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it is a closed system, were no new nutrients are added. the bacteria grow and mutiply.

they bacteria go throught the lag, and log phase into the stationay phase. at the same time the nutrients are depletitng. this eventually results in the bacteria entering the death phase maily due to lack of nutrients. this is difffernt to fed batch as nurtients are added to keep nutrient condtions concentration constant. thsi prolongs the log and stationary phase. particualy usefull for produceing secondary metabolites. this will also eventually enter the death phase, not due to lack of nutrient but due to build up of toxins (waste products of metabolisum) a continous ferenetor keeps nutrient concentration constant and number of bacteria constant, it dose this by peridocally removeing some of the bacteria. this genrally maintains the bacteria in the log phase, as their is no build up of toxins and no competion for nutients.

Diffence between fermenter and fermentor?

The two are often used to refer to same thing. However, fermentor is the proper term for an apparatus, i.e. a bioreactor, while fermenter is the proper term for an organism that uses fermentation as a metabolic process, i.e. the thing that goes in the fermentor.

types of fermentor:

1.aerobic fermenter 2. anarobic fermenter An aerobic ferment er is one in which there is provision for the introduction of sterile air into the reaction. The sterile air is introduced into the interiors of the fermenter through an attachment called a sparger. Air is bubbled through. The bubbles are then dispersed throughout the reactor by an impeller (a mixing apparatus that stirs the entire reaction contents in the fermenter). An anaerobic fermentor comprising: a container vessel divided into at least two compartments each having a floor, a roof, and a layer of liquid-pervious packing material disposed horizontally across the compartment at a position intermediate the roof and the floor with its lower surface upwardly spaced from the floor and its upper surface downwardly spaced from the roof; liquid conduits connecting successive compartments in series and connecting the space between the roof and packing layer of one compartment to the space between the floor and packing layer of a succeeding compartment; means for introducing liquid to be treated to the first of the successive compartments; means for removing treated liquid from the last of the successive compartments; means for the removal of gas from the space between the packing layer and the roof of each compartment; and means for the removal of solids from the fermentor.

S.No. Part Purpose 1 Top plate cover (made of steel) 2 Clamp top plate compressed onto vessel using clamp 3 Seal separates top plate from vessel (glass) to prevent air leakage 4 Vessel glass, jacketed, steel with ports for various outputs, inputs, probes etc 5 Drive motor used to drive mixing shaft 6 Drive shaft mixes the medium evenly with its impeller 7 Marine impeller for plant tissue culture 8 Baffles prevent sedimentation on sides and proper mixing 9 Sparger air supplier / after filtration via membranes ensures efficient dispersal by attached to impeller 10 Exit gas cooler like condenser remove as much moisture as possible from exhaust 11 Inoculation needle port to add inoculum 12 Feed pumps regulates the flow rates of additives (medium, nutrients) variable speed 13 Peristaltic pumps fixed speed pumps used for continuous sampling 14 Syringe pump using a syringe mostly used in batch 4 15 Exit gas analysis CO2 analyzer, O2 analyzer, mass spectrometer 16 Sample pipe through which samples are drawn 17 3 way inlet to insert different probes

Monitoring and controlling parts of fermenter are: S.No Part Use 1 Pt100 temperature sensor (platinum resistance electrode) 2 Foam probe kept above the medium level to sense foam formation 3 pH electrode senses pH 4 O2 sensor Monitors dissolved oxygen level 5 Heater pad directly heats the medium 6 Cold finger after direct heating used to cool the vessel contents (closed coil/pipe to pass cool water) 7 Rotameter variable air flow meter indicates rate of air flow into vessel attached to air sparger 8 Pressure valve attached to rotameter for safer operation 9 Air pump supply of air 10 Peristaltic pump to pump in medium, acids, bases, antifoam