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# DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

## Digital Modulation Formats

Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristic of a carrier is varied in accordance with a modulating wave With a sinusoidal carrier, the feature that is used by the modulator to distinguish one signal from another is a step change in amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier The result of this modulation process is
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Phase-shift keying (PSK)

## Digital Modulation Formats

The scheme that attains as many of the following design goals as possible
Maximum data rate Minimum probability of symbol error Minimum transmitted power Minimum channel bandwidth Maximum resistance to interfering signals Minimum circuit complexity

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK
The pair of signal s1(t) and s2(t), used to represent binary symbols 1 and 0, respectively, are defined

s1 (t ) =
s2 (t ) =

2 Eb cos(2f c t ) Tb
2 Eb 2 Eb cos(2f c t + ) = cos(2f c t ) Tb Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK
The basis function
2 1 (t ) = cos(2f c t ) Tb
0 t Tb

We may expand the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t) in terms of 1(t)
s1 (t ) = Eb 1 (t )
0 t Tb

s 2 (t ) = Eb 1 (t )

0 t Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK
The coordinates of the message point equal
s11 = s1 (t )1 (t )dt = + Eb
0 Tb

s 21 = s 2 (t )1 (t )dt = Eb
0

Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK
The probability of symbol error

Eb 1 Pe = erfc N 2 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary PSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
In binary FSK system, symbols 1 and 0 are distinguished from each other by transmitting one of two sinusoidal waves that differ in frequency by a fixed amount

2 Eb si (t ) = Tb cos(2f i t ) 0

0 t Tb elsewhere

Where i = 1, 2; symbol 1 is represented by s1(t) and symbol 0 by s2(t) Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit Transmitted frequency

fi =

nc + i Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The most useful form for the set of orthonormal basis functions is
2 i (t ) = Tb cos(2f i t ) 0
0 t Tb elsewhere

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The coefficient sij for i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2 is defined
sij = si (t ) j (t )dt
0 Tb

Tb

Eb = 0

i= j i j

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The two message points are defined by the signal vectors
Eb s1 = 0
0 s2 = Eb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The observation vector x has two elements, x1 and x2, are defined by, respectively

x1 = x(t ) 1 (t )dt
Tb 0

x 2 = x(t ) 2 (t )dt
Tb 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
Define a new Gaussian random variable L whose sample value l is equal to the difference between x1 and x2

l = x1 x2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The conditional mean of the random variable L, given that symbol 1 was transmitted, is
E[L | 1] = E[X 1 | 1] E[X 2 | 1] = + Eb

## On the other hands,

E[L | 0] = E[X 1 | 0] E[X 2 | 0] = Eb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
The variance of the random variable L is independent of which symbol was transmitted Since the random variable X1 and X2 are statistical independent, each with a variance equal to N0/2
Var[L] = Var[X 1 ] + Var[X 2 ] = N0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
Suppose that symbol 0 was transmitted, the corresponding value of the conditional probability density function of random variable L equals
l+ E 1 b f L (L | 0 ) = exp 2N0 2N 0

)
2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
Since the condition x1 > x2, or, equivalently, L > 0, corresponds to the receiver making a decision in favor of symbol 1, the conditional probability of error, given that symbol was transmitted is given by Pe (0) = P(l > 0) = f L (l | 0)dl 0
l+ E 1 b exp = 2N0 2N 0 0

) dl
2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
Put
l + Eb 2N 0 =z

We may rewrite
Pe (0) = 1

Eb 2 N 0

exp z 2 dz

Eb 1 = erfc 2N 2 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK
Probability of symbol error
E 1 b Pe = erfc 2N0 2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Coherent binary FSK

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

The quadrature-carrier multiplexing system produces a modulated wave described as
s (t ) = s I (t ) cos(2f c t ) s Q (t ) sin (2f c t )
sI(t) is the in-phase component of the modulated wave sQ(t) is the quadrature component

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

In QPSK, the phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally space values, such as /4, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4
2E cos 2f c t + (2i 1) s i (t ) = T 4 0
0t T elsewhere

i = 1, 2, 3, 4; E is the transmitted signal energy per symbol T is the symbol duration, and the carrier frequency fc equals nc/T for some fixed integer nc

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

We may rewrite
2E cos (2i 1) cos(2f c t ) 4 T 2E si (t ) = sin (2i 1) sin (2f c t ) T 4 0

0t T elsewhere

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

There are only two orhtonormal basis functions, 1(t) and 2(t), contained in the expansion of si(t)

0t T
0t T

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

There are four message points, and the associated signal vectors are defined by
E cos (2i 1) 4 si = E sin (2i 1) 4

i = 1,2,3,4

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

The received signal, x(t), is defined by
x(t ) = si (t ) + w(t )
0t T i = 1,2,3,4

w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

The observation vector, x, of a coherent QPSK receiver has two elements, x1 and x2

## x1 (t ) = x(t )1 (t )dt = E cos (2i 1) + w1 0 4 T x 2 (t ) = x(t ) 2 (t )dt = E sin (2i 1) + w2 0 4

T

x1 and x2 are sample values of independent Gaussian random variables with mean values equal to E cos[( 2i 1) 4] E sin[( 2i 1) 4] with common variance equal to N0/2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

The probability of correct detection , Pc, equals the conditional probability of joint event x1> 0 and x2> 0, fiven that signal s4(t) was transmitted

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Since the random variables X1 and X2 are (with sample value x1 and x2, respectively) are independent, Pc also equals the product of the conditional probabilities of the events x1> 0 and x2> 0, both given s4(t) was transmitted
Pc =

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Let
x1 E 2 N0 = x2 E 2 N0 =z

We may rewrite
1 Pe =

Eb

exp z dz 2 N0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Since
1

Eb

E 1 exp z dz = 1 erfc 2N 2 N0 2 0

We have

1 E Pc = 1 erfc 2 2 EN 0
E = 1 erfc 2N 0

E 1 2 + erfc 2N 4 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

The average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK is
Pe = 1 Pc

E = erfc 2N 0

1 E 2 erfc 4 2N 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

If E/2N0 >> 1, the average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK as
E Pe erfc 2N 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

In QPSK system, there are two bits per symbol. This mean that the transmitted signal energy per symbol is twice the signal energy per bit, that is E = 2 Eb We may expressthe average probability of symbol error in terms of the ratio Eb/N0
Eb Pe erfc N 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
Consider a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) signal, which is defined for the interval 0 t T, as follows

## for symbol 1 for symbol 0

Eb is the transmitted sinal energy per bit, and Tb is the bit duration

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum shift Keying (MSK)
The phase (0), denoting the value of the phase at time t = 0, depends on the past history of the modulation process The frequencies f1 and f2 are sent in response to binary symbols 1 and 0 appearing at the modulator input, respectively

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
Signal s(t) may be expressed in the conventional form of an angle-modulated wave

2 Eb s (t ) = cos[2f c t + (t )] Tb
where (t) is the phase of s(t) when the phase (t) is a continuous function of time, the modulated wave s(t) itseft is also continuous at all times, including the inter-bit switching time

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
The nominal carrier frequency fc is chosen as the arithmetic mean of the two frequencies f1 and f2
1 f c = ( f1 + f 2 ) 2

The phase (t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds
(t ) = (0) h
Tb t

0 t Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
The phase (t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds

(t ) = (0)

h
Tb

0 t Tb

The plus sign corresponds to sending symbol 1, and the minus sign corresponds to sending symbol 0 The parameter is referred to as the deviation ratio, measured with respect to the bit rate 1/Tb

h = Tb ( f 1 f 2 )

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
At the time t = Tb
h (Tb ) (0) = h
for symbol 1 for symbol 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
Using a well-known trigonometic identity, we may express the CPFSK signal s(t) in terms of its in-phase and quadrature components as follows
2 Eb 2 Eb s (t ) = cos[ (t )]cos(2f ct ) sin[ (t )]sin (2f c t ) Tb Tb

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
With deviation ratio h =
(t ) = (0)
2Tb t
0 t Tb

The plus sign corresponds to symbol 1 and the minus sign corresponds to symbol 0 A similar result holds for (t) in the interval -Tb t 0 Since the phase (0) is 0 or , depending on the past history of the modulation process, in the interval Tb t +Tb , the polarity of cos[(t)] depends only on (0), regardless of the sequence of 1s or 0s transmitted before or after t = 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
For this time interval -Tb t +Tb, the in-phase component, sI(t) consists of a half-cosine pulse defined as follows
s (t ) = 2 Eb cos[ (t )] Tb 2 Eb cos[ (t )]cos = 2T t Tb b
2 Eb cos 2T t Tb b
Tb t Tb

the plus sign corresponds to (0) = 0, and minus sign corresponds to (0) =

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
In the interval 0 t 2Tb, the quadrature component, sQ(t), consists of a half-sine pulse, whose polarity depends only on (Tb) 2 Eb sQ (t ) = sin[ (t )] Tb
= = 2 Eb sin[ (Tb )]sin 2T Tb b 2 Eb sin 2T t Tb b t
0 t 2Tb

the plus sign corresponds to (Tb) = /2 and the minus sign corresponds to (Tb) = -/2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
With h = 1/2 , the frequency deviation (i.e., the difference between the two signaling frequencies f1 and f2) equals half of bit rate This is the minimum frequency spacing that allows the two FSK signals representing symbols 1 and 0, to be cohenrently orthogonal in the sense that they do not interfere with one another n the process of detection CPFSK signal with a deviation ratio of one-half is referred to as minimum-shift keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)
One of four possibilities can arise, as described
The phase (0) = 0 and (Tb) = /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase (0) = and (Tb) = /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0 The phase (0) = and (Tb) = - /2 (or, equivalently, 3/2, modulo 2), corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase (0) = 0 and (0) = - /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
In MSK signal, the appropriate form for the orthonormal basis functions 1(t) and 2(t) is as follows
2 1 (t ) = cos 2T t cos(2f c t ) Tb b 2 2 (t ) = sin 2T t sin (2f ct ) Tb b

Tb t Tb

0 t 2Tb

Both 1(t) and 2(t) are defined for a period equal to twice the bit duration

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
Correspondingly, we may express the MSK signal in the form

s(t ) = s11 (t ) + s 2 2 (t )

0 t Tb

The coefficients s1 and s2 are related to the phase states (0) and (Tb), respectively

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
The in phase component of s(t)
s1 = s (t )1 (t ) dt
T Tb

= Eb cos[ (0)]

Tb t Tb

s2 =
2Tb 0

s(t ) 2 (t )dt
0 t 2Tb

= Eb sin[ (Tb )]

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
Both integrals are evaluated for a time interval equal to twice the bit duration, for which 1(t) and 2(t) are orthogonal Both the lower and upper limits of the product integration used to evaluate th coefficient s1 are shifted by Tb seconds with respect to those used to evaluate the coefficient s2 The time interval 0 t Tb, for which the phase state (0) and (Tb) are defined is common to both integrals

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
In a case of an AWGN channel, the received signal is given by

x (t ) = s (t ) + w(t )
s(t) is the transmitted MSK signal, and w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
In order to decide whether symbol 1 or symbol 0 was transmitted in the interval 0 t Tb, we have to establish a procedure for the use of x(t) to detect the phase states (0) and (Tb) For optimum detection of (0), we have to determine the projection of the received signal x(t) onto the reference signal 1(t) and 2(t)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
x1 = x(t )1 (t )dt
Tb Tb

= s1 + w1
x2 =
2Tb

Tb t Tb

x(t ) 2 t )dt
0 t 2Tb

= s 2 + w2

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying
The average symbol error for the MSK is given by
Eb 1 Eb 2 erfc Pe = erfc N 4 N 0 0
Eb Pe erfc N 0

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Coherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Consider a binary signaling scheme that involves the use of two orthogonal signal s1(t) and s2(t), which have equal energy During the interval 0 t T, one of these two signals is sent over an imperfect channel that shifts the carrier phase by an unknown amount

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Let g1(t) and g2(t) denote the phase-shifted versions of s1(t) and s2(t), respectively It is assumed that g1(t) and g2(t) remain orthogonal and of equal energy, regardless of the unknown carrier phase We refer to such a signaling scheme as noncoherent orthogonal modulation

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The channel also introduces an AWGN w(t) of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2 We may express the received signal x(t) as

## g1 (t ) + w(t ) x(t ) = g 2 (t ) + w(t )

0t T 0t T

x(t) is used to discriminate between s1(t) and s2(t) , regardless of the carrier phase

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The receiver consists of a pair of filters matched to the basis function 1(t) and 2(t) that are scaled versions of the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t), respectively Because the carrier phase is unknown, the receiver relies on amplitude as the only possible discriminant Accordingly, the matched filter outputs are envelope detected, sampled, and then compared with each other.

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
In in-phase path, the receiver signal x(t) is correlated against the basis function i(t), representing a scaled version of the transmitted signal s1(t) or s2(t) with zero carrier phase. In the quadrature path, signal x(t) is correlated against another basis function i (t ), representing the version of i(t) that results from shifting the carrier phase by -900 Naturally, i(t) and i (t ) are orthogonal to each other

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The average probability of error for the noncoherent receiver will be calculated by making use of the equivalence depicted previous picture Since the carrier phase is unknown, noise at the output of each matched filter has two degrees of freedom, namely, inphase and quadrature. Accordingly, the noncoherent receiver has a total of four noise parameters that are statistical independent and identically distributed, denoted by xI1, xQ1, xI2, xQ2
The first tow account for degrees of freedom associated with the upper path The latter two account for degrees of freedom associated with the lower path

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since the receiver has a symmetric structure, the probability of choosing s2(t), given that s1(t) was transmitted, is the same as the probability of choosing s1(t), given that s2(t) was transmitted This means that the average probability of error may be obtained by transmitting s1(t) and calculating the probability of choosing s2(t), or vice versa

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Suppose that signal s1(t) is transmitted for the interval 0 t T, an error occurs if the receiver noise w(t) is such that the output l2 is greater than the output l1 The receiver makes a decision in favor of s2(t) rather than s1(t)

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
To calculate the probability of error, we must have the probability density function of the random variable L2 (represented by sample value l2). Since the filter in the lower path is matched to s2(t), and s2(t) is orthogonal to the transmitted signal s1(t), it follows that the output of this matched filter is due to noise alone.

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Let xI2 and xQ2 denote the in-phase and quadrature components of the matched filter output in the lower path For i = 2
2 l 2 = x I22 + xQ 2

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The random variables XI2 and XQ2 are both Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2 x I22 1 exp f X ( xI 2 ) = N N 0 0
I2

2 xQ 2 1 exp f X Q 2 ( xQ 2 ) = N0 N 0

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Random variable L2 has the following probability density function
2 2l 2 l2 exp N f L 2 (l 2 ) = N 0 0 0

l2 0 elsewhere

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The conditional probability that l2 > l1, given the sample value l1, is defined
P (l2 > l1 | l1 ) = f L 2 (l2 ) dl2
l1

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since the filter in the path is matched to s1(t), and it is assumed that s1(t) is transmitted, it follows that l1 is due to signal plus noise Let xi1 and xQ1 denote the components at the output of the matched filter (in the upper path) that are in-phase and quadrature to the received signal
2 l1 = x I21 + xQ1

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since s1 (t ) is orthogonal to s1(t), it is obvious that xI1 is due to signal plus noise, whareas xQ1 is due to noise alone.
XI1 represented by sample value xI1 is Gaussian distributed with mean E and variance N0/2, where E is the signal energy per symbol XQ1 represented by sample xQ1 is Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The probability density functions of these two independent random variable

x E 1 exp I 1 f X I 1 ( xI 1 ) = N0 N 0
2 xQ1 1 exp f X Q ( xQ1 ) = N 1 N 0 0

)
2

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since the tow random variable XI1 and XQ1 are independent, their joint probability density function is simply the product of the probability density functions of two random variable

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
To find the average probability of error, we have to average the conditional probability of error over all possible values of l1 Given xI1 and xQ1, an error occurs when the lower paths output amplitude l2 due to noise alone exceeds l1 due to signal plus noise

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The probability of such an occurrence is
2 x I21 + xQ1 P (error x I 1 , xQ1 ) = exp N0

## P error x I 1 , xQ1 f X I 1 ( x I 1 ) f X Q1 ( xQ1 )

1 2 1 2 2 exp x I 1 + xQ1 + ( x I 1 E ) 2 + xQ1 = N 0 N0

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Non-coherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since
x +x
2 I1 2 Q1

+ ( xI1 E ) + x
2

2 Q1

E E 2 xI1 + 2 xQ1 + = 2 2 2

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
The average probability of error
Pe =

p(error x

I1

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Since
2 2 E xI1 dx I 1 = exp N 0 2

N 0 2

N 0 2

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation
Accordingly
E 1 Pe = exp 2N 2 0

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Binary FSK
In the case of binary FSK
2 Eb cos(2f i t ) si (t ) = Tb 0

0 t Tb

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Noncoherent Binary FSK
The noncoherent binary FSK described is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with
T = Tb

E = Eb

## The probability of error

Eb 1 Pe = exp 2N 2 0

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
DPSK eliminates the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver by combining two basic operations at the transmitter
Differential encoding of the input binary wave Phase-shift keying

In effect, to send symbol 0 we phase advance the current signal waveform by 1800, and to send symbol 1 we leave the phase of the current signal waveform unchanged

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
The differential encoding process at the transmitter input starts with an arbitrary first bit, serving as reference, and thereafter the differentially encoded sequence {dk} si generated by

d k = d k 1bk + d k 1bk
Bk is the input binary digit at time KTb Dk-1 is the previous value of the differentially encoded bit

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
The receiver is equipped with a storage capability, so that it can measure the relative phase difference between the waveforms received during two successive bit intervals Assumed that the unknown phase contained in the received wave varies slowly (that is, slow enough for it to be considered essentially constant over two bit intervals), the phase difference between waveforms received in two successive bit intervals will be independent of

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
Let s1(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case of symbol 1 at the transmitter input
s1 (t ) = 2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb 2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb

0 t Tb Tb t 2Tb

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
Let s2(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case symbol 0 at the transmitter input
2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb s 2 (t ) = 2 E b cos(2f t + ) i 2Tb

0 t Tb Tb t 2Tb

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
s1(t) and s2(t) are orthogonal over the twobit interval 0 t 2Tb DPSK is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with
T = 2Tb

E = 2 Eb

## Noncoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)
The probability of symbol error
Eb 1 Pe = exp N 2 0

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

In M-ary signaling scheme, we may send one of M possible signals, s1(t), s2(t), , sM(t), during each signaling interval of duration T In almost applications M = 2n These signal are generated by changing amplitude, phase, or frequency of a carrier in M discrete steps. Thus we have:
M-ary ASK M-ary PSK M-ary FSK The symbol duration T = nTb

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
In M-ary PSK, the phase of the carrier takes one of M possible values, i = 2i/M, where i = 0, 1, , M-1 Accordingly, during each signaling interval of duration T, one of possible signals
si (t ) = 2E 2i cos 2f c t + T M
i = 0,1,...M 1

E is the signal energy per symbol Carrier frequency fc = nc/T for some fixed integer nc

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
Each si(t) may be expanded in terms of two basis function
1 (t ) =
2 cos(2f c t ) T

0t T 0t T

2 2 (t ) = sin(2f ct ) T

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
The signal constellation of M-ary PSK is two dimensional. The M message points are equally spaced on a circle of radius E , and center at the origin

M-ary PSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
The optimum receiver for coherent M-ary PSK includes a pair of correlators with reference signals in phase quadrature The two correlators outputs, denoted as xI and xQ, are fed into a phase discriminator that first computes the phase estimate

x = tan 1 Q x I The phase discriminator then selects from the set {si(t), i = 0, , M-1} that particular signal whose phase is closet to the estimate

M-ary PSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
In the presence of noise, the decision-making process in the phase discriminator is based on the noisy input 2i
x I = E cos + wI M 2i xQ = E sin + wQ M

i = 0,1,...M 1

i = 0,1,...M 1

Where wI and wQ are samples of two independent Gaussian random variables WI and WQ whose is mean zero and common variance equals N0/2

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
The message points exhibit circular symmetr Both random variables WI and WQ have a symmetric probability density function The average probability of symbol error Pe is independent of the particular signal si(t) is transmitted

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
We may simplify the calculation of Pe by setting i = 0, which corresponds to the message point whose coordinates along the 1(t)- and 2(t)-axes are E and 0, respectively The decision region pertaining to this message point is bounded by the threshold = M below the 1(t)-axis and the threshold = + M above the 1(t)-axis

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
The probability of correct reception is

Pc =

f ( )d

## f ( ) is the probability density function of the

random variable whose sample value equals the phase discriminator output produced in response to a received signal that consists of the signal s0(t) plus AWGN
WQ = tan 1 E +W I

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
The probability density function f () has a known value. Especially, for we may write
E = 1 exp E + exp E sin 2 1 1 erfc E cos f cos N N N N 0 2 0 0 2 0

()

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
A decision error is made if the angle falls outside M + M

Pe = 1 Pc
=
M
M

f ( ) d

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
For large M and high values of E/N0, we may derive an approximate formula for Pe For high values of E/N0 and for < 2 , we may use the approximation
E N 0 1 exp E cos 2 cos erfc N N E cos 0 0

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary PSK
We get
f ( ) E exp E sin 2 cos N N 0 0
M

<

## E exp E sin 2 d Pe 1 M cos N 0 N 0

E = erfc N sin M 0

M-ary PSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
In an M-ary PSK system, in-phase and quadrature components of the modulated signal are interrelated in such a way that the envelope is constrained to remain constant. This constraint manifests itself in a circular constellation for the message points However, if this constrained is removed, and the in-phase and quadrature components are thereby permitted to be independent, we get a new modulation scheme called M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The signal constellation for M-ary QAM consists of a square lattice of message points.

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The corresponding signal constellations the in-phase and quadarature components of the amplitude phase modulated wave are shown

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The general form of M-ary QAM is defined by the transmitted signal
si (t ) = 2 E0 2 E0 ai cos((2f c t ) + bi sin ((2f c t ) T T
0t T

E0 is the energy of the signal with the lowest amplitude ai and bi are a pair of independent integers chosen in accordance with the location of the pertinent message point

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The signal si(t) can be expanded in terms of a pair of basis functions
1 (t ) =
2 cos(2f c t ) T
0t T 0t T

2 2 (t ) = sin(2f c t ) T

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The coordinates of the ith message point are ai E and bi E , where (ai, bi) is an element of the L-by-L matrix ( L = M )
( L + 1, L 1) ( L + 3, L 1) L ( L 1, L 1) ( L + 1, L 3) ( L + 3, L 3) L ( L 1, L 3) {ai , bi } = M M M ( L + 1, L + 1) ( L + 3, L + 1) L ( L 1, L + 1)

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
For example, for the 16-QAM whose signal constellation is
( 3,3) ( 3,1) {a i , bi } = ( 3,1) ( 3,3)

M-ary QAM

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
Since the in-phase and quadrature components of M-ary QAM are independent, the probability of correct detection for such a scheme may be written as
Pc = 1 P

' 2 e

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The signal constellation for the in-phase or quadrature component has a geometry similar to that for discrete pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) with a corresponding number of amplitude levels We may write
E0 1 P = 1 erfc N L 0
' e

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM is given
Pe = 1 Pc
= 1 1 P 2 Pe'
' where it is assumed that Pe << 1

' 2 e

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM may be written
E0 1 Pe 21 erfc N M 0

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The transmitted energy in M-ary QAM is variable in that its instantaneous value depends on the particular symbol transmitted It is logical to express Pe in terms of the average value of the transmitted energy rather than E0 Assuming that the L amplitude levels of the inphase or quadrature component are equally likely, we have 2 E0 L 2 2 E av = 2 (2i 1) L i =1

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
The limits of the summation take account of the symmetric nature of the pertinent amplitude levels around zero We get
2 L2 1 E 0 E av = 3
2(M 1)E 0 = 3

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary QAM
Accordingly, we may rewrite probability of symbol error in terms of Eav
3Eav 1 Pe 21 erfc 2( M 1) N M 0

M-ary QAM

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary FSK
In an M-ary FSK scheme, the transmitted signals are defined by

si (t ) =

2E cos (nc + i )t T T

0t T

i = 1, 2, , M The carrier frequency fc = nc/2T for some fixed integer nc The transmitted signals are of equal duration T and have equal energy E

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary FSK
Since the individual signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T Hz, the signals are orthogonal

si (t )s j (t )dt = 0

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary FSK
For coherent M-ary FSK, the optimum receiver consists of a bank of M correlators or matched filters At the sampling time t = KT, the receiver makes decisions based on the largest matched filter output

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary FSK
An upper bound for the probability of symbol error
E 1 Pe ( M 1)erfc 2N 2 0

For fixed M, this bound becomes increasingly tight as E/N0 is increased For M = 2, the bound becomes an equality

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

M-ary FSK
The probability of symbol error for noncoherent of M-ary FSK is given
(1) k +1 M 1 kE Pe = k exp (k + 1)N k +1 k =1 0
M 1

The upper bound on the probability of symbol error for noncoherent detection of M-ary FSK
E M 1 exp Pe 2N 2 0

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra
The description of a band-pass signal s(t) contains the definitions of ASK, PSK, and FSK signals, depending on the way in which the in-phase component sI(t) and the quadrature component sQ(t) are defined

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra
We may express s(t) in the form
s(t ) = s I (t ) cos(2f c t ) sQ (t ) sin(2f c t )
= Re[~ (t ) exp( j 2f c t )] s

Where Re[.] is real part of the expression contained inside the bracket

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra
We also have

~ (t ) = s (t ) + js (t ) s I Q
exp( j 2f c t ) = cos(2f c t ) + j sin (2f c t )
The signal s (t ) is called the complex envelope of the band-pass signal s(t) ~ (t ) The component sI(t) and sQ(t) and therefore s are all low-pass signal

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra
Let SB(f) denote the baseband power spectral density of complex envelope We refer to SB(f) as the baseband power s spectral density ~ (t ) The power spectral density, SS(f), of the original band-pass signal s(t) is a frequency-shifted version of SB(f), except for a scaling factor
1 S S ( f ) = [S B ( f f c ) + S B ( f + f c )] 4

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra of Binary PSK
Baseband power spectral density of binary FSK wave equals
2 Eb sin 2 (Tb f ) SB ( f ) = = 2 Eb sin c 2 (Tb f ) (Tb f )2

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of binary FSK
The power spectral densities of SB(f) is given
E SB ( f ) = b 2Tb 1 1 8 Eb cos 2 (Tb f ) + f + + f 2Tb 2Tb 2 4Tb2 f 2 1 2

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra of QPSK
The baseband power spectral density of QPSK signal
S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf ) = 4 E b sin c 2 ( 2Tb f )

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of MSK signal
The baseband power spectral density of MSK signal
g ( f ) 32 E b s B ( f ) = 2 = 2Tb 2 cos(2T f ) b 16Tb2 f 2 1

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of M-ary signal
Binary PSK and QPSK are special cases of M-ary PSK signals The symbol duration of M-ary PSK is defined by
T = Tb log 2 M

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of M-ary PSK
The baseband power spectral density of Mary PSK signal is given by
S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf )

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

The spectral analysis of M-ary FSK signals is much more complicated than that of M-ary PSK A case of particular interest occurs when the frequencies assigned to the multilevels make the frequency spacing uniform and the frequency deviation k= 0.5 That is, the M signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T, where T is symbol duration

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of M-ary FSK
For k = 0.5, the baseband power spectral density of M-ary FSK signals is defined by
1 S B ( f ) = 4 Eb 2M sin i 1 + M 2 i =1 i
M

## ( i + j ) sin i cos i i1= j =1

M M

sin j j

i 4 i = 2i ( M + 1) i = fTb 4

i = 1,2,..., M

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Power spectra of M-ary FSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency
Bandwidth efficiency is defined as the ratio of data rate to channel bandwidth; it is measured in units of bits per second per hertz Bandwidth efficiency is also referred to as spectral efficiency With the data rate denoted by Rb and the channel bandwidth by B, we may express the bandwidth efficiency, , as
Rb = B

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK
The channel bandwidth required to pass Mary PSK signals (more precisely, the main spectral lobe of M-ary PSK signals) is given 2 B= T where T is the symbol duration

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK
Since T = Tb log 2 M Channel bandwidth
2 Rb B= log 2 M

## Channel efficiency of M-ary PSK signals is

Rb log 2 M = = B 2

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK
Channel bandwidth required to transmit M-ary FSK signals as M B= 2T Channel bandwidth of M-ary FSK signals is
Rb M B= 2 log 2 M

## Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK signals is

Rb 2 log 2 M = = B M

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Thus far, the only figure of merit we have used to assess the noise performance of digital modulation schemes has been the average probability of symbol error When the requirement is to transmit binary data, it is often more meaningful to use another figure of merit called the probability of bit error or bit error rate (BER)

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Case 1:
The mapping from binary to M-ary symbols is performed in such a way that the two binary M-tuples corresponding to any pair of adjacent symbols in the M-ary modulation scheme differ in only one bit position (Gray code) When the probability of symbol error Pe is acceptably small, we find that the probability of mistaking one symbol for either of the two nearest (in-phase) symbols is much greater than any other kind of symbol error Moreover, given a symbol error, the most probable number of bit errors is one, subject to the aforementioned mapping constraint

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Case 1
Since there are log2M bits per symbol, it follows that the bit error rate is related to the probability of symbol error by a formula

BER =

pe log 2 M

M 2

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Case 2:
We assume that all symbol errors are equally likely and occur with probability

Pe Pe = K M 1 2 1
where Pe is the average probability of symbol error K = log2M

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Case 2:
There are in which k bits out of K may be in error The average number of bit errors per K-bit symbol is given by
K ways k

Pe 2 K 1 k ( ) 2 K 1 = 2 K 1 KPe k =1
K K k

## M-Ary Modulation Techniques

Bit versus symbol error probabilities
Case 2
The bit error rate is obtained by dividing the result by K

2 K 1 BER = K Pe 2 1
M BER = 2 Pe M 1