRSL) in Chiba University. CP-SAR is a new type of sensor
developed for the purpose of remote sensing. With this sensor, lower-noise data/image will be
obtained due to the absence of depolarization problems from propagation encounter in linearly
polarized synthetic aperture radar. As well the data/images obtained will be investigated as the Axial
Ratio Image (ARI), which is a new data that is expected to reveal unique various backscattering
characteristics. The sensor will be mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) which will be aimed
for fundamental research and applications. The microstrip antenna works in the frequency of 1.27
GHz (L-Band). The microstrip antenna utilized the proximity-coupled method of feeding. Initially, the
optimization process of the single patch antenna design involving modifying the microstrip line feed to
yield a high gain (above 5 dBi) and low return loss (below -10 dB). A minimum of 10 MHz bandwidth is
targeted at below 3 dB of Axial Ratio for the circularly polarized antenna. A planar array from the
single patch is formed next. Consideration for the array design is the beam radiation pattern in the
azimuth and elevation plane which is specified based on the electrical and mechanical constraints of
the UAV CP-SAR system. This research will contribute in the field of radar for remote sensing
technology. The potential application is for landcover, disaster monitoring, snow cover, and
oceanography mapping. Especially for Indonesia which is the largest archipelago country in the world,
the need for surface mapping and monitoring is demanding.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, circular polarization, microstrip antenna

1 Introduction
A circularly-polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP-SAR) to be launched onboard a micro-
satellite is currently developed in the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MRSL) of the
Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. SAR is a multipurpose sensor
that can be operated in all-weather and day-night time. As part of the project, an airborne
CP-SAR development is also undertaken in order to gain sufficient knowledge of CP-SAR
sensor systems. An L-band CP-SAR system will be designed for operation onboard an
unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

Historically, synthetic aperture radars (SAR) have used linearly polarized (LP) antenna
systems. However, there are limitations due to the propagation phenomenon namely the
variation of geometric differences between earth and the radar, the occurrence of a phase
shift as a result of radio wave strike the smooth reflective surface, etc. These phenomenon
leads to a backscatter variation, random redistribution of returned signal-energy and in the
end the formed image would encounter a spatially variant blurring and defocusing as well as
ambiguous identification of different low-backscatter features in a scene.

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As compared with the conventional linear polarization SAR, most of the above-mentioned
effects can be alleviated through the use of CP-SAR. Thus, a CP-SAR sensor would provide a
greater amount of information about scenes and targets being imaged than a linear SAR
sensor. The present work focuses on the design of an L-band CP-SAR antenna. We consider
the SAR system requirements to achieve an excellent performance of the overall CP-SAR
system, including optimization of the single element patch and array designing.

2 Circularly Polarized SAR Antenna Requirements

Table 1. Specification of CP-SAR onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Parameter Specification
Frequency f 1.27 GHz (L band)
Chirp bandwidth 10 MHz
Polarization Transmitter : RHCP
Receiver : RHCP + LHCP
Gain G > 20 dBic
Axial Ratio AR < 3 dB (main beam)
Antenna size 1.75 m (azimuth)
0.5 m (range)
Beam width 8º (azimuth)
25º (range)
Altitude range 3,000 - 10,000 m

The capability of a SAR antenna can be described by its sensitivity, spatial resolution in
range and azimuth directions, image quality, ambiguities, and swath coverage [1]. Table 1
shows the specifications and targets desired for the present CP-SAR system, which in turn
influence the specification of the L-Band CP-SAR antenna.

The operation frequency of 1.27 GHz (L-band) has been chosen, since its relatively longer
wavelength ensures better penetration through vegetation canopies. The drawback
associated with this choice, however, is the relatively large dimension of microstrip
elements. The requirements for the range resolution (15 m) determine the antenna
bandwidth of 10 MHz, or less than 1% of the operation frequency of 1.27 GHz. This
bandwidth requirement must be compatible with a low axial ratio (AR) (below 3 dB) for
ensuring transmitting/receiving circularly-polarized waves. To satisfy the matching of input
impedance, the return loss must be smaller than 10 dB in this bandwidth range.

3 CP-SAR Antenna Concept Analysis


The primary considerations in the design and fabrication process are low cost, light weight
and ease of manufacturing. The CP-SAR antenna is conceived in the way that every single
element microstrip patch is a circularly polarized antenna. Feed network will be
implemented in different layer substrate as the feeding method is proximity coupled.

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Figure 1. Configuration of a CP-SAR antenna array consisting of microstrip elements.

The primary considerations in the design and subsequent fabrication processes are low
cost, light weight and ease of manufacturing. The CP-SAR antenna consists of an array of
single antenna elements, each being a microstrip antenna for circular polarization. The
single element patches which have been optimized are then spatially arranged to form a
planar array (see Figure 1 for illustration). The planar array configuration is widely employed
in radar systems where a narrow pencil beam is needed [2]. The beam pattern for optimum
ground mapping function is cosecant-squared beam in the elevation plane (E-plane) which
can correct the range gain variation and pencil beam in the azimuth plane (H-plane) [3]. The
antenna side lobe levels in the azimuth plane must be suppressed in order to avoid the
azimuth ambiguity. To deal with reflection, the antenna side lobes and back lobes also must
be suppressed. A better control of the beam shape and position in space can be achieved
by correctly arranging the elements along a rectangular grid to form a planar array. The
antenna gain is mostly determined by the aperture size and inter-element separation.

To maximize the array performance, certain characteristics of feed networks have to be


taken into account. These are the conductor and dielectric losses, surface wave loss, and
spurious radiation due to discontinuities such as bends, junctions, and transitions [2]. The
loss due to the coupling of the adjacent element have to be considered, therefore isolation
between adjacent elements must be higher than 20 dB. The spacing between elements is
measured as the distance between the midpoints of each element. A maximum directivity
will occur for approximately spacing between elements in the range of 0.8 – 0.9 times the
free space wavelength [4].

4 Analysis and Design of Radiating Elements


The configuration of the radiating element together with the microstrip line feed and ground
plane is shown in Figure 2(a), where important parameters are labelled. Side view is
depicted in Figure 2(b). The equilateral triangular radiator will generate a left-handed
circular polarization (LHCP) by employing the dual feed method as shown in Figure 2(a). In
order to generate a 90o phase delay on one of the two modes, the line feed on the left side
is approximately λ/4 longer than the other.

Simulations with a finite ground plane model have been undertaken to optimize the size
parameters using a full wave analysis tool (IE3D Zeland software) based on the method of
moment (MoM) algorithm. The dimensions of the radiator, microstrip feed line and the
ground plane for the equilateral triangular patch are a = 102.75, w = 6.8, ld = 21.5, le = 27,
ld1 = 6.9, lc = 9.2, ls = 10.1, lm = 3.9, lst = 21.5, ws = 10.2, la = 146.1, and lr =163.1 in units

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of mm. The geometry model is implemented on two substrates, each with thickness t = 1.6
mm, with the conductor thickness tc ≈ 0.035 mm, relative permittivity εr = 2.17 and loss tan
δ (dissipation factor) 0.0005. The equilateral triangular microstrip antenna model has been
fabricated to verify the simulation results. The reflection coefficient and input impedance
were measured with a RF Vector Network Analyzer (Agilent, E5062A, ENA-L). The antenna
gain, AR, and radiation patterns were measured inside the anechoic chamber of MRSL,
having a dimension of 4×8.5×2.4 m.

The experimental results are shown in Figures 3 – 5 in comparison with the simulation.
Figure 3 shows the S-parameter which indicate an impedance bandwidth of more than 15
MHz.

In Figure 4, it can be seen that whereas the gain of the antenna is simulated to be 7.04
dBic at 1.27 GHz, the experimental result shows a smaller value by about 0.6 dB. This
difference may be ascribed to the fabrication imperfections (such as inaccuracy in the
milling and etching processes and connector soldering) and the substrate loss. The 3-dB AR
bandwidth of the simulation is 7.2 MHz and from observation it is 7.4 MHz which is still
narrower than the target specification (10 MHz). To improve this situation, the next work will
consider the technique to extend the 3-dB AR bandwidth.

Figure 5 shows the radiation pattern in terms of gain an azimuth angle Az = 0o (x-z plane) at
the frequency of f = 1.27 GHz. A difference of around 0.7 dB is seen between simulated
model and the measured antenna on the gain radiation pattern. There are some differences
between the simulated and measured pattern of the antenna. This may be due to the
imbalance in current distribution affected by the configuration of the antenna (such as holes
and plastic screws in substrate) and the measurement system.

Figure 2. Configuration of equilateral triangular patch antenna with proximity coupled feed;
(a) top view and (b) side view.

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S11 - Reflection Coefficient (dB)


0

-10

-20

-30
Simulation
Measurement
-40
1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29
Frequency (GHz)

Figure 3. Reflection coefficient vs. frequency

Gain (Simulation) AR (Simulation)


Gain (Measurement) AR (Measurement)
8 8

AR - Axial Ratio (dB)


7 7
6 6
G - Gain (dBic)

5 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
0 0
1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29
Frequency (GHz)

Figure 4. Gain and AR vs. frequency at θ (theta) angle = 0o

8
7
6
G - Gain (dBic)

5
4
3
2 Simulation
...... Measurement
1
0
90 60 30 0 30 60 90
←Az = 180o Az = 0o →
θangle (degrees)

Figure 5. Gain vs. theta angle (radiation pattern) in the theta plane (Az = 0o and 180o) (x – z plane) at
f = 1.27 GHz.

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5 Conclusion
A circularly-polarized antenna has been developed for implementing antenna for circularly-
polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR) sensor operated in L-band. The design and
optimization process was carried out using a MoM analysis software. The model was
actually fabricated and measured in MRSL. Although the AR bandwidth is slightly smaller
than the requirement for an airborne CP-SAR system, the present work has indicated that
the goals can be met through a precise adjustment in the design and fabrication process in
the near future.

6 References
[1] Pokuls, R. , Uher, J. , and Pozar, D.M., September 1998. Dual-Frequency and Dual
Polarization Microstrip Antennas for SAR Applications, IEEE Trans. Antenna
Propagation, volume 46, no. 9, pp 1289-1296.
[2] Garg, R. , Bhartia P. , Bahl I. , and Ittipiboon, A., 2001. Microstrip Antenna Design
Handbook, Artech House, pp 720, 737.
[3] Vetharatnam, G. Kuan, C.B, and Teik C.H., Microstrip Antenna for Airbone SAR
Application
http://www.remotesensing.gov.my/images/default/publication_3rdmicrowave/3rdmic
rowave_paper5.pdf
[4] Levine, E., Malamud, G., Shtrikman, S., and Treves, D., April 1989. A Study of
Microstrip Array Antennas with the Feed Network, IEEE Trans. Antenna Propagation,
volume 37, no. 4, pp 426-434.

7 Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank Victor Wissan, Basari, Fauzan, Ilham A. and Zhang Jia-Yi for
assisting in the antenna fabrication and measurement; the Japan Society for the Promotion
of Science (JSPS) for Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research - Young Scientist (A) (No.
19686025); Venture Business Laboratory - Chiba University for Project 10th Research
Grant; National Institute of Information and Communication Technology (NICT) for
International Research Collaboration Research Grant 2008, and other research grants that
have supported this research.

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Electric Traction Motor Drive Modeling for Electric Karting


Application Using Matlab®/Simulink® Software

D. Istardi
Batam Polytechnics
Parkway st. Batam Centre, Batam Indonesia
E-mail: istardi@polibatam.ac.id

Abstract
An electric traction motor drive for an electric karting application was modeled for efficiency studies
and simulated using the MATLAB®/Simulink® software. The model includes models of a battery, power
electronic converter, electric motor, and vehicles dynamic of go-karts to a typical 48 seconds track
driving schedule. The losses of each component of the electric traction motor drive were modeled and
simulated over the entire speed range. In the battery was also calculated the state of charge (SOC) of
the battery over the driving cycle. The regenerative braking energy captured was also considered in the
simulation. Finally, the overall electric traction motor drive system efficiency and energy consumed
were estimated based on the individual model based efficiency and energy consumed analysis.
Keywords : Index Terms—Battery, electric go-kart, efficiency maps, loss modeling, and regenerative
braking.

1 Introduction
The first electric vehicle was made in the 1830s and was popular for almost a century
[1],[2],[3]. However, since 1933 the numbers of electric vehicles have decreased due to the
improvements of the internal combustion engine (ICE) that has become better and cheaper.
Nowadays, environmental considerations, energy costs, and improvements in control and
battery technology have inspired an increasing amount of research and development of
electric vehicles [3].

One of the developments in the electric vehicle is research on electric kart racing or karting.
Research in this area is interesting due to their characteristics that were different compare
to the normal electric go-kart such as energy consumption and acceleration. In electric
karting, the energy is higher than in the electric go-kart. The drive cycle that was used in the
electric karting have a high acceleration and deceleration. In this paper, the electric karting
that would be used as an input for simulation is the ICE karting for children (8-12 years old).
Therefore, the research is focus on energy consumption and losses of an electric small
karting.

Electric karting is a variant of an open-wheel motor sport, with small four-wheeled vehicles
called karts. These karts are simple and usually raced on a scaled-down track. Since the
electric kart engine is powered by an electric motor instead of an internal combustion
engine and the motor is operated using the power stored in batteries [4], its engine has
many advantages over the ICE. It is pollution-free, has higher energy conversion efficiency
and less vibration, requires low maintenance, its speed is easy to control and it can use the
energy from regenerative braking [1], [3]. An electric karting race was first started in 1989
in Italy [5] and is currently getting popular in the United States and Europe due to

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improvements in control and battery technology.

The components of electric karting are chassis made of a steel tube, a propulsion system
that includes an electric motor that drives the wheels, a power electronic converter that
regulates the energy flow to the motor and a transmission system, a battery that provides
energy, and a control unit that ensures a proper operation of the power electronic converter
[3],[6], [7].

The paper is organized as follows: In the next section, a brief review of electric traction drive
system components and simulation of each component are presented. In Section III, a
description of the ICE karting drive cycle is given. Section IV and V presents results of
simulation using MATLAB®/Simulink® software and discussion of the results. Finally, the
conclusions are made in section VI.

2 Electric Traction Drive System


A simple electric traction drive system consists of a drive system (transmission, electric
motor, and power electronics) and energy storage (battery) [6] as seen in Fig. 1. Examples of
some papers that describe the modeling of an electric traction drive system using MATLAB®
or other software [7]-[10].

Within the system, energy is stored in the battery. A power electronic converter connects the
battery to an electric motor. The voltage and current output of the battery are maintained to
match the ratings of the electric motor. The electric motor converts electrical energy
supplied by the battery into mechanical energy. A transmission transforms the mechanical
energy into a linear motion. Speed and torque are adjusted using the gear box. The gear can
transmit the rotational force at different speeds, torque, and directions. A controller and
energy management control the speed and direction of the electric karting, and optimize the
energy conversion from the battery to the transmission. The battery can be charged from the
line power and also from regenerative braking energy.

Figure 1. Block diagram of drive system for electric karting.

In order to calculate the efficiency of the electric karting, it is essential to understand how
the losses of each electric drive system component change with speed.

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2.1 Vehicle Dynamic Model


Mechanical energy provided by the electric traction drive system is used to drive the wheels
of the electric karting. The supplied energy must be large enough to overcome the “traction
resistance” (Ft), i.e. the sum of rolling resistance (Frr), aerodynamic drag (Fad), climbing
resistance and acceleration force (Faf) [8], [11]. Rolling resistance is a deformation process
mechanism which occurs at the contact patch between the tires and road surface.
Aerodynamic drag is the viscous resistance of air upon the vehicle. In this paper, the race
track is assumed to be flat, thus the climbing resistance is neglected. Those forces can be
calculated using:

F t = F ad + F rr + F cr + F af (1)
1
F ad = δ C ad Av a2 (2)
2
F rr = C rr mg (3)
F af = ma (4)

Where δ : front surface area of vehicle [m2]


Cad : coefficient aerodynamic drag
va : relative vehicle speed with respect to air [m/s]
Crr : coefficient rolling resistance
m : total vehicle mass, include the driver [kg]
g : gravitational acceleration [m/s2]
a : acceleration [m/s2]

Calculation of the torque generated by the electric motor is based on energy considerations
in terms of inertias (J), load acceleration, coupling ratio (B), and the load torque (TL) or force
as shown below:
dω r
Tr = J + B ω r + TL (5)
dt

The losses in this model are neglected. The parameters of vehicle dynamics for a small
electric karting can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1 . Vehicle dynamic parameter for small go kart


Total mass 110 kg
Rolling resistance coeff. 0.03
Drag coefficient 0.6
Air density 1.202 kg/m3
Vehicle cross section 0.5 m2
Driving wheel radius 0.14 m

2.2 Electric Motor Losses


The losses in the electric motor can be divided into 4 components [12]: copper losses, core
losses, mechanical losses and stray losses. In this paper, only copper and iron losses will be
used in simulation and analysis. Mechanical and stray losses are disregarded. The electric

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motor that used in this paper is induction motor due to its simplicity, minimum maintenance
requirement, and low costs [13]-[15]. Per-phase equivalent circuit of the induction motor at
steady state is shown in Figure 2 [15]-[18].

Figure 2: Equivalent circuit of induction motor

From the equivalent circuit in Figure 2 and power flow in induction motor, the rotor current at
rated condition can be calculated by

2 Td ω s s
Ir = (6)
3 pR r

Where Td : developed torque of electric motor [T]


s : slip [%]
p : pole pairs
ωs : angular speed of stator [rad/sec]

Using the current divider laws, the stator current is calculated by:

2 2
⎛ RmRr 2 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ Rr ⎞⎤
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎜ s − ωs Lr Lm ⎟ + ⎢ωs ⎜RmLm + s Lm + RmLr ⎟⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎣⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎦⎥ (7)
Is = Ir
ωsLmRm

Then the air gaps voltage can be expressed as

sω sTd ⎛ R 2 ⎞
⎜ r 2 ⎟ (8)
Vg = ⎜ 2 + ω L
s r ⎟⎟
3R r ⎜ s
⎝ ⎠

The total rated losses of the motor can be obtained as


⎡ V g2 ⎤
P loss = 3 ⎢ R s I s2 + R r I r2 + ⎥ (9)
⎢ Rm ⎥
⎢⎣ ⎥⎦

The induction motor can operate above the rated speed by using frequency or voltage
control variations because of its rugged mechanical construction [10], [18]-[21]. The torque
and power capabilities as a function of rotor speed can be seen in Figure 3. In the below
rated speed area, the flux in the air gap is kept constant by controlling Vs/f and the value of

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the slip is small. Then the electric motor can produce torque until up to its rated torque and
as a result, the rotor current may be assumed to be proportional to the torque.

Figure 3. Induction motor characteristic and capabilities

To increase the motor speed above the rated speed, the stator voltage is kept at the rated
voltage and the stator frequency is increased to a value above the rated frequency. So, the
Vs/f is reduced and the flux is also reduced by the ratio of the instantaneous operating
speed to the rated speed. The rating of the motor can be seen in Table 2.

Table 2. Induction motor rating


Power 6000 W
Voltage 3 x 27 V
Frequency 100 Hz
Speed 2850 rpm
Current 168 A
Weight 19.2 kg

From this rating of the motor, efficiency map can be calculated and the result can be seen in
Figure 4.

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Figure 4. Efficiency maps for the used induction motor

2.3 Power Electronic Converter


The power electronic converter used in this simulation is a standard six-switch three-phase
bridge inverter. The aim of this component is to provide appropriate mean values of
parameters commonly used in electric motor. The power switching device used in this paper
is MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) and anti-parallel power
diodes. The controller pulse used in this simulation is a three-phase pulse-width modulation
(PWM). The main losses in the converter are the conduction losses (Pcond) and switching
losses (Psw) for each switching component [10],[19]. Switching process of power electronic
components depends on the load and switching strategies [19],[21]-[25]. The losses for the
MOSFET are

⎡⎛ 1 M ⎞ 2 ⎛ 1 M ⎞⎤
⎢⎜ 8 + 3π cos(θ )⎟RCE, onIQ + ⎜ 2π + 8 cos(θ )⎟⎥
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎥
PQ = 6⎢ (10)

⎢IQVCE +

VQIQ
2
(
fsw ton, sw + toff , sw ) ⎥

where M : Modulation index (0<M<1)


vCE : collector-emitter voltage [V]

The losses for anti parallel power diode are almost the same with the losses in the MOSFET,
except that the duty cycle of the anti parallel diode is different due to different times of their
operation. Also, the most important parameter in the diode switching losses is the reverse
recovery losses. Therefore, the losses for the diode can be expressed by

⎡⎛ 1 M ⎞ 2 ⎛ 1 M ⎞⎤
⎢⎜ 8 − 3π cos(θ ) ⎟RD, onID + ⎜ 2π − 8 cos(θ ) ⎟⎥
⎢⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎥
PD = 6⎢ 2 ⎥ (11)
f V dI St
⎢I V + sw R ⎛⎜ F ⎞⎟⎛⎜ rr ⎞⎟ ⎥
⎢⎣ D D 2 S ⎜⎝ dt ⎟⎠⎜⎝ S + 1 ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦

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The parameters of this component can be found in Table 3.

Table 3. Power electronic converter parameter


Power MOSFET MTD3055VL
Strain drain to source on-resistance 0.012 ohm
Rise time 85e-9 seconds
Fall time 43e-9 seconds
Constant voltage drop 0 V
Power Diode QuietIR series 20 ETF
Forward voltage drop 1.2 V
On-resistance 0 ohm
rms reverse voltage 21 V
Snappiness factor 0.6
Rate of fall forward current 100e6 A/s
Reverse recovery time 60e-9 seconds
Controller
Frequency switching 10 kHz
Modulation index 0.5
Power factor motor 0.8

2.4 Battery
A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. In
this paper, a generic battery model will be used. The model is a modification of the
Sheppard discharge battery model introduced by [26]. The battery is modeled using a
controlled voltage source in series with internal resistance, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Generic battery model.

This model can represent the behavior of different battery types. The parameters of this
model can be extracted from the discharge curve data. This model is based on several
assumptions: the model has the same characteristic of charge and discharge cycles, the
model has constant internal resistance and there is no Peukert effect; the battery capacity

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does not change with the amplitude of the current.

The simulation used eight batteries as energy storage with the capacity was 36 Ah and the
internal resistance of the batteries was 0.045 Ω.

2.5 Regenerative Braking


Regenerative braking is a mechanism to reduce the vehicle speed by converting some of its
kinetic energy to other useful form of energy [27]-[29]. This converted energy can be used to
charge the energy storage in the system, such as a battery or a capacitor. The regenerative
braking is different from an auxiliary drive braking, where the electrical energy is dissipated
as heat by passing current through large bank of variable resistors.
The total energy dissipation is limited by either the capacity of the supply system to absorb
this energy or by the SOC of the battery. If SOC of the battery is full, the auxiliary drive
braking will absorb the excess energy. In order to capture the regenerative braking energy,
the total traction torque must be negative.

3 Load Profile of the Electric Drive Systems


The load used in this paper was drive cycle of ICE karting at race day for one lap (48
seconds). This drive cycle had previously been measured by the Flap track software at
Göteborg karting ring track. The speed profile of the ICE karting for one lap can be seen in
Figure 6. The drive shall be optimized for 10 minutes heat in full race and 3 minutes for in
and out laps.

Figure 6. Speed profile of ICE karting at Göteborg karting ring track

According to this speed characteristic, the traction torque at the wheel is varying between 47
Nm and -78 Nm. The negative torque indicates that the ICE karting is in deceleration or in
regenerative braking region. It is clear that the regenerative braking or deceleration torque
is higher than the acceleration torque. Therefore, the regenerative power used in charging
the battery must be limited due to the limitation of the electric motor, power electronic
converter and battery capability [27].

4 Modeling of the Electric drive system


The model of electric traction drive system for electric karting is implemented using

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Matlab®/Simulink® software. A steady-state model is used to get raw data that is helpful
during the design stage and for long-term analysis over an extended drive cycle. The
advantage of this modeling is fast computation. The steady-state model is suitable to model
the efficiency and performance of the system.
This simulation ran in 48 seconds and used variable-step ode45 (Dormant-Prince) solver.
The relative tolerance was 1e-3. There were also three m files that each represents the
system parameters, displays the post processing, and includes calculation on the
performance of each component of the system.

5 Result and Discussion


According to the data sheet of the electric motor, the rated of the motor is 2850 rpm, 6000
W and 20.1 Nm. The speed and torque at the wheel were between 886 - 1801 rpm and 0 -
47 Nm respectively, as explained. This speed and torque must be geared to values that have
a high efficiency of the electric motor. By using, the gear ratio used in this drive system has
been selected to 45/21. With this gear ratio, the induction motor operates at speeds
between 1889 – 3859 rpm and torques between 0 – 21.9 Nm. The slip of the induction
motor was assumed to be constant because the electric motor operates almost in the
torque constant region. The average efficiency of the electric motor was 86.2%. The average
efficiencies of the power electronic converter and the battery were 92.7% and 83.5%,
respectively as seen in Figure 7. Thus, the total average efficiency of this system was 66.7%.

Figure 7. Efficiency of the drive system

The lower efficiency at the battery occurred as a result of the large current in the equivalent
internal resistance of the battery. At regenerative braking condition, the efficiency of the
electric drive system was lower than that of normal operation due to the larger current in
regenerative braking. Therefore, at regenerative braking condition, the losses increased in
the power electronic converter, battery and electric motor.
The total energy used by the drive system is the subtraction of the regenerative energy from
the used driving energy and can be seen in Figure 8.

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Figure 8. Energy used of the drive system.

Figure 8 shows that the regenerative braking supplies a higher energy level in short time
compared to normal operation. Consequently, this energy must be considered in designing
an electric traction drive system. The comparison of energy used can be found at Table 4.

Table 4. Comparison of energy usage

Reg W/o reg [Wh] With reg [Wh]


[Wh] a lap 13 min a lap 13 min
Transmission 18.8 48.7 796.3 30.2 490.8
Motor 15 53.5 869.4 38.5 626.2
PEC 13.7 57.2 929.4 42 706.1
Battery 11.4 67.9 1104.5 56.6 920

Table 4 shows that the total regenerative energy at the battery is lower than the total
regenerative braking energy at the electric motor due to losses at the components of the
electric drive system. The energy needed to operate the electric karting for 13 minutes was
920 Wh with regenerative braking, or 1104.5 Wh without regenerative braking. Therefore,
the energy available in the battery (48Vdc) must be at minimum 19.2 Ah with regenerative
braking and 23 Ah without regenerative braking.
The performance of the battery in the drive system can be evaluated using the SOC of the
battery during the drive cycle that can be seen in Figure 9. At the end of simulation, the SOC
was 0.9639. If the drive cycle is assumed to be the same for other times, the storage energy
can support the electric traction drive system for 23 minutes. It is clear that the regenerative
braking energy can be used to charge the battery and reduce the energy usage in the
system.

A power and torque characteristics as function of the speed can be seen in Figure 10. The
transmitted power in the electric traction drive cycle increases with the increasing speed
due to increasing frequency and voltage until the rated speed. The maximum power occurs
in the rated speed. At above the rated speed, the transmitted power decreases again as a

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result of the decreasing stator and rotor currents. The torque is almost constant at rated
torque below the rated speed and will decrease at above the rated speed due to decreasing
power transmitted in the electric karting. At regenerative braking condition, the torque is
almost constant above the rated torque of the electric motor.

Figure 9. State of charge of battery at the drive system

Figure 10. Speed – power and torque characteristics of the drive system

6 Conclusion
The complete electric traction drive system was simulated and observed. The total average
efficiency of the system was 66.7% and the total efficiency depended on the efficiency of
the electric motor and the battery. In this simulation, there was no limitation for regenerative
braking energy feed into the electric motor. The average power of the electric motor was
found to be 5.4 kW. The total energy consumed for this electric traction drive system was
56.61 Wh in one lap with the regenerative braking energy and 920 Wh in the whole race.

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The type of battery can be changed to other types of battery which have a lower internal
resistance but the price will be higher.
In this paper, the main focus has been placed on the induction motor modeling using the
efficiency model on steady state. Thus, there exists much future research scope in
improving the behavior of the electric motor, power electronic converter, and battery for
dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the use of an advanced traction motor such as the
permanent magnet DC motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor, series DC motor,
brushless DC motor, and switched reluctance motor, which have even higher efficiencies,
might lead to higher system efficiencies.

7 References
[1] J. Larminie, J. Lowry, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained, John Wiley and Sons,
2003
[2] C. C. Chen, “An overview of electric vehicle technology,” Proceeding of IEEE, vol. 81,
no. 9, pp. 1202-1213, Sept 1993.
[3] M. Ehsani, K. M. Rahman, H. A. Toliyat, “Propulasion system design of electric and
hybrid vehicles,” IEEE Trans on Industrial electronics, VOL. 44, NO. 1, pp. 19-27,Feb
1997
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Go_karting last visited 25-2-09
[5] http://www.kartelec.com/f/en_actu.htm last visited 25-2-09
[6] C. Cardoso, J. Ferriera, V. Alves, R. E. Araujo, “ The design and implementation of an
electric go-kart for education in motor control, “ IEEE International SPEEDAM 2006,
pp. 1489 – 1494, May 2006.
[7] F. J. Perez-Pinal, C. Nunez, R. Alvarez, M. Gallegos, “ Step by step design procedure of
an independent-wheeled small EV applying EVLS,” IECON 2006-32nd Annual
Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics, pp. 1176-1181, Nov 2006.
[8] M. Xianmin, “Propulsion system control and simulation of electric vehicle in MATLAB
software environment, “Proceeding of the 4th World Congress on Intelligent Control
and Automation 2002, pp. 815-818, June 2002.
[9] J. M. Lee, B. H. Co, “ Modeling and simulation of electric Vehicle power system, “
Proceeding of the 32nd Intersociety IECEC-97, vol. 3, pp. 2005-2010, August 1997
[10] S.S. Williamson, A. Emadi, K. Rajashekara, “Comprehensive Efficiency Modeling of
Electric Traction Motor Drives for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Propulsion Applications,”
IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp.1561-1572, July 2007.
[11] Robert Bosch GmbH, BOSCH-Automotive Handbook, Robert Bosch GmbH, German,
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[12] G. C. D. Sousa, B. K. Bose, “ Loss modeling of converter induction machine system for
variable speed drive,” Proceeding of the 1992 International Conference on Power
electronics and Motion Control, vol. 1, pp. 114-120, Nov. 1992
[13] Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi, ”Fundamentals of Electric Drives,” Brooks/Cole Thomson
Learning, 2000.
[14] J.J. Cathey, ”Electric Machines Analysis and Design Applying Matlab®,” McGraw Hill,
2001
[15] C. Shumei, L. Cheng, S. Liwei,” Study on Efficiency Calculation Model of Induction
Motors for Electric Vehicles,” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1-5,
Sept 2008
[16] J. Faiz, M. B. B. Sharifian, “Optimal design of an induction motor for an electric
vehicle, “Euro. Trans. Electr. Power 2006, vol. 16, pp. 15-33, July 2005.
[17] G. Pugsley, C. Chillet, A. Fonseca, A-L. Bui-Van, “New modeling methodology for

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induction machine efficiency mapping for hybrid vehicles,” IEEE International Electric
Machines and Drives Conference 2003, vol.2, pp. 776-781, June 2003.
[18] S.M. Lukic, A. Emado, “ Modeling of Electric Machines for Automotive Applications
Using Efficiency Maps,” Electrical Insulation Conference and Electrical Manufacturing
& Coil Winding Technology Conference 2003, pp. 543-550, Sept. 2003.
[19] N. Mohan, T. M. undeland, and W. P. Robbins, ”Power Electronics: Converter,
Applications, and Design,” Hoboken, NJ:Wiley, Oct 2002
[20] B.K. Bose, “Power Electronics and Variable Frequency Drives,” IEEE Press, New York,
1997.
[21] B.K. Bose, “Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives,”Prentice Hall, New York, 2002.
[22] I. Husain, M. S. Islam, “Design, Modeling and Simulation of an Electric Vehicle
System, “SAE-Advanced in Electric Vehicle Technology, 1999-01-1149, March 1999.
[23] Ali Emadi, “ Handbook of Automotive Power Electronics and Motor Drives,” CRC Press
– Taylor and Francis Groups, Florida 2005
[24] F. Casanellas ,”Losses in PWM inverter using IGBTs,” IEE Proc. Electr. Power Appl.,
vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 235-239, September 1994.
[25] P.A. Dahono, Y. Sato, T. Kataoka,” Analysis of conduction losses in inverter,” IEE Proc.
Electr. Power Appl., vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 225-232, July 1995
[26] O. Tremblay, L-A. Dessaint. A-I. Dekkiche, “A generic battery model for the dynamic
simulation of hybrid electric vehicles, “IEEE Conference on Vehicles Power and
Propulsion VPPC 2007, pp. 284-289, Sept. 2007.
[27] J. Lee, D. J. Nelson, “Rotating inertia impact on propulsion and regenerative braking
for electric motor driven vehicles,” IEEE conference on Vehicle Power and Propulsion
2005, pp. 308-314, Sept 2005.
[28] B. Cao, Z. Bai, W. Zhang, “Research on control for regenerative braking of electric
vehicle,” IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety 2005, pp.
92-97, Oct 2005.
[29] Z. Junzhi, L. Xin, C. Shanglou, Z. Pengjun, “Coordinated control for regenerative
braking system,” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), pp 1-6, Oct.
2008

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Feasibility Study of Solar Power Massive Usage in Indonesia: Yield


versus Cost-Effective

M. A. Setiawan
Politeknik Manufaktur Timah
Jln. Timah Raya Air Kantung Sungailiat Bangka Indonesia
Email : made_andik_s@plasa.com, made@polman-timah.ac.id

Abstract
The aim of this study is to analyze the cost production of solar power utilization comparing with its
annual yield especially in Indonesia. Solar cell module employed is poly-crystalline silicone with Peak
Power 20 Wp, Power Current (Imp) 1.17 A and Power Voltage (Vmp) 17.1 V. To obtain the maximum
power of the sun, the module is static fixed in 10-20 N adjusting to the equator line. The
measurement is conducted in Timah Manufacture Polytechnic which is situated in 1020’ S and 1060
E. The output is observed by multimeter data logger for every hour average. The cable employed
between solar module and the multimeter and the battery is NYA Eterna 2.5 mm2 450/750 V with
SNI number 04-2698 SPLN 42, the long is 40 meter and have resistance about 0.6-0.7 Ω. The
measurement output indicates that the maximum solar power is at 11.00 to 14.00 WIB. In these
times, the current output is more than Imp of the Module. By calculating the average of energy
received in a day, the energy received is 65%-75% of Imp. Therefore by mathematically calculation,
the annual yield of current is about 4,982.68 Ampere and in 25 years will be around 124,566.90
Ampere. According to PLN statistic report in 2008, the average cost production in 2007 is
Rp.706.62/KWH and the cost production of the solar energy is about Rp.440.819/KWH. This
calculation is included the investment, overhead and 10% of inflation /year. By comparing to the
regional minimum revenue (UMR) per month in 2008, the cost of investment for the solar power
usage is about 6-7 times. Although break-even-point will be occurs in 10 years, the affordability of
Indonesian for massive usage of solar power is still too hard and need funded by government and
others funding groups.

Keywords: Solar Cell, Cost-Effective, Poly-Crystalline-Silicone, Annual Yield

1 Introduction
Solar power is the one of potential renewable energy sources in the future as stated by
Mark Clayton [1] "Solar power is the energy of the future - and always will be". The massive
usage of the renewable energy is not always in term of technology but also in term of cost-
effective [2,3] : how the source could provide the affordable energy.

Indonesia is situated in tropical area which receives a lot of solar energy every year.
Unfortunately, the applying of solar energy as the one energy sources is still have many
problems such low efficiency and more expensive than fossil fuel [4]. Another problem is
that there is no actual data in experimental based which shows the actual solar energy
received annually. Thus the massive usage of solar power in term of cost-effective is hard to
be determined.

This study is to determine and evaluate the annual yield of solar energy by experimentally
measurement. Obtaining annual yield is useful to analyze the potential energy sources

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based on employing mass technology equipments. After that, the cost- effective of the solar
power especially in Indonesia could be predicted.

2 Literature Review
The main advantages of solar power is “quite operation, good reliability”, and high scalable
[4], “abundant, clean, renewable energy” [2], and also “almost pollution- free” [3]. Solar
energy also will reduce greenhouse gas emission 1.7 million tons and 1.9 million tons car
gas emission every year and estimated in the 2050, carbon dioxide emissions will reduce
up-to 62% than emission in the 2005 [3].

The most used solar energy is crystalline silicon, thin-film solar cell and solar concentrator
[5]. Solar concentrator is technology which uses mirror to mix a light in “high-performance
and sensitivity” area [6]. Another technique is presented by Marc Dalbo from MIT laboratory
[7]. This technology is called dye molecule. Dye Molecule is to transmit a light from the sun
in different wave length as well as be used in fiber optic communication. The energy of the
light is more powerful than in original wave length.
The investment of applying solar energy today is booming [6]. In 2008 the solar power
usage is increased to 55% than in 2007. United States government has been allocated
funding more than $400 billion for solar power investment up to 2050 [4].

The scientists also conduct intensive research to increase the efficiency of solar cell
technology. Scientists in National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) claim that they have
produced a solar cell which has efficiency up to 40.8% [8]. Marc Dalbo with his Dye
Molecule claims that his technology efficiency can be 50% [7]. General efficiency
development of solar cell is presented by Figure 1.

Figure 1. Solar cell technologies and its efficiency [8]

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3 Materials And Methodology


This study is conducted in Timah Manufacture Polytechnic, Sungailiat – Bangka - Indonesia.
Bangka Island is situated in 1020’-307’ S and 1050-1070 E. The satellite map of Bangka
Island from Google Earth in 2008 is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Satellite map of Bangka Island from Google Earth and solar cell fixed in campus.

Solar cell employed is 2 modules of poly-crystalline silicon which has specification:


a. Module Type : 1-051Z-00067
b. Peak Power (pmp) : 20 W pmp
c. Max Power Current (Imp) : 1.17 A
d. Max Power Voltage (Vmp) : 17.1 V
e. Short Circuit Current (Isc) : 1.29 A
f. Open Circuit Volatge (Vop) : 21.5 V
g. Nominal Temperature Cell (Tnoct) : 250 Celcius
h. Test Data Condition : E=1000 W/m2, Tc=250 C

This technology is employed due to the affordability of Indonesian, components reliability


and space needed. The others technology need more expensive in investment, wider space
in installation and harder in components reliability.
To obtain the maximum sun light power, the module is fixed to the equator line. The module
fixed in 10 – 20 N because the campus location is in 10 – 20 S. The module employed and its
setup is illustrated in Figure 3.

Configuration of components used in this study is solar cell module, multi-meter (current
and voltage), battery, inverter and DC/AC loads. The equipments configuration of this study
is presented in Figure 4.

Figure 3. Setup and solar cell module

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Figure 4. Equipments configuration

The output of the solar cell module is in Ampere and in Volt, but the current received on the
multi-meter will be depended and deducted by resistance of the cable. According to Ohm’s
law, resistance of the cable depend on length, diameter and materials of the cable. To
eliminate the resistance as much as possible, the diameter of the cable is chosen which has
a bigger diameter. The affordable cable in Bangka’s market is maximum 2.5 mm2 of
diameter. In this study the cable used has type NYA Eterna 2,5 mm2 450/750 V, SNI
number 04-2698 SPLN 42 and 40 meter of length. This cable has 0,6-0,7 Ω of resistance.
The battery employed is GS Astra with 70 AH.

4 Results And Discussions


The output of the solar module is sampled for every hour from 08.00 WIB to 16.00 WIB. The
measurements will be conducted in a year to obtain actual annual yield. The results of these
measurements are presented in Figure 5 and 6.

Current Yield

2.50

2.00
July
Ampere

1.50 August
1.00 Sept
Imp
0.50

0.00
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Time (WIB)

Figure 5. Current output of the solar cell module

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Figure 6. Voltage output of the solar cell module

The results indicate that:


a. The maximum current is received between 11.00 WIB and 14.00 WIB.
b. By mathematically calculation, the average energy received for a day is around 65%
to 75% of Imp times by hours.
c. The voltage output of the solar cell module is likely to be not much different each
others.

According to daily yield of the energy, it can be mathematically calculated that in toward 5
year the production cost will be only for overhead and total ampere will be around
6.411.000 A. The comparison of production cost and energy yield is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Cost production and energy yield estimation up to 25 years

Year 1 5 10 15 20 25
Ampere 4,982.68 24,913.38 49,826.76 74,740.14 99,653.52 124,566.90
Cost (Rp) 4,940,000 6,411,000 8,172,100 9,964,110 12,080,521 12,130,521

According to PLN statistic report in 2008, the average cost production of power in Indonesia
in 2007 is Rp. 706.62/ KWH. By mathematically calculation, the cost production of the
solar energy in this study is Rp. 440.819 /KWH. This cost is cheaper than the average
production cost of the PLN but equal with the cost production of natural others resources.
The cost of solar energy is determined by calculating the overhead, components
replacements, and 10% of inflations.

Based on those calculations, the comparison of the costs up to 25 years is illustrated in


Figure 7. The Figure 7 indicates that the break-event-point of the solar energy will be
occurred in 10-15 years. After that the cost production of the solar energy will be cheaper
than fossil fuel energy used by PLN.

Although the cost production of solar energy will be cheaper than fossil fuel in toward 10-15
years, but the cost of investment in the beginning year is out of the affordable of General
Indonesian. According to BPS Bangka province statistic report in 2008, the regional

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minimum revenue (UMR) in Bangka province is about 1,1 million rupiah. Thus solar energy
cost investment is about 4-6 times than UMR and become harder for their affordability.

The Cost Estimation

18,000,000
16,000,000

Indonesian Rupiah
14,000,000
12,000,000
10,000,000 Solar Energy
8,000,000 PLN (Fossil Fuel)
6,000,000
4,000,000
2,000,000
-
1 5 10 15 20
Year

Figure 7. The cost comparison of thePLN and the solar energy.

5 Conclusions
This study is to determine and evaluate the annual yield of solar energy by experimentally
measurement. Obtaining annual yield is useful to analyze the potential energy sources
based on employing mass technology equipments. After that, the cost- effective of the solar
power especially in Indonesia could be predicted.

The measurements are conducted by sampling average every hour and every day from
08.00-16.00 WIB. The solar module employed is poly-crystalline silicone with Peak Power
20 Wp and Power Current (Imp) 1.17 A. The average daily yield is about 65%-75% Imp times
by sum of hours.

The break-event-point of solar energy will be occurred in toward 10-15 years. The cost
production of solar energy is Rp. 440.819/KWH cheaper than PLN cost production. But, the
cost of investment of the solar energy in the beginning year is more than 4-6 times than
regional minimum revenue (UMR), therefore the massive usage of solar energy for
Indonesian will be harder to be realized. The government and funding group is needed to
involve in this project.

6 References
[1] Mark Clayton, “Solar edges closer to 'grid parity'”, The Christian Science Monitor, p25,
2008.
[2] Nancy Spring, “Solar Performing Brilliantly”, Electric Light and Power, 5(86), p50, 2008.
[3] Ken Zweibel, James Mason, Vasilis Fthenakis, “Solar Grand Plan”, Rachel's Democracy
& Health News, (976), p1, 2008
[4] Jeffrey Winters, “the sunshine solution”, Mechanical Engineering, 12(130), pp24-29,
2008.

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[5] Dean Takahashi, “Solar Boom”, Technology Review, 5(111), p30, 2008
[6] Gerald Parkinson, “Cost-Effective Devices Open A New Window on Solar Energy”,
Chemical Engineering Progress, 8(104), p14, 2008.
[7] Kevin Bullis, “Intensifying the Sun”, Technology Review, 5(111), p104, 2008.
[8] Suzanne Shelley, “Solar Cell Sets World Efficiency Record at Over 40%”, Chemical
Engineering Progress, 9(104), p18, 2008.

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Modelling and Designing The Model Predictive Control System of


Turbine Angular Speed at Hydropowerplant UBP Saguling PT
Indonesia Power

R.K.A Kusumah, E. Joelianto, E. Ekawati


Research Division of Instrumentation and Control – Faculty of Industrial Technology;
Bandung Institute of Technology; Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, 40132, Indonesia

Astract
Saguling Generation Business Unit (GBU) is one of hydro powerplants under PT. Indonesia Power
which has vital role to produce and distribute electricity in Indonesia. The demand for electricity in
Indonesia, which is fluctuative, force the plant to operate in immediate and responsive pattern.
Saguling need 2 minute to connect to the transmission system from its non operating state. Plant
response is controlled by manipulating guide vane opening so the water entering the turbine chamber
can be maintained. 5.6 % maximum overshoot still occurs in start up process due to manual
mechanism. This paper provide a design of control system using Model Predictive Control (MPC) to
optimize the plant performance which is indicated by faster response time and reduced overshoot.
Neural Network with Back Propagation algorithm is used to model the turbine with guide vane
opening as input variable and turbine angular speed as output variable. The model is then used in
MPC algorithm to compute the optimum control signals.

Keywords: Neural Network, Model Predictive Control, Guide Vane, Cost Function.

1 Introduction
Saguling GBU operates only when demand for electricity occurs. Fast response time (2
minute) from non operating state to connected state has become an advantage for Saguling
plant compare to similar plant with different generating source. The plant also contribute in
maintaining transmission system frequency stability, besides its main role to produce
electricity [1].

Generally, in order to transmit voltage and at the same time maintain frequency stability,
hydro powerplant must be connected to the transmission system. For that purpose, the
plant frequency must be made equal to the transmission system frequency. This sequence
is done manually. Once it is connected, the whole process, including electricity producing, is
done automatically.

Controller is modeled and designed with hope that it would increase plant’s performance
rather than controlled manually. The criterion chosen to evaluate plant’s performance are
settling time and the existence of maximum overshoot. The basic consideration for
choosing these criterions is because system response is clearly seen based on these
criterions. In addition, at present time, system response still has overshoot and long
duration of settling time. System is modeled using neural network with backpropagation
algorithm while Model Predictive Control is used to designed the controller.

2 Hydro Powerplant Fundamentals

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2.1 Basic Principle


Frequency is a significant aspect in hydro powerplant. Initially, frequency has to be made
synchronized with the transmission system frequency, which is 50 Hz. Once it is connected,
plant’s frequency will be influenced by transmission system frequency due to small capacity
in power production that the plant’s generate, relative to overall power consumption [2]. If
there is an increasing in demand for electrical power, there will be an increasing in amount
of power transferred from the powerplant as well. Plant’s frequency will gradually decreased
in result. This frequency fluctuation will affect the turbine angular speed.

2.2. Control Principle


Hydro powerplant has two sequence of control, there are control in start up condition and in
synchronize condition. In start up condition, the plant is not connected to the transmission
system. It must first maintain its frequency until it met the requirement to get to the next
sequence. This should be done in order to avoid damage to the generator due to phase
difference between generator frequency and transmission system frequency. In start up
condition, the main purpose is to maintain turbine angular speed in its angular speed
nominal, which is 333 rotation per minutes, equals to 50 Hz. Once this nominal is aqcuired,
system is ready to connect to the transmission system. Fig.1 illustrate the control loop of
hydro powerplant.

Figure 1. Block diagram of Saguling GBU control system

3 Identification System
3.1 Identification Fundamentals
Identification is a process to find model of a process or system based on experimental data
provided. With such model, the characteristics of the system can be known and analyzed
[3]. Fig.2 shows the identification steps.

Identification process first begin by designing an appropriate experiment which later sets of
data will be aqcuisited from the experiment. The data obtained from variables entering the
process and variables leaving the process. The next step is to choose the model structure,

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including the order of the system and choosing the estimation parameter method.
Afterwards, the model should be validated.

Figure 2. Identification steps

Turbine system was choosed because in startup condition, the process was focused in
controlling the turbine angular speed. Fig.3 illustrate the relation between the input
variable, the process and the output variable.

Figure 3. Turbine system

3.2 Neural Network


Neural network is a system which modeled human nerves system as a continuous non-
linear dynamic system. This network has nodes analogues with neuron in brain.
Mathematical processes used in this network are also an approach to the way how brain
works and also has the ability to learn from experience. Fig.4 illustrate the structure of
neural network,

Figure 4. General neural network structure

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A simple neural network structure can be expressed in,

y = f ⎛⎜ ∑ Wi U i + b ⎞⎟              
n
          (1) 
⎝ i =1 ⎠

W1, W2, ….Wn and Wb are neural network weighthing parameters. These values will be
evaluated in each iteration process. U1, U2, ... Un are neural network inputs. Each one of
them will be multiplied with weight W accordingly, which in turn will be summed and
calculated with an activation function F. In result, the output Y will be known.

3.3 Backpropagation Algorithm


The main idea of this algorithm is to evaluate and modify the weights and bias in a way so
the error value minimized. First step in this algorithm is choosing the cost function. Error is
represented as the difference between desired output and output obtained from neural
network learning. One of the cost functions used is the sum of quadratic error which defined
in equation,


(O d − y d )
1 2
E= (2)
2 d

where Od and yd are the desired output and output obtained from neural network
respectively. To minimize the cost function, the weights are evaluated with,

∂E
W (k + 1) = W (k ) − η (3)
∂W

where W is weight, is learning rate and E is cost function in error quadratic form. On outer
layer, the gradient of cost function to weight is,

∂E ∂y d
∂WdjO
=− ∑ d
(O d − y d )
∂WdjO
(4)

where is the weight connecting the d- neuron from outer layer to j-neuron from hidden
layer.

3.4 Identfication Using Neural Network


System was identified with previous acquisited data in non real time condition. 2250
number of data were used as turbine input and output, while guide vane opening was the
input variable and turbine angular speed as the output variable. Time sampling used was
0.1 seconds. Identification process was done using neural network. Assumed a first order
system with time delay. Based on this apriori knowledge, a neural network structure can be
formed to be identified.

Based on (1), Saguling turbine system model can be illustrated with Fig. 5,

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Figure 5. ADALINE structure

And in mathematical equation,

y (k ) = − y (t − 1)a1 + u(t − 1)b1 (5)

Due to delay time in system response, (5) become,

y (k + nk ) = − y (k − 1 + nk )a1 + u(k − 1)b1 (6)

with nk is the delay time, which values nk = 4 seconds. Fig. 4 shows the model obtained
from identification process while Fig. 6 shows validated model.

Figure 6. Model from NN learning and actual response

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Figure 7. Model validation graphic

Root mean square error (RMSE) was used to analyze the closeness degree between
identification result and the real value. RMSE defined by,

∑ (y (ˆi ) − yˆ(ˆi ))
N 2
i =1
RMSE = (7)
N

Table 1 shows the identification parameters result,


Table 1 Identification process parameters

PARAMETER VALUE
Data used for learning 1100
Data used for validation 2250
Learning Rate 10.5 x 10-7
Epoch 1500
RMSE from learning 1.72
RMSE from validation 0.89

RMSE parameter in Table I shows the error value for each tracing point obtained between
the model and the actual data. Saguling GBU can tolerate error value to 2 % which equals to
range of response the systems can handle, that is 326.4 RPM to 339.66 RPM. From
validation result, the system response vary from 332.11 RPM to 333.89 RPM, which means
the error range still tolerable. Therefore, the model can be used to represent the process
dynamics of the system.

The transfer function obtained from identification is,

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0.02847 z 2 − 0.1137 z + 0.881


H( z ) = (8)
z 2 − 1.995 z + 0.9949

Information about delay time was already included in above equation. To design the
controller, the model above should be multiplied with the actuator transfer function which
was already known. Below equation is the actuator transfer function[6],

0.003221
G( z ) = (9)
z − 0.9968

Thus, the whole process and the actuator transfer function become,

9.16 × 10 −5 z 2 − 3.66 × 10 −4 z + 2.83 × 10 −4


P ( z ) = G( z ) ⋅ H ( z ) = (10)
z 3 − 2.992 z 2 + 2.983z − 0.9917

4 Cotroller Design
4.1 Model Predictive Control (MPC)
MPC is a control strategy which designed based on model of certain processes. The model
is used to calculate a set of future prediction output based on set of control signals given to
the model. By using an optimization algorithm to minimize MPC cost function, a set of
control signal can be obtained. Thus, controler performance really depends on the
availability of a good model[4].

Model used in MPC in descrete state-space form can be represented as,

x (k +1) = Ad x (k ) + B d u(k ) (11)


y (k ) = C d x (k ) (12)
z (k ) = C z x ( k ) (13)

is state of the system, Ad, Bd are output matrices, Cd and Cz is observable and
controllable output matrice of the system respectively. Furthermore, prediciton output can
be obtained by iterating a model defined by,

ˆz (k + i | k ) = C z ˆx (k + i | k )
        (14)

i
= C z Adi x + C z Adj −1B d uˆ (k + i − j | k )
j =1

Output prediction for the next k+j step, where state of the system on step k assumed to be
known, can be recursively done and represented in matrice form,

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⎡ zˆ(k + 1| k ) ⎤ ⎡ C x A d ⎡ C x Bd ⎤

⎢ ˆ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢C A B + C B ⎥
⎢ z (k + 2 | k ) ⎥ = ⎢ C x A d
2
⎥ x (k ) + ⎢
x d d x d⎥

⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ u(k − 1)
⎢ −2 i ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

H v

⎣⎢ zˆ(k + H v | k ) ⎦⎥ ⎣C x A d
Hv
⎦ ⎢ i = 0 C x Ad B d ⎥
⎣ ⎦
                                     (15)
⎡ C x Bd L 0 ⎤ Δuˆ(k | k )
⎢C A B + C B L 0 ⎥ Δuˆ(k + 1| k )
⎢ x d d x d ⎥
+⎢ M O M ⎥
⎢ Hv − 2 i ⎥ M



⎢ i =0 C x Ad B d L C x B d ⎥ Δuˆ(k + H v − 1| k )

 
With Δ uˆ (k + i | k ) is incremental input, which is Δ uˆ (k + i | k ) = uˆ (k + i | k ) − uˆ (k + i − 1| k ) .
(15) can be simplified into [5],
Zˆ(k ) = ψ x (k ) + γ u(k − 1) + ΘΔUˆ                                        (16)             
144 42444 3 {
past future

The objective cost function is,

∑ ∑
Hp Hu −1 2
J MPC = zˆ(k + i) | k ) − w (k + i) + Δuˆ(k + i | k )
2
Q(i )
          (17)
i =Hu i =0 R (i )

with Q and R are weighting matrices. The optimum of Δ û can be obtained by finding the
gradient equals to zero of JMPC.

4.2 System Constraints


In practices, all processes have their constraints, such as input constraints, output
constraints, incremental input constraints and state-space constraints. These constraints
can exist in form physical constraints, like actuator limit.

The constraints can be expressed in form,

umin ≤ uˆ(k + i | k ) ≤ u max


Δu min ≤ Δuˆ(k + i | k ) ≤ Δumax
          (18)
y min ≤ yˆ(k + i | k ) ≤ y max
x min ≤ xˆ(k + i | k ) ≤ x max

with umin, umax, ymin, ymax, xmin and xmax are minimum and maximum input, output and state
constraints respectively.

4. 3 Simulation
Due to the necessity of MPC for a discrete model, (10) was discretized so it changed into,

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9.16 × 10 −5 z 2 − 0.0003663z + 0.0002837


P (z) = (19)
z 3 − 2.992 z 2 + 2.983z − 0.9917

Then (19) was transformed into state-space form so the value of each parameters in (11),
(12) and (13) can be found, there are:
⎡2.992 − 1.492 0.4959⎤
⎢ ⎥
• A=⎢ 2 0 0 ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 1 0 ⎥⎦

⎡0.01563⎤
⎢ ⎥
• B=⎢ 0 ⎥
⎢⎣ 0 ⎥⎦

• C = [0.005868 − 0.01172 0.00908]


• D = [0]

The next step was to apply the parameters into MPC algorithm. MPC was then tuned to
obtain the desired transient response. The tuning was limited only on weight R because
manipulating Q gave no significant effect. The tuning parameters used in this simulation
were,
• Maximum Horizon = 10
• Control Horizon = 3
• Minimum Input Constraint = -10 V
• Maximum Input Constraint = 10 V
• Weight Q = 40 X 40 Identity matrice

Weight R was the parameter tuned to find the desired response. It is a 3 X 3 diagonal
matrice which valued R=0.01, R=0.1 and R=1.0 respectively. Fig.8 and Fig. 9 shows the
response and control signal comparation between manual control and system with MPC
included as controller.

(a)

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(b)

(c)

Figure 8. Comparation between manual vs system with MPC response with (a) R=0.01, (b) R=0.1 and
(c) R=1.0

(a)

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(b)

(c)

Figure 9. MPC control signal with (a) R=0.01, (b) R=0.1 (c) R=1.0

Table 2 shows the simulation result,

Table 2. System performance comparation with different weighting


Performance Criterion
R Settling Time
Maximum
(Sec) Overshoot
0.01 55.6 None
0.1 58.1 None
1 70.1 None

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As can be seen in Fig. 8, system response with MPC was faster compare to manual system.
And it can be seen from Table II that settling time for MPC (55.6 sec, 58.1 sec and 70.1
sec) was faster than manual control (120 sec). As R smaller, the response became faster
yet the signal control became more fluctuative, which can be seen in Fig. 9. For mechanical
system like turbine, an extreme fluctuation of control signals is undesirable due to actuator
limitation. Therefore an appropriate value for R should be chosen carefully. In this
experiment, the appropriate R would be 0.01. The control signal was qualitatively smooth
enough and there were no overshoot.

5 Summary
From the simulation, a SISO turbine-generator system in Saguling GBU can be modeled,
although there were many simplifications during identification process. The RMSE in
identification process found to be 0.89, which is good enough to decide that the model
accurately represent the real process. The model obtained was good enough to be used in
simulation. Settling time criterion for system with MPC controller found to be 58.1 seconds,
faster than using manual controller which is 120 seconds. In addition, system with MPC
controller can eliminate the overshoot.

6 References
[1] Anonymous, Deskripsi Indonesia Power UBP Saguling, Februari 2009,
www.indonesiapower.co.id
[2] Zuhal. Dasar Tenaga Listrik, Penerbit ITB, Bandung, 1991.
[3] Soderstrom, Torsten and Stoica, Peter. System Identification. Marylands Avenue :
Prentice Hall International (UK) Ltd, 1989.
[4] Maciejowski, J. M., Predictive Control with Constraints, England: Prentice Hall, 2000.
[5] Ling, K. V., "Introduction to Model Predictive Control," course notes, Bandung Institute of
Technology, May 2008.
[6] Manual Handbook Sistem Governor UBP Mrica, HPC 610 Water Turbine Governor, Asea
Generation, 1985.

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Performance Analysis of Finger Flexor and Finger Extensor


Muscles on Wall Climbing Athletes through Electromyography
Measurement, Handgrip Strength, Handgrip Endurance and
Lactate Acid

H. Susanti*, Suprijanto*, F. Idealistina*, and T. Apriantono#


∗ Medical Instrumentation Laboratory and Instrumentation and Control Research Division
Bandung Institute of Technology - Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
E-mail: supri@tf.itb.ac.id, hesty133@students.itb.ac.id
# Sport Science Research Division, School of Pharmacy

Bandung Institute of Technology


Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

Abstract
One of activities involved gripping activity is wall climbing sport. Physiologically, gripping activity
involves finger flexor and finger extensor muscles at the lower arm. Naturally, muscles performance
will decrease if muscles are given static or dynamic weight during certain time. This performance
decrease is related with fatigue condition, which is also related with lactate acid accumulation,
insufficient of metabolic reserve, and the decrease of neural activity in stimulating contraction[2].

Muscle fatigue characteristic experienced by participants were observed from the changing trend of
Power Spectral Density (PSD) and median frequency of EMG signals, lactate acid level, and changing
of handgrip strength and handgrip endurance values from four groups of measurement data.

The experiment was involving two professional wall climbing athletes as participants. The
measurements were performed four times, which were before and soon after climbing, after first 15
minutes and after the second 15 minutes active recovery process, except for lactate acid level,
measurements were performed twice, which were before and soon after climb activity. The athlete
would have been ordered to climb the boulder for 15 minutes with a certain difficulty level.

Muscle performance measurement involved in this gripping activity was very important to know how
far the influence of difference of subject and period of active recovery to recover muscle condition. By
this knowledge, a couch or an athlete can arrange an effective training strategy to reach a maximum
achievement.

Keywords: Electromyography, handgrip endurance, handgrip strength, Power Spectral Density,


median frequency, finger flexor and finger extensor, lactate acid, fatigue

1 Introduction
Naturally, muscles performance will decrease if muscles are given static or dynamic weight
during certain time. This performance decrease is related with fatigue condition, which is
also related with lactate acid accumulation, insufficient of metabolic reserve, and the
decrease of neural activity in stimulating contraction[2].

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Muscle fatigue can be recovered by resting during certain time, which enable oxygen re-
available and lactate acid are transported by blood to the heart to retransform become
pyruvic acid, and glucose are released for muscle glycogen supply[2].

When performed gripping activity, such as wall climbing sport, fatigue condition were
observed from the descent of handgrip endurance, while handgrip endurance was a longest
time to endure 70% from handgrip strength value. Handgrip strength was measured from
the maximum value of three times right hand grip forces.

Another parameter could describe fatigue condition was the changing of electrical activity
from recording of EMG signals. EMG measurements were performed by using two sets
bipolar surface electrodes, in finger flexor and finger extensor muscles, when the subjects
performed gripping activity using handgrip dynamometer. Then, they will be completed by
doing spectral analysis (in this case were Power Spectral Density and median frequency) to
quantify muscle fatigue condition.

The last parameter was the blood lactate acid accumulation. The measurements were
performed in the use of lactate analyzer by taking blood sample from auricle. The lactate
accumulation in blood when the subject experienced fatigue was different to another, based
on many factors, such as exercise factor.

The objective of this paper was to correlate handgrip dynamometer measurement and
blood lactate accumulation with EMG signals parameters to describe fatigue condition.
Besides, it would be observed the influencing signification of subject difference factor and
the collecting data session with the two ways ANOVA statistical analysis.

2 Basic Theory
2.1 Muscular and Nervous System
Muscular system is including skeletal muscles that arranged in functional cluster, adapting
to do particular moves. Skeletal muscles are moved consciously under central nervous
system control. This control system is regulated by a group of electric activities in nervous
system[2]. The information from whole nervous system is sent by electric signals that being
produced by electrochemical reaction. Electrochemical reaction is a reaction that can
produce electric current.

Nervous cell (neuron) is covered by semi-permeable membrane that works selectively on


passing ion. Important ions in nervous system are sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), chlor (Cl-)
and protein molecules with negative component. Those ions can move through semi-
permeable membrane thus effect electrostatic potential of nervous cell.

When the nervous cell is having a rest, the potential intern cell will be more negative
relatively to the outside (-70 mV). To produce a potential action, stimulus that should be
given has to have intensity 15-20 mV, so it can exceed threshold level about -55 mV.

2.2 Electromyography
EMG signal comes from nervous electric activity when muscles contract or relax. Amplitude
range of EMG signal is between 0-10 mV (peak to peak) or 0-1,5 mV (rms). While the rang

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frequency recorded by surface electrode is around 0-500 Hz, with dominant frequency
between 50-150 Hz. EMG signal is affected by noise, they are electromagnetic radiance (50-
60 Hz), motion artifact and instability because the randomness of unit motor activation
phase.[3] The electric activity shape that measured in EMG (raw signals) is pictured in figure
1.

Figure 1. Recorded raw signal EMG

2.3 Electrode
Electrode used in this experiment was surface electrode Ag/AgCl. The configuration on
putting bipolar electrodes is, positive and negative electrodes are put on the thick part of
the muscle with gap space 1 cm, and reference electrodes put on the neutral which a bump
bone relatively far from those other electrodes. Voltage that measured is the gap between
positive electrode voltage to reference and negative electrode voltage to reference.

2.4 EMG Signal Parameter


EMG signal parameters that would be analyzed are mean Power Spectral Density (PSD) and
median frequency (MF). Mean PSD is determined through classical spectral estimation
technique with Fourier transform, which is periodogram Welch method. Estimation result is
got from equation (1). Then, it is calculated its estimated PSD value in every experimented
frequency and for every data. The estimated PSD values for every data will be calculated the
average for every experimented frequency, it is what we called mean PSD. This mean PSD
will relatively increase with the ascending of muscle fatigue[1].

P −1

∑ P~
1
Pˆw (fi ) = ( p)
xx (f ) (1)
P p =0

MF is frequency that divides PSD into two parts which have equal power. MF can be
abbreviated to equation (2). MF values will relatively decreasing with the ascending of
muscle fatigue[4].

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fmed ∞


0
Sm (f ) df = ∫S
fmed
m (f )df (2)

3 Experiment Method
The experiment was involving two professional wall climbing athletes as the participants. At
the beginning, subjects were asked to perform three times VC (Voluntary Contraction) with
handgrip dynamometer by right hand. The maximum value from three measurements was
taken as handgrip strength value. Then, handgrip endurance value would be determined
from the period of time to endure gripping force, as 70 percents of handgrip strength value.

When performed gripping activity, EMG signals was recorded from finger flexor and finger
extensor muscles. The locations of these two muscles were shown in figure 2. Then, power
spectral of these EMG signals would be analyzed by using algorithm on Matlab 7.0.

Measurements of handgrip strength, handgrip endurance, and EMG were performed four
times, which were which were before and soon after climbing, after first 15 minutes and
after the second 15 minutes active recovery process. For lactate acid level, measurements
were performed twice, which were before and soon after climb activity. The measurement
was performed in the use of lactate analyzer by taking blood sample from auricle. The
athlete will be ordered to climb the boulder for 15 minutes with a certain difficulty level.

Figure 2. Measurements of Handgrip parameters and recording of EMG Signals

4 Results
The results of EMG signals spectral analysis would be compared with handgrip endurance
parameter and lactate acid accumulation. In this case, handgrip endurance parameter and
lactate acid accumulation are considered as reference to determine muscle fatigue level.

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On subject 1, handgrip endurance value decreased after climbing and the first active
recovery period, it then increased after the second active recovery period. The lactate acid
accumulation increased after climbing. On finger extensor muscle, PSD value tended to
increase and MF value tended to decrease when handgrip endurance measurement was
performed. However, it happened vice versa on finger flexor muscle.

Figure 3. Handgrip endurance and lactate acid accumulation on subject 1

Figure 4. Handgrip endurance and lactate acid accumulation on subject 2

Figure 5. PSD on subject 1 and its linearization

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Figure 6. Median frequency on subject 1 and its linearization

On subject 2, handgrip endurance value decreased after climbing, it then increased after
the first active recovery period with the nearly equal value after the second active recovery
period. The lactate acid accumulation increased after climbing, with a higher increase than
subject 1. On finger flexor muscle, PSD value tended to increase and MF value tended to
decrease when handgrip endurance measurement was performed. While, on finger
extensor muscle, PSD value and MF value tended to decrease.

Figure 7. PSD on subject 2 and its linearization

Then, it was performed two ways ANOVA statistical analysis, with the source of variations,
consist of data collecting session and subject. Recapitulations of the results of ANOVA
analysis were shown on table 1 and 2. A variation source would be influenced significantly,
if Fcrit value was less than F value. From these results, subject parameter influenced PSD
significantly only on finger extensor muscle when handgrip endurance measurement was
performed.

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J.Oto.Ktrl.Inst (J.Auto.Ctrl.Inst) Vol 1 (2), 2009 ISSN : 2085-2517

Figure 8. Median frequency on subject 1 and its linearization

Table 1. ANOVA table (source of variation : session)

Table 2. ANOVA table (source of variation : subject)

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5 Conclusions
1. The increase of muscle fatigue was shown by tendency of PSD increase and MF
decrease, correlate with handgrip endurance decrease and lactate acid increase.
2. The muscles that experienced higher fatigue level when gripping were different one to
another subject. Subject 1 (finger extensor), subject 2 (finger flexor).
3. Subject parameter influenced PSD significantly only on finger extensor muscle when
handgrip endurance measurement was performed.
4. Generally, active recovery period gives positive influence to recover muscle condition,
from handgrip endurance parameter.

6 Reference
[1] Tarata, Mihai T., “Mechanomyography versus Electromyography, in Monitoring The
Muscular Fatigue”, Biomedical Engineering Online, February 2003.
[2] “Sistem Muskular,” class notes, Sekolah Teknik Elektro dan Informatika, Institut
Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia, 2007.
[3] De Luca, C.J., “Surface Electromyography: Detection and Recording”, DelSys
Incorporated, 2002.
[4] De Luca, C.J., “The Use of Surface Electromyography in Biomechanics”, Journal of
Applied Biomechanics, pp. 13(2): 135-163, 1997.
[5] De Luca, C.J.,”Electromyography in Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and
Instrumentation (John G. Webster, Ed.)”, USA: John Wiley Publisher, 2006, pp. 98-109.
[6] De Luca, Gianluca, “Fundamental Concepts in EMG Signal Acquisition”, DelSys
Incorporated, 2001.
[7] Susanti, Hesty, “Analisis Sinyal Respon Electromyography terhadap Stimulasi Terapi
Akupuntur” Final Project, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 2008.
[8] Muttaqien, Sjaikhunnas El, “Pengembangan Sistem Untuk Mengevaluasi Performansi
Otot Pada Genggaman Tangan” Final Project, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung,
Indonesia, 2009.
[9] Tjokronegoro, Harijono A.,” Analisis Spektral Digital”, Indonesia: Penerbit ITB, 2004.
[10] Tjokronegoro, Harijono A.,”Pengolahan Sinyal”, Indonesia: Penerbit ITB, 2005.
[11] DR. Sugiono, “Statistika untuk Penelitian”, Indonesia: Alfabeta Bandung, 2002.

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Study on Voltage Controller of Self-Excited Induction Generator


Using Controlled Shunt Capacitor, SVC Magnetic Energy Recovery
Switch
F.D. Wijaya, T. Isobe, R. Shimada
Tokyo Institute of Technology,
2-12-1 Ookayama Tokyo 152-8550 Japan

Abstract
Reactive compensation is required to maintain terminal voltage of induction generator under varying
load and speed operation. A new variable shunt capacitor, which is called SVC magnetic energy
recovery switch (SVC MERS), is proposed. The operation principle, characteristics of injected current,
operating range of reactive compensation of SVC MERS in star and delta configuration were
investigated. Application for induction generator voltage controller, which is required leading reactive
compensator, is suitable for SVC MERS. Small scale experiments were conducted to verify the
proposed system performance to control induction generator voltage in variable load and speed
conditions. The advantage of this device is simple control with low switching frequency. Moreover in
delta configuration, the SVC MERS current is low means downsizing of heatsink can be achieved.

Keywords : Voltage controller, induction generator, reactive compensation, SVC MERS

1 Introduction
The global warming issue as well as the fossil fuel limitation has made human kind to do
more research in the area of renewable energy sources. One of the promising research area
is application of self-excited induction generator (SEIG) in micro-hydro power, wind power
and diesel engine with bio-fuel. For example, in Indonesia as energy supply became a
problem, the government projected 500 MW of micro-hydro to be installed, especially in
rural areas to develop a green source power system [1]. Such a system would normally be
operated as an isolated system supplying electricity to local un-electrified areas because it
can save transmission and distribution capital investment cost. Some advantages can be
achieved such as CO2 reduction and environmental awareness.

SEIG consists of an ordinary three phase induction machine excited by a bank of capacitors
and driven by a prime mover, such as hydro turbine, wind turbine, flywheel system or diesel
engine [2]. Low cost, robustness and low maintenance need are some of the reasons to use
this machine.

However, there is a problem in the operation of SEIG, with poor voltage regulation in varying
load conditions. Various approaches have been proposed for overcoming these problems.
Availability of low cost controllable power devices, such as IGBTs, have made the application
of power electronic based VAR compensation possible. Various controllable reactive power
supplies exist such as TSC (Thyristor Switched Capacitor), TSC-TCR (Thyristor Controlled
Reactor), STATCOM, and other variable shunt compensators [3-6]. TSC can only give a
variation of capacitance in discrete steps. In transients conditions, charging and discharging
of the capacitor will stress the thyristor. To avoid these problems, a combination of TCR and
TSC is developed. It has a large reactor in the TCR, in order to have a large continuous
control range. The latest technology is STATCOM, which uses PWM inverter as voltage source

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with high frequency switching to reduce harmonic and more complex control is required
[4,5].

In this paper, SVC MERS is proposed to control the voltage of induction generator with low
switching and simple control using voltage feedback with PI controller.

2 Induction Generator Characteristics


To generate rated voltage of induction generator, VAR compensation is required. If the
induction generator is connected to the grid, VAR can be supplied from the grid by other
reactive power sources, such as synchronous generator. In isolated or stand-alone
condition, capacitor is usually used. This system is called SEIG.

Self excitation of the generator begins by the action of either a residual magnetism of the
iron core and charge in the excitation capacitors. When the induction machine is driven by a
prime mover, the residual magnetism of the iron core associated with an external capacitor
that generates current by rotor movement inside of this magnetic field will produce induces
voltages in the stator windings at a frequency proportional to the rotor speed. However, if
there is no residual magnetism, induction generator voltage cannot be generated.

A variable capacitor is required in order to realize voltage regulation of SEIG in varying load
conditions or for variable speeds. From theoretical calculations [7], a range of fixed shunt
capacitor sizes can be calculated to maintain rated voltage under load varying conditions.
Fig. 1 shows load characteristic curve for a range of fixed capacitor sizes at synchronous
speed and unity power factor load for a 200V 1.5 kW induction machine with magnetizing
curve given in Eqn. (1) and induction generator parameter shown in Table 1.

Lm= 0.6778Im3 – 7.9931Im2 + 16.231Im + 115.04 (1)

The curve in Fig. 1 shows that variable compensation is needed to maintain rated voltage.
Higher capacitance is required if load has low power factor as shown in Fig. 2.

160uF
Excitation capacitor ( μF)

150uF 300
200 pf=0.8
Voltage (Volt)

140uF
130uF 240
120uF pf=0.9
150 110uF
180

100 pf=1.0
120

0 500 1000 1500 0 500 1000 1500


Output Power (Watt) Output power (W)

Figure 1. Effect of Excitation Figure 2. Required excitation capacitor of


Capacitorof 1.5 kW 200 V Induction SEIG for Inductive Load at Constant
Voltage and Speed.
Generator.

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Table 1. Parameters of induction generator


Induction generator 1.5 kW, 200V, 6.8 A,
50 Hz
- Stator resistance, Rs 1.337 Ω
- Rotor resistance, Rr 0.713 Ω
- Stator & rotor 3.85 mH
inductance, Ls, Lr

3 SVC Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch


3.1 Star Configuration
The configuration of this device is based on 4 IGBTs and a dc capacitor per phase. It is
called magnetic energy recovery switch (MERS), and typically inserted in series between AC
source and load, as series reactive compensation applied for power factor correction and
power flow control [7,8,9]. In this paper, this device is used as shunt reactive compensation
as shown in Fig.3. MERS is connected with an inductor in series as a filter to reduce the
harmonic current flowing in the system and then it is called SVC MERS.

Figure 3. Configuration of SVC MERS in Star Connection

3.1.1 Operational Principle


Operational states to control the injected current are shown in Fig.4. Two IGBTs are turned
on and off in pairs one time each cycle of the ac power source (50 Hz) and controlled
synchronously. In a half cycle, two switches (S1 and S3) are turned on, the current flowing
is charging and discharging the dc capacitor with the same polarity. When the dc capacitor
voltage is equal to zero, the current is flowing in parallel. The other half cycle, the other pair
(S2 and S4) is turned on, with similar conditions, but with the opposite current flow direction
The waveforms of phase voltage, shunt current, dc capacitor voltage, gate signal and IGBT
current are shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the IGBT always turn on at zero current and
turn off at zero voltage, therefore the low switching losses can be achieved. By controlling
the switches as describe above, three different control can be achieved, which are balance
mode when Xc = Xmers, dc-offset mode when Xmers > Xc and discontinuous mode when Xmers
< Xc, where Xc is MERS capacitance and Xmers is variable capacitance. In the dc-offset
mode, the IGBT will turn off at non zero voltage. This is because a small voltage still remain
in the dc capacitor. For three phase systems there will be one SVC MERS per phase.

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Figure 4. The operational state condition of SVC MERS

1
Source voltage (pu)

−1
20
MERS current (pu)

−20
balance
MERS voltage (pu)

4
discontinuous

−4 dc−offset

δ0 δ1
1
δ2
Gate 2, 4

0
0 0.01 0.02
Time (s)

Figure 5. Typical waveforms of SVC MERS balance mode, discontinuous mode and dc-offset
mode

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Variable reactive compensation can be achieved by controlling the current flowing to the dc
capacitor by applying appropriate gate signals. The control is based on performing a phase
shift of the gate signals. The control variable called δ phase, which is the phase difference
between phase voltage (Vln) and the time of switching. The value of δ phase depends on how
much reactive power must be supplied to the induction generator and the load.

From other point of view, as illustrated in Fig. 6, SVC MERS is a capacitor controlled by
semiconductor devices. The reactive/shunt current Isvc mers and the reactive power Qsvc mers,
can be represented as follows:

⎛ V ⎞
I svc mers = ⎜ in ⎟ (2)
⎜ X svc mers ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ V 2 ⎞
Q svc mers = ⎜ in ⎟ (3)
⎜ X svc mers ⎟
⎝ ⎠
X svc mers = ( X mers (δ ) − X L ) (4)

Figure 6. Equivalent circuit of SVC MERS

3.1.2 Control System


In order to control the terminal voltage, voltage feedback with PI control is proposed as
shown in Fig. 7. The control part starts with sensing the line to line voltage. Only two voltage
sensors are used, which are fed to the control board. Phase lock loop (PLL) technique is
applied to synchronize the gate switching time to the phase of the line voltage. However,
zero detection can also be used to make this synchronization. However zero crossing
detection of voltage can also be used for synchronization.

For feedback control, the rms value of the line voltage is compared to the reference voltage.
The error is given to the PI controller to determine the δ phase, and then it is fed to the gate
controller to generate the gate signals. A δ phase limiter is to keep δ phase in the operating
area.

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Figure 7. Control system of SVC MERS

3.1.3 Characteristics of Injected Current


The characteristic of the injected current to the system is determined by the size of the
capacitor and inductor. The selection of the operating range can be based on Fig.1. The
minimum injected current should be equal to the magnetizing current of the induction
generator to generate rated voltage at no load condition.

Fig.8 shows the relationship of the injected current to δ phase and the relative reactance.
The relative reactance is the ratio of the equivalent reactance Xsvc mers to actual reactance
XC-XL .

dc−offset discontinuous Over load for resistive load


Resistive load Inductive load at 1 pu load (pf low)
Noload Fulload Low speed operation
balance
4 4
Relative reactance

1.1 Xeq Iinjected 1.1


Current (pu)

Relative reactance

1 1 3 3

0.9 0.9 Iinjected Current (pu)


2 balance 2
0.8 0.8
1 1
−10 0 10 20
δ (deg) Xeq
0 0
0 30 60 90
δ (deg)

Figure 8. Characteristics of the injected Figure 9. Operating range area of SVC MERS for
current with 110uF and 10mH SEIG at rated voltage

The operating range availability of SVC MERS to compensate reactive power of induction
generator is shown in Fig.9. In the induction generation operation point, more reactive
power is required to supply in inductive load or low speed operation

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The injected current contains some harmonics; therefore inductor must be inserted as a
filter. The relationship between the inductance and the harmonic of the injected current
for various operating points is shown in Fig.10. Three combinations of capacitor and
inductor were simulated. It can be seen that higher inductance will reduce the harmonic
of the injected current; on the other hand the capacitance can be reduced.

not−continuous dc−offset
8
C=110uF; L=10mH
C=105uF; L=15mH

THD current (%)


6
C=100uF; L=20mH

0
0.8 0.9 1 1.1
Relative reactance

Figure 10. Harmonic of the injected current

3.1.4 Steady state and transient characteristics


The experimental data results in presented in pu which base voltage is 200 V, base current
6.8 A and base speed is 1500 rpm. Fig 11 and 12 show steady state voltage and current
characteristics of the system.At no load condition, SVC MERS is supplied reactive current at
about 0.56 pu in order to generate rated voltage. The reactive current represented by shunt
current increased as load increased and terminal voltage always maintaned constant in
load varying conditions.

0.8
Terminal voltage
1

0.6
Output power (pu)

Voltage (pu)

0.4 Output power


0.5

0.2
Balance point

0 0
−10 0 10
Phase shift angle δ (deg )

Figure 11. Steady state voltage characteristics at load varying conditions

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1
Stator

Current (pu)
Shunt

0.5
Load

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Output power (pu)

Figure 12. Steady state current characteristics

Fig. 13 shows the experimental transient response of the voltage, load current, shunt
current, and dc capacitor voltage with a step change from no load to full resistive load
condition. The voltage is recovered within two cycles. Operation changed from dc-offset
mode to discontinuous mode in order to supply required reactive power.
Terminal voltage (V)

200

−200

10
Shunt
Current (A)

−10 Load
DC Capacitor voltage (V)

200

100

0
0 time (s) 0.1

Figure 13. Transient characteristics of the system

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Variable speed condition was also experimented. The results is shown in Fig. 14. In this
experiment, the rotor speed is changed from 0.8 pu to 1.3 pu, while the induction generator
output power was setting at half of its rated power (750 W). It can be found that SVC MERS
can control the voltage to its rated voltage keeping the induction generator to generate
output power.

For higher speed, the value of phase shift angle δ is small, meaning low reactive power
is generated by SVC MERS. While for lower speed, phase shift angle δ is larger, meaning
higher reactive power is required to maintain its rated voltage.

Terminal voltage
1.2 1

Voltage (pu)
Speed (pu)

1 Speed 0.5

0.8
0
0 16 32 48
Phase shift angle δ (deg)
Figure 14. Variable speed characteristic using SVC MERS

3.2 Delta Configuration


In order to reduce the current rating of the switch, delta connection is configured for this
application, however capacity rating will similar. By doing this, the capacitance can be
reduced to 37 µF (1/3 of star). The control of the switch for MERS is the same as star
configuration. Fig. 15 shows the waveforms of terminal voltage, shunt current, MERS
current, stator current, IGBT and gate signal of this configuration at 0.7 pu load. In half
cycle capacitor will charge (a), dis-charge (b) and have parallel path (c). It can be found
that MERS current is smaller than shunt current. As a result IGBT losses will be lower,
therefore downsizing of heat sink can be achieved.

4 Conclusion
The operation principle, characteristics of injected current, operating range of reactive
compensation of SVC MERS in star and delta configuration was investigated. Application for
induction generator voltage control, which is required leading reactive compensator, is
suitable for the proposed system. Experimental result confirmed that the proposed system
can controlled induction generator in load and speed varying conditions. This proposed
system has the following advantages: i) simple control, where only two voltage sensors are
required and voltage feedback control with PI controller gives a good response, ii) low

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switching frequency, which zero current turn on and zero voltage turn off and resulting in
low switching losses.

Terminal voltage(V)
200
(a) (b)

0
(c)
−200
10
Current (A) MERS stator

shunt
−10
Capacitor voltage (V)

300

200

100

Gate voltage (V)


4 Gate S2−S4 4
Current (A)

0 0

−4 −4

0 0.01 0.02 0.03


Time (s)
Figure 15. Waveforms of SVC MERS in delta configuration

5 References
[1] UNDP Report:
"Connecting micro-hydro power Indonesia to the national grid", UNDP Report (2003)
[2] E.D. Basset, F.M. Potter, “Capacitive excitation for induction generator”,AIEE Trans.
pp.540–73., May 1935.
[3] T. Ahmed, O. Noro, E. Hiraki, M. Nakaoka, “Terminal voltage regulation characteristics
by static var compensator for a three-phase self-excited induction generator”, IEEE
Trans. on IEEE Industry Applications”, Vol. 40, No. 4, July 2004.
[4] Mustafa, A. Al-Saffar, Eui-Cheol N., T. A. Lipo, “Controlled shunt capacitor self-excited
induction generator,” Proc.33-rd IAS IEEE annual meetings USA, 1989.
[5] R. Leidhold, G. Garcia, M. I. Valla, “Induction generator controller based on the
instantaneous reactive power theory”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 17, no. 3.
pp. 368-373 September 2002.

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J.Oto.Ktrl.Inst (J.Auto.Ctrl.Inst) Vol 1 (2), 2009 ISSN : 2085-2517

[6] M. Naidu and J.Walters, “A 4-kW 42-V induction-machine-based automotive power


generation system with a diode bridge rectifier and a PWM inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind.
Applicat., vol. 39, pp. 1287–1293, September 2003.
[7] T.F. Chan, “Analysis of self-excited induction generators using an iterative method”,
IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion. vol. 10, pp. 502-507, September 1995.
[8] T. Isobe, J.A. Wiik, F. Danang Wijaya, K. Inoue, K. Usuki, T. Kitahara, R. Shimada,”
Improved performance of induction motor using magnetic energy recovery switch”,
presented at the 4th PCC Nagoya, May 2007.
[9] J.A. Wiik, F. Danang Wijaya, R. Shimada,” An innovative series connected power flow
controller, Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch (MERS)”, presented at IEEE PES General
Meeting USA July 2007.
[10] J.A. Wiik, T. Isobe, T. Takaku, T. Kitahara, R. Shimada, “Reactive power compensation by
using series connected current phase control switches”, presented at PCIM China,
2006.

59
Jurnal Otomasi, Kontrol & Instrumentasi
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A Measurement-Based Form of the Out-of-Place Quantum Carry


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A. Trisetyarso1), R. Van Meter1), K. M. Itoh2)


1)Department
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Jurnal  Otomasi,  Kontrol  & 
Instrumentasi 
Journal of Automation, Control and 
Instrumentation 
 
Volume 1, No.2, Tahun 2009 
1. Development of Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar Sensor Mounted
on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
M. Baharuddin, P.R. Akbar, J.T.S. Sumantyo, H. Kuze

2. Electric Traction Motor Drive Modelling for Electric Karting Application Using
Matlab / Simulink Software
D. Istardi

3. Feasibility Study of Solar Power Massive Usage in Indonesia : Yield versus Cost
Effective
M.A. Setiawan

4. Modelling and Designing The Model Predictive Control System of Turbine


Angular Speed at Hydropowerplant UBP Saguling PT Indonesia Power
R.K.A. Kusumah, E. Joelianto, E. Ekawati

5. Performance Analysis of Finger Flexor and Finger Extensor Muscles on Wall


Climbing Athletes trough Electromyography Measurement, Handgrip Strength,
Handgrip Endurance and Lactate Acid
H. Susanti, Suprijanto, F. Idealistina, T. Apriantono

6. Study on Voltage Controller of Self-Excited Induction Generator Using Controlled


Shunt Capacitor, SVC Magnetic Energy Recovery Switch
F.D. Wijaya, T. Isobe, R. Shimada