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1.0 1.1


There is hardly any town without a "core" or a "hub". The core is usually described as the oldest part of a town. In most Nigerian towns and cities, the core areas are occupied by the indigenous and low-income city dwellers who have migrated from other places. The core areas perform certain functions which are fundamental to the life of a town or city. Being the oldest area of a city, and with concentration of population, the core is usually the centre of economic, social and cultural activities, not only for the town concerned but also serves as the platform for a wide range of human activities and thus leads to a concentration of working class, especially those engaged in commercial activities. One of the notable characteristics of core areas are the conversion of existing residential buildings to commercial, light industrial and institutional uses. This kind of development is common in large cities and towns, one of which is Saki inclusive. The core area usually provides the bulk of unskilled labour force in a city and offers the largest number of consumers for certain products. The core area is not one of uniform intensity but contains an exceptionally limited area of every high land value upon which most of the down town retail uses

exist. The boundaries of the core area may be blurred, but there is great contrast between the architectural growth of the core area and new developing areas. The core area usually lack proper planning, basic amenities and infrastructure. In the course of rapid, random and haphazard physical growth of land, sometimes uncontrollable pressure resulting in decay, blight and obsolescence becomes inevitable. The formulation of a development plan for a core area must therefore be preceded by a comprehensive study with a view to understanding its complex and intricate problems as well as the potentials for renewal and / or improvements. There is poor living standard and poor environmental conditions attributed to core areas, of which Saki town core areas are not left out. The old neighborhood of our towns no longer encourages people to live in them because of deteriorating conditions of buildings, environmental pollution, unsanitary environment, lack of inadequacy of facilities and amenities as well as poor disposition of buildings with poor ventilation and illumination. The core areas are dominated in most places by old buildings, some of which are dilapidated or fallen, unmaintained and / or abandoned. These core areas are mostly inhabited by low-income earners and the unemployed who are otherwise known as the urban poor who cannot afford to pay high rents for better houses. The neighborhood also suffers high rate of emigration of the productive population. The core areas in Saki are characterized by the problems described above. The core areas in Saki are: Sango, Ajegunle, Isale-Abudu, Oke-Oro, Igboro, Oke-Aje, Otun, Isale -Ibata and a host of others. If the problems outlined

above should continue unchecked, the take-off / traditional area of our cities may one day show a total functional and physical collapse. 1.2 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY

A lot of researches on urban renewal have been conducted in solving the deteriorating conditions of our towns and cities core areas. However, emphasis has not been placed on the core of Nigerian cities and towns. The unique characteristic of Otun / Isale- Ibata core area of Saki require the development of planning strategies that will not disrupt the patterned lifestyle of the area. The general living condition of Isale- Ibata / Otun core area is appauling and most unsanitary. One has to feel concerned about the future of this core area and problems that are likely to be encountered if the deteriorating condition of these areas is left uncurbed. Any contemplated changes should not lead to social disintegration, but to enhance social interaction within the inhabitants. There should be formulation of a development plan which must be preceded by a comprehensive study of these core areas with a view to understanding its complex and intricate problems as well as the potential for renewal. The areas under discussion have their own contributions to the development of our cities. They are a dynamic historical monument, which if not catered for will become dilapidated



1.3.1 AIMS The aim of this study is to conduct investigation in Otun / Isale-Ibata core area with a view to understanding its complex and intricate problems as well as its potentials for renewal and thereby coming out with the formulation of a comprehensive development plan. 1.3.2 OBJECTIVES 1. To conduct inventory on the availability, adequacy, functionality or otherwise of the socio-physical infrastructural facilities so as to proffer probable suggestion for improvement on the facilities. 2. To conduct survey on the socio- economic characteristic of the residents with a view to identify their living standard and availability of facilities. 3. To investigate the housing condition, both in quality and quantity in the area in order to course an improvement programme for the study area. 1.4 SCOPE

The scope of the study is limited to the physical planning i.e. the allocation of adequate space to each human activity area and the arrangement (zoning) of different land uses in a fundamentally related manner and the spatial distribution of facilities in Otun / Isale-Ibata area in relation to the population.

The study area is bounded in the North by Isia, Ayetoro, in the south by Oke-Apeki quarters, in the west by Isale-ola, and in the East by Apinnite. (see fig 1). 1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Data collection is a vital aspect of research work in order to come out with a workable recommendation. Hence for the purpose of this research work, both secondary and primary sources of data collection were utilized. DATA SOURCE We have (2) sources of data i.e. primary and secondary sources of data. PRIMARY SOURCE OF DATA Generally, the primary source of data is the data obtained through questionnaire or information guide. For the purpose of this research work, a well structured questionnaire will be used to elicit information on the socioeconomic status of the residents as well as physical condition of the buildings and the general environmental condition of the study area. This questionnaire will be used to reveal information on physical condition of the study area to determine the nature and types of structures in the area. The questionnaire was divided into (2) segments viz; (i) The socio-economic characteristics of residents i.e. age, income level, marital status, sex type, educational status, occupational status etc. (ii) Housing and facility survey - This will reveal information on building type, material of construction and facilities available to each building.

Also, this aspect will give information on the available facilities and amenities generally available in the study area e.g. tap water, telephone services, recreation services and others present within the study area. This will reveal the living standard of residents SECONDARY SOURCE OF DATA Secondary source of data are data collected from some government and nongovernment officials in relevant departments. The Ministry of Information was contacted for maps i.e. map of Nigeria, map of Oyo state etc. This is used to locate where the study area (Saki) is on the map of Nigeria. Also the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Survey is contacted for the map of Saki in order to be able to carve out the study area which is Otun/Isale-Ibata core area and to be able to relate it to other parts of the town. Published and unpublished journals were also contacted to broaden ones knowledge more on the subject matter (urban renewal) and also to observe how projects of similar nature have been handled in the past. All these will be used as basis for drawing out policies and recommendations on physical planning of Otun / Isale - Ibata core area of Saki. Journals and seminar papers contacted also revealed how projects of similar nature can be handled, the failures of some of the projects and the way-out. The polytechnic, Ibadan library was also contacted for textbooks written by authors in the physical planning and other related fields to know some minimum standards to be observed in physical planning, solution to some physical planning problems, how to come out with a comprehensive development plan for an area, facilities required in a neighbourhood and hosts of others. All these information gathered from textbooks will be used

as basis in the preparation of a comprehensive development plan for Otun / Isale - Ibata core area of Saki town. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES There are four hundred and fourteen (414) buildings in the study area. (see fig. ii). Out of the 414 buildings, there are four (4) uncompleted buildings, and five (5) places of worship, totaling 9 buildings. Hence 414 minus these non- occupied residential buildings gives a total of 405 buildings to be used as sampling frame while sampling size were the buildings randomly selected out of the total number of occupied residential buildings in the study area to be interviewed through the use of well structured questionnaire. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE For the purpose of questionnaire administration, "Area Sampling Method" will be adopted. This is a kind of multi-stage sampling method whereby the area of study is divided into smaller units (strata) from which samples were chosen through random sampling method (Moses and Kalton, 1973). Therefore, Otun/ Isale -Ibata core area was divided into three (3) zones depicting existing quarters. These are Oke-Aje, Otun and Isale -Ibata communities / quarters. There are one hundred and forty eight (144) buildings in Oke- Aje quarters, making a total percentage of 35.5% out of the total number of buildings in the study area. Otun area has one hundred and eighty (180) buildings making a total of 44.5% of the total number of buildings in the study area while Isale-Ibata has eighty one (81) buildings and this accounted for 20 % of the total buildings in the study area. Hence, to arrive at my sample size for the

administration of socio-economic questionnaire, 20% of the occupied residential building population will be used in order to arrive at a reasonable researchable result considering the situation of the study area. 20% of the occupied residential building populations of Otun/Isale-Ibata area accounted for 81 building. Therefore, in other to get the 81 buildings (sample size), 20% of the total building population in each of the quarters (i.e. Oke -Aje, Otun and Isale -Ibata) will be randomly sampled. Hence in Oke-Aje quarters having 144 buildings, 20% of 144 is 29, while in Otun having 180 buildings, 20% of 180 is 36 and in Isale -Ibata 20% of 81 is 16.The total been 8383 buildings which is 20% of the total building population in the study area. It has been estimated that the average family size in Nigeria is seven (7) while the average number of families i.e household per building is three (3) (Fasakin 2000 and Abumere 1984). Therefore to know the estimated number of households in the study area and that to be sampled, the number of household per building is multiplied by the total number of building population in the study area and in the sampled size respectively, hence; = 3 x 405 = 1,215 households were in the study area and = 3 x 81 = 243 households to be interviewed. In each household so selected, the household head will be interviewed to give the required information, hence the characteristics of the selected buildings and that of respondents was generalized on the whole of each quarter. Eighty one (81) buildings having 243 estimated household and one

thousand, seven hundred and one (1,701) people was used as the sample size for the purpose of this study. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Simple descriptive statistical analysis will be used in analyzing data collected. We have qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. For the purpose of this research work, quantitative method of data analysis, we have analysis of variance, factor and principle components analysis, multiple regression analysis, cononical correlation analysis and host of others. For this research work, Multiple Regression analysis which provides a means of predicting or explaining the dependent variable by the set of independent variables will be used. It operate on the assumption that the relationship between one variable, the dependent variable y, and a host of p other variable called the independent variables may be expressed by an equation of the form y = b0 + b1 X1 + b2 X2 + - - - b n X n + E y is the dependent variable while x is the independent variable. Nachmias and Nachmias (1981), stated that a variable is an empirical property that takes two or more values and that such properties are capable of changing in value or kind. Among the types of variables that are of interest to this research work is dependent and independent variables as explained above. The dependent variable is the criteria variable, it is constant while the researcher evaluates other properties as it relates to it. In the case of this


research work, which has the title "The Problems and Prospects of Physical Planning in the Core Areas, Otun, Isale- Ibata as a case study'. The property to be examined or which is to be explained is "physical planning", hence in this research wok, physical planning is the dependent variable. In other hand, the independent variables are variables that are used to explain dependent variable. It is therefore regarded as the explanatory variable; dependent variable is usually one while independent variable may be many. Independent variables are used to predict on the dependent variable. In the case, of this research work which has the title " the problems and prospects of physical planning in the core area", what is going to be used to explain the dependent variable (physical planning) as said earlier on is "the problems and prospect in the core area" and that serves as the independent variable in the case of this research work. In the regard, the problems and prospects will definitely be many, it may be lack of good roads, unsanitary environment, poor housing quality, inadequate provision of basic facilities, poor financial status etc. may be used to explain the physical planning of the core area. The independent variable can be expressed by the equation of the form y = b o + b1 X1+b2 X2 + ------ b n X n + E bo is called the constant term, while b1, b2 and bn are the regression coefficients and E is called error term representing the errors that enter as a result of some other variable which we could not specify or have inappropriately measured as well as other random effect errors. (Ayeni, B. 2000).


DATA PRESENTATION Each of the data treated using multiple regression analysis is used to determine a specific thing that affects the research work. Variable like income is used to determine the standard of living of respondents. This is important as to what will be their reaction to the provision of some facilities. Age group helps to determine whether children, youths or adults dominate and to make adequate provision for each age group. Another variable of interest among others is literacy level, which is used to provide educational facilities. The data obtained after all these analysis will be presented using different maps like existing land use map, the road and facilities map, the condition of buildings map etc. charts i.e. pie chart will also be used to present data. Data will also be presented in tabular form using tables to show the distribution of each variable in the study area. Photographs are also used to present some data like road without drainage, indiscriminate refuse dump, a typical example of compound house with small windows and unsanitary environment et cetera. All these are then used to prepare a comprehensive development plan for the study area. LIMITATIONS Collection of data was not without problems. The first problem encountered was on the availability of base map of the study area. There is also the problem of finance and this is coupled with the limited time available for the study. Finally the respondents were reluctant in disclosing


their ages, income status and number of people living in each of the building. This they did due to their illiteracy level or status.



The importance of conceptual framework cannot be over-emphasized. It is the foundation upon which any research work rested as it gives the researcher the orientation or otherwise theoretical guide or guiding principle which allows him to specify the type of data needed. The theoretical framework therefore summarizes facts into systems in order to highlight observable phenomenon and thus provide the relationship between problem under study and method to be adopted to overcome them. Therefore for the purpose of this research, some concepts will be adopted. These are urban renewal concept i.e. rehabilitation, conservation and redevelopment, Neighborhood planning concept and sustainable planning concept. This is with regards to the fact that the problem of the area is as a result of planlessness of the area by both government and the residents. The urban renewal concept is to provide solution at macro level and as a long term solution while neighborhood and sustainable planning concepts are to be used as micro and short term solution. 2.1.1 URBAN RENEWAL CONCEPT The term was postulated by an American housing economist "Miles Colean" who described it as a deliberate effort to change the urban environment through planned large scale adjustment of existing city area to present and future requirement for living and working.


It was further described as gradual re-ordering of land uses and buildings to meet the present requirement and estimated future needs, it implies a continuous process of planning and rebuilding of towns and cities, sorting out uses that have become mixed in unsatisfactory manner and recombing them in new ways. The term urban renewal is as old as the cities themselves. Grebler (1965) describe "urban renewal" as a deliberate effort to change the urban environment through planned large-scale adjustment of existing city area to meet present and future requirements of urban area for living and working. In their own in-dept study of urban renewal Weimer and Hoyt (1966), suggested that urban renewal should cover three types of programmes namely: rehabilitations, conservation and redevelopment. This urban renewal concept is relevant to the planning of the study area (Otun / Isale -Ibata core area) because, the study area is now experiencing decay and large-scale adjustment is needed to change the existing situation to meet the present and future requirements. REHABILITATION APPROACH

This approach involves the repair and upgrading of structures, amenities and facilities to extend the life span of properties. At the micro level, defective houses are repaired while at macro level, it may involve some level of clearance in order to put in some community facilities such as schools, open space as well as the demolition of a few and selected buildings in order to give way to the provisions of facilities and infrastructures which the community involved lacks. Rehabilitation approach to physical planning can be used to solve planning problems of Otun / Isale- Ibata core area of Saki


since some of the existing buildings requires repair and some in fallen stage which can be cleared to give way for the provision of facilities that are lacking in the neighborhood. Such facilities include schools, drainage, roads etc. CONSERVATION APPROACH

The main thing involved in this approach is campaigning, educating and enlightenment of the inhabitants on how o keep their environment clean, so that the environment and the structures, will not degenerate into the level of redemption. At the micro level, the erstwhile federal government of Nigeria's sponsored monthly "environmental day" which can be likened to this approach. At the macro level, the forest reservation areas in both our urban and rural areas are in the spectrum. Conservation approach can be used to solve planning problems in Otun / Isale - Ibata core area since it involves campaigning and enlightenment of residents to keep their environment clean as an adage says "cleanliness is next to godliness". If Otun / Isale Ibata area is clean, the residents will be protected against some of the diseases like malaria that could be caused by the biting of mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water in their environment. The idea is that not only the structures but both the fauna and flora environment - soil, air and sea should be protected for our betterment. REDEVELOPMENT APPROACH

Redevelopment approach as the name suggest involves a comprehensive demolition and the complete redesigning and rebuilding of areas as well as


the resettlement of the population. This approach can be employed when the level of decay and deterioration is high. It should be noted however that this approach is highly capital intensive and time consuming, another point that has to be considered when opting for this approach is the willingness of the residents to agree, succumb and support the project. Madhurst and Lewis (1969) saw urban renewal as an extensive demolition of properties, most of old in a way that clears a large area of ground, thus permitting the planning and re-construction of a new set of buildings, streets and spaces in areas located in or near a town centre. Redevelopment as one of the approaches of urban renewal cannot be totally applied to the area of study that concerns this research wok, since finance and willingness of the people will likely be a constraint. Hence, spot clearance of some certain areas within the study area (Otun / Isale - Ibata core area of Saki ) will be a better option. Buildings that are dilapidated and the ones posing danger to the lives of inhabitants in the study area have to be pulled down and some other spaces cleared so as to give vacant space to the provision of lacking facilities in the Otun / Isale - Ibata core area of Saki. THE NEED FOR URBAN RENEWAL A city or town can be regarded as an animal which lives and grows. The development or growth of any settlement (city or town) can be grouped into five principal stages; (i) (ii) Predevelopment stage The newly developed stage


(iii) (iv) (v)

The middle life stage Old age state Total obsolescence stage

The pre-development stage is the period before the emergence of a town or city, when the spatial location of such a site is still virgin, but full of potentials awaiting development. A typical example is Abuja, before it was considered to be the administrative capital of Nigeria. The newly developed stage can be described as the time when the features of a city are emerging. Features in term of economic and industrial activities, transportation patterns and the socio- cultural activities. The middle stage is normally the longest stage in the life of a town/city. It is the period when a city can be said to have reach its matured stage, when all the physical and social components of a city are fully present in the city. It is a stage that the city or town as the case may be, will be impacting a lot of positive and negative changes. The positive changes will be in form of advancements in technology, economic improvement and availability of labour force. However, the benefits tend to attract more people from rural area or other less developed surrounding towns. This in turn brings about congestion in the urban centres, characterized by the discredit structures, poor sanitary conditions, under-provision of amenities and general deterioration of urban development. This phenomenon is regarded by Abumere and Okoye (1985 and 1989 respectively) as "urban decay. The old stage is when the "future ends" of a city becomes predictable. It is the period when the consequences to the positive multipliers of a city have


been out weighed by its negative multipliers. The indices that should be looked for at this stage could be inform of physical appearance of urban structures, the state of housing and the state of environment surrounding housing. Obsolescence stage of a city (which rarely occurs) is when the entire city and its suburbs has absolutely deteriorated and only total clearance of the city can bring about rebirth of such a city. As earlier mentioned, this stage rarely occurs in the life stages of a city, because necessary instrument are normally put in place to avoid such stage. Among such instrument is the urban renewal which is a multifaceted device used to curb problems associated with the stage of growth of the urban area. 2.1.2 NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING CONCEPT. The concept of neighborhood has been used arbitrarily no matter the social situation. The study attempts to illustrate and compare some of the interpretations of the term "neighborhood and to investigate its use in local planning design. First outlined by clearance A. Perry in 1929 and Beyer 1965, the neighborhood is a locality with variable definitions depending upon perception of the residents i.e. "the region where one lives". Basically, neighborhood can be described as the locality where there exist a complex social relationship between individual and family group and a degree of social interdependence i.e. kinship and friendship. Also in 1944, clearance Perry attempted to solve the problem of conflict between pedestrian and motorist and he used a neighborhood concept,


according to him, a neighborhood is an area which population size requires a certain number of children to justify the provision of a primary school and other community facilities. Hence the neighborhood concept can be applied to our study areas physical planning, since a neighborhood consist of 10,000 population at the maximum according to Keble (1969) and the population of Otun / Isale - Ibata core area has been estimated to be 8, 505 people. The number of school age children can sustain the provision of a primary school and the residents shares a common social attribute and interdependence. The neighborhood concept described by Keeble (1969) is the one termed the practical definition in that it sees physical standard and assumes social interaction. Generally according to Keeble (1969), the whole unit revolves around a primary school and the population needed to serve it and it is limited spatially by the optimum walking distance to the school by its users. The units should contain, again according to Keeble, 1969, schools, open spaces, large establishments, shops and similar uses, places of assembly of modest scope and service industry. Therefore, in this study the neighborhood of Otun / Isale - Ibata area was compared with this neighborhood planning concept in order to examine how far it meets global planning standards for Neighborhood. The main target of neighborhood planning concept therefore is to have a sizeable residential area with provision of facilities centrally located which will bring the residents together at a meeting point (community centre) to discuss their problems and jointly proffer solutions.


2.1.3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANING CONCEPT. The term sustainable development is not easy to define. It is a concept concerned with the environment, development, conservation and planning. The term also refers to specific developments which are in environmental terms and thus sustainable. A possible definition of sustainable development as adopted by the governing council United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1989 based on the report of the commission on Environmental Development titled "our common future" stated that sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. The sustainable programme was launched in early 1990 by the United Nations Centres for Human Settlement (UNCHS-Habitat) as a strategy for building capacities in urban planning and management in the participating cities. Twelve (12) cities all over the world were initially selected as demonstration projects of the programme. The participating cities in Africa are Dar-es-sallam in Tanzania, Ismaila in Egypt, Accra in Ghana and Ibadan in Nigeria. The sustainable Ibadan project (SIP) is thus designed as the demonstration project to provide useful learning experience for sustainable growth and development of other cities in Nigeria. To carry out the activities required in sustainable development, it is very important to set up inter-organizational and cross- sectional working groups. This detail attention should be given to the nature and composition or membership of each working group.


This groups should be made up of those stakeholders who are causing the problems, those who have the holders with appropriate political cohort in the city. Sustainable development programme is centred on participatory bottom-up and beneficiary-controlled concept. Thus in 1993, the Oyo state government, through the Centre for Africa Settlement Studies and Development (CASSAD) a non - governmental organization sought and got assistance from the United Nations Centres for Human Settlement (UNCHS-Habitat). The assistance came through the selection of Ibadan city as one of the few initial demonstration cities for the sustainable cities programme of UNCHS (Habitat). The basic idea is that whatever action the human race takes, it is centered that the asset total is maintained or even passed on to future generation. For example, education could be used to inspire human beings to demand higher environmental standard to enhance the quality of life of the human components and this reduce the subsequent burden on the natural component by charges of life style, population growth and social attitude. Planning aims to achieve a balance in social inequalities and eliminating global disparities, human technical and financial would need to be deployed to address the problem of eliminating these disparities, so as to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor to achieve economic sustainability. In reducing environmental degradation, fewer problems will be left for future generation. It is only by so doing we could contribute to sustainable development. The implementation of sustainable development projects since its commencements in 1994 has been promoting the following objectives:



Creation of sense of ownership of the environment with emphasis on involvement of communities in planning and management of their communities.


Increasing the number of factors responsible for environmental planning and management especially through the management of the private sector which hitherto has not been involve in environmental management of the city.


Fostering strong working relationships between local communities, the private sector, the NGOs and local government in addressing environmental issues and initiating actions (demonstration projects) to ameliorate them through partnership approaches.









environmental policies and projects which had hitherto been from only a source- the public sector. (5) Demonstration (through physical projects) to all local communities, public authorities and other stakeholders, the advantages of local initiatives and participatory approaches to environmental management. (6) Facilitating access to technical support programmes and grants available in various international donor or development agencies such as UNICEF, UNIDO, UNDP ILO, WHO to mention a few. (7) Institutionalization of the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process with the implementation agencies i.e. water


corporation, waste management authorities etc concerned with environmental planning and management. When the people concerned with a particular problem are involved with the implementation strategy to solve the problem, the project usually meets with success and given a great sense of acceptability by the people, hence sustainable development concept will be applied in drawing up policies affecting Otun/ Isale - Ibata area so as not to meet with failure after implementation. 2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW Many writer and authors have written many texts on urbanization, urban growth, pattern of slum developments in a city and finally on some core areas of our cities. The authors wrote on various aspects of core areas ranging from meaning, characteristics, origin, growth, problems, consequences and suggestions for improvement of the core areas. DEFINITION OF A CITY To define the city and to understand it problems necessitate that we view the city in social and political context. William S. (1987), defined a city as a vast collection of memories of expression of emotion with its greatest concentration of human meanings at its greatest concentration of human meanings at its centre, and a gradual thinning out of emotional values until one reaches the drabness of the neighborhood, but it is not a biological form of organization, an organism, it is an organization of meaning and values. He believes that the real source of fascination of the city is that it represents the


widest and fullest expression of all the types of meaning which man has achieved. Wolf (1981), made the assertion that enjoying the crowds, the satisfaction of "being there" feeling on self a part of the power complex which is called citys freedom from the country, being protected in the world of the people, culture and comfort, more money for less work and the opportunity to spend the money in a most pleasurable way. PRE-HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND THE ORIGIN OF THE CITY EVOLUTION We have only a rough idea of what the world was like in which tens of thousand of generations of Neolithic men lived according to Newton (1979). The man-made environment was merely a superficial modification of that vast hostile natural and made of skins draped over a crude wooden framework. With no evidence to go on, early illustration tried to visualize what life of these primitive men was like by excavating the study of the material traces left by primitive man. Modern archeologists have given us picture which although more realistic but sometimes more confused. Archeologist evidence of the earliest settlement consists mainly of human activities such as remains of food, fragment discarded during the processing of stone and wood finished articles that were used and then later abandoned or buried. Norman (1980), in his own opinion, opined that Neolithic settlements were not slide in a purely natural environment but in part of the nature transferred according to human plan. It includes cultivated land where food could be


produced rather than merely gathered shelters for people and for domestic analysis, stores of food for whole season or even longer, the equipment needed for cropping, cattle rearing, defense, decoration and worship. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF URBAN CORE AREAS IN NIGERIA TOWNS AND CITIES Men began to live in cities some years ago (John 1980). As the proceeding article relates, however, the proportion of article the human population concentrated in cities did not begin to increase significantly until about 100 years ago. These facts raises question that this project work proposes to answer, these question are (1) what factors brought about the origin of cities and (2) through what evolutionary stages did cities pass before modern epoch of urbanization. The answers to these questions are intimately related to three major characteristic which are economical social and political patterns. The least complex of the three "folk society" is pre-urban and are illiterates. It consists typically of small numbers of people under such conditions there is little or surplus of food consequently the folk society permit little of no specialization of labour or distinction of class. Although, some folk societies still exist today, similar human group began the slow process of evolving into more complex society some decades ago, through settlement in villages and through advances in technology and organization structure. This gave rise to second level of organization; civilized pre-individual society. Here there is a surplus of food because of the selective cultivation of grains and the practices of animal husbandry. The food surplus permit both the specialization of labour and kind of class


structure that can for instance, provide the leadership and commend the man power to develop and maintain extensive irrigation system (which in turn make possible further increase in the food supply). URBAN REVEWAL EXPERIENCE IN NIGERIA Cases of urban renewal are not new in Nigeria. The case of Isale Eko and the case of the bubonic plague that hit Lagos city in 1924 is not something to be forgotten quickly as recorded by Ola Olaniyan (1984). This prompted in 1929, the establishment of the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) to undertake a town planning scheme in the affected area. More recently during the Babangida administration, (1985-1993) an urban renewal programme was carried out at Maroko in Lagos state whereby replanning and re-designing of the area was done. Realizing the problems associated with redevelopment, people nowadays revolt against it as a planning tool and a solution to the problem of core areas as it was glaring in the actions of people in the early 1970s when central Lagos was demolished and turn down for renewal. A look at the re-development exercise of central Lagos shows that the provision of housing units for the income earners and the unemployed or underemployed could not solve the problem but created new and different ones. This experience is a warning to us that redevelopment approach may not provide the desired result. As logical as the criticism leveled against urban renewal practices are, do we therefore turn down renewal as a tool for city planning? The answer is


definitely no, urban renewal as a planning tool is still a good planning and corrective measure, if appropriately and properly administered. EXPERIENCES OF URBAN RENEWAL IN OTHER PART OF THE WORLD PHILIPPINES - Metro manila Metro- manila is the national capital region of the Philippines which has an area of about 870 square kilometers. David (1987) work revealed that about 2 million persons or 30% of the total population lives in slums and squatter settlement and they are living in very poor conditions. Thus during the late 1950s and the 1960s, the government decided to demolish structures and relocate the families. The relocation sites were very far from the city centre and were not supplied with adequate services and facilities that would encourage residents to stay (David, 1987). The relocated residents had to travel down to their places of work and these difficulties led to the abandonment of dwellings and plot by the relocated people and they began to return back to the city to squat again. The urban renewal exercise was not effective in Metro-manila because of the development approach used to upgrade shelter. Hence government decided to adopt in -sit up grading as the strategy towards slum clearance. INDONESIA CAPITAL Jakarta Kampungs Jakarta is Indonesia's largest city and capital. The concept or urban renewal used in the improvement of slums is referred to as KAMPUNG


IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, hence -forth referred to as Kip. Kampaung means slums in Jakarta. Jakarta Kip provides an excellent case study of on-site upgrading through basic infrastructure provision within existing low-income settlements. In 1969, the government initiated KIP to improve physical conditions in some of Jakarta's worst Kampungs. The programme upgrades community infrastructure in low-income settlement, while maintaining most of their housing stock. It concentrated on the provision of paved road/ walk ways, water pipes and communal water taps, sanitary latrines, and social facilities such as primary schools, health clinics etc. Residents were themselves encouraged to improve their dwellings and other environmental elements. Dislocation of house-hold was minimized and because the type of approach used in Jakarta can be said to be rehabilitation, success was recorded. CHARACTERISTICS OF CORE AREAS Although the core area of our cities is said to be planned in their own way. Pre Colonial types of structures abound and because they predate the motor vehicle age, they are not very accessible in terms of modern technology. Besides, these structures are made mainly of traditional materials such as mud etc. and there are no community facilities like pipe borne water and adequate electricity supply and where present, they were merely grafted into the system. In most cases there are no sewage and sewerage facilities. Living conditions are appaulling and most unsanitary. Ventilation is next to nil and the problem of urban decay is most pertinent in these areas.


PROBLEMS OF NIGERIAS CORE AREAS. Factors Responsible for the problem of the study area. The stage of the properties in the study area can be determined using phases of estate life cycle. No matter what, a community must grow old, usually in parts and it must undergo decay depending upon the circumstance of its growth and management. From the moment a house is developed, the physical structure of every house begins to decline in usefulness and values due to obsolescence. However, an estate has a life cycle, which begins with its conception, development, use, decline and its ultimate dilapidation when it is due for demolition. The history of this decline of an estate varies considerably from one estate to the other, but in most cases there are series of recognizable stages before it is finally ran out and ready to be cleared away or replaced. The history of this decline of an estate varies considerably from one estate to the other, but in most cases there are series of recognizable stages before it is finally ran out and ready to be cleared away or replaced. OBSOLESCENCE It means to grow old or old-age caused by changing and not necessarily by age e.g. an old building or a church though old may still fulfill its purpose while a new one may not and thus become obsolescence.


According to Pryor (1996), in his review of several case studies, solutions are often inform of preparation of zoning maps, master plans and subdivision plan to assist more orderly invasion of total eradicated uncoordinated and piecemeal speculation and the juxtaposition of incompatible landscape.



3.0 3.1


Saki is a Yoruba town in the North Western part of Oyo State of Nigeria. A Yoruba myth recorded that the town was founded by a hunter called Ogun (god of iron) one of the grandson of Lamurudu, who was then living in Ibariba land. Lamurudu assigned Ogun to look for a more suitable place for him (Lamurudu) to settle down. Ogun was able to find a hamlet inhibited by some Yoruba speaking tribe. Ogun used to exchange his bush meat with food from the local people and later he (ogun) reported the matter to his grandfather but Ogun could not confirm whether the people would accommodate Lamurudu. With the instruction from Lamurudu, Ogun was accompanied to the hamlet again by Oduduwa, his father and Orisala. Before they returned, Lamurdu had died. After his burial ceremonies, Oduduwa came to settle on a hill called Aganran (Aganranju)- a hill that is difficult to climb . Orunmila who accompanied him settled down at different location while Ogun also occupied a nearby place later known as Ile- Ogun (the home of god of iron). Later Oduduwa left Saki for Ile -Ife which was found to be more fertile, Ogun stayed behind and he received the blessings of his father - Oduduwa on Aganran hill.


Okuku, Onisaki and Okekisi, brothers of Oranyan, the Alaafin of Oyo later joined Ogun. Oranyan was not aware of the departure of his brotherOkekisi- a brave warrior. Because of his sudden disappearance from the town, Oranyan organized a team to search for Okekisi. The searching team was able to found Okekisi on top of Asabari hill after twenty one days of searching. But Okekisi refused his brothers call to return to Oyo. On three occasions, the Alaafin sent delegates to persuade Okekisi to return but on these occasions, Okekisi was dodging and running away from the delegates. It was the word Sa kiri (running away) that was later shortened to Saki. It was after fruitless effort that Oranyan left his brother Okekisi alone. He blessed him to settle down at where is now called Saki today. 3.2 GEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC


Saki lies within the savannah belt of Nigeria and is located between latitude 080 151 N and 080 521 N and longitude 030 081 E and 030 501 E. It is located in the northern part of Oyo state of Nigeria, about 184km from Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo state and the largest indigenous city in Tropical Africa. (see fig below). REGIONAL SETTING

Saki is the headquarters of Saki - west local government area of Oyo state. It is situated between two other local government areas: Saki East local


government at the North Eastern and Atisbo local government at the South -Eastern part. Saki also hosted the headquarters of Oyo state Agricultural Development programme. Saki is also the headquarters of old Ifedapo local government before the creation of more local government in Oyo sate in 1996. It is now the headquarter of Saki -West local government and the other two local government carved out of the old Ifedapo local government were Saki West and Atisbo local governments. It is also a commercial nerve of Oke -Ogun area. It is bounded in the North by Kwara state in the South by Atisbo local government (Ago Are), in the West by Benin Republic and East by Saki East local government (see fig LOCAL SETTING below).

Saki is found at the Northern part of the Saki- West local government area. It is bounded in the East by Oje-Owode, a town under Saki -East local government in the North by Ilua, in the West by Gaa dogo, and in the South by Ago- Are, a town under Atisbo local government. The major roads in Saki were; Saki- Oje owode road in the Eastern part, Saki - Oge road towards the Western part, Saki - Ago Are and Saki Ilesha- Ibariba roads at the southern and Northern parts respectively together with Saki-Igbooro road in the north eastern part (See fig 3.2.2 VEGETATION below),

The study area lies within the broad savannah transition zone separating the southern rain forest from the Northern Sudan zone. Its vegetation is


generally derived savannah with open grassland predominantly in the North and savannah woodland in the south. This is influenced by the low record of rainfall when compared with other parts of the state and persistence cultivation of the woodland. The grassy nature of vegetation facilitates clearing for agricultural practices. The ease of clearing and availability of sand loamy type of the soil make the growing of cassava and yam very popular in Saki - West local government area. 3.2.3. RELIEF FEATURES

The town is characterized with the range of hills, rock out crops, valley and lowlands. Some of the hills and rock outcrops are Alasia, Oloogun Ibata, Agunfon, Alasela, Akano and Asabari hills (the highest in the town with a height of 533.4 meters. However, towards the North-Eastern and south Western part of the town are fairly lowland. This encourage the practice of Agriculture on them. The Oyo state Agricultural Development Programme of Oyo state government is making a judicious use of these lowland areas. 3.2.4. SOIL

Saki town is favoured with different types of soil like loamy, sand and clay soils. Also silt and gravel are found in some part of the town. These types of soil available especially the loamy soil encourages the practice of agriculture in the area which is found to be the main occupation of the inhabitants.


3.2.5 HYDROLOGY In terms of hydrology, few rivers could be found in the town. Among these rivers are Wewe river which flows from South-Eastern part of the town across one of the primary distributor road coming from Ago-Are at Apinnite area and flows towards South Western part of the town until it forms confluence with Osoro River at Isale-ola quarters. Other rivers are rivers Foofoo and Agbedegun. River Foofoo can be found at the Western part of the town. A dam was constructed on this river at Oge where it supplies water for the whole town. River Weewe and River Osoro are the ones found within the study area. 3.3. PHYSICAL FACILITYES Presently, there are fourteen (14) public secondary schools and forty-two (42) public primary schools while private secondary schools accounted for 8 schools and there are 26 private primary schools. A satellite campus of the Polytechnic, Ibadan, one technical college, school of Nursing and Midwifery in Saki. Major roads in Saki were tarred, minor roads are graded and culverts are constructed to ease good drainage. There are also facilities like potable water, recreational facilities; police station etc. there is presently, no primary or secondary school within the study area. 3.4 LAND USE PATTERN AND SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURAL

The major land uses in Saki are residential, commercial , industrial, public and agricultural land uses.


3.4.1 RESIDENTIAL LAND USE. This forms the major land use of the town and dominates the whole area of the town. Majority of the buildings are compound, bungalow, self contained apartments with a few storey building located at strategic areas in the town. Areas of low densities housing in Saki includes Gedu estate, part of Koomi area. Medium residential density areas are Apinnite, Oke Muibi, Oke Apeki, part of Koomi are, Idi-araba etc. While high densities accounted for most of the core areas and these are Ayekale, Oge, Ilua, Otun, Isale Ibata, Ajegunle, Isale-Efi, Isale Ola, Oke-Oro, Igbooro, Mokola etc. 3.4.2 COMMERCIAL LAND USE The commercial activities in Saki take a reasonable percentage of the economic base of the town. Although most of the trade is in the hands of the women, there is a great income to the inhabitants of the town through this activity. These commercial activities take place in Ajegunle, Sango, Adabo, Ogidigbo, Marifin markets etc. Apart from the markets, there are a few commercial establishments in the town. These include the cooperative Bank, Ifedapo Community Bank, Kadupe community Bank and private supermarkets such as concord supermarket in Sango area, Ajike stores in Ajegunle area, Amifas supermarkets in Apinnite area etc. There are also some petrol filling stations in the town. They include; Total and Mobil stations in Ajeungle, Total station in Apinnite, Enard along Ago -Are road, sum- Yud stations along Ilesha - Ibariba road etc. Apart from all these mentioned commercial areas,


majority of the buildings frontage along the roads were been used by women for one petty trade or the other. There exists no organised market or shopping complex not to talk of Banks in Otun/Isale-Ibata area, hence necessitate the need to have at least one organized market or defined area for commercial activities. 3.4.3. INDUSTRIAL LAND USE There is the presence of some small scale industries within the town. The few industries present in Saki include Ikorodu Saw Mill, along Ago-Are road, Bakeries, Gaari processing industries, pure-water Blacksmithing, gold smithing, local dyeing industries. Some of these light industries like goldsmith industry, bakery etc exist in the study area. 3.4.4. INSTITUTIONAL LAND USE These institutional land uses includes the Saki parapo town hall, the schools, maternity centres, post office, and Oyo state Agricultural Development Programme office in Ajegunle area. None of these institutional land uses falls within Otun/Isale-Ibata, the study area. 3.4.5. AGRICULTURAL LAND USE The immediate surroundings and vacant land are used for Agricultural activities. Notable among the crops planted are yam, maize, groundnut, vegetables, melon, tomatoes, beans etc. industries,


This agricultural activities are mainly found along Ago-Are, Oje-Owode, Ilesha, Ibariba and Koomi roads. These areas especially those close to the existing habitable areas will be used for the future development of the town. Land area around the Weewe and Osooro Rivers that flows through the study area are used for the planting of vegetables, bananas, sugar cane, cocoa yam etc. 3.5. POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

The tribe composition in Saki is made up of the Yoruba, Ibariba, Ibo, Ghanians, Hausa, Itsekiri etc. According to the 1991 population census, the total population of Saki was 89, 595 people. This comprises of 44,113 males and 45,482 females. However, the 1991 population figure of Saki has been used for projection to 1996 by the National Population Commission (NPC) and thus gave a total of 103, 415 people in Saki. The growh rate used was 2.83% for projection. (Source: NPC office, Saki). Therefore, to get the projected population of Saki for the year 2005, the projected population by National population commission for 1996 will be used as base year population and the annual growth rate of 2.83% will be used to project. Pn = P1 (1 + r /100) n Where Pn = Projected population/expected population P1 = Base year population r = Annual Growth rate n = Number of Expected years ( 2005 - 1996)


Hence, Pn = 103, 415 (1 + 2.83/100) 9 = 103, 415 (1 + 0.0283) 9 = 103, 415 (1 + 0283) 9 = 103, 415 (1.2855) = 103, 415 x 1.2855 = 132939, 9825 = 132,940 people. The projected population of Saki is 132,940 people as at 2005. The 1991 population census did not count the study area (Otun/Isale-Ibata area) separately, hence, Fasakin 2000 and Abumere 1984 estimated that the average number of family size in Nigeria is seven (7) while the average number of families i.e. Household per building is three (3) and now to arrive at the estimated population of the study area which has 414 buildings and the total occupied residential buildings of 405 number of household per building is multiplied by the total number of family size which is seven (7). 3 x 7 = 21 people per building 21 x 405 = 8,505 people The estimated population for the study area is 8,505 people. 3.6 TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

The study area has only one mode of transportation which is road transport. There are two major accesses to the study area and these are Apinnite - Oke-


Aje road and Ogidigbo - Igbooro route. Generally there are five primary distributor road linking Saki to other parts of the nation which are Ago-Are Saki road, Saki - Oje-Owode road, Saki - Ogbooro road, Saki Ilesha Ibariba road and Saki - Republic of Benin route. Out of all these five primary distributor roads, Saki - Ago-Are road is the only one found within the study area. Ogidigbo - Igbooro and Saki - Ago-Are roads that existed within the study area are tarred. The mode of transport commonly used in the area is motor-cycle whose fare ranges between N10 and N50 depending on the distance. Another mode of transport is by taxi and residents private vehicles. Those who do not have private form of transport and cannot afford the fare charged by commercial vehicle operators resort to trekking in the study area and this is common among majority of the residents. There is a kind of communication problem in Saki before the advent of G.S.M. (the mobile hand held telephone). The only way through which information gets through to the study area before was through posting of letters using the post office located at Oke-Dio area. But now G.S.M. operators are now operating in Saki and within the study area respectively making communication much easier and to get through is no more a problem. Currently, the available G.S.M. service providers around the study area are Globacom, MTN, V-mobile and Nitel. GROWTH PATTERNS The increase in the growth of Saki is due not only to natural increase but also to the population influx of people from other parts of the country. The growth in physical extent of Saki has been from year to year. Areas like Gedu estate, does not exist before year 1996 and now the town has extended


to that Gedu estate along Apinnite, Polytechnic road. Also before 1990 Koomi area did not extend beyond Brishhood hotel, but now, it has extended towards the army barracks area. Similar developments can be found all over the town. A 1963 map of Saki shows 68 residential buildings within the study area of this research. The number of buildings since then has increased from 68 to 414 buildings. Most of the agricultural land of 1963 existing map has been build upon and that makes the town larger in physical-extent as compared with what obtained in 1963. As revealed by the 1991 population census, about 362 square kilometre of the land was actually devoted to urban land uses. The town has now extended over 2,000 square kilometre. This is due to disappearance of these non-urban land uses in the face of expansion of urban land uses. The former farmlands, fallow land within the city have been built upon. 3.8. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES

Saki is situated in a predominantly agricultural area. Apart from the hilly areas and the valleys, the rest of the land is very fertile. This contributed to a large extent the success of farming operations in Saki. The farmers are aided by the Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (OYSADEP) by providing fertilizers, and seeds at subsidized prices. Some people also engage themselves in small scale industrial and commercial activities at local, national and inter-national levels. There is the presence of various kinds of markets where people usually transact businesses.


Conventional professions like carpentry, bricklaying, rewinding, driving and other major occupational activities are very common in the town. They locate their shops at strategic places within the town and the study area. Petty trading is another predominant occupation of the inhabitants in the study area. The low income earners, especially women are found mostly engaging in this type of trade. Secondary and tertiary occupations such as government employments accounts for the rest of the labour force in the study area. People in this category are mainly teachers, OYSADEP staff, Local Government Council officials and in other Zonal offices of the government ministries like Agriculture, Commerce and industries, land and housing works and transport etc.



A detailed analysis of the existing condition of the study area is essential to guide any planning action on the study area. In this regard, this chapter contains the report of the land use survey and studies, survey on housing condition, infrastructural community facilities, environmental sanitation, road patterns and movements and the socio-economic characteristics of the people 4.1 EXISTING LAND USE PATTERN OF OTUN/ISALE-IBATA CORE AREA. The existing land use pattern of Otun/Isale Ibata core area can be regarded as pure residential, though there are pockets of other land uses like: commercial, public, industrial circulation and open spaces. The area is more of high density and the total land area of the study is 24.32 hectares. Table 1. Existing Land use analysis Land Use Residential Commercial Industrial Public/Semi-Public Open Space Circulation Total Area in Hectare 15.01 1.37 0.72 0.16 4.16 2.03 24.32 Percentage 61.72 5.63 2.96 0.67 17.11 8.35 100

(Source: Authors field Survey, 2006)

44 (See the existing land use map of Otun/Isale-Ibata core area in fig. )

Residential Land Use From the data analysed in Table 1 above, residential land use takes a larger share of the total land use. It occupied 15.01 hectares of land which amounted to 61.72% of the total land use. The whole area is almost totally residential with other infiltrate. The buildings are very close to one another resulting in poor ventilation. Commercial Land Use This represents areas where trading and retail activities predominates. The nature of development in the area has made it a bit difficult to describe because hardly is a building found that is solely used for commercial purpose. Most commercial uses are mixed with a bit of residence. Incidentally too an open space facing Bagi's palace is used as a small market. However, this accounted for a total of 1.37 hectares which is 5.56% of the total land use. Industrial Land Use Noticeable in the study are mostly light industries like yam flour grinding industries, shoe making, tailoring services, printing presses. Others include carpentry works, welding and auto-repair mechanic workshops. All these accounted for 2.96% of the total land area. They constitute nuisance to the peaceful living of the inhabitants inform of pollution because they are located within the residential area.


Public / Semi Public Land Use This land use covers 0.16 of the total land area. This includes churches and mosques. Open Space There is no organized open space in the study area. But incidental open spaces that were present were been used by boys to play football. This accounted for 4.16 hectares out of the total land area of 24.23 hectres. Circulation As shown in table I above, circulation (roads) covers 2.03 hectres of the total land area. This consists of the Apinnite-Otun road, Otun- Igboologun road and Otun -Oke -Apeki road. (see fig vi below). 4.2 HOUSING CONDITION

Adequate assessment of physical condition of building as well as the surrounding environment will no doubt reveal the quality of the area and the extent of deterioration. From the survey conducted, there are 414 buildings in the study area, majority of which are purely residential. Those buildings along otun -Apinnite road are used for residential cum commercial activities. 100% survey was conducted on housing condition of the study area. In assessing the condition of buiding in the area, attention was paid to the number of habitable rooms, wall material, roofing materials, condition of window, condition of doors, use of building, age of building, design of


buildings, accessibility to building, source of water, source of power supply, type of toilet facility, sewage disposal. environmental quality and refuse disposal. (see the pie chart showing condition of buildings). 4.2.1 ACCESSIBILITY TO BUILDINGS Access to buildings is one of the parameters for measuring the quality of buildings. The provision of utilities and services to such building is made easier. However, from the table it is obvious that few houses are accessible by a motorable road. These are buildings along the existing roads network; Otun-Isale -Ibata road, Apinite-Ago Are road and Igboologun-Isale -Ibata road.About 76% of this buildings are accessible by undefined open space while 7.73% of the buildings are accessible by footpath. The implication of these overcrowding and less regard to building bye laws i.e air spaces and set backs on the study area is that fresh air is prevented from entering each building and these can lead to rise in temperature and can eventually deteriorated to residents having frequent headaches. There is also lack of privacy since people uses mostly undefined open spaces to get to their own building, their may be intrusion on ones inhabitant. If there should be fire outbreak, it will be so serious since buildings lacks enough spaces, building will just continue to catch fire and these buildings can cause serious damage to properties and human life. (See the table below for the analysis)


Table II

Accessibility to Buildings No of Buildings 317 32 65 414 % 76.57 7.73 15.70 100.00

Access to Buildings Undefined access Footpath Major road Total

Source: Field survey, February, 2006

4.2.2 CONDITION OF ROOF Studies of the roofing materials reflect that all the buildings were roofed with iron sheets. During the physical survey of the study area, it was discovered that some part of the roof of six buildings are missing, some roofs are leaking, about 85 building roofs are sagging while more than half of the roofs have rusted. During the raining season, rain water usually drops on the properties of those inhabitants having their building roofs leaking, thus damaging the properties and that can even cause cold leading to pneumonia if rain continues to drop directly on inhabitants especially night rains when people are asleep. The effect of building roofs that are missing is so enormous. First it exposes the wall of the people to direct rainfall and within a very short time the wall begins to dilapidate, hence if fallen eventually could claim lives and some properties. Secondly, it presents the environment in an ugly manner, it thus prevents the environment from been aesthetically beautiful. (Below is the analysis of condition of roof in the study area)


Table III

Condition of Roof No of Building 06 85 248 43 32 414 Percentage 1.45 20.53 59.90 10.39 07.73 100.00

Condition of roof Part missing Sagging Rusty Leaking No defect Total

Source: Field survey February, 2006

4.2.3 CONDITION OF WALL These determine to a large extent the structural soundness of buildings. The survey conducted revealed that majority of the buildings in the area have cracked wall, some are not plastered. The study of construction material for these buildings shows that majority was built of mud blocks while very few were built of cement block. The dilapidated condition and cracking are pointers to the ageing as well as poor construction material used for construction initially. Only 20% of the buildings have no wall defect. Cracked wall can give access to some crawling animals to the buildings and these animals can pose danger to the lives of the inhabitants. Cracked wall can eventually lead to the collapse of the building especially when it affects the foundation of the building. According to builders, cracked walls can affect the roof of the building and this may eventually leads to leaking.


Table IV Condition of Wall Wall condition Dilapidated Cracking No defect Total

Source: Field, February 2006

No of buildings 115 216 83 414

Percentage 27.78 52.17 20.05 100.00

4.2.4 MATERIAL USED FOR WALL Different types of materials can be used to make the wall of a building. This ranges from mud, sancrete to cement block. The type of materials used at times usually determines the soundness of such a wall. Most of the building walls in Otun/Isale-Ibata core area are made of mud. Very few of the buildings have their walls made of cement block. The common material which is mud used for the building walls depicts the fact that majority of the inhabitants in the study area are poor. They cannot afford to make provision for cement block. The mud wall is also susceptible to the response of the weather especially in the raining season; there can be rising moisture in the wall causing cold to the inhabitants. The Finishing of mud wall is also poor and if the roof should be missing, it can eventually lead to the collapse of the mud wall much faster than the block walls thus exposing inhabitants privacy. Below is the analysis of the materials used for wall.


Table V

Material Used for Walls No of Buildings 187 105 159 63 414 Percentage 45.17 25.36 38.41 15.22 100.00

Wall materials Mud Mud brick Sandcrete Cement block Total

Source: Field survey February,2006

4.2.5 CONDITION OF WINDOW During the physical survey of the study area, it was discovered that some buildings have parts of their windows fallen off, this is visible in 67 buildings out of the 414 buildings in the study area. More than 50% building windows were still intact while about one fifth are broken. The effect this is having on the buildings in the study area is as follows. It allows rain to drop directly inside the house, allows uncontrollable amount of air and also given access to mosquitoes and other crawling animals to come inside the building. Uncontrollable amount of air and rain drops can as well cause pneumonia and other common colds. (see table below).


Table VI Condition of Windows Condition of window No of Buildings Fallen off Broken No defect Total 67 86 261 414 Percentage 16.18 20.77 63.04 100.00

Source: Field survey February, 2006.

4.2.6 CONDITION OF DOORS The types of door materials used in the study area were: Batten iron and iron sheet doors. The condition of doors in the study area is generally fair and thus is seen as 308 buildings out of the total 414 buildings have their doors in fair condition. Mosquitoes and other insects including rats can easily gain access to the rooms of buildings having their door in poor condition and mosquitoes bite can cause malaria and then transfer diseases from one person to another. It also prevents privacy to the user of such room. (see the table below). Table VII Condition of Doors Condition of doors Poor Fair Good Total No of buildings 26 308 80 414 Percentage 6.28 74.40 19.32 100.00

Source: Field survey, February, 2006


4.2.7 TOILET FACILITIES The survey conducted revealed that negligible percentage of buildings in the study area have toilet facilities within them. Those that have toilets were very few along Apininte-Ago-Are road, Otun Baptist church, and few buildings within the study area. The drains, streams banks and incidental open spaces are freely used for this purpose. This is usually done at night under the cover of darkness. Indiscriminate dumping of feaces can lead to outbreak of diseases like cholera, stooling etc in the study area. It is a source of air pollution in the study area. However, about 14 buildings have water closet while 26 buildings have pitlatrine. More than three quarter of the buildings have no toilets. The breakdown is as shown in the table below: Table VIII Types of Toilets Type of Toilet Facility Bush Pit Latrine Water closet Total No of Buildings 374 26 14 414100.00 Percentage 90.34 6.28 3.38

Source: Field survey, Feburary,2006


4.2.8 WATER SUPPLY The necessity of water to human life cannot be over emphasized, however, this important necessity of life is regarded as luxurious element by some residents of Otun /Isale-Ibata core area of Saki especially during the dry season. The major source of water supply in the study area are well and streams. This implies that most of the inhabitants drinks untreated water which could cause diarrhea, guinea worm and some other diseases that could claim their lives. The table shows the analysis of source of water supply in the study area. Table IX: Sources of Water Supply Source of water Stream Well Borehole Pipe borne water Others Total No of buildings 78 336 414 Percentage 18.84 81.16 100.00

Source: February 2006 field survey.

4.2.9 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Among the problem of electricity supply in the study area were: in orderly and haphazard arrangement of electricity poles, inability of some residents to pay electricity bills and the fact that electricity supply is not frequent. But


greater percentage of buildings in the neighborhood were still depending solely on electricity supply but sift to Lantern and candles whenever the electricity is off. (see table below). Table X Source of Power Supply Source of Power Candles Gas lamps Generators Lanterns Electricity Total No of Buildings 28 386 414 Percentage 6.76 93.24 100.00

Source: Field survey, February 2006.



On the basis of the materials of construction, organization of internal spaces and construction techniques, the main building is the compound type. It consists of a main entrance leading to central courtyard which is surrounded by under-sized rooms of less than 3m by 3m in some cases. The doors of the rooms are undersized and windows may be as small as 3ocm by 30cm located high in the wall. The undersized window prevents adequate fresh air to the room especially during the dry season. Also going by the findings during the physical survey there is over-crowding of people in the study are, thus the undersize room of 3m by 3m is substandard. The aesthetic scene of the environment is also marred. Below is the analysis of the findings


Table XI

Types of Buildings No of Buildings 321 88 05 414 Percentage 77.54 21.26 1,20 100.00

Building Types Compound Houses Bungalow detached Strong buildings Flat Total

Source: Field survey, February 2006



The exact year that some of the buildings were constructed is difficult to know. Respondents in some cases gave guessed answers because houses occupied by them are either build by great grand fathers and rebuild or added to by the present occupier. However, from the respondents, coupled with personal observation, design and condition of buildings, it was realized that almost three quarter (3/4) of the buildings have been built more than 50years ago. The table below shows the analysis. Table XII Age of the Buildings in the Study Area. Age (yrs) Below 10 10-30 31-50 51-70 above 70 Total No of Buildings 28 41 52 196 97 414 Percentage 6.73 9.90 12.56 47.37 23.44 100.00

Source: Field survey, February 2006




The essence of proper housing design is to make the dwelling unit safe, comfortable and healthy for human habitation. It is therefore essential in the design of buildings to make provision for adequate ventilation and space for cooking, bathing and washing to enhance cleanliness. The most common building design in the study area is the bungalow or Brazilian type of housing as depicted from the analysis of types of buildings. The courtyard compound designs normally have on the average between ten (10) to fifteen (15) rooms. There is no self-contained flat design in the study area since it is an indigenous area and pre- occupied by low income earners. 4.2.13. USES OF BUILDINGS

The information on the land use analysis is an evident in the use of building in the study area. Out of 414 buildings, 364 buildings are used purely for residential. Other building categories are relatively low in number. This affect the functional relationship that ought to exist between lands uses in an area. Other land uses which could be beneficial to the inhabitants are not catered for hence they have to look for it outside their area. The table below shows the analysis.


Table XIV: Uses of building in the study area. Uses of Building Under construction Industrial Place of worship Public / semi - public Mixed uses Commercial Residential Total 41 1 364 414 9.90 0.24 87.92 100.00 No of buildings percentage 4 4 0.97 0.97

Source: Field survey, February 2006.

GENERAL CONDITION OF BUILDING In assessing the condition of buildings in the study area, attention was paid to the foundation, walls, rendering, doors, windows, roofs, overall appearance, building facilities and environmental quality. The age of buildings do not really denote their status in terms of soundness and physical structure. The table below shows the criteria for classifying building condition. The condition of a building has so many effects on the inhabitants as well as the whole lifes of inhabitants ranging from; endangering the life of inhabitants to marring the aesthetical beauty of the environment in the study area.


Table XIV Criteria for Classifying Building Condition

Building Condition Good Walls and Doors Roof and Windows Amenities Available standard toilets, and Electricity

Walls are made of Galvanized cement blocks sheets,

iron Of asbestos, kitchens,

stones and plastered windows intact, and bathrooms in and out. Floors glass are made of cement intact. concrete, terrazzo or tiles Fair Walls are made of Galvanized bricks, mud, Sheet rusting louvers all water.

adequately supplied.

iron Kitchen, toilet and or bathroom are not

concrete blocks but fallen off. Window adequate. Water not are no longer in louver good Wall condition. broken and floor Galvanized sheet rusting. Galvanized iron Kitchen, toilety, is blades sufficiently or provided. Iron

degenerated Poor Buildings characterized

with sheet leaking and bathroom, tap water Windows and electricity

visible crack walls, rusting. in storey buildings in of block mud. bad

defective staircases fallen off and doors substandard or even condition. not available. and poor condition Breaking or sagging roof.


Only 7.73 % of the buildings are considered good in condition having most of the basic facilities with regard to those criteria outlined above. Fair buildings are like the good ones. They are 215 in number and lack the basic building facilities. The magnitude of fairness varies and some of them can be made good by renovation of buildings structure, in corporation of basic housing facilities and creation of open spaces and improvement of the filthy environment. The rest are dilapidated due to old age, poor design, absence of basic facilities and lack of maintenance. Table XV below shows the analysis. Table XVI Condition of buildings Building condition Good Fair Bad Total No of buildings 32 215 167 414 Percentage 7.73 51.93 40.34 100.00

Source: Field survey, February 2006



These facilities are some of the components that make up total environment. The statistics of the community facilities are explained below. 4.3.1 WATER SUPPLY Deep wells from within and pipe bore water from outside the study area are the main source of water to the study area. The distance covered to get to the source of water especially outside the study is stressful, hence residents


depended on those untreated well and the resultant effect of this on their health status may be stooling, typhoid fever etc. Hence there is need for boreholes and repair of water pipes in the study area to be supplied with tap water. 4.3.2. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY Although electricity supply is in existence in the study area, but some poles are haphazardly erected. Some buildings even tap electricity from another and this is injurious to the safety of the residents in the sense that, if electric wires should be exposed to water, it can lead to the termination of lives. Also it was revealed that electricity is not adequately supplied to the study area, hence anytime there is "black out hoodlums can take the advantage to do their evil hence putting in habitant lives in damage. 4.3.3 SEWAGE DISPOSAL There is indiscriminate sewage disposed in the study area. Those stagnant water breed mosquitoes and these mosquito bites can cause malaria sickness if not well treated. 4.3.4 DRAINAGE SYSTEM There is no distinct drainage system in the study area. Hence during raining season there is stagnated water in very available spaces. This problem of drainage system also cause erosion of the surface soil and the base of building are usually affected by this lack of drainage system and if the foundation of buildings are tampered with, it can eventually leads to the collapse of the building.


4.3.5 COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Mobile telephone service spots can be seen within the study area, hence resident do use these centre to pass information to whoever they want. Although there is no postal agency within the study area, there exist an NTA station in Saki where dissemination of information and other services are rendered to the whole Saki township and the study area inclusive. Hence the people are not cut off from outside world. 4.3.6 ROAD PATTERN Most of the buildings in the study area are not accessible by road since there are few roads within the study area and residents builds with little or no regard for planning standards. Inhabitants of buildings with undefined access finds it somewhat problematic especially when carrying heavy load and the vehicle cannot deliver door to door service, hence trekking a long distance before reaching their houses. 4.3.7 HEALTH FACILITIES There exists no health centre in the study area. Resident travels to Baptist Hospital or state government hospital at Afote whenever they are ill. Emergency cases that requires urgent attention has to be taken down to the aforementioned health centre and the illness may grew from bad to worse before reaching the hospital and put more danger on the patients life. Hence there is need to have a health centre with professional within the study area.


4.3.8 EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES The school age children in the study area depend on schools outside the study area. There is no single public primary or secondary school within the study area, hence children has to trekk a long distance to either Baptist high school or Community grammar school and Ayekale high school for their secondary school education. The only primary school very near the study area is Anglican primary school which is adjacent the study area. Hence there is need to have at least a primary school within the study area since the population can sustain it to solve the problem of long distance trekking by the school age population in the study area. 4.3.9 MARKET FACILITIES Except for some building frontage been used for commercial activities, there is no defined market facility in the study area. Residents then have to travel to Ogidigbo or Ajegunle markets a distance of about 3-4 kilometres to the study area. It is a problem because money and energy used for transport can be conserved and be expended on other useful thing. Another effect is that inhabitants may not be able to use some commodity at the very time needed since it is not within their reach at a very short distance. 4.3.10 REFUSE DISPOSAL The mode of disposal of refuse in any human society is one of the functions of clean and hygienic environment. The Weewe and Osoro stream banks have now been turned to refuse disposal sites in the study area. Hence reducing the aesthetic value of the area and hidden places for animals. This


is a kind of environmental pollution in the study area because it causes offensive odours. 4.3.11 PUBLIC TOILET FACILITIES

The waste product of the body has to be hygienically disposed off. There is no single public toilet in the study area and the river banks and incidental open spaces have been converted to toilets especially during the dark hours of the day. The odour emanated from this area causes environmental pollution and it is injurious to the health of the inhabitants. Also, flies from these areas having contact with residents foods can contaminate the food and cholera disease will be the resultant effect on the health of such person. 4.4 ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION The general condition of buildings within the study area revealed an average level of filthiness and unsightly view. Since the area lacks proper environmental sanitation, utilities and services especially in the areas of refuse disposal, kitchen, toiletries and bathrooms facilities, there will always be filthy environment as it is in the case of Otun/ Isale - Ibata core area of Saki. The study area can be categorized under an unkempt and untidy environment since it possesses all elements of pollution such as noise, air, water visual and other physical hazards. The open drains and ditches in the study area have become dumping ground for refuse thereby littering the environment. Water emptied into the nearby open-spaces from bathrooms and kitchens has formed stinking stagnant pools especially in the raining season and that has provided breading spaces for mosquitoes.


All these can cause communicable diseases to the inhabitants of the area if proper attention is not paid to the immediate surrounding of residential building. 4.5 SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY

The analysis of socio- economic survey brings into focus, the economic tauts of the people, their mode of living and aspirations. Although, there are 414 buildings in the study area, but there existed 4 uncompleted buildings and 5 places of worships totaling Nine (9) buildings which are non-residential. Hence, there remains 405 occupied residential buildings for socioecononmic survey. Based on a 20% sample survey of occupied residential buildings (405), 81 houses were sampled in the study area. The population for the sampled buildings is therefore 1,701 people. 4.5.1. POPULATION SIZE OF THE STUDY AREA The 1991 census figure did not give the precise population of the study area, thus the area was regarded as part of Saki township in Saki-West local government area and was counted as part of Saki town. Based on the 20% sample survey of the occupied residential buildings, 81 buildings were sampled. Based on the 81 sampled buildings, the total populations was based on the surveys carried out which revealed the average number of persons per household and average number of households per building. These two variables wee used to multiply the total number of occupied buildings to arrive at the estimated population of the area.


Therefore; (T.N.O.B) Total number of Occupied Buildings = 405 (A.N.H.P.B) Average number of household per buildings =3 (A.N.P.P.H) Average number of persons per household = 7 (A.N.P.P.B) Average number of person per buildings = 21 Therefore; A.N.H.P.B x A.N.P.P.H 3x7 = 21 persons. . . A.N.P.P.B = 21 . . A.N.P.P.B x T.N.O.B = 21 X 405 8,505 Persons Estimated total population of the study area is 8,505 presons. . . Estimated population of sampled buildings = 21x81 = 1,701 people.
(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.2 MARITAL STATUS The survey revealed that the married accounted for a greater proportion which is 33.93% followed by the single. It was discovered tht divorce rate is low and more marriages are expected in the future judging from the high percentage of those who are single. It also shows that there will be greater demand for residential accommodation as the high proportion of this group


gets married. Widowed population accounted for 216 people and are found either residing with their family members or living with their husbands relations. The analysis is shown on the table below. Table XVI Marital stutus Marital status Divorced Separated Widowed Single Married Total No of people 71 351 216 486 577 1,701 Percentage 4.17 20.63 12.70 28.57 33.93 100.00

(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.3 SEX TYPE Most of the people are females, hence female dominate the population of the study area and this accounted for 58.08% out of the total population. Table XVII Sex structure Sex Male Female Total Number of people 713 988 1,701 Percentage 41.92 58.08 100.00

(Source: Field survey February 2006).


4.5.4 AGE STRUCTURE From the distribution, the old and the school age dominate the population of the study area. These shows that there is high dependency ration in the study area. and thus affecting the living standard of the inhabitants. TABLE XVIII Age structure 0-10 10-20 30-40 40-50 50-60 60 and above Total AGE STRUCTURE Number of people 402 92 109 55 635 71 1,701 Percentage 23.63 5.41 6.41 3.23 37.30 4.17 100.00

(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.5 TRIBE COMPOSITION Majority of the respondents according to the survey carried out are Yoruba. This is due to the fact that the study area is located in Yoruba land. Hence there is no diversification of ethnic groups and therefore mixing and sharing of other culture is virtually impossible within the study area. Below is the analysis.


Table XIX Tribe Composition. Tribe Yoruba Hausa Ibo Others (Togo) Total Number of people Percentage 1,674 9 2 16 1,701 98.42 0.52 0.12 0.94 100.00

(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.6 RELIGION OF THE PEOPLE Islamic religion is predominantly practiced as about 56.48% of the sampled populations are Muslims. About 41.50 % are Christians while few people (23) practice traditional religion. (see table below). Table XX Religion of the People Number 711 967 23 1,701 Percentage 41.80 56.84 1.35 100

Religion Types Christianity Islam Traditional Others Total

(Source: Field survey February 2006).


4.5.7 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND The majority of the respndents have no formal education at all and thus shows a high illiteracy level in the study area. A negligible proportion of 4.29% have tertiary education and this comprises of school leavers that are yet to be gainfully employed. This information revealed that there is high level of illiteracy in the study area which can make people difficult to change or drive. (see table below). Table XXI Educational Background Educational status Primary school Secondary school Tertiary institutions No formal Education Total Number 424 318 73 886 1,701 Percentage 24.93 18.69 4.29 52.09 100.00

(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.8 OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE Unless people are incapacitated or sick, they cannot but engage in one activities or the other to satisfy their demand for food, housing, health and other services. Those that are self employed include farmers, the traders and artisans like tailors, goldsmith, carpenter, blacksmith, bricklayers etc. Trading is the most prominent occupation in the study area, majority engage in buying and selling and its majority petty trading. This accounted for 40.89%. Farming is another Prominent occupation mainly done by men. Because of the nearness of their area to the satellite campus of Polytechnic,


Ibadan situated at Saki, some Polytechnic students were living in this area. The table below indicates the proportion of people engaged in each employment status. TABLE XXII Occupation Trading Farming Civil servant Artisan Student Unemployment Total OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE No of People 697 106 12 51 315 520 1,701 Percentage 40.98 30.57 0.71 2.99 18.52 6.23 100

(Source: Field survey February 2006).

4.5.9 MODE OF TRANSPORT As discovered during the physical survey of the study area, most of the inhabitants mode of transport is public transport. This is followed by those owners of motorcycles (323). Most old people usually goes about by foot, so far they do not usually cover much distance as revealed by the respondents.


Table XXIII Mode of transport Mode Foot Bicycle Motorcycle Public Transport Private vehicle Total Number 97 134 323 924 223 1,701 Percentage 5.76 7.88 18.99 54.32 13.11 100

(source: Field survey February 2006). 4.5.10 DISTANCE TO RESIDENTS PLACE OF WORK

It is noted from the analysis below that most residents work inside the study area. This is evident in the fact that majority of the residents are petty traders. There are very few people that work away from the area over 5 kilometres. Table XXIV Distance to place work Distance (km) Less than 1 1-2 2-3 4-5 Over 5 Total No of persons 408 171 192 44 53 866 Percentage 47.11 19.75 22.17 1.62 6.12 100

(Source: Field survey February 2006).


4.5.11 ANNUAL INCOME LEVEL The analysis of the table below showed that 66.05 % of labour force earn between #10,000 to #20,000. These is followed by those who earn between #20,000 to #30,000 and they are just 156 People. The analysis therefore shows that the majority of people living in the study area earn less #50,000 annually even with the present value of naira. It can therefore be deducted that majority of the residents of the area are relatively poor. So most building owners and tenants were there because they cannot afford the high cost of land and living in other exclusive areas of Saki. Table XXV Income level Range (#) 0- 20,000 20,000-30,000 30,000-40,000 40,000-50,000 50,000-60,000 60,000 above Total Number of People 572 156 91 47 866 Percentage 66.05 18.01 10.50 5.43 100

(Source: Field survey February 2006).



People generally reside in certain area for certain reasons. This reason or reasons determine where one builds his house or where he /she could not


afford building a house show from the analysis below. More than half of the people interviewed settled in the area because the building occupied by them is their family house. This is followed by those who are there because it is closer to their places of work (i.e. Polytechnic students and some staffs together with artisans that have their shops very close to the study area) and followed by people who disclosed that that is the only place available to them as at the period they are looking for accommodation. Table XXVI Reason Nearness to Place of work Family House To be far from extended family Only Place available Others (specify) Total 338 1,701 19.87 100 428 935 25.16 54.97 Reason for staying in the study area. No of people Percentage

(Source: Field survey February 2006).



Efficient circulation network and transportation are required in any given functional area. There are two types of road found in the study area. These are the Distributor road (Ajegunle- Apininte- Ago - Are road) Measuring of about 18 metre width. Others are access roads measuring about 12 metres (Otun Apinite Otun -Oke - Apeki and Isale-Ibata Igboologun roads).


Most traffic jams and accidents in urban area occur at road junctions and intersections. Junction is where two roads meet while an intersection is where two road, cross or where four or more roads converge. The intersection at Apinnite where the road that leads to Otun/isale -Ibata derives it source is an hazardous point as well as a potential accident point. The study area is not well connected in terms of road network. Though one can enter the study area through Apinnite or Isale - Ola roads, moving within the study area is not so convenient especially with vehicle. Due to the fact that most of the buildings were constructed prior to the establishment of Ifedapo local government which housed Ifedapo planning division before it was splited and now Saki West local planning authority which is responsible for physical planning and control in the town, a large proportion of the buildings were put up haphazardly at the discretion of the developer without adequate consideration for accessibility, set backs and air spaces. Hence, roads in the study area just take any route that was available since there is no master plan to guide the road pattern in the study area. The traffic is not so high in the study area. This is so because most of the respondents were petty traders and they do their business inside the study area, except for when they wanted to go and buy things in bulk from outside the area. The traffic volume is somehow heavy especially during the day along Apinnite - Ago- Are since it is the main road that enters the town (Saki) from the South. It was this road that connected Saki to the headquarters of Oyo state (Ibadan). The Otun-Apinnite Isale-Ibata road is next in hierarchy considering traffic movement. It is the road that links the study area with the centre of the town where Obas palace is situated. Since


there is no other road that links the study area with polytechnic, the traffic used to be heavy on this road especially during the day.




In determining the problems or prospects of an area, the socio economic background (age status, income level, educational status, marital status, religion and sex) of the residents as well as the condition of buildings and the general environment are the major factors for the progress or otherwise of the area. The quality of the occupier of a geographical area is important which can make or mare the progress of such an area. These influence contributed greatly to the problems that exist in Otun/Isale-Ibata area of Saki. The summary of the problems identified in the study area are stated below; (1) During the physical survey it was revealed by about 80% of the respondents that there are inadequate life support systems such as water, medical facilities and infrastructures. (2) From the land use analysis indicated by Table I, it was revealed that there are no organized open spaces. Within environmental area, the absence of organized footpaths leads to the space between buildings being used for public passages. (3) Researchers observation during physical survey of the study area revealed that parking spaces, loading and waiting facilities are absent for vehicles.



From the field observation, the closeness of the buildings prevents proper ventilation and sun lighting. Therefore, there are insufficient open spaces for adequate ventilation and lighting.


Only 7.73% buildings are structurally sound with facilities provided within. 51.93% are fair while 40.34% out of the total buildings are regarded to as being poor. These poor buildings are eyesores, unsightly and dangerous to both the occupiers and passersby. Since some of them are badly dilapidated. The rooms are not poorly ventilated, finishes is poor and hosing facilities such as latrine, bathrooms, kitchens wells are absent.


The field observation revealed that functional separation of spaces is not well indicated in some of the houses. Sleeping, cooking, eating etc, are carried out in the same room and passages are also used for cooking, parking of motorcycles and storage of fire woods. External spaces are neither encouraging. They are full of dilapidated structures, refuse, flowing waste water and associated location of tombs, wells and latrines.


Evidence from the field survey shows that there is high rate of emigration of the productive manpower to opportunities provided elsewhere for better living condition, work and freedom from family ties.


The drainage system is very poor. No single road in the study area has drainage and buildings do not observe the 4.5m standard setback from the road. There are some faulty public tap seen around the area. It was


gathered during the survey that tap water has seize to run for about for (4) years ago. (9) Organized refuse dumps do not exist in the study area. Refuse is indiscriminately scattered all over the area thereby making it an eyesore. The only source of water supply is well and unhygienic. Some of them located beside tombs and gutters. (10) There is no organized market within the study area. Residents depend on the Ogidigbo or Ajegunle market for shopping. They travelled long distance to buy lower and higher order goods (11) There is no single Primary school or Secondary school within the study area. The nearest secondary school is about 3 - 4 kilometres away. The nearest primary school is equally about 3 - 4 kilometres away from the area. The Secondary school is Ayekale Grammar School while the primary school is Otun primary school. In summary therefore, the problem of the area is as a result of planlessness of the area which is caused by both the socio-economic background of the residents the and the inability of the planning authority responsible for the development control of the area to ensure effective and functional development in the area. 5.2 1. POTENTIALITIES There is existence of communal association. This is evident in the ownership of wells as well as grading and maintaining of roads in the study area. This will make sustainable approach to development much easier.



Existence of utilities and services very close to the neighborhood which can serve as a base to be built upon e.g. existence of public tap, could be extended to individual houses.


The topography of the area towards the Western part of the north which may be used for the provision of some of the public facilities.


The dilapidated buildings can be easily acquired by the government, pull down to provide such community facilities that will save the community at large.


The population of the area which is 8,526 people is relatively large enough to support the facilities and service to be provided for the area.



The recommendations given will do a lot of improvement to the condition of the study area. Generally, the problem in the core areas calls for the need to re-formulate a national urbanization policy in Nigeria. This should be provided within the framework of the national development plan to address the poverty and social isolation of the majority group in the core areas of our cities. The three (3) concept earlier discussed in the theoretical framework in chapter two will be adopted in making the proposal for the improvement of the area. These are urban Renewal concept, Neighborhood concept and the sustainable development planning concept.


Though urban renewal concept will form the nucleus of the proposal but both the neighborhood and sustainable development planning concepts will be used for implementation. The fallen and the dilapidated buildings in core areas should be demolished to pave way for roads, new buildings and public facilities. To ensure road safety and convenience, general road rehabilitation is recommended, convenient circulation for pedestrians, lay-bys and street side walkways. Street light, construction of drainages and construction of new roads should be made where necessary. Renovation of buildings should involve wall, roofs, and floors etc repairs. Changing of small windows to the standard size, door and bad roof structures should also be renovated. 5.3.1 ALTERNATIVE ONE In view of the problem highlighted in the existing report, the following proposals are made to serve as the corrective measure. The whole area is 24.32 hectares of land in which is shared among broad uses like residential, commercial, industrial, public/ semi-public, open space, circulation and recreation. Below is the breakdown of the proposed land used for Otun /Isale -Ibata core area.



Residential Commercial Industrial Public/ semi-Public Circulation Open space Recreational Total

12.11 2.26 1. 62 2.01 4.06 1.04 1.25 24.32

49.79 9.29 6.66 8.26 16.69 4.26 5.14 100.00

(Source: see Authors field survey, 2006)

RESIDENTIAL LAND USE Most of lands are devoted to residential use so as to minimize complete displacement of residents. A total area of 12.11 hectares i.e. 49.79% is proposed for residential land use. The decrease being a function of the displaced resident, land for new roads and facilities. A total number of 26 buildings was set aside for demolition purpose. COMMERCIAL LAND USE To strengthen the economic dependency of the study area, these facilities are provided.


Market- An organized market is proposed facing the main Otun / Isale -Ibata road. This will ease the Problem of traveling longer than necessary to Ogidigbo or Ajegunle market for shopping. Retail Shops- This is located at strategic places. Each of the quarters i.e. Oke- Aje, Otun and Isale -Ibata has two (2) retail shop each. The total area used for commercial activities is 2.26 hectares accounting for 9.29% of the total land area. INDUSTRIAL LAND USE The light industry is the only permissible industrial type in a residential neighborhood

Light Industries - This is allowed at locations accessible to the residents of the study area. The area covered by this sector is 1.62 hectares. PUBLIC / SEMI -PUBLIC LAND USE. The following are the necessary facilities to the Otun / Isale -Ibata core area of Saki a. Public Toilets

Four (4) toilets are placed at strategic place round the study area e.g. Apininte, Oke- Aje, Otun and Isale - Ibata in order to keep the area clean because of those pople using the edge of rivers as toilet and also some of the open places and mess up the area with bad odour, public toilets were provided to serve the people in the study area. b. Parking Facilities


The study area is provided with adequate parking lot very close to the market centre so as to discourage on-street parking of vehicles. c. Sub- fire station

A sub-fire fighting station is proposed for the study area because of fire outbreak. Every public facility will be provided with the fire extinguisher in case of any fire outbreak in the study area. This is to ease the problem been faced by the only fire station in Saki located at Igbooro which is about 5kilometres to the study area. d. Boreholes and deep wells

Public water is also necessary in Otun / Isale Ibata area, so one (1) borehole and four (4) deep wells were provided in other to ease the problem of water supply in the study area. e. Drainage

For easy running of water and other debris, an open drainage is proposed and also to reduce or prevent the area from flood. Also the spread of disease will be reduced and hygiene will be improved upon. f. Health centre

Through the study area, there exist no healthy centre. Hence two (2) modern health centres were proposed. One at Oke-Aje and another one at Isale-Ibata and must be fully equipped with professional staff and drugs so as to cater for immediate health services within the area. g. Waste disposal


This is divided into two, which are the solid and liquid waste. There was no enough space for the sitting of treatment centre for the solid waste but refuse collection points were located at strategic places within the reach of the residents and for easy evacuation by the local government environmental sanitation committee. Liquid waste from Bathrooms and kitchens will be taken care of by the provision of gutter well channeled to link the drainage part that has been recommended under drainage. h. Police Post

A police post was proposed in the study area. Since the only available police station is located at Oke- Dio about 5-6 kilometers from the study area. This is to check the actions from the study area. This is to check the actions of the criminals and also to safeguard the market people in the area. i. Educational facilities

One primary school was proposed in the area This is to ease the problem of trekking to Otun- Oko primary school by the primary school age pupils. The secondary school pupils can still maintain going to either Ayekale, Baptist or Community high schools. j. Organized open space

Two organized open space was provided in the study area. Residents can go to this area to relax especially after the days work since all work without play makes Jack a dull boy. Concrete chairs and tables will be mounted in this area where indoor and other games can be engaged in.



Neighborhood Centre

A neighborhood centre is proposed this will be used by residents for meetings concerning the progress of the community and also for relaxation. This will also be used for social and cultural activities. All these accounted for 2.01 hectares of land out of the total 24.32 hectares of land in the study area. CIRCULATION LAND USE Efficient circulation network and transportation are required in any given functional area. This is required to facilitate the movement of residents to other parts of the city. The access roads proposed are expected to empty traffic into the collector road. Right angled roads are proposed in order to increase safe sight distance and therefore reduce accidents. Concrete lined drainage channels are proposed to the already existing roads and proposed roads on both sides. A total of 4.06 hectares of land is assigned to this use. OPEN SPACE / RECREATIONAL LAND USE Two organized open spaces were proposed for the study area. It is proposed that concrete chairs and table be mounted within this organized open space and people can go there to play Ludo games and relax after the days work. There are some open spaces left between buildings and facilities. A total of 9.40% was devoted for this land use.


5.3.2 ALTERNATIVE TWO Typically, this programme will improve the existing road, provision of new roads and parking spaces as well as re-alightment of existing roads so as to provide greater accessibility. Rehabilitation and demolition of buildings especially at the centre is the concept used here. Facilities were concentrated at the centre so as to be readily available to all the residents without having to travel a long distance. PROSPOSED LAND USE MAP FOR ALTERNATIVE TWO TABLE XXVIII LAND USE FOR ALTERNAIVE TWO
LAND USE Residential Commercial Industrial Public/semi public Circulation Recreation/open space Total AREA (HECTRE) 11.75 2.01 1.82 3.93 3.08 1.73 24.32 PERCENTAGE (%) 48.31 8.26 7.48 16.17 12.66 7.12 100.00

Source: Authors field survey, 2006 (See proposed land use map for alternative two)


RESIDENTIAL LAND USE The area of residential use in the area before has been reduced from 15.0 to 11.75 hectares so as to give room for the provision of amenities and services and other essential facilities. However, in spite of the reduction, residential land use still take the largest share of the whole area. This covers a total area of 11. 75 hectares which is 48.32 %. Some buildings with fair conditions are proposed for rehabilitation and the poor ones to be redeveloped. COMMERCIAL LAND USE. It was noticed that most of the frontage of residential buildings have been concerted into some commercial uses and therefore resulting in mixed uses which has been identified as a problem. To arrest this situation, an organized open market has been proposed and corner shops are provided at strategic places. The total area earmarked for this is 2.01 hectares. INDUSTIAL LAND USE The light industries proposed are carpenters workshop, welding workshops, mechanic workshops etc. This is limited to these types of industries because the area is a residential area which cannot sustain heavy industrial work due to pollution and some other reasons. This accounted for 7.48 % of the total land area.



Generally, these public facilities are lacking in the study area and are very important for the proper functioning of environment Neighbourhood Centre A community centre was provided and being located centrally in the study area. This centre will be used for relaxation, cultural display entertainment, interaction and to improve their socio ideals. Health Centre There was no health centre in the study area as revealed during the survey. Hence an Health centre is proposed located at the centre of the study area. Sub- Fire Station A sub- fire station is proposed beside the open market in the centre of study area to take care of any incident of fire outbreak in the market and in the general study area. Public Toilets There exist no public toilets as observed during physical survey in the study area. Hence the provision of three (3) public toilets which will be monitored by the person (s) appointed by the community. Educational Facility One primary school was proposed since there was no primary school within the study area as revealed during the survey and the pupils has to travel like 3-4 kilometres before getting to the most nearest primacy school (Otun oko


Baptist primary school). This will serve the primary pupils and safeguard them from trekking a far distance before getting to the school. Refuse Collection Centres For sanitary reasons, refuse collection centres were placed strategically within the study area. Garbage from each buildings should be collected and brought to the refuse collection centres where government vehicles comes to empty it at least twice a week to the refuse dump at the outskirts of the town. Boreholes and Wells The present water supply is mainly from wells and streams. The few buildings with water tap systems no longer enjoy it, hence there is provision of two (2) boreholes and two (2) deep wells in the study area. Commercial Bank Throughout the study area as revealed during the survey, no bank existed. A bank is therefore proposed in the centre of the study area very close to the market where traders and the residents in general can deposits their money from been carted away by the robbers. Police Post A police post is proposed so as to curb the excesses of the inhabitant and also to guide against the robbers attack on the traders in the market proposed. This is to lessen the work of the general police station at Oke -Dio, 5-6 kilometers away from the study area.


A total of 3.93 hectares of land accounting for 16.17% of the total land area was earmarked for public land use. Circulation Provision of good roads are indispensable necessity of life All the existing roads were retained and more access roads were proposed to serve those areas and buildings without any defined access in the study area. The total land area earmarked for circulation is 3.08 hectares of land which is 12.66 %
(See road network & facilities map for Alt. two).

Recreation / open space During the field survey, it was noted that there was virtually no recreational facility or any form of community recreational facilities but some incidental open spaces have been converted to football fields and playground for the children. This has made it necessary to provide the area with an organized open space for social, physical and mental development of the residents 1.73 hectares of land which is 7.12 % has been earmarked for this use. LANDSCAPING The importance of trees and plants to human living is vital and cannot be overlooked. Landscaping of the stream setback is taken into consideration in this proposal. Trees and shrubs are planted along the setback of the streams to provide comfort for relaxation and also to add to the aesthetic value of the study area.




The total number of houses that gave way for circulation and other facilities in alternative one and two are Twenty six (26) and ninety eight (98) buildings respectively. According to the standard, size of high density residential building = (18 x 30) m2 = 540m2 = 0.054 hectares or 546 people Therefore for alternative one (1) (26 x 0.054) hectares = 1.404 hectares For alternative two (2), it will be (98 x 0.054) hectares = 5.292 hectares or 2,058 people Since the aim is to decongest the area, the people displaced will be settled in government schemes like Gedu estate and Asabari housing schemes 5.5. EVALUTAION OF THE ALTERNATIVE PLANS

Much has been said about the two alternative proposals. However, there is need for assessment of the two alternatives so as to determine the worthiness of each one of them. ALTERNATIVE ONE Rehabilitation, conservation with redevelopments is the strategies embarked upon in preparing this comprehensive development plan.



More buildings are accessible by road. Provision of utilities and facilities becomes easier. Avoidance of more bridges. No proposed road network crosses the stream.

2. 3.

4. 5.

Few buildings demolished. Requires smaller resettlement area for the disposal people.

Disadvantages 1. Few facilities were provided as compound with the other alternative e.g. Bank is provided in the other alternative.

Demolition of buildings occurred, hence, there are people to resettle. ALTERNATIVE TWO Rehabilitation with much clearance was the strategies embarked upon in preparation of this alternative. Advantages

1. 2. 3.

More roads were proposed compared to that of alternative ONE More buildings are accessible by roads More facilities compared to that of alternative One


Disadvantages 1. The area covered by facilities was more than that of alternative one 2. There is presence of more bridges. 3. More buildings were demolished than that of alternative one to pave way for more facilities and roads. 4. More resettlement land area compared with that of alternative one required to cater for the displaced people. Therefore, my preferred alternative out of the two alternatives is ALTERNVATIVE ONE REASON FOR CHOOSING MY ALTERNATIVE 1. Few buildings were demolished as compared to the other alternative, hence, little money will be spent for the displaced people.

The existing bridges were maintained thereby costing less in providing for more new bridges.


It lays more emphasis on rehabilitation and upgrading with few clearance as compared to the other alternative.


It requires less amount of money for implementation when compared to that of alternative two.


One fifth of the resettlement land area for the other alternative (two) will be needed for this alternative one i.e. my preferred alternative.




PHASING A plan of this nature is usually divided into several stages of development. With each phase specific project and programmes can be defined and other required resources can be made. The implementation of this project is proposed to last for sixteen (16) years, which will be divided into four (4) phases with each phase commencing immediately the period of the preceding one has lapsed. Phase I (2006-2010) a. Declining the area as planning area and sensitization of residents of Otun / Isale- Ibata core area about the planning intension of their area. b. c. Identification and marking of affected buildings Temporary relocation of people to be displaced and compensation paid out to the people concerned. d. Demolition of structures affected by new roads and provision of facilities. e. f. Opening up of all proposed roads Construction of boreholes



Placing of refuse collection cans at refuse collection points.

Phase II (2010-2014) a. b. c. d. e. f. Construction of retail shops Commencement of market stalls construction Construction of public toilets Opening up of the sites for service industries Construction of organize open space Planting of shaddy trees and shrubs on the setback of Weewe and Osooro stream. Phase III (2014-2018) a. Rehabilitation programme for 60% houses that need upgrading and repair. b. Construction of community facilities like Bank, police post, sub -fire station, health centres, etc. and other facilities like drainages, street light etc. Phase IV (2018-2022) a. Rehabilitation programme for the rest 40% buildings that needs upgrading and repair. b. Completion of all other facilities like primary school, Neighborhood centre and parking space.




The working target groups are the point of the whole EPM (Environmental Planning and Management). The groups are the mechanisms through which the participation of stake holders and major actors are ensured. In general the stakeholders are; a. Those whose interest are affected by both environmental problems and proposed management strategies and renewal plans. b. Those who posses relevant information and experts that can understand the issues and evolve solution to the problems. c. Those that control implementing environmental management and betterment strategies. FINANCIAL IMPLICATION / COSTING As earlier mentioned, both financial and technical aids will be given by the Oyo state Government, Saki West Local government, residents and foreign bodies like international organization e.g. UNNCHS (Habitat).


In summary, the cost of the project i.e. implementation of the proposals are shown Rehabilitation of existing buildings Construction of new roads and parking space Construction of Drainages Public Toilets Primary Schools construction Sub- fire station Bank Refuse collection centres Provision of Recreational facilities Sinking of Boreholes Provision of Health centre Landscaping of conservable area i.e. (stream setbacks) Miscellaneous Resettlement of displaced people Police post Total # 85,000.00 #500,000.00 # 50,000,000.00 # 2,500,000.00 # 410,785,00.00 #20,000,000.00 #100,000,000.00 #200,000,000.00 #2,000,000.00 #7,000,000.00 #20,000,000.00 #4,000,000.00 #1,000,000.00 #500,000.00 #100,000.00 #2,000,000.00




In the implementation of the proposals, it is necessary to identify the various stakeholders and assign roles to be played by each of them for the execution of the project. These financial actors that were expected to carry out the proposals include 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Oyo State government Saki West local government Public Corporation Ministries and Establishments The Landlord association and residents of Otun / Isale - Ibata core areas of Saki. National and International Organizations Saki-West local planning authority

1. Oyo state Government Oyo state government is expected to compulsorily acquire all

underdeveloped land expected to be used in the provision of amenities payment of compensation to the displaced and given financial support to landlords who want to upgrade their substandard building. They are also expected to provide technical assistance in the construction process and also embark on the preparation of master plan for Saki as well as other towns and cities in the state. 2. Saki -West local planning Authority The planning Authority has a very major role to play. It is to see to the proper implementation of the proposal plan of action. It is also to act as the sole coordinator and Monitoring unit.


Finally the authority is to supervise the upgrading process and ensure that; a. The proposed facilities when being provided and are done to standard specification at proposed locations b. The substandard building obtains planning permission and is upgraded to recommended standard. c. There is proper public enlighten campaign on the need for the role of planning. d. There is proper plan implementation and provision of the necessary basic facilities and services. 3. Saki -West local government

This local governments are to be directly involved in the provision of the proposals. This includes the provision of public toilets, police post, are to provide refuse disposal drums to the resident of the study area free of charge. They are to appoint refuse disposal outfit (contractors) to collect and dispose refuse. The health departments of the local government are to move available enough sanitary inspections of all the buildings in the study area. 4. Public Corporation, Ministries and Establishment a The public corporation and Ministries especially Ministry of Education are expected to provide the proposed facilities such as the primary school in the study area.



The state Ministry of works is also expected to resurface the state roads in the study area and provide them with adequate drainage facilities and street lights.


Mass media in the state such as the (BCOS) Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State, Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Saki etc are to partake in the public enlightenment campaign through which the general public can know better about the planning rules and regulations.


Landlord Associations and Residents of Otun / Isale - Ibata core are of Saki. The various landlords associations within the study area such as Ijoko Otun landlord association, Oke-Oye and Isale-Ibata landlord association are expected to seek advice from planning Authority regarding how best to upgrade substandard buildings. After doing this and obtaining planning permission, building requiring improvement could be upgraded through the communal effort involving al members of the landlord association and other interested residents to save cost. They can also partake in the provision of drainage facilities instead of waiting for the local or state government.

With the above conditions strictly adhere to coupled with effective participation of all the financial actors involved in the implementation machinery, there is every hope to the success of the programme proposed to revitalize and improve the physical condition of the study area.


5.10. FINANCING Financing is one of the sensitive issues that government has to face in the formulation of slum or core area upgrading system. Upgrading programme can substantially left to the residents and outside intervention limited to self -help assistance adaptation of building codes and standard provision of the loan and security of tenure. The provision of the urban services has been the sole responsibility of the government in Nigeria. However, for the implementation of the proposed facilities and general upgrading of Otun/ Isale - Ibata core area of Saki, it is recommended that the local government and the house owners or Landlords will be the main contributors while grants from the state government (and development funds) will serve as supplements. Loans can also be obtained either from federal or state government or from banks. For example, construction loan could be obtained for road construction with the houses as securities. 5.11. CONCLUSION In conclusion therefore, the problems identified in this study area are common to most urban core area in Nigeria and other developing countries of the world. It is therefore necessary for government at every level to formulate policy on urban core area development and the policy should be related to changing the characteristics of our core areas. Also, resident of urban core areas must see the problems in the core area as their problem an that the era of "government must provide everything" has gone. They are to start solving their problems themselves and then call on


government to assist them as adopted by United Nations in the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process It is hoped that if the proposal contained in this report as regard to the core area of Otun/Isale -Ibata of Saki could be implemented, they will surely go a long way to reducing, the physical planning problems in the area.


Ames, T. (1994) The Modern Metropolis in the Origings, Growth Characteristics and Planning, By Blumenfed, H (1997). Ayeni, Adesina (1984) Problems and Prospects of Building Construction Industry in a Deregulated Economy Tuesday December, 1984 pp 15 Ayeni, B. (2000) Lecture Notes on Quantitative Methods for geography Students. Research Support Services, Ibadan. Onibikun, Egunjobi & Olokesusi (1987) Urban Renewal in Nigeria, NISER/CURB, Ibadan. Abraham, Charles (1966) Housing in the Modern World. Man Struggle for Shelter in an Urbanising World, Faber and Faber Ltd., London. Adeniyi, L. A. (1980) Housing Charactistics; Problems and Prospects in Osogbo Township. Unpublished H.N.D. Dissertation in Town Planning Department, The Polytecnic, Ibadan. Aicllo, R. John (1979) Residential Crocoding and Design. Plenum Press, New York. Claire, W. H. (1975) Hand Book on Urban Planning, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York. Conant, J. B. (1962) Slum, Prospects and People Social-Psychological Problems of Education. Duke University Press Durham N. C. 1962. in Nigerian Tribune,


Karn, Valeria, A. (1973) Housing Standard and Cost Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, University of Birminham. Kirby, D.A. (1979) Slum Housing and Residential Renewal: The case in Urban Britain, London, Longman. Pepper, Simon (1971) Housing improvement Goal and Strategies, Land Humphines Publishers Ltd. Omole, F. K. (2000) Urban Revewal Process Issues and Strategies, Concept Books and Publication Company Nigeria Limited. Obateru, O. I. (1986) Land Subdivision Guide. Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Limited, Ibadan, Nigeria. Taiwo, D. O. (1996) The City Consultation on Environmental Planning and Management Concept in Ibadan, Ibadan EPM New Issue Vol. I. Onibokun, A. G. (1992) Nigerian Cities in their Rehabilitation and Redevelopment. Journal of the Royal Town Planning Institute, Vol. 58, No. 2. Oyewo, O. A. (1982) Urban Planning in Nigeria and the Problems of Slums: in Third World Planning Review. Vol. 1, No. 10.


APPENDIX THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN URBA N AND REGIONAL PLANNING TOPIC: PHYSICAL PLANNING PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT IN SAKI CORE AREAS. (CASE STUDY OF OTUN/ISALE IBATA AREA) QUESTIONNIARE The questions below are in respect of the research topic above. Please do tick the appropriate answers. The answers will be treated with strict confidence. Thanks very much for your co-operation (A) 1. 2. SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY Address of Respondent: Sex Type: Male: ( ), Female: ( ) ), (c) Widowed ( ), (d) (

3. Marital Status: (a) Single ( ), (d) Separated ( ) (e) Divorced ( 4. Age group: (a) 0-10 ( ) others specify ( ). 5. Tribe: (a) Yoruba ( specify ( )

), (b) Married ( ).

), (b) 11-20 ( ), (b) Hausa (

), (c) 21 30 ( ), (c) Ibo (

), (d) Others ), (d)

6. Religion: (a) Christianity ( Others (specify) ( )

), (b) Islam ( ), (c) Traditional (

7. Educational Status: (a) Primary school ( ), (b) secondary school ( ), (c) Tertiary institution ( ), (d) No formal Education ( ).


8. Occupation: (a) Trading ( ), (b) farming ( ), (c) unemployed ( ), (d) civil servant ( ), (e) craftsmanship/Artisan ( ) (f) student ( ), (g) others ( ) 9. Place of Work: (a) Within the inner city ( ), (b) outskirt of the city ( ), (c) Both inner and outskirt ( ) (d) others (specify) ( ) 10. Mode of Transport: (a) Foot ( ) (b) Bicycle ( ) (c) Motorcycle ( ) (d) Public transport ( ) (e) Private vehicle ( ) 11. How long have you and your family lived here? (a) 0-10yrs ( ) (b) 11-12yrs, ( ), (c) 21-30yrs ( ) (d) 31-40 yrs ( ), (e) over 40yrs ( ) 12. Tenure of Building- (a) Owner occupier ( ) (b) Co- ownership ( ), (c) Tenant ( ), (d) Free tenant ( ) (e) others (specify ) ( 0 13. For tenants- Annual Expenditure on housing: (a) 0- #10,000 ( ), (b) # 10,000-20,000, (c) #20,000-30,00 ( ) (d) #30,000-40,0000, ( ) (e) above #40,000 ( ). 14. Average annual income: (a)0- #10,000 ( ) , (b) #10,000-20,000, ( ), (c) #20,000-30,000 ( ) (d) #30,000-40,000, ( ), (d) # 40,000-50,000,( ) (e)# 50,000-60,000, (f) above #60,000 15. Average of water used by day: (a) 50-100litres ( ) (b) 100-150litres ( ) (c) 150-200litres ( ) (d) 200-250 liters ( ) (e) above 300litres ( ) 16. Why have you chosen to stay in this part of the neighborhood? (a) Nearness to place of work ( ) (b) Low rent ( ) 9c) Family house ( ) (d) To be far from extended family ( ) (e) It is the only place available ( ) (f) others (specify) 17. What is the distance to your place of work: (a) Less than 1km ( ) (b) Between 1-2km ( ) (c) Between 2-3km ( ) (d) 4-5km ( ) (e) over 5km ( ) 18. Will you like to move to other part of the city? (a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( )

19. If No, what is your reason for planning to stay?; (a) Low rent ( ) (b) Nearness to place of work ( ) (c) Adequate security ( ) (d) Owned the house ( ) (e) No choice ( ) (f) others (specify) 20. If Yes, what is your reason for planning to move?: (a) High rent ( ) (b) Great distance to place of work ( ) (c) Because of inadequate infrastructure


( ) (d) Transport problem ( ) (e) Inadequate Security ( ) (f) others (specify) 21. Which of these is your hobby?: (a) Walking ( ), (b) Field sport e.g. (footballing) ( ), (c) Swimming ( ), (d) Indoor games (e.g. Ludo, Ayoo) ( ), (e) Sitting outsides ( ) (f) Cultural dance ( ) (g) Watching television/ Video ( ) (h) others ( ) 22. What is the problem you encounter before getting to your place of work?