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Chapter 1 Summary the Supervisors Role Supervisors are a part of the management process.

Supervisors refer to the act of overseeing people. Workers morale and performance are strongly influenced by the first line supervisor, this is the reason the first line supervisor is a key position in the organizational chart. In law enforcement the first line supervisor is important due to the need of teamwork. Supervisory position Employees are responsible for the production, and supervisors are responsible for the employees Three needs of a supervisory Influence others Coordinate tasks Set directions of goals. A supervisor should allow his workers to participate in the decision making that effects them however most cripple himself by allowing his/her employees to decide on all aspects of there work. In the decision making role when those are affected by the decision should be consulted before hand, the process may take longer however the implementation will be swifter. Three items of good leadership A supervisory accepts that his/her employees are different and react in different ways. A supervisor must be able to help his employees establish reasonable goals. Supervisors act as a buffer between his/her employees and the hierarchy. For supervisors to be effective they will have the following traits. Avoids prejudice Develops a judicial attitude based on facts. Knows the rules of the organization. Studies his/her employees. Leads them in their work effort. Loyal to the organization. He keeps his own supervisors informed. Keep his own employees informed with matter that affect them. He conveys the official policy of the organization and sells it to the employees if they do not agree. Technical and Supervisory Competence Supervisor need not be a highly skilled in all aspects of the job they supervise, however a supervisor should have a good working knowledge of all aspects of the job they supervise. Supervisors primary responsible for the delegation of work.

A supervisor most be an expect in directing the efforts of his employees A Supervisor must be able to make assignments through delegation. A supervisor holds his/her employees responsible to the task they were delegated. A supervisor realizes the final responsibility of bears on his shoulders.

Organizational Knowledge A supervisor must understand the rules, procedures, practices, functions and objectives of the organization. A successful supervisor will understand the legal ramifications of his/her office, the obligations, liabilities and responsibilities for the acts of his/her employees under the law. Basic Supervisors Responsibilities Planner- planning operational tasks such as inspecting work, conducting studies, analyzing data and develop recommendations. Trainer- train employees to be efficient, effective producers. Personnel Officer- Assign his employees tasks they are best suited for. Controller conducting follow-ups, determine that rules and regulations have be followed, and when necessary take diplomacy actions. A supervisor should accept that some mistakes from his workers, however when they do occur those mistakes must be dealt with as constructively as possible. Decision Maker and Communicator- Communication must be clear and simple to prevent misunderstandings and resistance. Change in operational direction is best when clearly explained. As a Leader- a good leader possesses traits of being honorable, courageous, strength. He must be reasonably intelligent, have a good common sense, and must be persuasive and flexible. If a person is not born with these traits, they can be learned by studying good leadership with in his organization. All supervisor are responsible to motivate his/her workers, and provide for job growth Chapter 2 Summary- The Supervisor Function in Organization, Administration and Management Organization Definition- An organization is a structure through which people work as a group. Whenever two or more persons are associated in doing something, there is some sort of organization. Three portions of the supervisors job may be categorized into three broad areas Leading. Directing. Controlling individuals or groups. Administrative Functions POSDCORB

Planning- working out broad outlines which things need to be done and the methods of accomplishing those tasks. A supervisor must be able to forecast needs, problems and prepare plans to meet those issues. Planning should be explicit and clear, either through verbal or written communication. Any orders that maybe complicated should be in written form to avoid miscommunication. Law Enforcement plans can be classified into several types. SOPS Tactical Plans Operational Plans- provide guidance and direction to normal police activities. Fiscal Plans- Budgets Policies- evolve thorough experiences of the organization Rules and Regulations- specific guide for performance Organizing- establish a formal structure of authority. Staffing- bringing in worker, training and maintaining a favorable work conditions. Directing- Decision making sure tasks are being accomplished. Coordinating- delegating various work assignments to the work force. The best way of initial coordination is through direct communication Reporting- Keeping the hierarchy informed as to what is going on. Budgeting- Fiscal planning.

Basic Organizational Structures Line Organization- often refereed to the individual, military, or departmental type. It is the simplest and oldest form of organization structure. The greatest advantage to this structure is it very simple, established units a division of work with a person who is in charge. Decision can be made quickly and each member can be held accountable, which allows for easily administered discipline. Disadvantages- supervisors often are required to perform tasks of specialists, if jealously arises managers from different units, and each unit may become departmentalized. Division of Work Division of involves the break down of a particular job into component parts and recombining these parts into a complete unit of work. The supervisors primary role is the constant analysis of the work performed by his unit and determine its effectiveness. A worker is assign the fewest amount of task which will increase the quality and quantity of his work. Unity of Command Organizational structures should have a clear cut channel of authority.

The principal requires that every employee should be under a direct control command of one supervisor. Each worker should be accountable directly to the one supervisor during normal operations.\ This principal applies to those under his command, however does not relieve the supervisor during emergency situation from taking disciplinary action against workers signed to another unit. Span of Control This theory refers to the number of workers one supervisor can supervise effectively. In modern law enforcement the trend is the Chief of Police tends to exert direct control over to many of his workers. As well as the field supervisors this lends to confusion and delays. The superior officer can effectively reduce the span of control by delegating work, and clearly defining task the workers are to perform. When a worker receives the proper training he will require less supervision to perform the task. Delegation Delegation frees the supervisor from many of the routine tasks and enables him to devote more time to planning. It also helps the employees by broadening his job knowledge, it will increase initiative. Studies have shown that employees can ands will accept a greater role of responsibility beyond his normal duties when work is delegated and is given credit for his accomplishments. A worker should not be delegated a task which he is incapable of doing, and should not be delegated work that is only considers distasteful or onerous. If delegation is done proper a supervisor can effectively supervise a greater number of employees. When delegating work to an employee the employee must be given enough authority to complete the task. Once the authority has been given the supervisor must commit to it, and refuse to take back what has been delegated simply because the worker believes the task is too hard. Delegation can be done through written or verbally. If the delegation is complex the delegation should be given in written form. The instruction should be clear and concise. The supervisor should monitor the task discreetly and require some type of follow-up. Assistance should be given to the employee too overcome an obstacle, however the supervisor should not give too much assistance where it seems the supervisor is completing the task. Personnel Development by Delegation Some supervisors are reluctant to develop his worker in fear that the workers may become more competent than the supervisor, however if a subordinates performs

well in the absent of the supervisor, the supervisor will be credited for the development of the subordinate. The Exception Principal Developing employees to take over for supervisors in their absence requires training, the exception principal specifics that the head of an organization or unit should not find it necessary to act personally on each matter coming under his direct control; rather he should act only on those exceptional matters that require his personal attention. The exception principal free the supervisor from the routine details that would be better suited to those below him, Training is key to successfully implement this principal. The supervisor should avoid becoming bogged down by routine details and should be freed up so he can evaluate the work being performed by his unit. Delegation of Staff Projects Researching projects- Usually this task can be performed and completed without in-depth investigation and study. When a worker is delegated this task he should be able to work out the details by himself. Planning Projects- I f a plan is proposed it should be well coordinated and be supported by facts. The person who prepares the report should place himself into the shoes of his supervisor. Would he sign or approve the report if no then the work has not been completed correctly. The report should be redone, to protect his supervisor. Chapter 3 Leadership, Supervision, and Command Presence Leadership Definition- Is the art of influencing, directing, guiding, and controlling others in such a way to obtain their willing obedience, confidence, respect and loyal cooperation in the accomplishment of an objective. Resistance to Leadership Training Some Supervisors resist adopting more refine ways of supervising. What was good for me is good for my workers. However a newer scientific method to supervising has seem to be more effective than the old traditional methods. Development of Leadership Ability Persons are not born leaders. Leadership must be earned. These qualities of leadership are proven through training and self-discipline. Mannerisms, speech manual and mental skills and attitudes can be changed or altered by training. If leadership ability is learned slowly through trial and error, work performance will suffer as well as morale.

The best leaders make there job appear easy because they have the fewest problems. They recognize that problems may occur and have the foresight to take action before the problem becomes and issue.

Types of Leadership Autocratic Leader- This leader is very authoritative. He makes decision without consulting his employees. The workers often dont feel part of a team. This leader is book driven, who directs, commands and controls his employees. This approach does not work well for long. Employees often resist him; sometimes they sabotage his efforts to show their displeasure. Democratic Leader- This leader looks for suggestions from his workers, his workers are allow to participate with decision making process. This leader uses little authority because he allows encourages his employees to partake in the growth of the organization. The democratic leader is aware of the human factor in managing his workers. His workers performance is better, and satisfaction of his employees growth is better. Free Rain or Laissez-Faire Leader- This leader maintains minimal control of his workers, and seldom gives them the attention then need in their job duties. This type of supervisor does not work well. This leader often loses control of his workers. Situational Leader No management style can work on all occasions. A supervisor can be effective if he can adept to the type of situation that arises. This leaders style is a combination of task behavior, and relationship behavior. This style requires the workers readiness, which is a combination of ability and willingness. The Situational leader is based on three items; 1. The amount of guidance a leader gives; 2. The amount of socio-emotional support a leader provides; 3. The readiness his followers have to perform the task. Command Presence and Leadership A command presence is also referred to a military presence. It encompasses the qualities of dignity, self-assurance, and poise. This individual has the persona that he could lead in any situation. Elements of a Leadership Discipline- a high level of discipline in an organization is perhaps the best mark of good leadership. Ethics- His moral code must be beyond approach. Common Sense- Excellent leaders are guided by proper regulations and procedures, but uses good judgment when applying them. Psychology- This trait comes with training and experience. To gain willing support and cooperation the supervisor must learn those principals of leading by logic and clear thinking. Motivation of Employees

Motivation involves the application of incentives, which encourages a certain positive pattern of behavior and attitude and contributed to the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Employees perform best when there are positive incentives. Supervisors should be aware what motivates one person may not motivate another. An Employees motivation comes from recognition, and praise, money is not always a motivating factor. Negative motivation such as fear, coercion, intimidation, and punishment should be avoided except when constructive, positive incentives have been exhausted.

Situational Analysis and Self-Appraisal A supervisor should constantly evaluate his leadership in a manner to gain insight into his strengths and weaknesses. When a supervisor recognizes his own weakness he can usually overcome those weaknesses. Leadership Characteristics Every leader should posses the following traits. Friendliness, sincerity, affection for others, and personal warmth. Enthusiasm for the job. Ambition. Physical and nervous energy and vitality. Moral and physical integrity. Intelligence. Technical Skills. Faith. Verbal aptitude. Courtesy. Modesty. Human Relations and Leadership The human relations aspect of supervision and leadership has developed to an inordinate degree. The objective of good human relations should be the greatest production in the shortest time with the minimum energy and the maximum satisfaction for the producers. Manner of the leader- Body language such as look, gesture, voice inflection, physical bearing, or indication of tension, gives away the thought of an individual. The supervisor will find that a calm, controlled manner will help him in maintaining the confidence and respect of his employees. Language of the Leader- Immoderate language used in the presence of others produces unfavorable results. All communication to be without vulgar, profane, or indecent speech, or even any sarcastic language.

Commendation and Praise by the Leader- A few words of condemnation and praise were given merit will do more to produce good work performance. Criticism should not be, it can be destruction to the employees performance. Supervisors often worry about getting the job done that they fail to see the work performance of his workers. Criticism and Reprimands by the Leader- The average supervisor will fail in the responsibility of giving forthright criticism. A supervisor should never lose his temper and become angry or hostile when reprimanding his employees. Knowledge of Subordinates Every Supervisor should something about his subordinates, individually and collectively. Such as the background, experiences, education, family relationships, sickness patterns, performance, and any other data that may give him insight into each of his employee. Once a supervisor gains confidence in his employee he will fins that that employee which often come for help. A supervisor must be careful not to meddle into the personal lives, as long as their work is not involved. Supervision of the Marginal Employee Marginal employees often cause concern for the supervisor due to they do enough work to get by. Marginal employees often considered themselves over-qualified for the job they are performing and better suited for a better position. They are often disgruntled frustrated and emotionally troubled. The supervisor often will try to transfer this employee which results in a shift of the problem. A disgruntle employee should be able to voice there complaints. Special counseling and motivation will get this employee back on track, however their are times, when transfer or termination maybe require when all avenues have been exhausted. Order Giving Giving orders is a complex process of communication. There are three types of communications. Direct Command- Orders require direct prompt action. This method of order giving may be used when dealing with a lazy unmotivated employee. When these orders are given they should be simple and direct. Request- Most orders should be framed in this manner. Orders that are too sensitive or will easily offend someone should be framed as requests rather than direct commands. Implies or Suggestive Orders- These types of orders should be used with employees who readily assume tasks and is responsible. The often create initiative of the employees since they allow considerable latitude in the method of accomplishing an assignment. Request for Volunteers

A supervisor should not request for volunteers to perform a task that he himself would not perform, merely because he wishes to shed his own responsibilities.

Method of Communication If orders are indirect they will tend to strengthen ideas already present. If they are positive they are likely to be more effective than negative orders. Verbal orders are often used for simple tasks or in emergency situations. Written orders are more complex and when numerous people are affective. Employees with strong qualities of independence usually know what is required. He is likely to be more responsive if he is assigned a task in broad terms. Supervisors surrender authority when they fail to follow-up on his orders that were given. Decision Making Decision making requires several steps The is need to realize that a problem exists. Facts must be obtained. Evaluation of the Data. Alternative approaches leading to logical conclusions. A decision must be selected from the alternative solutions. Communication must be given to those who are to carry it out. Follow-ups should be used so that the results of the decision maybe checked and evaluated. Drawing a Conclusion Drawing a conclusion should not be based on a snap judgment. The wise supervisor will recognize that one cause may affect behavior in many ways. Conclusions should be approached objectively Moderation in Supervision Over supervision is perhaps the common failure of the new supervisor. It arises from the failure to delegate tasks. A supervisors responsibilities do not permit him to be constantly on hand to help, he must train his employees to do what needs to be done and rely on them to do it. Over supervision causes for a lack of respect for the supervisor, it creates suspicions in the mind of the employees and fosters feelings of resentment. Fraternization A new supervisor must remember where he came from, but must recognize that he is no longer part of the work group. Over familiarity and taking of unjustified liberties by subordinates, purely because of friendship should be discouraged because they tend to corrupt respect for authority. Example Setting

The respected leaders will often be imitated. He will have a valuable tool at his disposal if he sets the right example.

Avoidance of Gender Bias and Harassment All supervisors must exercise exceptional common sense in their relationships with subordinates, especially with those of the opposite sex. Harassment can take many forms and must be avoided. The most common acts that are alleged as a basis for charges of harassment. Unjust favoritism Improper sexual overtones Rude or discourteous language Deprivation of entitlements Unfair evaluations Demotions Deprivation of salary increases Discharges Salary Reductions Any acts that might be perceived as having created a hostile environment Symptoms of leadership Failures There are many reasons for leadership failure, but leadership fails most often because it is not provided for when it is most needed. The mere fact that a person who has been selected to a supervisory role that has been competent skilled producer is no guarantee that he will make a good leader. Leadership in Community Policing Many local police departments are turning to community-orientated policing. Community policing is a partnership between the police and the community. 1990 Police Executive Research Forum 1. Allowing subordinates to experiment with ne approaches. 2. Insisting on good analysis of problems 3. Allowing subordinates to make most contact directly 4. Granting flexibility in their work schedule 5. Protecting Subordinates from pressures 6. Running interference for subordinates to secure resources 7. Knowing the problem that subordinates are working on. 8. Knowing the subordinates beat. 9. Coaching of subordinates. 10. Monitoring subordinates progress 11. Supporting subordinates even if strategies fail. 12. Given credit to subordinates. 13. Managing problem-solving efforts. 14. Allowing subordinates to talk to visitors. 15. Identifying new resources and contacts for subordinates.

16. Stressing cooperation 17. Coordinating efforts across shifts. 18. Realizing that this style of policing cannot simply be ordered and that the officers must believe in it. Chapter 9 Special Problems in Counseling and Remediation At times a supervisor must assume the role of a counselor to his employees, when information comes to his attention that an employee maybe in need of help, directly or indirectly. Observation is key to identifying if an employee is having trouble. Some of the items which may need intervention could be excessive drinking, domestic difficulties, physical or physiological illness, or the use of drugs. Although a supervisor can not administer a program for an employee to follow, a supervisor should be aware of the characteristics that a problem does exist, and to get some type of appropriate remedial action. A employee will respond to treatment better if caught at the early stages, therefore early intervention is key. Nature of Problem Drinking The National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse has concluded form its study that alcohol dependence is the most serious drug problem in this country. The largest concentration is males between the ages 31 and 34. The problem is considerably significant in the law enforcement field were statics show that one in four officers may have a problem with alcohol. There is sufficient evidence that show that alcohol can be attributed to personal predisposition. But by its nature police work is conducive to problem drinking. A study from Swanson Territo, and Taylor concluded that inherent police work and the commonplace of social drinking found in police culture, create an environment especially conducive to alcoholism. Three reason why supervisors do not take action for a problem drinking 1. The supervisor may not recognize there is a problem because he is not trained to do so. 2. He the supervisor does recognize the problem he may wish not to take action. The employee is classified as a heavy social drinker. 3. The supervisor maybe forced t take action against the employee. Development and Symptoms of Problem Drinking Alcohol becomes a problem when there is an actual physiological and psychological dependence on alcohol. If a person is repeatedly adversely affected by alcohol, he is a problem drinker. Typical indicators blood shot eyes, slurred speech, however there are other indicators that should be noticed, such as, undue tension, frequent periods of nervousness, temper outbursts, attempts to avoid his supervisor while working may be some other indicators. Growing domestic and financial troubles may also signal a drinking problem.

The deviant drinker will often sneak drinks drink faster than others or supply others with alcohol to find his own problem. At the early stage the drinker will deny there is a problem, and will be defensive denying there is a problem at all. The intermediate stage the employees work starts to deteriorate and absenteeism increases. Lunch time mood changes the quality of the work is lower. Sick patterns become evident. This employee becomes an annoyance to the supervisor due the time devoted to him, rescheduling due to the worker calling out sick. Others officers may refuse to work with him. Physical deterioration often sets in the third stage. The employee now is dependant on the alcohol. The employee becomes a total lost to his employer. The only recourse is long term suspension or termination. Some Options in Treating the Problem Drinker Like most diseases problem drinking is easier to correct at the early stages. Treatment is a much more positive course if the employee can be persuaded that he needs it. Sometimes punishment brings to him to this realization, however if he this does not work the only option is termination of employment. A supervisor is torn between wanting the problem to correct itself to intervening in the personal affairs of the his employee. Rarely does the employee seek out help. Help me be requested by a spouse, friend co worker who will bring to the attention of the supervisor. Most employees will deny there is a problem. A employee must come to the realization there is a problem before active treatment can take place.\ Job-Related Problem Drinking When problem drinking causes work performance to deteriorate, the supervisor must take action. The supervisor must realize the longer he waits the less likely that their can be constructive behavior changes. A decision must be made can you retain the employee, can treatment be made without punishment. Some type of punishment may work it may let the employee know that his job is at stake. If punishment is require the supervisor must carefully document the behavior. Facts indicating the deteriorating performance should be recorded with observation for symptoms of excessive drinking. Counseling the Problem Drinker A-Dime problem solving method Analysis- review all relevant information and documentation, verify a problem exists Develop a Plan- Meet with employees, gain input, generate strategies, and discuss consequences, set goals and timelines. Implement- Imitate action plan

Monitor- Hold follow up meetings with employee, compare progress make corrective action if needed. Evaluate- Asses performance improvement, document progress, and reward for improvement. Institute positive progressive discipline for failures.

Preliminary Action Guided the problem drinker there is a problem and he needs help to solving it. Counseling Sessions Discuss solutions with the employee, interviews should be held in private. It should reiterate that several sessions will be needed. A supervisor can not act as a medical professional. The supervisor must be attentive to what be said, look at the employees point of view. Establishing a comfortable environment require three items; 1. The supervisor should listen without shock or surprise 2. Encouraging the employee to express his feelings. 3. The employee should not be expected to think through the matter in the first meeting. The technique of nondirective or employee-centered counseling in which the supervisor stimulates the individual to discover his own problem and decide on a course of action to correct it has been extremely productive. Criticizing, censuring, belittlering, etc, the employee will not work; it will only cause the employee to lose face and resentment to receiving more help. Note taking during counseling session should be avoided, it more contribute to the employees self apprehensions, and the employee may become suspicious of the supervisor. Also it tends to divert attention from the session. Referral A supervisor may achieve good results despite the lack of formal training if he realizes that he does not have all the answers, and realizes he exhausted all his own resources. AA may be such a referral what came be passed along to the employee. Emotional and Personal Problems Phychological Symptoms- uncontrollable emotional outburst, excessive irritability. Altercations with other employees, recurrent talk about giving up or quitting the job or even committing suicide. Physiological Symptoms- chronic fatigue, minor muscle spasms, headaches etc, or other psychosomatic symptoms. Supervisory Role- A supervisor must familiarize himself with the signs, were the supervisor can act in a timely manner. Counseling for the Emotionally Trouble Subordinate

When a employee comes to a supervisor for help, the supervisor must decide if the employee cam to the right person. When there is deep-rooted psychological problems professional help so be indicated. As with other counseling session some persons unravel their problems quickly and other is may take time to find out the real problem. A considerable amount of time and patient is needed by the supervisor to come to grips with the real problem. The process of non directive counseling and reflexive thinking are useful tools to solve the problem. The process of referral need not be traumatic experience for the employee, but must be sold to him.

Management and Remediation of Emotional Distress Occupational Stress- often know as burnout. This psychological condition is also referred as BOSS (burnout stress syndrome). In police work which can be one of the most stressful jobs, a officer may suffer this from many different sources. It could be dealing with different ethnic groups, personal life problems, too much criticism and little praise, irregular work hours, some times inadequate supervision may lead to job burnout. The supervisor must recognize there is a problem and can that problem be solved or does the officer need to be relieved of his employment. Counseling may help the employee, also some other stress reducers such as exercise, diet changes and shift changes. Anxiety- is usually related to external pressures, when the external pressure disappears so does the anxiety associated with it. Transfer may help relieve anxiety issues. Depression- When a persons becomes depressed he usually loses his objectivity and sense of perspective. He tends to give up, to shun diversion that he once enjoyed. He may consider himself a failure, and may contemplate suicide. Physical symptoms maybe heartburn, back pains, upset stomachs, and headaches. The National Institute of Mental Health reports that serious depression masks itself with alcohol and/or drug abuse in men. Studies show that 16 percent of Americans will suffer from some type of depression. Family Discord- When burnout occurs and stress on the job can not resolve the employee often transfer the problems to his martial relationship. A supervisor recognize that family discord will result in stress which will affect the employees work performance. The supervisor can help by displaying an understanding and allow the employee to vent he so desires. The martial problems become so severe that it affects job performance the supervisor should encourage the employee to seek help. A supervisor can not be a marriage counselor however can give some foresight to help the employee understand the problem. When young employees come to the supervisor for help. The young employee should be encourage to discuss his problems with his spouse rather than to withdraw from the marriage. In some case transfer to less demanding jobs can be helpful. Normally the depressive reactions brought about by such domestic difficulties are temporary, and will correct themselves if given time.

Trauma- Producing Incidents- Officer in traumatic incidents such as shootings, sometimes develop severe psychological reactions shortly after the incident. PostShooting stress syndromes often reflective in a feeling of isolation, flashbacks, sleeplessness. When the symptoms appear the supervisor is obligated to take necessary action. Employee assistance programs are available if need to refer the employee. In the event that professional assistance appears necessary, the supervisor should be prepared to report this observation upward in a timely manner, so appropriate referral can be made.