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Jackson Davis Chapter 10 The Byzantine Empire and Russia (330-1613) 1. The Byzantine Empire 2.

The Rise of Russia 3. Shaping Eastern Europe Section 1: The Byzantine Empire The emperor Constantine rebuilt the Greek city of Byzantium and gave it the name Constantinople. In 300 he made Constantinople the new capital of the empire. Merchants sold silks from China, wheat from Egypt, gems from India, spices from Southeast Asia, and furs from Viking lands in the north. Byzantine emperors and empresses attended chariot races in the Hippodrome, an arena built in the 200s. The Byzantine empire was still in existence nearly 1,000 years after the fall of the western Roman empire. It promoted a brilliant civilization that blended ancient Greek, Roman, and Christian influences with other traditions of the Mediterranean world. The Byzantine empire reached its greatest size under the emperor Justinian, who ruled from 527 to 565. Justinian is best remembered for his reform of the law. The resut was the Corpus Juris Civilis, or Body of Civil Law. By the 1100s, Justinians Code reached Western Europe, Beginning in the 600s and 700s, Arab armies gained control of much of the Mediterranean world. Byzantine Christians rejected the popes claim to authority over all Christians. In 1054, controversies provoked a schism between the Eastern (Greek) Orthodox

and the Roman Catholic churches. In the 1090s, the Byzantine emperor called for Western help to fight the Seljuks, who had closed the pilgrimage routes to Jerusalem. In 1453, Ottoman forces surrounded the city of Constantinople. The ancient Christian city was renamed Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman. Section 2: The Rise of Russia In the 700s and 800s, the Vikings steered their long ships out of Scandinavia. About 863, two Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet so they could translate the Bible into Slavic languages. This Cyrillic alphabet became the written script used in Russia and Ukraine to the present. In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byzantine Christianity. Russians adapted Byzantine religious art, music, and architecture. Kiev enjoyed a golden age under Yaroslav the Wise, who ruled from 1019 to 1054. Kiev declined in the 1100s as rival families battled for the throne. In the early 1200s, a young leader united the nomadic Mongols of central Asoa. He took the title Genghiz Khan, World Emperor. Between 1236 and 1241, Batu, the grandson of Genghiz, led Mongol armies into Russia. Beginning in the 1200s, women became totally subject to male authority in the household. Between 1462 and 1505, Ivan II of Moscow brough much of northern Russia under his rule. He tried to limit the power of the boyas, or great landowning nobles. Section 3: Shaping Eastern Europe

Eastern Europes geography has made it a cultural crossroads. In the early Middle Ages, the Slavs spread out from a central heartland in Russia. The South Slavs descended into the Balkans and became the ancestors of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Waves of Asian peoples migrated into Eastern Europe, among them the Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Magyars. In the late Middle Ages, Eastern Europe was a refuge for many Jewish settlers. During the Middle Ages, Eastern Europe included many kingdoms and small states. Missionaries brought Roman Catholicism to the West Slavs of Poland in the 900s. To survive, Poland often had to battle Germans, Russians, and Mongolds. Polands greatest age came was in 1386. Unlike Russia or Western Europe, Poland gradually increased the power of its nobles at the expense of the monarch. The Mongols overran Hungary in 1241, killing as much as half its population. The expansion of the Ottoman Turks ended Hungarian independence in 1526.