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ME 352 - Machine Design I Fall Semester 2009

Name___________________________________ Lab. Div.________________________________ Friday, December 18th, 2009

FINAL EXAM. OPEN BOOK AND CLOSED NOTES.

Write your solutions on the blank paper that is provided. Write on one side of the paper only. Where necessary, you can use the figures that are provided to show vectors. Staple each problem separately, and attach your crib sheet to the end of your solution to Problem 1. Problem 1 (25 Points). For the mechanism in the position shown in Figure 1, the known kinematic coefficients are R = 0.26 m / rad, R = + 0.37 m / rad , R = 0.45 m / rad 2 , R = 0.37 m / rad 2 34 34 4 4

(where R 4 = G2G4 and R 34 = G4G3 ), X G = 0.35 m/rad, YG = + 0.35 m/rad, X G = 0.35 m/rad 2 , 3 3 3 = 0.35 m/rad 2 . The geometry, the free length and spring rate of the linear spring, the damping and YG
3

constant of the viscous damper, and the masses and second moments of mass about the mass centers of links 2, 3, and 4 are:
G 2A
m 0.5

G 2G 4
m 0.25

AB
m 0.5

RS

K N/m 50

C Ns/m 15

m2
kg

m3
kg

m4

IG

2
2

IG

3
2

IG

m 0.6

kg
4

0.5

kg-m 3

kg-m 7

kg-m 2 6

If gravity is acting vertically downward and friction can be neglected then determine: (i) The kinetic energy of the mechanism. (ii) The first-order kinematic coefficient of the linear spring. (iii) The first-order kinematic coefficient of the viscous damper. (iv) The magnitude and direction of torque T12 acting on input link 2 from the equation of motion.

Figure 1. A planar mechanism.


1

ME 352 - Machine Design I Fall Semester 2009 Problem 2 (25 Points).

Name_____________________________ Lab. Div.__________________________

Part A. The weights of masses m1 and m2 which are rigidly attached to the rotating shaft shown in Figure 2 are 140 N and 60 N, respectively. The shaft is rotating counterclockwise with a constant angular velocity = 100 rad/s . From a deflection analysis, the influence coefficients for the shaft are

a11 = 2 106 cm/N, a 22 = 12 106 cm/N, and a12 = a 21 = 4 106 cm/N. Assuming that the mass of the shaft can be neglected then determine: (i) The first and second critical speeds of the shaft using the exact equation. Is the operating speed of the shaft acceptable? (ii) The first critical speed of the shaft using the Rayleigh-Ritz equation. (iii) The first critical speed of the shaft using the Dunkerley approximation. (iv) The first critical speed of the shaft if the mass m1 is moved to location 2 and the mass m2 is moved to location 1.

Figure 2. A rotating shaft with two mass disks.


Part B. The first and second critical speeds of a rotating shaft with two flywheels rigidly attached are 1 = 375 rad/s and 2 = 615 rad/s. The weights of the two flywheels are W1 = 65 N and W2 = 80 N and

the known influence coefficients of the shaft are a11 = 5.90 x 105 cm/N and a 21 = 2.74 x 105 cm/N. Determine the influence coefficient a 22 . 2

ME 352 - Machine Design I Fall Semester 2009

Name_____________________________ Lab. Div.__________________________

Problem 3 (25 Points). Part A. The shaft shown in Figure 3(a) is rotating with a constant angular velocity = 80 rad/s. The masses of the two particles are m1 = 4 kg and m 2 = 2 kg and the radial distances are R1 = 30 mm and R 2 = 50 mm. Determine the magnitudes and angular locations of the correcting masses to be removed in planes (1) and (2), at the radial distances from the shaft axis R C1 = R C2 = 65 mm, for dynamic balance. Show the angular orientations of the correcting masses on the right hand side of Figure 3(a).

Figure 3(a). A rotating shaft with two mass particles.


Part B. The system shown in Figure 3(b), rotating with a constant angular velocity = 50 rad/s, is dynamically balanced by adding correction masses m1 = 3 kg and m 2 = 2 kg at radii R1 = 5 cm and R 2 = 15 cm. A decision has been made to use planes 1 and 3 instead of planes 1 and 2. Determine the magnitudes and locations of the new correcting masses (m1 ) new and (m3 ) new at the same radii R1 = 5 cm and R 3 = 15 cm. Show the locations of these masses on the left hand side of Figure 3(b).

Figure 3(b). A continuous mass system on a rotating shaft. 3

ME 352 - Machine Design I Fall Semester 2009

Name_____________________________ Lab. Div.__________________________

Problem 4 (25 Points). The effective mass of each piston in the two-cylinder engine shown in Figure 4 is m1 = m 2 = m = 5 kg, the length of each connecting rod is L = 55 cm, and the length of the throw of each crank is R = 10 cm. The crankshaft is rotating counterclockwise with a constant angular velocity = = 45 rad/s. Part A. Determine the magnitude and direction of the primary shaking force in terms of crank angle . Part B. If correcting masses are required to balance the primary shaking force then determine: (i) The magnitudes and directions of the inertial forces created by these correcting masses. (ii) The magnitudes and angular locations of the correcting masses. Given R C = R C = 20 cm.
1 2

Part C. Show your answers to Parts A and B on the right-hand figure below. Note that for this part of the problem, the reference line is specified at the crank angle = 0o.

Figure 4. A two-cylinder engine. 4

Solution to Problem 1. The vector loop for this mechanism is shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. The vector loop for kinematic analysis of mechanism. The vector loop equation (VLE) can be written as

R2 R34 R4 = 0 where R 4 = G2G4 and R 34 = G4G3 . The X and Y components of Equation (1) can be written as R2 cos 2 R34 cos 34 R4 cos 4 = 0 and R2 sin 2 R34 sin 34 R4 sin 4 = 0

(1)

(2a) (2b)

Differentiating Equations (2) with respect to the input position 2 gives R2 sin 2 R34 cos 34 R4 cos 4 = 0 and + R2 cos 2 R34 sin 34 R4 sin 4 = 0 (3a) (3b)

Equations (3) can be written in matrix form as


cos 34 sin 34 cos 4 R34 + R2 sin 2 R = R cos sin 4 4 2 2

(4)

Substituting 2 = 45, 4 = 0, 34 = 105, and R2 = 0.5 m, into Equation (4) gives


+ 0.2588 1 R34 + 0.3536 0.9659 0 R = 0.3536 4

(5)

Using Cramers rule, the first-order kinematic coefficients are R = + 0.37 m / rad 34 and
R = 0.26 m / rad 4

(6)

Differentiating Equations (3) with respect to the input position 2 gives R2 cos 2 R34 cos 34 R4 cos 4 = 0 and
5

(7a)

R2 sin 2 R34 sin 34 R4 sin 4 = 0 Equations (7) can be written in matrix form as
cos 34 sin 34 cos 4 R34 R2 cos 2 R = R sin sin 4 4 2 2

(7b)

(8)

Substituting the known data into Equation (8) gives


+ 0.2588 1 R34 + 0.3536 R = + 0.3536 0.9659 0 4

(9)

Using Cramers rule, the second-order kinematic coefficients are


R = 0.37 m / rad 2 34

and

R = 0.45 m / rad 2 4

(10)

(i) 8 Points. The kinetic energy of the mechanism can be written as

T=

1 I EQ 22 2

(1a)

where the equivalent mass moment of inertia of the mechanism can be written as

I EQ = A2 + A3 + A4
For Link 2:
A 2 = m2 ( X 2 + YG2 2 ) + IG2 2 G2 2

(1b) (2)

The X and Y components of the center of mass of the input link 2 are XG2 = 0 and YG 2 = 0 (3a)

Differentiating Equations (3a) with respect to the input position 2 gives X G2 = 0 and YG 2 = 0 (3b)

Substituting Equations (3b) and the known data into Equation (2) gives

A2 = 0.5 ( 02 + 02 ) + 3 (1) = + 3 kg-m2


2

(4) (5)

For Link 3:

A3 = m3 X G 3 + YG 3 + I G 3 3 2
2 2

The vector loop for the center of mass of link 3 can be written as

RG 3 = R2
The X and Y components of Equation (6), with R2 = 0.5 m and 2 = 45 , are X G 3 = R2 cos 2 = 0.354 m and YG 3 = R2 sin 2 = 0.354 m

??

V?

(6)

(7)

Differentiating Equations (7) with respect to the input position 2 gives X G 3 = R2 sin 2 = 0.354 m/rad and YG 3 = + R2 cos 2 = + 0.354 m/rad (9a) (9b)

Also, differentiating Equations (9) with respect to the input position 2 gives

X G 3 = R2 cos2 = 0.35 m/rad 2


and

(10a) (10b)

YG 3 = R2 sin 2 = 0.35 m/rad 2


Substituting Equations (9) and the known data into Equation (6) gives
A3 = 5[( 0.35)2 + (+ 0.35)2 ] + 7 (0)2 = + 1.225 kg m 2

(11) (12a)

For Link 4:

A4 = m4 X G 4 + YG 4 + I G 4 4 2
2 2

Since X = R = 0.26 m / rad and YG = 0 then Equation (12a) can be written as G 4 4 4

A4 = 4 [( 0.26 ) + 02 ] + 6 ( 0) = + 0.27 kg m2
2 2

(12b)

Substituting Equations (5), (11), and (12b) into Equation (1b), the equivalent mass moment of inertia is
I EQ = + 3 + 1.225 + 0.27 = 4.50 kg m 2

(13)

Then substituting Equation (13) and the input angular velocity into Equation (1a), the kinetic energy is

T=

1 (4.50) ( 5)2 = 56.3 Nm 2

(14)

(ii) 7 points. The vector loop for the linear spring can be written as

VV ?? VV R1 R S R2 = 0
where R1 is the vector from pin O2 to pin B. The X and Y components of Equation (15) are R1 cos 1 RS cos S R2 cos 2 = 0 and R1 sin 1 + RS sin S R2 sin 2 = 0

(15)

(16a) (16b)

Differentiating Equations (16) with respect to the input position 2 gives RS cos S + RS sin S S + R2 sin 2 = 0 and RS sin S RS cos S S R2 cos 2 = 0 (17a) (17b)

Then writing Equations (17) in matrix form and using Cramers rule gives 7

+ RS sin S R2 sin 2 DET RS cos S + R2 cos 2 RS = + RS sin S cos S DET RS cos S sin S Therefore, the first-order kinematic coefficient of the spring can be written as
RS = RS R2 sin( 2 S ) = + R2 sin( 2 S ) RS

(18a)

(18b)

Since S = 0 then Equation (18b) can be written as


RS = + R2 sin 2 = YG 3

(18c)

Therefore, the first-order kinematic coefficient of the spring is RS = YG = + 0.5sin 45 = + 0.354 m/rad 3 The positive sign indicates that for the negative input, the length of the linear spring is decreasing. Check: From a study of the velocity of point A, the first-order kinematic coefficient of the spring is RS = X G = ( 0.35) = + 0.35 m/rad 3
(iii) 3 points. The vector for the viscous damper can be written as
?V

(18d)

(18e)

R C = R4

VV

(19)

Differentiating Equation (19) with respect to the input position 2 gives

RC = R4 = 0.26 m/rad

(20a)

The negative sign indicates that the length of the damper is increasing for the negative input. Note that the velocity of G 4 is not the same as the velocity of G3 , i.e., the first-order kinematic coefficient of the damper is RC = X G X G 0.35 m/rad 4 3 (20b)

(iv) 7 points. The power equation can be written as

T12 .2 + FB .VB = or as
4 4 4

dT dU dW f + + dt dt dt

(21a)

3 T12 .2 + FB .VB = Aj 22 + B j2 + m j g YG j2 + K s ( RS RS 0 ) RS 2 + C RC2 2 j =2 j =2 j =2

(21b)

or as
3 + T122 + FB R 4 = Aj 22 + B j2 + m j g YG j2 + K s ( RS RS 0 ) RS 2 + C RC2 2 j =2 j =2 j =2 4 4 4

(21c)

Note in Equation (21c) that the unknown direction of the torque is assumed to be acting in the same direction as the given angular velocity of the input link 2, that is, in the clockwise direction. Canceling the input angular velocity, the equation of motion is
2 + T12 + FB R4 = Aj 2 + B j2 + m j g YG j + K s ( RS RS 0 ) RS + C RC2 2 j =2 j =2 j =2 4 4 4

(22)

The sum of the B terms can be written as

B
j =2

= m j ( X G j X G j + YG j YG j ) + I G j j j

(23) (24)

For Link 2:

B2 = m2 ( X G 2 X G 2 + YG 2YG 2 ) + I G 2 2 2

Differentiating Equations (5) with respect to the input position 2 gives

X G 2 = R2 = 0

and

YG 2 = 0

(25)

Substituting Equations (25) and the given data into Equations (24) gives

B2 = 0
For Link 3:

(26) (27a)

B3 = m3 ( X G 3 X G 3 + YG 3YG 3 ) + I G 333

Therefore, Equation (27a) can be written as


B3 = 5 [( 0.35)( 0.35) + (0.35)( 0.35)] + 7(0)(0) = + 0

(27b) (28a)

For Link 4:

B4 = m4 ( X G 4 X G 4 + YG 4YG4 ) + I G 4 4 4

Since X = R = 0.45 m / rad and YG = 0, Equation (28a) can be written as G 4 4 4

B4 = 4 ( 0.26) ( 0.45) = + 0.468 kg m2


Substituting Equations (26), (27), and (29) into Equation (14) gives

(29)

B
j =2

= B2 + B3 + B4 = 0 + 0 + 0.468 = + 0.468 kg-m 2

(30)

The change in the potential energy due to gravity. For link 2:

m2 g YG = (0.5)(9.81)(0) = 0 2
For link 3:
m3 g YG = (5)(9.81)( + 0.35) = 17.17 Nm 3 m4 g YG = (4)(9.81)(0) = 0 4

(31a) (31b)

For link 4:

(31c)

Adding Equations (31) gives

m
j =2

g YG j = 0 + 17.17 + 0 = +17.17 Nm

(32)

Substituting 2 = 5 rad / s , 2 = + 3 rad / s2 , Equations (13a), (18), (20), (30), and (32) and the known data into Equation (33), the torque acting on link 2 is

T12 + 250( 0.26) = 4.50(+3) + 0.468(5)2 + 17.17 + 50 ( 0.5 0.6 ) (+ 0.35) + 15 ( 0.26)2 (5) Nm (33)
The torque can be written as

T12 65 = + 13.50 + 11.7 + 17.17 1.75 5.07 Nm


or as
T12 65 = 35.6 Nm

(34a) (34b) (34c)

or as
T12 = + 100.6 Nm

Recall that the torque was assumed to be acting in the same direction as the angular velocity of the input link, that is, the clockwise direction. Therefore, the positive sign in Equation (34c) indicates that this assumption was wrong, that is, the torque T12 is, in fact, acting in the counterclockwise direction. The torque acting on link 2 is
T12 = 100.6 k Nm

(35)

10

Solution to Problem 2. Part A. (i) 6 Points. The exact equation for the first and second critical speeds can be written as
2 1 1 ( a11 m1 + a 22 m2 ) ( a11 m1 + a 22 m2 ) 4 ( a11 a 22 a12 a 21 ) m1 m2 , 2= 2 1 2 2

(1)

Substituting the influence coefficients and the masses into Equation (1) gives
8 8 8 8 2 8 8 8 8 1 1 (210 ) (140) + (1210 )(60) [(210 ) (140) + (1210 ) (60)] 4[ (210 )(1210 ) (410 )( 410 )](140)(60) , 2= 2 1 2 2x9.81

(2a)

which can be written as


8 8 2 16 16 1 1 100010 (100010 ) 4[ (2410 1610 )8400] , 2= 2 1 2 2x9.81

(2b)

or as
8 6 16 16 1 1 100010 10 10 (3210 )8400 , 2= 2 1 2 2x9.81

(2c)

Simplifying this equation gives


1 1 (1000108 ) 7312001016 , = 2 1 2 2 x9.81 2

(3a)

which can be written as


1 1 , 2 = 94.55108 s2 , 7.385108 s2 2 1 2

(3b)

Therefore, the first critical speed can be written is


2 1 =

1 rad2 / s2 94.55108

(4a) (4b)

that is
1 =1028.42 rad / s

The second critical speed can be written as


2 = 2 1 rad2 / s2 8 7.38510

(5a) (5b)

that is
2 = 3679.72 rad / s

The operating speed of the shaft is much less than the first critical speed of the shaft. Therefore, the operating speed of the shaft is acceptable. (ii) 5 Points. The Rayleigh-Ritz equation can be written as

W x + W2 x 2 2 1 = g 1 1 2 2 W1 x1 + W2 x 2
where the deflections are 11

(6)

x1 = a11 W1 + a12 W2 = 2 10 6 140 + 4 10 6 60 cm = 520 x 10 8 m

(7a) (7b)

and
x 2 = a 21 W1 + a 22 W2 = 4 10 6 140 + 12 10 6 60 cm = 1280x 10 8 m

Substituting Equations (7) into Equation (6), the Rayleigh-Ritz equation can be written as

140 (520 x 108 ) + 60 (1280 x 108 ) 2 1 = 9.81 rad 2 /s 2 8 2 8 2 140 (520 x 10 ) + 60 x(1280 x 10 )
which can be written as

(8a)

728 + 768 2 7 2 2 1 = 9.81 x 10 rad /s 37856 + 98304


or as

(8b)

9.81 x 1496 x 107 = rad 2 /s 2 136160


2 1

(8b)

Therefore, the first critical speed of the shaft is 1 = 1038.19 rad / sec (9)

Note that the Rayleigh-Ritz equation to the first critical speed of the shaft is greater than the exact answer, see Eq. (4b). This is consistent with the fact that the Rayleigh-Ritz equation is an upper bound. (iii) 4 Points. The Dunkerley approximation to the first critical speed of the shaft can be written as

1 = a11 m1 + a 22 m2 2 1

(10)

Substituting the numerical values into Equation (10), the Dunkerley approximation to the first critical speed of the shaft is
1 140 60 sec 2 = 2 108 + 12 108 2 1 9.81 9.81

(11a)

which can be written as


1 = 28.5423 108 + 73.3945 108 = 101.9368 108 sec 2 2 1

(11b)

Therefore, the Dunkerley approximation to the first critical speed of the shaft is 1 = 990.45 rad / sec (12)

Note that the the Dunkerley approximation to the first critical speed of the shaft is less than the exact answer, see Eq. (4b). This is consistent with the fact that the Dunkerley approximation is a lower bound to the first critical speed. (iv) 5 Points. When the two masses are interchanged then Equation (1) can be written as
2 1 1 ( a11 m2 + a 22 m1 ) ( a11 m2 + a 22 m1 ) 4 ( a11 a 22 a12 a 21 ) m1 m2 , 2= 2 1 2 2

(13)

12

Substituting the influence coefficients and the masses into Equation (13), the first and second critical speeds of the new system can be written as
8 8 8 8 2 8 8 8 8 1 1 ( (210 ) (60) + (1210 )(140)) (( 210 ) (60) + (1210 ) (140)) 4( (210 )(1210 ) (410 )( 410 ) ) (140)(60) , 2= 2 (14) 1 2 2 x9.81

Simplifying this equation gives


8 8 2 16 16 1 1 (180010 ) (180010 ) 4( (2410 1610 ) (8400) , 2= 2 1 2 2x9.81

(15a)

which can be written as


8 6 16 16 1 1 (180010 ) 3.2410 10 (3210 ) (8400) , 2= 2 1 2 2x9.81

(15b)

Therefore, the first and second critical speeds can be written as


1 1 (1800108 ) 29712001016 , = 2 1 2 2x 9.81 2

(16a)

that is
1 1 , 2 =179.60108 s2 , 3.89108 s2 2 1 2

(16b)

The first critical speed can be written as


2 1 =

1 rad2 /s2 179.60108

(17a)

Therefore, the first critical speed is


1 = 746.19rad/s

(17b)

Note that this answer is less than the answer in Part (i). Part B. 6 Points. The sum of the roots (i.e., the first and second critical speeds squared) can be written from Equation (1) as 1 1 (1) + 2 = a11m1 + a22 m2 2 1 2 Substituting the known values into Equation (1) gives
1 1 65 80 + = (5.9 x 105 ) + a22 2 2 375 615 981 981

(2)

Rearranging this equation gives


a22 80 1 1 65 = + (5.9 x 105 ) 2 2 981 375 615 981

(3)

which can be written as 13

0.08155 a22 = 7.111 106 + 2.644 106 3.909 x 106

(4a) (4b)

or as
0.08155 a22 = 5.846 106

Therefore, the influence coefficient is

a22 = 71.69 106 cm/N


or

(5a) (5b)

a22 = 7.17 105 cm/N


a 21 = 2.74 x 105 cm/N into the exact equation, that is
2 1 1 ( a11 m2 + a 22 m1 ) ( a11 m2 + a 22 m1 ) 4 ( a11 a 22 a12 a 21 ) m1 m2 , 2= 2 1 2 2

Check: Substitute Equation (5b) and the given influence coefficient a11 = 5.90 x 105 cm/N and

(6)

This gives the same answers for the first and second critical speeds, that is

1 = 375 rad/s

and

2 = 615 rad/s

14

Solution to Problem 3. Part A. 11 Points. The inertial forces of the two rotating mass particles are
F1 = m1 R1 2 = (4 kg)(0.03 m)(80 rad/s) 2 = 768 N

(1a) (1b)

and
F2 = m2 R2 2 = (2 kg)(0.05 m)(80 rad/s) 2 = 640 N

Therefore, the inertial forces of the two rotating mass particles can be written as
F 1 = 768 N 180 = 768 i + 0 j N

(2a) (2b)

and
F 2 = 640 N 120 = 320 i + 554.26 j N

The sum of the inertial forces of the two rotating mass particles can be written as

F = F +F
1

= 1088 i + 554.26 j N = 1221.04 N 153.00

(3)

Therefore, the reaction forces at bearings A and B can be written as FA + FB = F1 + F2 = + 1088 i 554.26 j N The sum of the moments about bearing A can be written as
0.25k FB 0.4k (768 i + 0 j ) 0.6k ( 320 i + 554.26 j ) = 0

(4)

(5)

The X and Y components of Equation (5) can be written as 0.25FBX = 0.4 (768) 0.6(320 ) and 0.25FBY = 0.4( 0) 0.6(554.26 ) Therefore, the X and Y components of the force at bearing B are FBX = 1996.8 N and FBY = 1330.22 N (7a) (6b) (6a)

Therefore, the force at bearing B can be written as


FB = + 1996.8 i 1330.22 j N Substituting Equation (7b) into Equation (4) gives
FA + 1996.8 i 1330.22 j N = + 1088 i 554.26 j N

(7b)

(8a)

Therefore, the force at bearing A can be written as


FA = 908.8 i + 775.96 j N

(8b)

The sum of the two correcting forces can be written from Equation (4) as FC1 + FC 2 = F1 + F2 = + 1088 i 554.26 j N

(9)

15

The sum of the moments about correcting plane (2) can be written as
0.2 k F1 + 0.2 k FC1 = 0

(10a) (10b)

or as FC1Y i FC1 X j = 0 i 768 j N Therefore, the inertial force in correcting plane (1) can be written as
FC1 = 768 i + 0 j = 768 N 0

(11)

The correcting mass in correcting plane (1) can be written as


mC1 = FC1 RC1
2

(12a)

which can be written as


mC1 =

768 N = 1.846 kg (80 rad/s) 2 (0.065 m)

(12b)

The orientation of the correcting mass in correcting plane (1) is

C1 = 0
The orientation of the mass from the X-axis, that is to be removed in correcting plane (1), is

(13a)

C 2 = 0 + 180 = 180
Substituting Equation (11) into Equation (9), the force in the second correcting plane is FC 2 = 1088 i 554.26 j 768 i + 0 j = 320 i 554.26 j N which can be written as
FC 2 = 640 N 300

(13b)

(14a) (14b)

The correcting mass in correcting plane (2) can be written as


mC 2 = FC 2 RC 2
2

(15a)

which can be written as


mC 2 =

640 N = 1.538 kg (80 rad/s) 2 (0.065 m)

(15b)

The orientation of the correcting mass in the correcting plane (2) is

C 2 = 300
The orientation of the mass from the X-axis, that is to be removed in correcting plane (2), is

(16a)

C 2 = 300 180 = 120


These answers are shown in Figure 3.1. 16

(16b)

Figure 3.1. The locations of the correction masses.


Part B. 14 Points. The inertial forces due to the two original correcting masses are
F1 = m1 R1 2 = (3 kg)(0.05 m) 2 = 0.15 2 N

(1a) (1b)

and
F2 = m2 R2 2 = (2 kg)(0.15 m) 2 = 0.3 2 N

Therefore, the inertial forces due to the two original correcting masses can be written as
F 1 = 0.15 2 N 90 = 0 i + 0.15 2 j N

(2a) (2b)

and
F 2 = 0.3 2 N 300 = + 0.15 2 i 0.260 2 j N

The sum of the inertial forces due to the two original correcting masses can be written as

F = F + F
1

= + 0.15 2 i 0.11 2 j N = 0.186 2 N 323.75

(3)

Therefore, the reaction forces at the two bearings A and B can be written as FA + FB = F1 + F2 = 0.15 2 i + 0.11 2 j N

(4)

Two Procedures: (i) For dynamic balance, the sum of the moments about the correcting planes (1) and (3) due to the new correcting masses must be the same as the sum of the moments about the old correcting planes (1) and (2) due to the original correcting masses. (ii) Also for dynamic balance, the sum of the moments about any point in the shaft must be zero. Therefore use the sum of the moments to determine the reaction forces at A and B for the unbalanced system. Then use these answers to find the correcting masses in planes (1) and (3). For example, use procedure (i). Consider the sum of the moments about the correcting plane (3).
0.18 k ( F1 ) new = 0.18 k F1 + 0.08 k F2

(5)

Substituting Equations (2) into Equation (5) and performing the cross-products, the X and Y components of Equation (6a) can be written as

17

( F1Y ) new i + ( F1 X ) new j = 0.0344 2 i + 0.0666 2 j N Rearranging Equation (6b), the inertial force in the correcting plane (1) can be written as
( F1 ) new = + 0.0666 2 i + 0.0344 2 j = 0.075 2 N 27.3

(6)

(7)

The correcting mass in the correcting plane (1) can be written as


(m1 )new =
F1 R1
2

(8a)

which can be written as


(m1 ) new 0.075 2 N = 2 = 1.5 kg (0.05 m)

(8b)

The orientation of the correcting mass in correcting plane (1) is

C1 = + 27.3

(9)

The sum of the moments about the correcting plane (1) due to the original correcting masses is equal to the sum of the moments about the same correcting plane due to the new correcting masses, that is
0.18 k ( F3 ) new = 0.1 k F2

(10a) (10b)

or as ( F3Y ) new i + ( F3 X ) new j = + 0.1444 2 i + 0.0833 2 j N Rearranging Equation (10b), the inertial force in correcting plane (3) can be written as
( F3 ) new = 0.0833 2 i 0.1444 2 j = 0.167 2 N 300

(11)

The correcting mass in correcting plane (3) can be written as


(m3 )new = ( F3 )new 2 R3

(12a)

which can be written as


(m3 ) new = 0.167 2 N = 1.113 kg 2 (0.15 m)

(12b)

The orientation of the correcting mass in the correcting plane (3) is

C 3 = 300

(13)

The correcting masses for the continuous mass system are shown in Figure 3.2. Check: Use Procedure (ii). For dynamic balance, the sum of the two new inertial forces must be the same as the sum of the two original inertial forces, that is
( F1 ) new + ( F3 ) new = F1 + F2

(14)

Substituting Equations (7) and (9) into the left hand side of Equation (14) gives
( F1 ) new + ( F3 ) new = + 0.0666 2 i + 0.0334 2 j + 0.0833 2 i 0.1444 2 j N

(15a)

18

which can be written as


( F1 ) new + ( F3 ) new = + 0.15 2 i 0.11 2 j N

(15b)

Note that this agrees with the answer given by Equation (3).

Figure 3.2. The correcting masses for the continuous mass system.

19

Solution to Problem 4. (i) 5 Points. The X and Y components of the primary shaking force for cylinder 1 can be written as

S1 X = P cos( 1 ) cos 1 1 and S1Y = P cos( 1 ) sin 1 1

(1a) (1b)

The X and Y components of the primary shaking force for cylinder 2 can be written as S2 X = P2 cos( 2 + 2 ) cos 2 and S2Y = P2 cos( 2 + 2 )sin 2 (2a) (2b)

From Figure 4.1, the angles 1 = + 45, 2 = 135, and 2 = 180 . Substituting these angles and
P = P2 = P = m R 2 into Equations (1aa) and (2a), the X-component of the resultant of the primary 1 shaking force can be written as

or as

S X = S1X + S2 X
S X = P cos( 45) cos 45 + P cos( 135 + 180) cos135

(3a) (3b)

Therefore, the X-component of the resultant of the primary shaking force is S X = 0 P cos + 1 P sin (3c)

Also, substituting the angles into Equations (1b) and (2b), the Y-component of the resultant of the primary shaking force can be written as (4a) SY = S + S or as
1Y 2Y
SY = P cos( 45) sin 45 + P cos( 135 + 180) sin135

(4b)

Therefore, the Y-component of the resultant of the primary shaking force is SY = 1 P cos + 0 P sin The magnitude of the resultant of the primary shaking force is
2 2 S P = S X + SY = P

(4c)

(5a)

and the direction of the resultant of the primary shaking force is

= tan 1

SY cos = tan 1 = 90 SX sin

(5b)

Recall that the X and Y components of the resultant of the primary shaking force for any multicylinder reciprocating engine (see page 651 in the Uicker, et al., text book) can be written in the form
S X = A cos + B sin

(6a)

and 20

SY = C cos + D sin

(6b)

The primary shaking force can be balanced by a pair of rotating masses, or in some special cases a single mass, see Figure 19.28, page 651, in the Uicker, et al., text book. The correcting mass m1 creates a correcting force F1 at a location angle of ( + 1 ) from the X-axis and the correcting mass m 2 creates a correcting force F2 at a location angle of ( + 2 ) from the X-axis. For balance, these two correcting forces plus the resultant of the primary shaking force must be equal to zero; i.e.,
A cos + B sin + F1 cos ( + 1 ) + F2 cos [ ( + 2 ) ] = 0

(7a) (7b)

and

C cos + D sin + F1 sin ( + 1 ) + F2 sin [ ( + 2 ) ] = 0

Expanding these two equations, in terms of the angles of , 1 , and 2 , and rearranging, gives
( F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2 ) cos ( F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 ) sin = A cos B sin

(8a)

and
( F1 sin 1 F2 sin 2 ) cos + ( F1 cos 1 F2 cos 2 ) sin = C cos D sin

(8b)

To satisfy Equations (8), for all values of the crank angle , the necessary conditions are
F1 cos 1 + F2 cos 2 = A
F1 sin 1 + F2 sin 2 = + B

(9a) (9b) (9c) (9d)

F1 sin 1 F2 sin 2 = C

and

F1 cos 1 F2 cos 2 = D

Solving Equations (9), the correcting forces are

F1 =
and

1 2 1 2

( (

A+ D A D

) )

+( BC +( B+C

) )

(10a)

F2 =

(10b)

Also, from Equations (9), the location angles of the correcting forces are
tan 1 = B C ( A + D) B+C ( A D)

(11a) (11b)

and
tan 2 =

Comparing Equation (3b) with Equation (6a) and comparing Equation (4b) with Equation (6b), the coefficients are
A = 0, B = 1 P, C = 1 P,
and

D=0

(12)

21

Substituting Equation (12) into Equations (10), the two correcting forces are

F1 =
and

1 2 1 2

( 0P+0P ) ( 0P0P )

+ ( 1 P 1 P + ( 1P + 1 P

) )

=0 =1 P

(13a)

F2 =
The magnitude is

(13b) (14)

P = m R 2 = 5 0.1 452 = 1, 012.5 N Therefore, the two correcting forces are

F1 = mC1 RC1 2 = 0

and

F2 = mC 2 RC 2 2 = 1P = 1, 012.5 N

(15a)

Given R C = R C = 20 cm, the non-zero correcting force is 1 2

mC 2 =

RC 2

F2

1, 012.5 N = 2.5 kg 0.2 x 452 m/s 2

(15b)

Substituting Equation (12) into Equation (11a), the location angle for the first correcting mass is
tan 1 = [1P 1P ] = undefined [0 + 0]

(16a)

This is consistent with the mass being zero, that is, the first correcting mass is not needed. Substituting Equation (12) into Equation (11b), the location angle for the second correcting mass is
tan 2 = [1P + 1P ] = [0 0]

(17a)

Since the numerator is positive, the angle for the second correcting mass is

2 = 90o

(17b)

For the crank position = 0o , the magnitude of the resultant of the primary shaking force from Equation (6a) is S P = P = 1012.5 N (18a) The direction of the resultant of the primary shaking force from Equation (6b) is

= tan 1
that is

1 = tan 1 0

(18b) (18b)

= 90o
which implies that the resultant of the primary shaking force is vertically upward. The answers are shown on Figure 4.2. 22

Figure 4.2. The Magnitudes and the Locations of the Two Correcting Masses. For the position = 0o.

23