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New Testament Week 25: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

1) Introduction. a) In this final lesson on Paul were going to cover three letters that are collectively known as the Pastoral Epistles. Theyre called so because they present Paul writing in his role as a pastor by giving instructions to local church leaders.1 b) There is more doubt of the Pauline authorship of the Pastoral Epistles than any of the other letters ascribed to Paul. All but the most conservative scholars do not believe Paul wrote them.2 i) There are significant differences in vocabulary, style, and theology3 between the Pastorals and Pauls accepted letters.4 Likewise, it seems odd that Paul would have to give instructions on such basic matters as false teachings and ordaining leaders to two men who had ministered with him personally for years.5 ii) If they were not written by Paul, when were they written and by whom? (1) By the end of the 1st century the figure of Paul had assumed authority for many people in the church. As his significance grew, so did narratives about his life and interpretations of his teaching. (a) One example of this is an apocryphal Christian work from the 2nd century called the Acts of Paul and Thecla.6 This book is an account of the adventures of Thecla, a young woman who is converted to Christianity through the preaching of Paul. (i) The book ascribes to Paul a gospel of asceticismChristians should lead lives of holiness and not participate in earthly arrangements. Because of
Thomas Aquinas, writing in the 13th century, characterized 1 Timothy as a rule for pastors. The phrase Pastoral Epistles originated with German New Testament studies in the 18th century. The word pastor appears only once in the King James New Testament (Ephesians 4:11), where it is a translation of the Greek word (poimenas). This word means shepherd, and is translated thus in the 17 other instances it appears (e.g. Matthew 9:36; Luke 2:8; John 10:14). Conceptually its related to the Greek word (episkopos), which is an overseer, one who is charged with the duty of seeing that things to be done by others are done correctly. See Acts 20:28, where Paul says that an episkopos should feed the flock (something usually done by a poimenas). Episkopos is traditionally translated bishop (1 Timothy 3:12; Titus 1:7). In 1 Peter 2:25 episkopos and poimenas appear together as titles for Christ. 2 Even conservative scholars have expressed their ambivalence over Pauline authorship of the Pastorals. For example, Daniel B. Wallace of the Dallas Evangelical Seminary argues for Pauline authorship while admitting the evidence against the authenticity of the pastorals is as strong as any evidence against the authenticity of any [New Testament] book. He ascribes the differences in language and thought to the Pastorals being written by Luke under Pauls direction. 1 Timothy: Introduction, Argument, Outline, 28 June 2004; http://bible.org/seriespage/1-timothy-introduction-argument-outline 3 For example: In the Pastorals, righteousness ( / dikaiosune) is something to be pursued (1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22), rather than something attributed to God which he bestows as a gift on the justified (Romans 3:22; 4:3; 10:10; Galatians 3:6; Philippians 3:9). There is no mention of key Pauline ideas such as the cross, the church as the body of Christ, or covenant. The expectation of an impending second coming of Christ (and the urgency behind it) is gone, replaced by instructions on the ordered life of the Christian community. 4 Of the 13 epistles ascribed to Paul in the New Testament, 7 are universally recognized as having been written by him; they are Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. The authorship of the remaining letters is either debated (Colossians, 2 Thessalonians) or widely rejected (Ephesians, the Pastorals). 5 There are other historical inconsistencies as well: The details of Pauls travels (1 Timothy 1:3; 4:20b; Titus 1:5; 3:12) cannot be reconciled with Acts, nor with Pauls stated objective of going west after coming to Rome (Romans 15:2328). Timothy is described as having been taught the Jewish scriptures from when he was a little child, and yet he was uncircumcised when Paul met him as an adult (Acts 16:13). By themselves, neither of these are definitively against Pauline authorshipPaul may have changed his travel plans, and Timothys Gentile father may have objected to his circumcisionbut can be added to the other linguistic and doctrinal differences with Pauls established letters. 6 See William Hones 1820 translation here: http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/thecla.html 2011, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.
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Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 2

Pauls preaching, Thecla breaks off her engagement to Thamyris and leads a life of complete sexual abstinence. (ii) In the Acts of Paul and Thecla women have equal authority in the church with men. After a series of miraculous events, Paul authorizes Thecla to share full in his ministry and teaching of the word. Thecla even baptizes herself (in a pool full of ravenous seals!).7 (iii) This book represents one version of Pauls teachings that was popular among Christians in the 1st and 2nd centuries. In response, there were books written that presented Pauls teachings in a different way. This was part of a battle that lasted two-and-a-half centuries to establish what was orthodox and what was heresy. (2) Its quite possible that the Pastoral Epistles were a reaction to the womenfriendly, ascetic gospel found in the Acts of Paul and Thecla. They instruct that women are not to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence (1 Timothy 2:1115) and that marriage is honorable and good (and only apostates forbid marriage 1 Timothy 4:3; 5:14). (a) If thats the origin of these letters, then they were written in the late 1st century of early 2nd century by someone claiming to be Paul. iii) As with Colossians and Ephesians, the authorship of the Pastoral Epistles has no bearing on whether or not the books contain true teachings. Even if one grants that they were not written by Paul, one could still accept them as containing sound doctrine. (1) Also, regardless of who really wrote these three epistles, in these notes I will refer to Paul as the author. c) Audience. i) These letters are addressed to Timothy and Titus, two of Pauls most-trusted missionary companions. ii) Timothy was the son of a Jewish mother and a Gentile father who accompanied Paul on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:15) and was his emissary in Berea (Acts 17:14) and Macedonia (Acts 19:22). He is mentioned as Pauls representative8 and coauthor9 of many of his epistles. iii) Titus was a Gentile convert to Christianity whom Paul used to great advantage at the Jerusalem Council.10 He was a leader in the collection for the church in Jerusalem (2 Corinthians 8:6, 1617, 23; 12:18) and helped reconcile Paul and the contentious Corinthian saints (2 Corinthians 2:13; 7:67, 1316). d) Themes. i) These three letters have three common themes that run throughout: (1) Putting the church in order. Paul instructs Timothy and Titus on putting down heresies and instructing church members how to live righteous lives.
See 1 Timothy 2:1115. See 1 Corinthians 4:17; 16:1011; Philippians 2:1922; 1 Thessalonians 3:16. 9 See 2 Corinthians 1:1; Philippians 1:1; Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1; Philemon 1:1. 10 Titus is not mentioned in Acts, including in Lukes account of the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15:129). However, he figures prominently in Pauls account of the council (Galatians 2:110).
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2011, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 3

(2) Ordaining leaders. Instruction is given on the calling of bishops, deacons, and elders, and finding individuals who lead lives worthy of these callings. (3) Enduring suffering for Christs sake. If we suffer persecution, we will reign with Christ. 2) Putting the church in order. a) 1 Timothy 6:510. Riches and the love of money. Summed up in 6:17. KJV 1 Timothy 6:510
Perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds, and destitute of the truth, supposing that gain is godliness: from such withdraw thyself.11 6 But godliness with contentment is great gain. 7 For we brought nothing into this world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out. 8 And having food and raiment let us be therewith content. 9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. 10 For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith, and pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
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NRSV 1 Timothy 6:510


and wrangling among those who are depraved in mind and bereft of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.
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Of course, there is great gain in godliness combined with contentment; 7 for we brought nothing into the world, so that we can take nothing out of it; 8 but if we have food and clothing, we will be content with these. 9 But those who want to be rich fall into temptation and are trapped by many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. 10 For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil, and in their eagerness to be rich some have wandered away from the faith and pierced themselves with many pains.
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i) This passage is famous for verse 10, which is often misquoted money is the root of all evil. But in context, what is it really saying? (1) 6:5. Godliness (piety) should not be our intended route to material gain. (a) There are many Christian churches that teach a prosperity gospelif we are devoted to God he will bless us with wealth and material things.12 This is a false doctrine that even infects some Latter-day Saints. (2) 6:6. Rather, we should find personal (not material) gain from godliness and contentment. (3) 6:7. You cant take it with you. (4) 6:8. With what should we be content? The essentials (food and clothing, in Pauls example). (5) 6:910. Those who love their money and make it their primary pursuit fall into a trap that ends with ruin and destruction. b) Titus 3:48. Saved not by works of righteousness, but must perform them.

The phrase from such withdraw thyself is not found in the earliest and best New Testament manuscripts. One of the better-known television evangelists who teach this sort of doctrine is Joel Osteen of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas. Osteen is the author of several bestselling self-help books that combine financial and personal success with the teachings of Jesus. Author and professor Greg Garrett recently wrote an open letter to Osteen, criticizing him for his approach: http://bit.ly/kQgzrt
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2011, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 4

KJV Titus 3:38


For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.
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NRSV Titus 3:38


For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray, slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, despicable, hating one another. 4 But when the goodness and loving-kindness of God our Savior appeared, 5 he saved us, not because of any works of righteousness that we had done, but according to his mercy, through the water of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit. 6 This Spirit he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, 7 so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life. 8 The saying is sure. I desire that you insist on these things, so that those who have come to believe in God may be careful to devote themselves to good works; these things are excellent and profitable to everyone.
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But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; 6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; 7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. 8 This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.
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i) This passage is similar to the one we read last week in Ephesians 2:110. Our salvation comes from Gods grace, justification, and mercy, not from the works we have performed. The works we do should not be done to earn salvation; rather, they should be the result of our faith and a desire to lead lives that please our Heavenly Father. c) 2 Timothy 2:1923. KJV 2 Timothy 2:1923
Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. 20 But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also of wood and of earth; and some to honour, and some to dishonour. 21 If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the master's use, and prepared unto every good work. 22 Flee also youthful lusts: but follow righteousness, faith, charity, peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure heart. 23 But foolish and unlearned questions avoid, knowing that they do gender strifes.
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NRSV 2 Timothy 2:1923


But Gods firm foundation stands, bearing this inscription: The Lord knows those who are his, and, Let everyone who calls on the name of the Lord turn away from wickedness. 20 In a large house there are utensils not only of gold and silver but also of wood and clay, some for special use, some for ordinary.
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All who cleanse themselves of the things I have mentioned will become special utensils, dedicated and useful to the owner of the house, ready for every good work. 22 Shun youthful passions and pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace, along with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart. 23 Have nothing to do with stupid and senseless controversies; you know that they breed quarrels.
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i) 2:19. Latter-day Saints use the word seal often. The origin of this word hearkens back several centuries to a time when wealthy and important people would place
2011, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 5

their personal mark (usually with a stamp or signet ring) into hot wax on an official document. This seal was a stamp of authenticitythe reader could be assured that the individual in question actually wrote or authorized it. (1) Similarly, we are sealed to God in the sense that his mark or stamp has been placed on us, bearing two inscriptions: The Lord knoweth them that are his (God is our owner; we belong to him), and Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity (if we belong to him, we should live accordingly). ii) 2:2021. In a large house owned by a wealthy family, there are all kinds of plates and utensilssome are for everyday use, while others are pulled out only for special occasions. We are the Lords utensils. Spiritually, are we paper plates or fine china? d) 2 Timothy 3:17. KJV 2 Timothy 2:1923
This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. 2 For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy,
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NRSV 2 Timothy 2:1923


You must understand this, that in the last days distressing times will come. 2 For people will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, arrogant, abusive, disobedient to their parents, ungrateful, unholy, 3 inhuman, implacable, slanderers, profligates, brutes, haters of good,
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Without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, 4 Traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; 5 Having a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof: from such turn away. 6 For of this sort are they which creep into houses, and lead captive silly women laden with sins, led away with divers lusts,
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Ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
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treacherous, reckless, swollen with conceit, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5 holding to the outward form of godliness but denying its power. Avoid them! 6 For among them are those who make their way into households and captivate silly women, overwhelmed by their sins and swayed by all kinds of desires, 7 who are always being instructed and can never arrive at a knowledge of the truth.
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i) This is a warning of the last days, which we generally interpret to be our time. (1) People have always been greedy, proud, unthankful, etc., and Paul expects this societal downfall to happen in his own time (note his counsel to Timothy to turn away from such people2:5b). (2) Certainly, though, this warning applies to us as well. This is an excellent list of behaviors and attitudes of the world that the Latter-day Saint should not practice. 3) Ordaining leaders. a) 1 Timothy 3:17 (cf. Titus 1:79). Requirements for the office of a bishop.

2011, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 6

KJV 1 Timothy 3:17


This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work. 2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach; 3 Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous; 4 One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity;
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NRSV 1 Timothy 3:17


The saying is sure: whoever aspires to the office of bishop desires a noble task. 2 Now a bishop must be above reproach, married only once, temperate, sensible, respectable, hospitable, an apt teacher, 3 not a drunkard, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, and not a lover of money.
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(For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?) 6 Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.
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Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.
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He must manage his own household well, keeping his children submissive and respectful in every way 5 for if someone does not know how to manage his own household, how can he take care of Gods church? 6 He must not be a recent convert, or he may be puffed up with conceit and fall into the condemnation of the devil. 7 Moreover, he must be well thought of by outsiders, so that he may not fall into disgrace and the snare of the devil.
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i) The Greek historically translated bishop is (episkopos),13 which means overseer. The term was originally a title for government officials, and was later adopted in an ecclesiastical sense. ii) This passage doesnt describe the bishops duties, but rather his qualifications for the office. He is to be a person of good behavior and temperament, a family man, and respected by the larger community. (1) The requirement in 3:2 that he be the husband of one wife is a restriction on divorced persons holding the office. b) 1 Timothy 3:813. Requirements of a deacon. KJV 1 Timothy 3:813
Likewise must the deacons be grave, not doubletongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; 9 Holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. 10 And let these also first be proved; then let them use the office of a deacon, being found blameless. 11 Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers, sober, faithful in all things.
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NRSV 1 Timothy 3:813


Deacons likewise must be serious, not double-tongued, not indulging in much wine, not greedy for money; 9 they must hold fast to the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. 10 And let them first be tested; then, if they prove themselves blameless, let them serve as deacons. 11 Women likewise must be serious, not slanderers, but temperate, faithful in all things.
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This is the origin of the name of the Episcopalian Church. http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

2011, Mike Parker

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class


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New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus


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Week 25, Page 7

Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well. 13 For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.

Let deacons be married only once, and let them manage their children and their households well; 13 for those who serve well as deacons gain a good standing for themselves and great boldness in the faith that is in Christ Jesus.

i) After this come the qualifications of the office of a deacon. This is a word we get directly from Greek: (diakonous), which comes from the word to run on errands; an attendant. The deacons job anciently (and in modern revelation) is to assist the bishop and other priesthood officers (see D&C 20:53, 57). ii) In ancient timesand, modernly, until the early 20th centurydeacons were adult men, hence the instruction in 3:12 that they be married only once. 4) Enduring suffering for Christs sake. a) 2 Timothy 3:1217.14 KJV 2 Timothy 3:1217
Yea, and all that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution. 13 But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving, and being deceived.
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NRSV 2 Timothy 3:1217


Indeed, all who want to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. 13 But wicked people and impostors will go from bad to worse, deceiving others and being deceived. 14 But as for you, continue in what you have learned and firmly believed, knowing from whom you learned it, 15 and how from childhood you have known the sacred writings that are able to instruct you for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,
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But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them; 15 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.
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so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work.
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i) In his final letter, Paul warns Timothy that things are only going to get worse, but that he should continue doing the things he had done from childhood, particularly studying the scriptures. ii) Elder M. Russell Ballard:
Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that all scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable (2 Timothy 3:16). We love the Bible and other scriptures. That may be surprising to some who may not be aware of our belief in the Bible as the revealed word of God. It is one of the
14 2 Timothy 3:16 is sometimes used by sectarian Christians to prove the inerrancy of the Bible. The phrase inspired by God comes from a single Greek word (theopneustos)which literally means god-breathed (a translation used by the NIV and some other conservative Bible versions). The meaning of this is similar to the creation of man, into whom God breathedthe breath of life (Genesis 2:7). This does not demand, however, that scripture be without error, any more than mans divine creation makes him without error. Insisting that 2 Timothy 3:16 proves the inerrancy of the Bible simply begs the question: what is scripture? In context scripture here would have meant the Old Testament. An alternative translation of 3:16a would be All scripture inspired by God is useful, meaning only scripture that is inspired. The Joseph Smith Translation takes this approach (see footnote 16a in the LDS edition of the King James Bible).

2011, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 8

pillars of our faith, a powerful witness of the Savior and of Christs ongoing influence in the lives of those who worship and follow Him. The more we read and study the Bible and its teachings, the more clearly we see the doctrinal underpinnings of the restored gospel of Jesus Christ. We tend to love the scriptures that we spend time with. We may need to balance our study in order to love and understand all scripture.15

b) 2 Timothy 4:68. KJV 2 Timothy 4:68


For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.
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NRSV 2 Timothy 4:68


As for me, I am already being poured out as a libation, and the time of my departure has come. 7 I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. 8 From now on there is reserved for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to me on that day, and not only to me but also to all who have longed for his appearing.
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I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: 8 Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.
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i) This moving passage is thought to be Pauls final message before being taken to die a martyrs death. (1) If tradition is correct, Paul was released from his house arrest in Rome (after Acts 28) and ministered in the area of Greece, Asia Minor, and Crete for a few years. He was then rearrested (on an unknown charge) and taken to Rome, where he was beheaded16 sometime between A.D. 64 and 67.17 If this tradition is correct, and 2 Timothy was actually written by Paul, then he knew his execution was coming and wrote the passage above to express his feelings at the end of his life and ministry. ii) 4:6. Paul compares himself to a drink offering (or libation) that would be poured out on the altar of the Jerusalem Temple.18 iii) 4:7. Switching metaphors, Paul says that he has fought well as a boxer or wrestler and finished a footrace. These types of sports were common in Greek society, and the metaphor is apt: Paul has competed well in his life and ministry and has prevailed. iv) 4:8. As the winner of a sporting match, Paul would receive a victors laurel wreath. Its likely that hes continuing to speak metaphorically (he doesnt expect to walk into heaven with a crown). The crown would be given to him by the Lord, who is the judge in the contest of life, indicating that Paul has prevailed over all the obstacles he met.

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M. Russell Ballard, The Miracle of the Holy Bible, General Conference, April 2007;

http://lds.org/ensign/2007/05/the-miracle-of-the-holy-bible
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As a Roman citizen, Paul would have been entitled to a quick death by beheading. Only slaves and lower-class criminals were executed using slow, torturous methods like crucifixion. Tradition holds that the apostle Peter was crucified in Rome, shortly after Pauls death; he refused to be put to death in the same manner of his Lord, opting instead to be crucified upsidedown. 17 The timing may have had something to do with the great fire that burned through Rome in July A.D. 64. The Emperor Nero needed a scapegoat for the disaster, and blamed Christians who were living in Rome. Christians were persecuted by the state as a result, and Pauls death may have been part of that action. 18 The Law of Moses contains numerous references to libations. See, for example, Exodus 29:3841; Leviticus 23:13; Numbers 15:5. 2011, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane West Stake Adult Religion Class

New Testament: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, & Titus

Week 25, Page 9

5) This concludes our study of Paul. Next week well start on the remaining New Testament epistles. a) Reading: Hebrews, James.

2011, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.