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MECHANICS OF MACHINERY

FOR

SECOND YEAR MECHANICAL




















Chapter 1
ANALYSIS OF PLANE MECHANISMS
BY
Dr. Mahmoud Mostafa

1-1 VECTOR NOTATIONS

For analytical analysis of mechanisms vectors can be described in polar or Cartesian
coordinates. Polar coordinates are most suitable for kinematics analysis, while Cartesian
coordinates are suitable for force analysis. However, there is a relation between the two
coordinate systems.

A plane vector ( V ) is represented in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of its
components along the x and y axes V
x
and V
y
, respectively. Thus

V = V
x
i + V
y
j 1-1-1

Where ( i ) and ( j ) are the unit vectors along the x and y axes. In terms of polar
coordinate system, a vector can be represented using the complex numbers as follows:

V = V e
iu

= V cos u + i V sin u 1-1-2
Where
V is the magnitude of V
u is the angle of inclination of V with the x-axis, positive (+ve) in the counter
clockwise direction (c.c.w.).
i is the complex number = 1 .

The first part on the r.h.s. of equation (1-1-3) is called the real part, while the second part
is the imaginary one.

Comparing equations (1-1-1) and (1-1-2) leads to

V
x
= V cos u
V
y
= V sin u

The presence of (i) in the second term on the right hand side (r.h.s.) of equation (1-1-2)
indicates that the component is along the y-axis.

1-1-1 Unit Complex Vector

The unit complex vector ( u ) is a vector whose magnitude is unity and makes an angle u.
Thus
u = e
iu

= cos u + i sin u 1-1-3


1-1- 2 Complex conjugate vector

The unit complex conjugate vector (u
c
) has a unit length and makes an angle of -u, thus

u
c
= e
-iu

= cos u - i sin u 1-1-4

This means that in order to obtain the conjugate of any complex vector replace (u) by (-u)
or, simply, replace (i) by (-i).

1-1-3 Multiplication of complex vectors

Let
V
1
= V
1
e
iu1

V
2
= V
2
e
iu2
Then
V
1
* V
2
= V
1
e
iu1
* V
2
e
iu2
= V
1
V
2
e
i (u1 + u2)

This means that the multipli cation of two complex vectors is a complex vector whose
magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitudes of the two original vectors, and its
angle is equal to the sum of the angles of the original vectors.

Conclusions:

a- Multiplication of a vector with its conjugate

Let
V = V e
iu
Then
V
c
= V e
-iu

Therefore

V * V
c
= V
2

i.e. the multiplication of a vector by its conjugate is a real quantity which is equal to the
square of the magnitude of the original vector. This operation eliminates the imaginary
part.








b- Rotation of a vector

Let
V = V e
iu

If V is rotated an angle o, its angle becomes u + o. The new vector is represented by

V = V e
i(u + o)
= V e
iu
e
io


If o is equal to t/2, then

V = V e
iu
(cos t/2 + i sin t/2)

= i V e
iu

Therefore, if a vector is to be rotated an angle of t/2 c.c.w. simply multiply it by i.
Similarly, if the angle of rotation is t/2 in the c.w. direction, multiply by (-i).

1-2 PLANE MECHANISMS

A plane mechanism is a combination of bodies connected by joints to transmit force or
motion. The joints are usually turning or sliding. A simple mechanism consists of four
links and four joints. Using combinations of turning and sliding joints, one obtains the
basic group which includes the four-bar mechanism, the engine mechanism, the shaper
mechanism and the tilting block mechanism, Fig.1.


2
4
shaper mechanism
2
3
4
engine mechanism
2
3
4
4 bar mechanism
2
3
4
tiliting block mechanism
Fig. (1)
3



Notice that each of these mechanisms has a driving element (input point) known as the
crank. If the cranks are removed, then we have a group of chains, Fig.2.
In fact, complex mechanisms can be thought of as a group of these chains connected
together. The output of each chain is the input of the next one, and so on. As an
example, consider the mechanism of Fig.3. It consists of three chains and a crank.

- OA (link2) is the crank.
- Point A is the input point to the engine chain (links 3&4).
- CQD is the tilting block chain (links 5&6), point C is the input point.
- DEP is the four bar chain (links 7&8), point D is the input point.

If each chain is analyzed separately, the analysis of any complex mechanism will be an
easy task. In fact, simple software can be designed to perform this analysis.

engine chain 4 bar chain
tilting block chain
Fig.(2)
3
4
3
4
4
3
4
3
shaper chain
6
A
Fig. (3)
2
3
5
O
C
D
Q
7
E
8
P
B
4



1-3 POSITION ANALYSIS

1-3-1 Crank

Usually, the crank is treated as the source of motion of the mechanism. So, its position is
usually specified, Fig. 4.

Given:
a- The location of point O, (x
O
,y
O
).
b- The crank length r
2
.
c- The crank angle u
2
.
Find:
x
A
and y
A
.
u
2
Analysis:

The position vector of point A is given by:

r
A
= r
O
+ r
2
= (x
O
+ i y
O
) + r
2
e
iu2

= (x
O
+ r
2
cos u
2
) + i (y
O
+ r
2
sin u
2
)
Thus

x
A
= x
O
+ r
2
cos u
2
1-3-1
y
A
= y
O
+ r
2
sin u
2
1-3-2

Note: If the crank pivot is located at the origin of the coordinate system, then

r
2
A
O
O'
X
Y
Fig. (4)
2

x
O
= y
O
= 0
x
A
= r
2
cos u
2
1-3-3
y
A
= r
2
sin u
2
1-3-4
1-3-2 Four bar chain

The four bar chain is shown in Fig. 5. The coordinate system is located at O. The
coupler AB is defined as link (3), while the rocker QB is link (4). The support of the
rocker is at point Q. The input motion of the chain is delivered at point A.

Given:
a- The length of the coupler r
3

b- The length of the rocker r
4

c- The location of point Q (x
Q
, y
Q
)
d- The position of point A (x
A
, y
A
)

Find:
The position of links (3) and (4). They are specified by the angles u
3
and u
4



Analysis:

First join AQ to form the vector d. Consider the vector loop

r
Q
= r
A
+ d
Or
d = r
Q
- r
A


Writing each vector in its complex form, then

d e
iud
= (x
Q
+ i y
Q
) - (x
A
+ i y
A
)
= (x
Q
- x
A
) + i (y
Q
- y
A
) 1-3-5
O'
Q
X
Y
Fig. (5)
B
A
r
3
r
4



Multiplying the vectors in both sides by its conjugate, then

d e
iud
*

d e
-iud
= [(x
Q
- x
A
) + (y
Q
- i y
A
)]*[ (x
Q
- x
A
) - i (y
Q
- y
A
)]

This leads to

d
2
= ( x
Q
- x
A
)
2
+ (y
Q
- y
A
)
2

Or
d = ( x - x ) + (y - y )
Q A Q A
2 2


From equation (1-3-5), equating the real parts and the imaginary parts, then

sin u
d
=
y y
d
Q A

1-3-6-a
cos u
d
=
x x
d
Q A

1-3-6-b

The exact value of u
d
is obtained from equation (1-3-6).

In order to obtain u
3
, consider the loop

r
4
= r
3
- d
Or
r
4
e
iu4
= r
3
e
iu3
- d e
iud
1-3-7

Multiplying by the conjugate, thus

( r e
i
4
4
u
)*( r e
i
4
4
u
) = ( r e
i
3
3
u
- de
i
d
u
) * ( r e
i
3
3
u
- de
i
d
u
)

This leads to
r r d
4
2
3
2 2
3
i -i
r d(e e ) = + +
| |
1-3-8
where
| = u
3
- u
d

It is clear that

e
i|
+ e
-i|
= 2 cos |

Thus, according to equation (1-3-8)

cos | =
r d r
d
3
2 2
4
2
+
2r
3



It should be noted that | is an angle in the triangle AQB, Fig.4. Therefore, if cos | is
positive, then 0 s s |
t
2
. If cos | is negative, then
t
| t
2
s s .
According to configuration of Fig.4, vector r
3
is leading d. Thus

u
3
= u
d
+ |

However, in some situations the four bar chain is located such that d is leading r
3
. This
depends upon the orientation of points A, B and Q. In this case

u
3
= u
d
- | 1-3-9

Generally speaking, u
3
is obtained using u
3
= u
d
| according to the chain configuration.
Now, u
4
can be obtained from equation 1-3-7,

sin u
4
=
r d
r
d 3 3
4
sin sin u u
1-3-10-a
cos u
4
=
r d
r
d 3 3
4
cos cos u u
1-3-10-b


1-3-2 Engine Chain


The engine chain, in a general way, can be located as shown in Fig.6. The line of action
of the slider is along the unit vector u which makes an angle o with the x-axis, and is at
a distance h from the origin of the coordinate axes; h is along the unit normal vector u
n
.
The distance of the slider from ' O along u is x
4
.

Given:
a- The length of the connecting rod, r
3
.
4
X
Y
r
A
B
h
O'
3
Fig. (6)

b- The angle of inclination of the line of action of the slider, o.
c- The normal distance, h.
d- The position of the point of input motion, x y
A A
, .

Find:
The angular position of the connecting rod (u
3
) and the position of the slider ( x
4
).

Analysis:

Consider the vector loop

r
B
= r
A
+ r
3

= ( x
4
+ i h) e
io

Or

r
3
e
iu3
= ( x
4
+ i h) e
io
- r
A
1-3-11


In order to simplify the analysis, r
A
is resolved to the components c and n along u and u
n

respectively. Thus

r
A
= (c + i n) e
io
Or
x
A
+ i y
A
= (c + i n) e
io

In order to find c and n divide both sides by e
io
. Thus,

(x
A
+ i y
A
) e
-io
.= (c + i n)
(x
A
+ i y
A
) ( cos o - sin o) = (c + i n)
(x
A
cos o + y
A
sin o) + i (- x
A
sin o + y
A
cos o) = (c + i n)

Therefore

c = x
A
cos o + y
A
sin o
n = - x
A
sin o + y
A
cos o

Substituting into equation 1-3-11, hence

r
3
e
iu3
=[(x
4
- x
A
cos o - y
A
sin o) + i (h + x
A
sin o y
A
cos o)] e
io

Multiplying by the conjugates

12 - 3 - 1 ) cos y sin x + (h ) sin y cos x (x = r
2
A A
2
A A 4
2
3
o o + o o




From equation 1-3-12

x cos sin r - (h+ sin cos ) 1- 3 - 13
4 3
2 2
= + x y x y
A A A A
o o o o

The + and - signs indicate that there are two possible positions for the slider depending
upon the configuration of the chain. The + sign is considered when the component of r
3
is
along the line of action of the slider, i.e. along u. The - sign is considered otherwise.
The value of u
3
is obtained from equation (1-3-11)

cos u
3
=
x cos
4
3
o o hsin x
r
A
1-3-14-a
sin u
3
=
x sin
4
3
o o + hcos y
r
A
1-3-14-b


1-3-3 Shaper Chain

The chain in its general configuration is shown in Fig. 7. Link (4) oscillates about point Q
(x
Q
, y
Q
). The slider (3) slides on link (4). Its position is determined by the distance x
4

from Q. The motion is transmitted to the chain through point A on the slider. Point A is
considered to be at a normal distance h from link (4), (h = AB).

Given:
a-The location of Q (x
Q
, y
Q
).
b-The position of A (x
A
, y
A
).
c-The normal distance h of the slider.

Find:
a- The distance x
4
.
Fig. (7)
3
h
A
4
B
X4
Q
O
Y
X

b- The angle of link (4), u
4
.
Analysis:

Set the unit vectors u
n
and u
t
normal and along link (4). u
n
is leading u
t
by an angle of t/2
in the c.c.w. direction. Consider the vector loop

r
A
= r
Q
+ (x
4
- i h) e
iu4


Or
(x
4
- i h) e
iu4
= r
A
r
Q
= (x
A
- x
Q
) + i (y
A
- y
Q
) 1-3-15

Multiplying by the conjugates

x
4
2
+ h
2
= (x
A
- x
Q
)
2
+ (y
A
- y
Q
)
2

From which
x
4
= h ) y (y + ) x (x
2 2
A Q
2
A Q
+
x
4
= h ) y (y + ) x (x
2 2
Q A
2
Q A
1-3-16

In order to obtain the value of u
4
, divide equation (1-3-15) by (x
4
- i h). Thus,

) ih )(x ih (x
) ih )](x y i(y + ) x [(x
=
) ih (x
) y i(y + ) x (x
e
4 4
4 Q A Q A
4
Q A Q A
4
i
+
+


=
u

This leads to

) h (x
)] x h(x + ) y (y i[x + )] y h(y - ) x (x [x
sin i cos
2 2
4
Q A Q A 4 Q A Q A 4
4 4
+

= u + u

Therefore

cos u
4
=
) h (x
)] y h(y - ) x (x [x
2 2
4
Q A Q A 4
+

1-3-17-a
sin u
4
=
) h (x
)] x h(x + ) y (y [x
2 2
4
A Q A 4 Q
+

1-3-17-b













1-3-4 Tilting Block Chain


The Tilting block chain is shown in Fig. 8. The block is pivoted at point Q (x
Q
,y
Q
). Link (3)
slides inside the block. Point Q is at a distance h from link (3). The motion is
transmitted to the chain at point A on link (3).

Given:
a- The location of Q, (x
Q
,y
Q
)
b- The position of A, (x
A
,y
A
)
c- The normal distance, h.

Find:
a- The distance, x
3

b- The angle of link (3), u
3
.

Analysis:

The analysis is very similar to that of the shaper chain the results can be obtained by
replacing point A by point Q and viceversa, and the subscrips 4 by 3 in equations (1-
3-12) and (1-3-13). Therefore

14 - 3 - 1 h ) y - (y + ) x - (x x
2 2
A Q
2
A Q 3
=
X
Y
O
Q
B
A
h
3
4
X3
Fig. (8)


cos u
3
=
) h (x
)] y h(y - ) x (x [x
2 2
3
A Q A Q 3
+

1-3-19-a
sin u
3
=
) h (x
)] x h(x + ) y (y [x
2 2
3
A Q A Q 3
+

1-3-19-b

1-3-5 Position Of A Point On A Link

In complex mechanisms the motion of a chain is transmitted to the next chain through a
point on a link. So, it is necessary to obtain the position of this point to use it as an input
for the next chain. Consider link i in Fig. 9.

Given:
x
A
,y
A
, l and v.

Find:
x
c
and y
c


Analysis:

r
c
= r
A
+ l
= (x
A
+ i y
A
) + l e
i (u + v)
= [x
A
+ l cos (u + v)] + i [y
A
+ l sin (u + v)]

Therefore

x
c
= x
A
+ l cos (u + v) 1-3-19
y
c
= y
A
+ l sin (u + v) 1-3-20

1- 4 SLIDING LINKS
A
C
B
r L
Fig. (9)


Sliding
links are
used to
transmit
motion
from a
body to
another
through
direct contact, e.g. cams and gears. The general configuration of sliding links consists of
two bodies; (3) is the driving link and (4) is the driven one, Fig.10.


















The points of contact are A and B. The radii of curvature are p
A
and p
B
, with the centers
of curvatures at points C and F for links (3) and (4) respectively. Instantly, the radii of
curvature are considered constant though they may change when the points of contact
change. Thus, AB can be considered as an imaginary link joining the centers of curvature
C and F. In order to obtain its inclination u
3
, consider the vector equation

r
F
= r
C
+ CF
= r
C
+ (p
A
+ p
B
) e
i u3

Since the input motion is delivered through link (3), then r
A
is specified. The nature of r
F

depends upon the type of motion and the configuration of link (4). The following cases
are considered:

1- 4-1 Link (4) Has Rotating Motion

O
A
B
C
F
Fig. (10)
X
Y
4
3
3

Suppose link (4) rotates about point Q, Fig.11. The position of F is specified on link (4).
Thus QF and BF are defined. Also, the position of C is specified on link (3). Hence CF
and QF can be considered instantly as an equivalent 4-bar chain with

r
3
p
A
+ p
B

r
4
QF
u
3
angle of CF
u
4
angle of QF


Therefore, analysis of Sec. 1-3-2 can be adapted to obtain u
3
and u
4
.










1- 4- 2 Link (4) Has Translation Motion

Link (4) slides on a surface making an angle o, Fig.12. Thus point F is considered to
slide on a line FS at a distance h (OS) from the origin O and making an angle o.
Hence, CF and FS can be considered instantly as an equivalent engine chain with

r
3
p
A
+ p
B
SF line of action of the slider.
u
3
angle of CF

A
B
C
F
O
Q
X
Y
3
4
3
4
Fig. (11)

Therefore, analysis of Sec. 1-3-3 can be used to obtain u
3
and x
4
.


1- 4- 3 Link (4) Is Flat-Faced And With Rotating Motion

The face of link (4) is at a distance R (QS) from the pivot Q and makes an angle u
4
,
Fig.13. The center of curvature F is at i nfinity along CB. The position of link (4) (x
4
, u
4
)
is unknown. Since CA is perpendicular to SB, then
u
3
= u
4
- t/2
CA = - i p
A
e
i u4



Consider the loop

r
A
= r
C
+ CA
X
Y
C
3
3
O
s
h
Fig. (12)
A
F
4
B
X
Y
C
O
Fig. (13)
B
3
Q
X
4
3
R
4
A
S

r
B
= r
Q
+ QS + SB
Since
r
A
= r
B
Thus
r
C
- i p
A
e
i u4
= r
Q
- i R e
i u4
+ i x
4
e
i u4

Let r
C
and r
Q
be specified by

r
C
= x
C
+ i y
C
r
Q
= x
Q
+ i y
Q
Hence
( ) +i( ) = [x i(R- )]e
4 A
i
4
x x y y
C Q C Q
+ p
u


Referring to the analysis of Sec. 1-3-3; multiplying each side by its conjugate, thus


x = ( ) +( ) (R- )
cos
x ( ) +(R- )( )
x +(R- )
sin
x ( ) - (R- )( )
x +(R- )
4
2 2
A
2
4
4 A
4
2
A
2
4
4 A
4
2
A
2
x x y y
x x y y
y y x x
C Q C Q
C Q C Q
C Q C Q

=

=

p
u
p
p
u
p
p


1- 4- 4 Link (4) Is Flat-Faced With Translation

Link (4) slides on a surface making an angle o and is at a distance h (OS) from the
origin. A reference oint, (O), is located on the link at a distance x
4
from S, Fig.14. The
point of contact is at a distance x
B
from O. Consider the loops

r
A
= r
C
+ CA
r
B
= OS + SO + O B
Let
r
C
= x
C
+ i y
C
Thus
(x
C
+ i y
C
) - i p
A
e
i |
= (x
4
+ i h) e
i o
+

x
B

e
i |

Or
(x
C
+ i y
C
) = (x
4
+ i h) e
i o
+ (x
B
+ i p
A
) e
i |




This leads to

x
4
= [- x
C
sin | + y
C
cos | - h cos (o - |) - p
A
] / sin (o - |)

x
B
= [- x
C
sin o + y
C
cos o - h cos (| - o) - h

] / sin (| - o)

1- 5 VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION ANALYSIS

The velocity and acceleration analysis carried out in this text is using the relative motion
principal. The principal states that a motion (velocity or acceleration) of a point is equal
to the motion of another point plus the motion of the first relative to the second. In other
words, considering points A and B, then

V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
1-5-1
A
B
= A
A
+ A
BA
1-5-2

Where V
B
, V
A
, A
B
and A
A
are the absolute velocities and accelerations of points A and
B respectively, while V
BA
and A
BA
are the velocity and acceleration of point B relative
to A, respectively. If point A is fixed, then V
BA
= V
B
and A
BA
= A
B
. In this case the
subscript A is dropped . Also,

V
A
= V
B
+ V
AB
1-5-3
A
A
= A
B
+ A
AB
1-5-4

Comparing equations (1-5-1) through (1-5-4) one concludes that

V
AB
= - V
BA

A
AB
= - A
BA


X
C
O
3
Y
X X
4
4
3
O'
A
B
h
S
Fig. (14)

1- 5-1 Rotating Link

If a link rotates about a fixed point O, Fig.15, with an angul ar velocity e and an
angular acceleration o (assumed positive in the counterclockwise direction), the
absolute velocity and acceleration of a point A at a distance r from O is given by

V
A
= i r e e
i u
A
A
= r (- e
2
+ i o) e
i u




The components of the velocity and acceleration are given by

V
A
x
= - e r sin u 1-5-5-a
V
A
y
= e r cos u 1-5-5-b

A
A
x
= r (- e
2
cos u - o sin u) 1-5-6-a
A
A
y
= r (- e
2
sin u + o cos u) 1-5-6-b


1- 5-2 Floating Link

The motion of a floating link is considered as a combination of a translation and
rotational motions. The motion of any point on the link relative to another on the same
link is rotational. The absolute velocity and acceleration of any point on the floating link
can be obtained by applying the law of relative motion. For link (i), Fig.16

Given:
a- The velocity of point A (V
A
x
,V
A
y
).
b- The acceleration of point A (A
A
x
, A
A
y
).
c- The angular velocity and acceleration of the link (e,o).
O
Fig. (15 )
A
r


Find:
a- The velocity of point B (V
B
x
,V
B
y
).
b- The acceleration of point B (A
B
x
, A
B
y
).


Analysis:

Using the relative motion law, then

V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA

= (V
A
x
+ i V
A
y
) + i e r e
i u

= (V
A
x
- e r sin u) + i (V
A
y
+ e r cos u)

Similarly

A
B
= A
A
+ A
BA

= (A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) + r (- e
2
+i o) e
i u

= (V
A
x
- e
2
r cos u - o r sin u) + i (A
A
y
- e
2
r sin u + o r cos u)

Therefore

V
B
x
= V
A
x
- e r sin u 1-5-7-a
V
B
y
= V
A
y
+ e r cos u 1-5-7-b

A
B
x
= A
A
x
- e
2
r cos u - o r sin u 1-5-8-a
A
B
Y
= A
A
y
- e
2
r sin u + o r cos u) 1-5-8-b

1- 5- 3 Sliding links

Considering the sliding links shown in Fig.17 previously studied in Sec.1- 4.
A
Fig. ( 16 )
r
B


Given:
a- The angular velocities of links (e
A
and e
B
).
b- The radii of curvature p
A
and p
B
.

Find:
V
BA
and A
BA


Analysis:

Set the unit vectors u
n
and u
t
along the common normal and the common tangent to the
surfaces, u
t
is leading u
n
by t/2 in the c.c.w. direction. The vector V
BA
is along u
t,
thus

V
BA
= V
BA
u
t
1-5-9



V
FC
can be substituted in terms of V
BA
as follows

V
A
= V
C
+ e
3
p
A
u
t
1-5-10-a
V
B
= V
F
- e
4
p
B
u
t
1-5-10-b

It is convenient to define e
3
and e
4
related to points A and B, i.e. let

e
3
= e
A
, and
e
4
= e
B


Using equations (1-5-10), thus

V
BA
= V
B -
V
A

= V
F -
V
C
- (e
A
p
A
+ e
B
p
B
) u
t

Fig. (17)
O
Q
tangent
common
3
4
4
A
B
3
common
normal
C
F


Or

V
FC
= V
BA
+ (e
A
p
A
+ e
B
p
B
) u
t

= (V
BA
+ e
A
p
A
+ e
B
p
B
) u
t
1-5-11

The acceleration of B relative to A has normal and tangential components, i.e.

A
BA
= A
BA
n
+
A
BA
t
1-5-12

Now

A
A
= A
C
- p
A
e
A
2
u
n
+ p
A
o
3
u
t
1-5-13-a

A
B
= A
F
+ p
B
e
B
2
u
n
- p
B
o
4
u
t
1-5-13-b

Using equation (1-5-13), hence

A
BA
= A
B -
A
A

= A
FC
+ (p
A
e
A
2
+

p
B
e
B
2
) u
n
- (p
A
o
3

+

p
B
o
4
) u
t
1-5-14
To obtain A
FC
, consider the imaginary link CF
A
FC
=
+
V
FC
A B
2
p p
u
n
+ A
FC
t
u
t
1-5-15
Substituting equation (1-5-14) into equation (1-5-15) hence

A
BA
= (
2
B B
2
A A
B A
2
FC
V
e p + e p +
p + p
) u
n
+ (A
FC 3 4
t
p o p o
A B
) u
t

1-5-16
Comparing equations (1-5-12) and (1-5-16), we can determine A
BA
n
. Obtaining A
BA
t
in this
stage is meaningless since it is usually determined from the analysis of the system as a
whole. Thus
A
V
BA
FC
A B
A A B B
n
=
+
+ +
2
2 2
p p
p e p e
Using equation (1-5-11) and rearranging terms, then

A
BA
n
= [p
A
p
B
(e
A
- e
B
)
2
- V
BA
2
- 2 V
BA
(p
A
e
A
+ p
B
e
B
)] / (p
A
+ p
B
)

1-5-17


Equation (1-5-17) was developed by the author and represents the normal component of
the relative acceleration of sliding link in a generalized form. It is interesting to notice
that it is divided into three components which are classified as

[p
A
p
B
(e
A
- p
B
)
2
]/(p
A
+ p
B
) represents the rolling component


(- V
BA
2
)/(p
A
+ p
B
) represents the rotational component.

[- 2 V
BA
(p
A
e
A
+ p
B
e
B
)]/(p
A
+ p
B
) is equivalent to Coriolis component of acceleration
and is defined as The M component.

Special attention should be paid in setting the direction of the unit vectors u
n
and u
t

according to which point is related to which, u
n
is directed from the point which motion is
related to in the direction of the other point, u
n
is leading u
t
in the counter clockwise
direction.

When a block is sliding on a link, Fig.18, the two points coincide. In this case u
n

can be chosen in either directions. But once u
n
is specified u
t
is specified accordingly. If
point A is on the block, and point B is on the link, then


p
A
= 0
p
B
=
e
A
= 0

Substituting into equation (1-5-17), hence

A
BA
n
= - 2 V
BA
e
B
1-5-18
This is exactly the Coriolis component. Its direction depends on the signs of V
BA B
and e .
In other situation, if one of the surfaces is concave, equation (1-5-17) still hold but its
radius of curvature should be taken negative.

1- 6 VELOCITY AND ACCELERTION ANALYSIS FOR CHAINS

1- 6-1 Analysis Of Crank

Usually, the crank, Fig. 19, is the driving link. Its position, angular vel ocity, angular
acceleration are specified.
Fig. (18)
b (on link)
A (on blocck)
O




Given:
u
2
, e
2
, o
2


Find:
V
A
x
, V
A
y
, A
A
x
, A
A
y


Analysis:

According to equations (1-5-5) and (1-5-6)

V
A
x
= - e
2
r
2
sin u
2
1-6-1-a
V
A
y
= e
2
r
2
cos u
2
1-6-1-b

A
A
x
= r
2
(-e
2
2

cos u
2
- o
2
sin u
2
) 1-6-1-a
A
A
y
= r
2
(-e
2
2

sin u
2
+ o
2
cos u
2
) 1-6-1-b

1- 6- 2 Four-Bar Chain

For the chain shown in Fig. 20
r
Fig. (19)
A
O
2
2
2
2


Given:
V
A
x
, V
A
y
, A
A
x
, A
A
y


Find:
e
3
, e
4
, o
3
, o
4


Analysis:

For the velocity analysis, consider equation (1-5-1)

V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
1-6-3


Link 4 is a rotating link and link 3 is a floating link, thus

V
B
= e
4
r
4
i e
i u4

V
BA
= e
3
r
3
i e
i u3


Substituting into equation (1-6-3), hence

e
4
r
4
i e
i u4
= (V
A
x
+i V
A
y
) + e
3
r
3
i e
i u3

Multiplying both sides by e
- i u4
and considering the real parts leads to

0 = V
A
x
cos u
4
+ V
A
y
sin u
4
- e
3
r
3
sin (u
3
- u
4
)

Therefore

e
3
= [+V
A
x
cos u
4
+ V
A
y
sin u
4
] / [r
3
sin (u
3
- u
4
)] 1-6-4

The same procedure can be applied to obtain e
4


A
B
Q
3
4
4
Fig. (20)
3
3
3

e
4
= [-V
A
x
cos u
3
- V
A
y
sin u
3
] / [r
4
sin (u
4
- u
3
)] 1-6-5

For the acceleration analysis, consider equation (1-5-4) and using the values

A
B
= r
4
(- e
4
2
+ i o
4
) e
i u4

A
BA
= r
3
(- e
3
2
+ i o
3
) e
i u3


Then
r
4
(- e
4
2
+ i o
4
) e
i u4
= (A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) + r
3
(- e
3
2
+ i o
3
) e
i u3

1-6-6

Multiplying equation (1-6-6) by e
-iu4
and considering the real parts, o
3
can be obtained

- r
4
e
4
2
= A
A
x
cos u
4
+ A
A
y
sin u
4
- r
3
e
3
2
cos (u
3
- u
4
) - r
3
o
3
sin (u
3
- u
4
)

Therefore

o
3
= [ A
A
x
cos u
4
+ A
A
y
sin u
4
+ r
4
e
4
2
- r
3
e
3
2
cos (u
3
- u
4
) ] / [ r
3
sin (u
3
- u
4
) ]

1-6-7

Similarly,

o
4
= [ - A
A
x
cos u
3
- A
A
y
sinu
3
+ r
3
e
3
2
r
4
e
4
2
cos (u
4
- u
3
] / [ r
4
sin (u
4
- u
3
) ]
1-6-8


1- 6- 3 Engine Chain

For the engine chain shown in Fig. 21

3
4
A
B
r
3
Fig. (21)

Given:
V
A
x
, V
A
y
, A
A
x
, A
A
y


Find:
e
3
, V
4
, o
3
, A
4


Analysis:

V
B
= V
A
+ V
BA
But
V
4
= V
B
= V
4
e
io
V
BA
= + e
3
r
3
i e
iu3

Thus
V
4
e
io
= (V
A
x
+ i V
A
y
) + e
3
r
3
i e
iu3
1-6-9

Multiplying both sides by e
io
and considering the imaginary parts, hence

0 = - V
A
x
sin o + V
A
y
cos o + e
3
r
3
cos (u
3
- o)
Thus
e
3
= [ V
A
x
sin o - V
A
y
cos o ] / [ r
3
cos (u
3
- o) ] 1-6-10

From the real parts of equation (1-6-9)

V
4
= V
A
x
cos o + V
A
y
sin o

-

e
3
r
3
sin(u
3
-o) 1-6-11

For the acceleration
A
4
= A
B
= A
4
e
io

A
BA
= r
3
(- e
3
2
+ i o
3
) e
iu3

Thus

A
4
e
io
= (A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) + r
3
(- e
3
2
+ i o
3
) e
iu3
1-6-12

Multiplying equation (1-6-12) by e
-io
and considering the imaginary parts

0 = - A
A
x
sin o + A
A
y
cos o + e
3
2
r
3
sin (u
3
- o) + o
3
r
3
cos (u
3
- o)
1-6-13

Hence
o
3
= [ A
A
x
sin o - A
A
y
cos o + e
3
2
r
3
sin (u
3
- o) ] / [ r
3
cos (u
3
- o) ]

1-6-14

Considering the real parts of equation (1-6-12)

A
4
= A
A
x
cos o + A
A
y
sin o -e
3
2
r
3
cos(u
3
-o) - o
3
r
3
sin (u
3
- o) 1-6-15



1- 6- 4 Shaper Chain
For the shaper chain shown in Fig. 22, links 3 and 4 are sl iding links. Let point B to be on
the block 3 while point C on link 4. u
t
is along link 4 while u
n
is lagging

u
t
by 90
o
.

Given:
V
A
x
, V
A
y
, A
A
x
, A
A
y


Find:
e
4
, o
4


Analysis:

Since there is no relative motion between the block and the link, they have the same
angular velocity and angular acceleration. I.e.

e
3
= e
4

o
3
= o
4


For the velocity analysis, consider the vector loop

V
C
= V
A
+ V
BA
+ V
CB

It is clear that

V
C
= e
4
x
4
i e
iu4
V
BA
= - e
4
h e
iu4
( assuming e
4
positive )

V
CB
= V
CB
u
t

= V
CB
e
iu4

Q
B
A
h
Fig. (22)
4
3
B ( on block)
C ( on link)

Substituting into equation (1-6-6), then

e
4
x
4
i e
iu4
= (V
A
x
+ i V
A
y
) - e
4
h e
iu4
+ V
CB
e
iu4

Or
e
4
( h + i x
4
) e
iu4
= V
A
x
+ i V
A
y
) + V
CB
e
iu4


Multiplying by e
-iu4
and considering the imaginary parts, thus

e
4
= [ - V
A
x
sin u
4
+ V
A
y
cos u
4
] / x
4
1-6-18

From the real parts

V
CB
= e
4
h - V
A
x
cos u
4
- V
A
y
sin u
4
1-6-19

For the acceleration, consider the loop

A
C
= A
A
+ A
BA
+ A
CB
1-6-20

A
C
= x
4
(- e
4
2
+ i o) e
i u4


A
BA
= - h (o
4
+ i e
4
2
) e
i u4


According to equation (1-5-12)

A
CB
= A
CB
n
+ A
CB
t


The tangential component A
CB
t
is given by

A
CB
t
= A
CB
t
u
t

= A
CB
t
e
iu4


The normal component is determined according to equation (1-5-18)

A
CB
n
= - 2 V
CB
e
C
u
n


Where e
C
is the angular velocity of the link on which point C lies, i.e. link 4. Thus

e
C
= e
4
,
and
A
CB
n
= 2 V
CB
e
4
e
iu4

Substituting into equation ( 1-6-20)

x
4
(- e
4
2
+ i o
4
) e
iu4
= ( A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) - h (o
4
+ i e
4
2
) e
iu4
+ 2 V
CB
e
4
i e
iu4
+ A
CB
t
e
iu4

1-6-21

Multiplying by e
-iu4
and considering the imaginary part leads to


o
4
= [ - A
A
x
sin u
4
+ A
A
y
cos u
4 -
h

e
4
2
+ 2 V
CB
e
4
] / x
4
1-6-22

Considering the real parts

A
CB
t
= - A
A
x
cos u
4
- A
A
y
sin u
4
- x
4
e
4
2
+ h o
4
) 1-6-23


1- 6- 5 Tilting Block Chain

For the tilting block shown in Fig. 23, let the sliding points be B on link 3 and C on link 4.
u
t
is along e
iu3
and u
n
is along e
-iu3
.

NOTE : didnt correct the eq.s of Tilting Block according to :

Given:
V
A
x
, V
A
y
, A
A
x
, A
A
y



Find:
e
3
, o
3


Analysis:

For the velocity analysis, consider the vector loop

V
C
= V
A
+ V
BA
+ V
CB

As in the shaper chain

e
3
= e
4

o
3
= o
4

B
h
B ( on block)
C ( on link)
A
Q 4
3
Fig. (23)

e
B
= e
3

o
B
= o
3


Substituting with the value of each vector

- e
3
h e
iu3
= (V
A
x
+ i V
A
y
) + e
3
x
3
i e
iu3
+ V
CB
e
iu3


Multiplying by e
-iu3
and considering the imaginary parts, thus

e
3
= [ V
A
x
sin u
3
- V
A
y
cos u
3
] / x
3
1-6-24

From the real parts

V
CB
= - e
3
h - V
A
x
cos u
3
- V
A
y
sin u
3
1-6-25

For the acceleration, consider the loop

A
C
= A
A
+ A
BA
+ A
CB


Then
- h (o
4
+ i e
4
2
) e
iu3
= ( A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) + x
3
(- e
3
2
+ i o
3
) e
iu3
+ 2 V
CB
e
3
i e
iu3
+ A
CB
t
e
iu3


Multiplying by e
-iu3
and considering the imaginary part leads to

o
3
= [ A
A
x
sin u
3
- A
A
y
cos u
3 -
h

e
3
2

- 2 V
CB
e
3
] / x
3
1-6-26

Considering the real parts

A
CB
t
= - A
A
x
cos u
3
- A
A
y
sin u
3
+ x
3
e
3
2
- h o
3
1-6-27




1- 7 FORCE ANALYSIS ( I didnt check the equations )

1- 7- 1 Principals

1-7-1-1 Transmission of Force

The force is transmitted from one link to another normal to the surface of contact when
friction is neglected.

Turning joint: The transmitted force passes through the center of the joint.


Sliding joint: The transmitted force is normal to the sliding surfaces at the point of
contact. When the surfaces are flat, the position of the force is determined from
equilibrium considerations

1-7-1-2 Action and reaction

F
ij
is termed as the force of link i on link j.

F
ji
is termed as the force of link j on link i.

F
ij
= - F
ji


1-7-1-3 Equilibrium

F
i
= 0
M
i
= 0

Where M
i
is the moment of F
i
about any point.

1-7-1-4 Newtons second law

- A force F acts on a body of mass m causes an acceleration A to the body such that

F = m A

- A system of forces F
1
, F
2
, ........, F
n
act on a body of mass m cause an acceleration A to
the body such that


i
n
=

1
F
i
= m A
If R is the resultant of the forces, then

R = m A

1-7-1-4 Inertia effects

According to Newtons second law

F = m A
Or
F +( - m A) = 0

This equation means that the body can be considered to be in equilibrium under the
effect of the external force F and another force (- m A) which is termed as the inertia
force (I.F.)


I.F. = - m A

i.e. the acceleration can be replaced by its inertia effect which is the inertia force. In this
case, the body is treated as if it is stationary.

Notice: The inertia force is an imaginary force.

The same reasoning can be applied for the angular acceleration. The angular
acceleration o can be replaced by its inertia effect, which is the inertia torque I.T. such
that

I.T. = - I o

Where I is the mass moment of inertia of the body about its center of gravity.



1- 7- 2 Forces On A Link


Consider link i, Fig. 24, which is connected to link k at point A, to link j at point B and
to link n at point C, respectively. These links exert forces F
ki
, F
ji
and F
ni
. These forces
can be expressed in terms of their components X and Y along the x and y axes. They are
considered positive in the positive directions of the axes. Thus

F
ki
= X
ki
+ Y
ki

F
ji
= X
ji
+ Y
ji

F
ni
= X
ni
+ Y
ni


Usually X
ni
and Y
ni
are known from the analysis of link n.

A
B
C
r
G
L
Fig. (24)
j
n
k
i
i
i
i
i
i

The data provided for link i is:
- The mass, m
i
.
- The position of the center of gravity G
i
which is determined by the distance g
i

from point A and the angle |
i
from line AB.
- The mass moment of inertia I
i
about G
i
.
- The external moment, M
i
(for links connected to the ground, and is equal to zero
for the others).
The lengths r
i
and l
i
, the angles u
i
and v
i
, the angular velocity e
i
and the angular
acceleration o
i
and the acceleration components of point A (A
A
x
, A
A
y
) are already known
from the kinematic analysis.

It is required to determine the reaction forces X
ji
, Y
ji
,

X
ki
and Y
ki
.

Analysis:

i- Inertia forces

F
i
= - m
i
A
Gi

= - m
i
[(A
A
x
+ i A
A
y
) + g
i
( - e
i
2
+ i o
i
) e
i (u3 + |3)
]
= X
i
+ i Y
i


Thus
X
i
= - m
i
[A
A
x
- g
i
e
i
2
cos (u
i
+ |
i
) - g
i
o
i
sin (u
i
+ |
i
)]
Y
i
= - m
i
[A
A
y
- g
i
e
i
2
sin(u
i
+ |
i
) + g
i
o
i
cos(u
i
+ |
i
)]
Let
g
ix
= g
i
cos (u
i
+ |
i
)] 1-7-1
g
iy
= g
i
sin (u
i
+ |
i
)] 1-7-2

Thus
X
i
= - m
i
(A
A
x
- g
ix
e
i
2
- g
iy
o
i
) 1-7-3
Y
i
= - m
i
(A
A
y
- g
iy
e
i
2
+ g
ix
o
i
) 1-7-4

ii- Inertia torque

T
i
= - I
i
o
i
1-7-5

iii- Equilibrium

Let
r
ix
= r
i
cos u
i
1-7-6
r
iy
= r
i
sin u
i
1-7-7
l
ix
= r
i
cos (u
i
+ |
i
) 1-7-8
l
iy
= r
i
sin (u
i
+ |
i
) 1-7-9

Taking moment about point A, then


M
i
+ T
i
- X
i
g
iy
+ Y
i
g
ix
- X
ni
l
iy
+ Y
ni
l
ix
- X
ji
r
iy
+ Y
ji
g
ix
= 0

Let
c
i
= T
i
- X
i
g
iy
+ Y
i
g
ix
- X
ni
l
iy
+ Y
ni
l
ix
1-7-10

It is clear that all the elements on the R.H.S. of equation (1-7-10) are known. This means
that c
i
can be calculated for each link.

1- 7- 3 Four- Bar Chain

Suppose that links i, n and 4 are attached to link 3 at points A, C, and 4, respectively.
Link j is attached to link 4 at point D, Fig. 25.

Given:
X
i3
, Y
i3
, X
j4
, Y
j4
, m
3
, g
3
, |
3
, r
3
, u
3
, o
3
, I
3
, v
3
, m
4
, g
4
, |
4
, r
4
, u
4
, o
4
, I
4
, v
4
, M
14
.

Find:
X
34
, Y
34
, X
n3
, Y
n3
, X
14
, Y
14



Analysis:

Use equations (1-7-1) to (1-7-10) for links 3 and 4 to determine c
3
and c
4
. Note that M
3
=
0 and M
4
= M
14
. For link 3, take moment about point A, and for link 4, take moment about
point Q, then

- X
43
r
3y +
Y
43
r
3x
+ c
3
= 0 1-7-11
- X
34
r
4y +
Y
34
r
4x
+ c
4
+ M
14
= 0 1-7-12

Using

Fig. (25)
A
C
B
Q
D
G
4
3
i
j
n
G 3
3
4
r L
L
r
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
3

X
34
= - X
43

Y
34
= - Y
43

Equations (1-7-11) and (1-7-12) lead to

X
34
=
+

c r c M r
r r r r
x x
y x x y
3 4 4 14 3
3 4 3 4
( )
1-7-13

Y
34
=
+

c r c M r
r r r r
y y
y x x y
3 4 4 14 3
3 4 3 4
( )
1-7-14

Considering the equilibrium of link 4

X
14
= - X
34
- X
4
- X
j4
1-7-15

Y
14
= - Y
34
- Y
4
- Y
j4
1-7-16

For the equilibrium of link 3

X
n3
= - X
43
- X
i3
- X
3
1-7-17

Y
n3
= - Y
43
- Y
i3
- Y
3
1-7-18












1- 7- 4 Engine Chain


The chain is shown in Fig. 26

Given:
- X
i3
, Y
i3
, m
3
, g
3
, |
3
, r
3
, u
3
, o
3
, I
3
, v
3
, m
4
, A
4
.
- The external force P
4
, positive along e
io
.
Find:
X
n3
, Y
n3
, X
14
, Y
14


Analysis:

- Use equations (1-7-1) to (1-7-10) for links 3 to determine c
3

- Find F
4
.

F
4
= - m
4
A
4


For link 4, F
14
is normal to the sliding surfaces. It is considered positive in the direction
e
io
. Assuming that F
4
and P
4
pass through point B, then F
14
passes also through point B.
Considering the equilibrium of links 3 and 4 together, thus

c
3
+ (F
4
+ P
4
) r
3
sin (o - u
3
) + F
14
r
3
cos (o - u
3
) = 0

Therefore

F
14
=
+ +

c F P r
r
3 4 4 3 3
3 3
( ) sin( )
cos( )
o u
o u
1-7-19

For the equilibrium of link 4

X
34
= - (F
4
+ P
4
) cos o + F
14
sin o 1-7-20
Y
34
= - (F
4
+ P
4
) sin o + F
14
cos o 1-7-21
3
3
3
A
B
Fig. (26)
C
r
G
L
3
3
3
3 4


For the equilibrium of link 3

X
n3
= - X
3
- X
i3
- X
43
1-7-22
Y
n3
= - Y
3
- Y
i3
- Y
43
1-7-23

Note that

X
43
= - X
34

Y
43
= - Y
34


1- 2- 5 Shaper Chain
The shaper chain is shown in Fig. 27.

Given:
X
j4
, Y
j4
, m
3
, g
3
, |
3
(measured from h), r
3
=h, o
3
=o
4
, A
A
x
, A
A
y
, m
4
, g
4
, |
4
, r
4
, u
4
, o
4
,
I
4
=r
4
, v
4
=u
4
.

Find:
X
14
, Y
14
, X
n3
, Y
n3
, F
34


Analysis:

Use equations (1-7-1) to (1-7-10) to obtain c
3
and c
4
. Assume that F
34
and F
43
are
positive in the direction e
iu4
and are a distance a from point B. For link 3 take moment
about point A, and for link 4 take moment about point Q, then

c
3
+ F
43
a = 0 1-7-24
c
4
+ F
34
(x
4
+ a) = 0 1-7-25

From equations (1-7-24) and (1-7-25)
Q
B
A
3
4
r
G
G
4
3
L
4
4
4
4
3
4
Fig. (27)


F
34
= - [c
3
+ c
4
] / x
4
1-7-26
F
43
= [c
3
+ c
4
] / x
4
1-7-27
a = - c
3
/ F
43




Finally

X
14
= - X
4
- X
j4
+ F
34
sin u
4
1-7-28
Y
14
= - Y
4
- Y
j4
+ F
34
cos u
4
1-7-29

X
n3
= - X
3
+ F
43
sin u
4
1-7-30
Y
n3
= - Y
3
- F
43
cos u
4
1-7-31

1- 7- 6 Tilting Block Chain


The analysis of this chain is similar to that of the shaper chain. One can deduce the
reaction force by exchanging the subscripts 3 and 4. Therefore

F
43
= - [c
3
+ c
4
] / x
3
1-7-32
F
34
= [c
3
+ c
4
] / x
3
1-7-33
a = - c
4
/ F
34


X
13
= - X
3
- X
j3
+ F
43
sin u
3
1-7-34
Y
13
= - Y
3
- Y
j3
+ F
43
cos u
3
1-7-35

X
14
= - X
4
+ F
34
sin u
3
1-7-36
Y
14
= - Y
4
- F
34
cos u
3
1-7-37

Q
B
A
3
4
r
G
Fig. (28)
G
3
3
3
4
4
3
3
3
L

1- 7- 7 Crank


The crank, Fig. 29, is usually the driving link. It is connected, in general, to links j and k,
respectively.

Given:
X
j2
, Y
j2
, X
k2
, Y
k2
, m
2
, g
2
, |
2
, r
2
, u
2
, o
2
, I
2
, v
2
, e
2
, o
2
.

Find:
M
12
, X
12
, Y
12
Analysis:

Use equations (1-7-1) to (1-7-9) to calculate g
2x
, g
2y
, X
2
, Y
2
, T
2
, r
2x
, r
2y
, l
2x
and l
2y
. Taking
moment about point O, then
M
12
= - T
2
+ X
2
g
2y
-Y
2
g
2x
+ X
j2
r
2y
- Y
j2
r
2x
+ X
k2
l
2y
- Y
k2
l
2x

Considering the equilibrium of forces, thus

X
12
= - X
2
- X
k2
- X
j2

Y
12
= - Y
2
- Y
k2
- Y
j2


1- 7- 8 Shaking Forces And Moments

The shaking effects are sum of the acting forces and moments of all links attached to the
frame, i.e. link 1. Thus, the shaking forces (S.F.) and the shaking moment (S.M.) are
given by

G
j
k
Fig. (29)
2
L
r 2
2
2
2
2
O

S.F. =
i
n
=

1
X
i1
+
i
n
=

1
Y
i1


S.M. =
i
n
=

1
M
i1