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Modulation is defined as the process by which some characteristic of a carrier is varied in accordance with a modulating wave With a sinusoidal carrier, the feature that is used by the modulator to distinguish one signal from another is a step change in amplitude, frequency, or phase of the carrier The result of this modulation process is

Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) Frequency-shift keying (FSK) Phase-shift keying (PSK)

The scheme that attains as many of the following design goals as possible

Maximum data rate Minimum probability of symbol error Minimum transmitted power Minimum channel bandwidth Maximum resistance to interfering signals Minimum circuit complexity

Coherent binary PSK

The pair of signal s1(t) and s2(t), used to represent binary symbols 1 and 0, respectively, are defined

s1 (t ) =

s2 (t ) =

2 Eb cos(2f c t ) Tb

2 Eb 2 Eb cos(2f c t + ) = cos(2f c t ) Tb Tb

Coherent binary PSK

The basis function

2 1 (t ) = cos(2f c t ) Tb

0 t Tb

We may expand the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t) in terms of 1(t)

s1 (t ) = Eb 1 (t )

0 t Tb

s 2 (t ) = Eb 1 (t )

0 t Tb

Coherent binary PSK

The coordinates of the message point equal

s11 = s1 (t )1 (t )dt = + Eb

0 Tb

s 21 = s 2 (t )1 (t )dt = Eb

0

Tb

Coherent binary PSK

Coherent binary PSK

The probability of symbol error

Eb 1 Pe = erfc N 2 0

Coherent binary PSK

Coherent binary PSK

Coherent binary FSK

In binary FSK system, symbols 1 and 0 are distinguished from each other by transmitting one of two sinusoidal waves that differ in frequency by a fixed amount

2 Eb si (t ) = Tb cos(2f i t ) 0

0 t Tb elsewhere

Where i = 1, 2; symbol 1 is represented by s1(t) and symbol 0 by s2(t) Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit Transmitted frequency

fi =

nc + i Tb

Coherent binary FSK

The most useful form for the set of orthonormal basis functions is

2 i (t ) = Tb cos(2f i t ) 0

0 t Tb elsewhere

Coherent binary FSK

The coefficient sij for i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2 is defined

sij = si (t ) j (t )dt

0 Tb

Tb

Eb = 0

i= j i j

Coherent binary FSK

The two message points are defined by the signal vectors

Eb s1 = 0

0 s2 = Eb

Coherent binary FSK

The observation vector x has two elements, x1 and x2, are defined by, respectively

x1 = x(t ) 1 (t )dt

Tb 0

x 2 = x(t ) 2 (t )dt

Tb 0

Coherent binary FSK

Coherent binary FSK

Define a new Gaussian random variable L whose sample value l is equal to the difference between x1 and x2

l = x1 x2

Coherent binary FSK

The conditional mean of the random variable L, given that symbol 1 was transmitted, is

E[L | 1] = E[X 1 | 1] E[X 2 | 1] = + Eb

E[L | 0] = E[X 1 | 0] E[X 2 | 0] = Eb

Coherent binary FSK

The variance of the random variable L is independent of which symbol was transmitted Since the random variable X1 and X2 are statistical independent, each with a variance equal to N0/2

Var[L] = Var[X 1 ] + Var[X 2 ] = N0

Coherent binary FSK

Suppose that symbol 0 was transmitted, the corresponding value of the conditional probability density function of random variable L equals

l+ E 1 b f L (L | 0 ) = exp 2N0 2N 0

)

2

Coherent binary FSK

Since the condition x1 > x2, or, equivalently, L > 0, corresponds to the receiver making a decision in favor of symbol 1, the conditional probability of error, given that symbol was transmitted is given by Pe (0) = P(l > 0) = f L (l | 0)dl 0

l+ E 1 b exp = 2N0 2N 0 0

) dl

2

Coherent binary FSK

Put

l + Eb 2N 0 =z

We may rewrite

Pe (0) = 1

Eb 2 N 0

exp z 2 dz

Eb 1 = erfc 2N 2 0

Coherent binary FSK

Probability of symbol error

E 1 b Pe = erfc 2N0 2

Coherent binary FSK

Coherent binary FSK

Coherent quadrature-modulation techniques

The quadrature-carrier multiplexing system produces a modulated wave described as

s (t ) = s I (t ) cos(2f c t ) s Q (t ) sin (2f c t )

sI(t) is the in-phase component of the modulated wave sQ(t) is the quadrature component

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

In QPSK, the phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally space values, such as /4, 3/4, 5/4, 7/4

2E cos 2f c t + (2i 1) s i (t ) = T 4 0

0t T elsewhere

i = 1, 2, 3, 4; E is the transmitted signal energy per symbol T is the symbol duration, and the carrier frequency fc equals nc/T for some fixed integer nc

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

We may rewrite

2E cos (2i 1) cos(2f c t ) 4 T 2E si (t ) = sin (2i 1) sin (2f c t ) T 4 0

0t T elsewhere

Quadiphase-shift keying (QPSK)

There are only two orhtonormal basis functions, 1(t) and 2(t), contained in the expansion of si(t)

0t T

0t T

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

There are four message points, and the associated signal vectors are defined by

E cos (2i 1) 4 si = E sin (2i 1) 4

i = 1,2,3,4

Quadraphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

The received signal, x(t), is defined by

x(t ) = si (t ) + w(t )

0t T i = 1,2,3,4

w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

The observation vector, x, of a coherent QPSK receiver has two elements, x1 and x2

T

x1 and x2 are sample values of independent Gaussian random variables with mean values equal to E cos[( 2i 1) 4] E sin[( 2i 1) 4] with common variance equal to N0/2

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

The probability of correct detection , Pc, equals the conditional probability of joint event x1> 0 and x2> 0, fiven that signal s4(t) was transmitted

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Since the random variables X1 and X2 are (with sample value x1 and x2, respectively) are independent, Pc also equals the product of the conditional probabilities of the events x1> 0 and x2> 0, both given s4(t) was transmitted

Pc =

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Let

x1 E 2 N0 = x2 E 2 N0 =z

We may rewrite

1 Pe =

Eb

exp z dz 2 N0

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Since

1

Eb

E 1 exp z dz = 1 erfc 2N 2 N0 2 0

We have

1 E Pc = 1 erfc 2 2 EN 0

E = 1 erfc 2N 0

E 1 2 + erfc 2N 4 0

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

The average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK is

Pe = 1 Pc

E = erfc 2N 0

1 E 2 erfc 4 2N 0

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

If E/2N0 >> 1, the average probability of symbol error for coherent QPSK as

E Pe erfc 2N 0

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

In QPSK system, there are two bits per symbol. This mean that the transmitted signal energy per symbol is twice the signal energy per bit, that is E = 2 Eb We may expressthe average probability of symbol error in terms of the ratio Eb/N0

Eb Pe erfc N 0

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Quadriphase-shift keying (QPSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Consider a continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK) signal, which is defined for the interval 0 t T, as follows

Eb is the transmitted sinal energy per bit, and Tb is the bit duration

Minimum shift Keying (MSK)

The phase (0), denoting the value of the phase at time t = 0, depends on the past history of the modulation process The frequencies f1 and f2 are sent in response to binary symbols 1 and 0 appearing at the modulator input, respectively

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Signal s(t) may be expressed in the conventional form of an angle-modulated wave

2 Eb s (t ) = cos[2f c t + (t )] Tb

where (t) is the phase of s(t) when the phase (t) is a continuous function of time, the modulated wave s(t) itseft is also continuous at all times, including the inter-bit switching time

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

The nominal carrier frequency fc is chosen as the arithmetic mean of the two frequencies f1 and f2

1 f c = ( f1 + f 2 ) 2

The phase (t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds

(t ) = (0) h

Tb t

0 t Tb

Minimum Shift Keying

The phase (t) of a CPFSK signal increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds

(t ) = (0)

h

Tb

0 t Tb

The plus sign corresponds to sending symbol 1, and the minus sign corresponds to sending symbol 0 The parameter is referred to as the deviation ratio, measured with respect to the bit rate 1/Tb

h = Tb ( f 1 f 2 )

Minimum Shift Keying

At the time t = Tb

h (Tb ) (0) = h

for symbol 1 for symbol 0

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Using a well-known trigonometic identity, we may express the CPFSK signal s(t) in terms of its in-phase and quadrature components as follows

2 Eb 2 Eb s (t ) = cos[ (t )]cos(2f ct ) sin[ (t )]sin (2f c t ) Tb Tb

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

With deviation ratio h =

(t ) = (0)

2Tb t

0 t Tb

The plus sign corresponds to symbol 1 and the minus sign corresponds to symbol 0 A similar result holds for (t) in the interval -Tb t 0 Since the phase (0) is 0 or , depending on the past history of the modulation process, in the interval Tb t +Tb , the polarity of cos[(t)] depends only on (0), regardless of the sequence of 1s or 0s transmitted before or after t = 0

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

For this time interval -Tb t +Tb, the in-phase component, sI(t) consists of a half-cosine pulse defined as follows

s (t ) = 2 Eb cos[ (t )] Tb 2 Eb cos[ (t )]cos = 2T t Tb b

2 Eb cos 2T t Tb b

Tb t Tb

the plus sign corresponds to (0) = 0, and minus sign corresponds to (0) =

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

In the interval 0 t 2Tb, the quadrature component, sQ(t), consists of a half-sine pulse, whose polarity depends only on (Tb) 2 Eb sQ (t ) = sin[ (t )] Tb

= = 2 Eb sin[ (Tb )]sin 2T Tb b 2 Eb sin 2T t Tb b t

0 t 2Tb

the plus sign corresponds to (Tb) = /2 and the minus sign corresponds to (Tb) = -/2

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

With h = 1/2 , the frequency deviation (i.e., the difference between the two signaling frequencies f1 and f2) equals half of bit rate This is the minimum frequency spacing that allows the two FSK signals representing symbols 1 and 0, to be cohenrently orthogonal in the sense that they do not interfere with one another n the process of detection CPFSK signal with a deviation ratio of one-half is referred to as minimum-shift keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

One of four possibilities can arise, as described

The phase (0) = 0 and (Tb) = /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase (0) = and (Tb) = /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0 The phase (0) = and (Tb) = - /2 (or, equivalently, 3/2, modulo 2), corresponding to the transmission of symbol 1 The phase (0) = 0 and (0) = - /2, corresponding to the transmission of symbol 0

Minimum Shift Keying

In MSK signal, the appropriate form for the orthonormal basis functions 1(t) and 2(t) is as follows

2 1 (t ) = cos 2T t cos(2f c t ) Tb b 2 2 (t ) = sin 2T t sin (2f ct ) Tb b

Tb t Tb

0 t 2Tb

Both 1(t) and 2(t) are defined for a period equal to twice the bit duration

Minimum Shift Keying

Correspondingly, we may express the MSK signal in the form

s(t ) = s11 (t ) + s 2 2 (t )

0 t Tb

The coefficients s1 and s2 are related to the phase states (0) and (Tb), respectively

Minimum Shift Keying

The in phase component of s(t)

s1 = s (t )1 (t ) dt

T Tb

= Eb cos[ (0)]

Tb t Tb

s2 =

2Tb 0

s(t ) 2 (t )dt

0 t 2Tb

= Eb sin[ (Tb )]

Minimum Shift Keying

Both integrals are evaluated for a time interval equal to twice the bit duration, for which 1(t) and 2(t) are orthogonal Both the lower and upper limits of the product integration used to evaluate th coefficient s1 are shifted by Tb seconds with respect to those used to evaluate the coefficient s2 The time interval 0 t Tb, for which the phase state (0) and (Tb) are defined is common to both integrals

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying

In a case of an AWGN channel, the received signal is given by

x (t ) = s (t ) + w(t )

s(t) is the transmitted MSK signal, and w(t) is the sample function of a white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2

Minimum Shift Keying

In order to decide whether symbol 1 or symbol 0 was transmitted in the interval 0 t Tb, we have to establish a procedure for the use of x(t) to detect the phase states (0) and (Tb) For optimum detection of (0), we have to determine the projection of the received signal x(t) onto the reference signal 1(t) and 2(t)

Minimum Shift Keying

x1 = x(t )1 (t )dt

Tb Tb

= s1 + w1

x2 =

2Tb

Tb t Tb

x(t ) 2 t )dt

0 t 2Tb

= s 2 + w2

Minimum Shift Keying

The average symbol error for the MSK is given by

Eb 1 Eb 2 erfc Pe = erfc N 4 N 0 0

Eb Pe erfc N 0

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK)

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Consider a binary signaling scheme that involves the use of two orthogonal signal s1(t) and s2(t), which have equal energy During the interval 0 t T, one of these two signals is sent over an imperfect channel that shifts the carrier phase by an unknown amount

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Let g1(t) and g2(t) denote the phase-shifted versions of s1(t) and s2(t), respectively It is assumed that g1(t) and g2(t) remain orthogonal and of equal energy, regardless of the unknown carrier phase We refer to such a signaling scheme as noncoherent orthogonal modulation

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The channel also introduces an AWGN w(t) of zero mean and power spectral density N0/2 We may express the received signal x(t) as

0t T 0t T

x(t) is used to discriminate between s1(t) and s2(t) , regardless of the carrier phase

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The receiver consists of a pair of filters matched to the basis function 1(t) and 2(t) that are scaled versions of the transmitted signal s1(t) and s2(t), respectively Because the carrier phase is unknown, the receiver relies on amplitude as the only possible discriminant Accordingly, the matched filter outputs are envelope detected, sampled, and then compared with each other.

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The quadrature receiver itself has two path

In in-phase path, the receiver signal x(t) is correlated against the basis function i(t), representing a scaled version of the transmitted signal s1(t) or s2(t) with zero carrier phase. In the quadrature path, signal x(t) is correlated against another basis function i (t ), representing the version of i(t) that results from shifting the carrier phase by -900 Naturally, i(t) and i (t ) are orthogonal to each other

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The average probability of error for the noncoherent receiver will be calculated by making use of the equivalence depicted previous picture Since the carrier phase is unknown, noise at the output of each matched filter has two degrees of freedom, namely, inphase and quadrature. Accordingly, the noncoherent receiver has a total of four noise parameters that are statistical independent and identically distributed, denoted by xI1, xQ1, xI2, xQ2

The first tow account for degrees of freedom associated with the upper path The latter two account for degrees of freedom associated with the lower path

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since the receiver has a symmetric structure, the probability of choosing s2(t), given that s1(t) was transmitted, is the same as the probability of choosing s1(t), given that s2(t) was transmitted This means that the average probability of error may be obtained by transmitting s1(t) and calculating the probability of choosing s2(t), or vice versa

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Suppose that signal s1(t) is transmitted for the interval 0 t T, an error occurs if the receiver noise w(t) is such that the output l2 is greater than the output l1 The receiver makes a decision in favor of s2(t) rather than s1(t)

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

To calculate the probability of error, we must have the probability density function of the random variable L2 (represented by sample value l2). Since the filter in the lower path is matched to s2(t), and s2(t) is orthogonal to the transmitted signal s1(t), it follows that the output of this matched filter is due to noise alone.

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Let xI2 and xQ2 denote the in-phase and quadrature components of the matched filter output in the lower path For i = 2

2 l 2 = x I22 + xQ 2

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The random variables XI2 and XQ2 are both Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2 x I22 1 exp f X ( xI 2 ) = N N 0 0

I2

2 xQ 2 1 exp f X Q 2 ( xQ 2 ) = N0 N 0

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Random variable L2 has the following probability density function

2 2l 2 l2 exp N f L 2 (l 2 ) = N 0 0 0

l2 0 elsewhere

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The conditional probability that l2 > l1, given the sample value l1, is defined

P (l2 > l1 | l1 ) = f L 2 (l2 ) dl2

l1

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since the filter in the path is matched to s1(t), and it is assumed that s1(t) is transmitted, it follows that l1 is due to signal plus noise Let xi1 and xQ1 denote the components at the output of the matched filter (in the upper path) that are in-phase and quadrature to the received signal

2 l1 = x I21 + xQ1

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since s1 (t ) is orthogonal to s1(t), it is obvious that xI1 is due to signal plus noise, whareas xQ1 is due to noise alone.

XI1 represented by sample value xI1 is Gaussian distributed with mean E and variance N0/2, where E is the signal energy per symbol XQ1 represented by sample xQ1 is Gaussian distributed with zero mean and variance N0/2

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The probability density functions of these two independent random variable

x E 1 exp I 1 f X I 1 ( xI 1 ) = N0 N 0

2 xQ1 1 exp f X Q ( xQ1 ) = N 1 N 0 0

)

2

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since the tow random variable XI1 and XQ1 are independent, their joint probability density function is simply the product of the probability density functions of two random variable

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

To find the average probability of error, we have to average the conditional probability of error over all possible values of l1 Given xI1 and xQ1, an error occurs when the lower paths output amplitude l2 due to noise alone exceeds l1 due to signal plus noise

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The probability of such an occurrence is

2 x I21 + xQ1 P (error x I 1 , xQ1 ) = exp N0

1 2 1 2 2 exp x I 1 + xQ1 + ( x I 1 E ) 2 + xQ1 = N 0 N0

Non-coherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since

x +x

2 I1 2 Q1

+ ( xI1 E ) + x

2

2 Q1

E E 2 xI1 + 2 xQ1 + = 2 2 2

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

The average probability of error

Pe =

p(error x

I1

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Since

2 2 E xI1 dx I 1 = exp N 0 2

N 0 2

N 0 2

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Accordingly

E 1 Pe = exp 2N 2 0

Noncoherent Binary FSK

In the case of binary FSK

2 Eb cos(2f i t ) si (t ) = Tb 0

0 t Tb

Noncoherent Orthogonal Modulation

Noncoherent Binary FSK

The noncoherent binary FSK described is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with

T = Tb

E = Eb

Eb 1 Pe = exp 2N 2 0

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

DPSK eliminates the need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver by combining two basic operations at the transmitter

Differential encoding of the input binary wave Phase-shift keying

In effect, to send symbol 0 we phase advance the current signal waveform by 1800, and to send symbol 1 we leave the phase of the current signal waveform unchanged

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

The differential encoding process at the transmitter input starts with an arbitrary first bit, serving as reference, and thereafter the differentially encoded sequence {dk} si generated by

d k = d k 1bk + d k 1bk

Bk is the input binary digit at time KTb Dk-1 is the previous value of the differentially encoded bit

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

The receiver is equipped with a storage capability, so that it can measure the relative phase difference between the waveforms received during two successive bit intervals Assumed that the unknown phase contained in the received wave varies slowly (that is, slow enough for it to be considered essentially constant over two bit intervals), the phase difference between waveforms received in two successive bit intervals will be independent of

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

Let s1(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case of symbol 1 at the transmitter input

s1 (t ) = 2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb 2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb

0 t Tb Tb t 2Tb

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

Let s2(t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal in the case symbol 0 at the transmitter input

2 Eb cos(2f i t ) 2Tb s 2 (t ) = 2 E b cos(2f t + ) i 2Tb

0 t Tb Tb t 2Tb

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

s1(t) and s2(t) are orthogonal over the twobit interval 0 t 2Tb DPSK is a special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with

T = 2Tb

E = 2 Eb

Differential Phase-shift Keying (DPSK)

The probability of symbol error

Eb 1 Pe = exp N 2 0

In M-ary signaling scheme, we may send one of M possible signals, s1(t), s2(t), , sM(t), during each signaling interval of duration T In almost applications M = 2n These signal are generated by changing amplitude, phase, or frequency of a carrier in M discrete steps. Thus we have:

M-ary ASK M-ary PSK M-ary FSK The symbol duration T = nTb

M-ary PSK

In M-ary PSK, the phase of the carrier takes one of M possible values, i = 2i/M, where i = 0, 1, , M-1 Accordingly, during each signaling interval of duration T, one of possible signals

si (t ) = 2E 2i cos 2f c t + T M

i = 0,1,...M 1

E is the signal energy per symbol Carrier frequency fc = nc/T for some fixed integer nc

M-ary PSK

Each si(t) may be expanded in terms of two basis function

1 (t ) =

2 cos(2f c t ) T

0t T 0t T

2 2 (t ) = sin(2f ct ) T

M-ary PSK

The signal constellation of M-ary PSK is two dimensional. The M message points are equally spaced on a circle of radius E , and center at the origin

M-ary PSK

M-ary PSK

The optimum receiver for coherent M-ary PSK includes a pair of correlators with reference signals in phase quadrature The two correlators outputs, denoted as xI and xQ, are fed into a phase discriminator that first computes the phase estimate

x = tan 1 Q x I The phase discriminator then selects from the set {si(t), i = 0, , M-1} that particular signal whose phase is closet to the estimate

M-ary PSK

M-ary PSK

In the presence of noise, the decision-making process in the phase discriminator is based on the noisy input 2i

x I = E cos + wI M 2i xQ = E sin + wQ M

i = 0,1,...M 1

i = 0,1,...M 1

Where wI and wQ are samples of two independent Gaussian random variables WI and WQ whose is mean zero and common variance equals N0/2

M-ary PSK

The message points exhibit circular symmetr Both random variables WI and WQ have a symmetric probability density function The average probability of symbol error Pe is independent of the particular signal si(t) is transmitted

M-ary PSK

We may simplify the calculation of Pe by setting i = 0, which corresponds to the message point whose coordinates along the 1(t)- and 2(t)-axes are E and 0, respectively The decision region pertaining to this message point is bounded by the threshold = M below the 1(t)-axis and the threshold = + M above the 1(t)-axis

M-ary PSK

The probability of correct reception is

Pc =

f ( )d

random variable whose sample value equals the phase discriminator output produced in response to a received signal that consists of the signal s0(t) plus AWGN

WQ = tan 1 E +W I

M-ary PSK

The probability density function f () has a known value. Especially, for we may write

E = 1 exp E + exp E sin 2 1 1 erfc E cos f cos N N N N 0 2 0 0 2 0

()

M-ary PSK

A decision error is made if the angle falls outside M + M

Pe = 1 Pc

=

M

M

f ( ) d

M-ary PSK

For large M and high values of E/N0, we may derive an approximate formula for Pe For high values of E/N0 and for < 2 , we may use the approximation

E N 0 1 exp E cos 2 cos erfc N N E cos 0 0

M-ary PSK

We get

f ( ) E exp E sin 2 cos N N 0 0

M

<

E = erfc N sin M 0

M-ary PSK

M-ary QAM

In an M-ary PSK system, in-phase and quadrature components of the modulated signal are interrelated in such a way that the envelope is constrained to remain constant. This constraint manifests itself in a circular constellation for the message points However, if this constrained is removed, and the in-phase and quadrature components are thereby permitted to be independent, we get a new modulation scheme called M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

M-ary QAM

The signal constellation for M-ary QAM consists of a square lattice of message points.

M-ary QAM

The corresponding signal constellations the in-phase and quadarature components of the amplitude phase modulated wave are shown

M-ary QAM

The general form of M-ary QAM is defined by the transmitted signal

si (t ) = 2 E0 2 E0 ai cos((2f c t ) + bi sin ((2f c t ) T T

0t T

E0 is the energy of the signal with the lowest amplitude ai and bi are a pair of independent integers chosen in accordance with the location of the pertinent message point

M-ary QAM

The signal si(t) can be expanded in terms of a pair of basis functions

1 (t ) =

2 cos(2f c t ) T

0t T 0t T

2 2 (t ) = sin(2f c t ) T

M-ary QAM

The coordinates of the ith message point are ai E and bi E , where (ai, bi) is an element of the L-by-L matrix ( L = M )

( L + 1, L 1) ( L + 3, L 1) L ( L 1, L 1) ( L + 1, L 3) ( L + 3, L 3) L ( L 1, L 3) {ai , bi } = M M M ( L + 1, L + 1) ( L + 3, L + 1) L ( L 1, L + 1)

M-ary QAM

For example, for the 16-QAM whose signal constellation is

( 3,3) ( 3,1) {a i , bi } = ( 3,1) ( 3,3)

M-ary QAM

M-ary QAM

Since the in-phase and quadrature components of M-ary QAM are independent, the probability of correct detection for such a scheme may be written as

Pc = 1 P

' 2 e

M-ary QAM

The signal constellation for the in-phase or quadrature component has a geometry similar to that for discrete pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) with a corresponding number of amplitude levels We may write

E0 1 P = 1 erfc N L 0

' e

M-ary QAM

The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM is given

Pe = 1 Pc

= 1 1 P 2 Pe'

' where it is assumed that Pe << 1

' 2 e

M-ary QAM

The probability of symbol error for M-ary QAM may be written

E0 1 Pe 21 erfc N M 0

M-ary QAM

The transmitted energy in M-ary QAM is variable in that its instantaneous value depends on the particular symbol transmitted It is logical to express Pe in terms of the average value of the transmitted energy rather than E0 Assuming that the L amplitude levels of the inphase or quadrature component are equally likely, we have 2 E0 L 2 2 E av = 2 (2i 1) L i =1

M-ary QAM

The limits of the summation take account of the symmetric nature of the pertinent amplitude levels around zero We get

2 L2 1 E 0 E av = 3

2(M 1)E 0 = 3

M-ary QAM

Accordingly, we may rewrite probability of symbol error in terms of Eav

3Eav 1 Pe 21 erfc 2( M 1) N M 0

M-ary QAM

M-ary FSK

In an M-ary FSK scheme, the transmitted signals are defined by

si (t ) =

2E cos (nc + i )t T T

0t T

i = 1, 2, , M The carrier frequency fc = nc/2T for some fixed integer nc The transmitted signals are of equal duration T and have equal energy E

M-ary FSK

Since the individual signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T Hz, the signals are orthogonal

si (t )s j (t )dt = 0

M-ary FSK

For coherent M-ary FSK, the optimum receiver consists of a bank of M correlators or matched filters At the sampling time t = KT, the receiver makes decisions based on the largest matched filter output

M-ary FSK

An upper bound for the probability of symbol error

E 1 Pe ( M 1)erfc 2N 2 0

For fixed M, this bound becomes increasingly tight as E/N0 is increased For M = 2, the bound becomes an equality

M-ary FSK

The probability of symbol error for noncoherent of M-ary FSK is given

(1) k +1 M 1 kE Pe = k exp (k + 1)N k +1 k =1 0

M 1

The upper bound on the probability of symbol error for noncoherent detection of M-ary FSK

E M 1 exp Pe 2N 2 0

Power spectra

The description of a band-pass signal s(t) contains the definitions of ASK, PSK, and FSK signals, depending on the way in which the in-phase component sI(t) and the quadrature component sQ(t) are defined

Power Spectra

We may express s(t) in the form

s(t ) = s I (t ) cos(2f c t ) sQ (t ) sin(2f c t )

= Re[~ (t ) exp( j 2f c t )] s

Where Re[.] is real part of the expression contained inside the bracket

Power Spectra

We also have

~ (t ) = s (t ) + js (t ) s I Q

exp( j 2f c t ) = cos(2f c t ) + j sin (2f c t )

The signal s (t ) is called the complex envelope of the band-pass signal s(t) ~ (t ) The component sI(t) and sQ(t) and therefore s are all low-pass signal

Power Spectra

Let SB(f) denote the baseband power spectral density of complex envelope We refer to SB(f) as the baseband power s spectral density ~ (t ) The power spectral density, SS(f), of the original band-pass signal s(t) is a frequency-shifted version of SB(f), except for a scaling factor

1 S S ( f ) = [S B ( f f c ) + S B ( f + f c )] 4

Power Spectra of Binary PSK

Baseband power spectral density of binary FSK wave equals

2 Eb sin 2 (Tb f ) SB ( f ) = = 2 Eb sin c 2 (Tb f ) (Tb f )2

Power spectra of binary FSK

The power spectral densities of SB(f) is given

E SB ( f ) = b 2Tb 1 1 8 Eb cos 2 (Tb f ) + f + + f 2Tb 2Tb 2 4Tb2 f 2 1 2

Power Spectra of QPSK

The baseband power spectral density of QPSK signal

S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf ) = 4 E b sin c 2 ( 2Tb f )

Power spectra of MSK signal

The baseband power spectral density of MSK signal

g ( f ) 32 E b s B ( f ) = 2 = 2Tb 2 cos(2T f ) b 16Tb2 f 2 1

Power spectra of M-ary signal

Binary PSK and QPSK are special cases of M-ary PSK signals The symbol duration of M-ary PSK is defined by

T = Tb log 2 M

Power spectra of M-ary PSK

The baseband power spectral density of Mary PSK signal is given by

S B ( f ) = 2 E sin c 2 (Tf )

The spectral analysis of M-ary FSK signals is much more complicated than that of M-ary PSK A case of particular interest occurs when the frequencies assigned to the multilevels make the frequency spacing uniform and the frequency deviation k= 0.5 That is, the M signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T, where T is symbol duration

Power spectra of M-ary FSK

For k = 0.5, the baseband power spectral density of M-ary FSK signals is defined by

1 S B ( f ) = 4 Eb 2M sin i 1 + M 2 i =1 i

M

M M

sin j j

i 4 i = 2i ( M + 1) i = fTb 4

i = 1,2,..., M

Power spectra of M-ary FSK

Bandwidth efficiency

Bandwidth efficiency is defined as the ratio of data rate to channel bandwidth; it is measured in units of bits per second per hertz Bandwidth efficiency is also referred to as spectral efficiency With the data rate denoted by Rb and the channel bandwidth by B, we may express the bandwidth efficiency, , as

Rb = B

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK

The channel bandwidth required to pass Mary PSK signals (more precisely, the main spectral lobe of M-ary PSK signals) is given 2 B= T where T is the symbol duration

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK

Since T = Tb log 2 M Channel bandwidth

2 Rb B= log 2 M

Rb log 2 M = = B 2

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary PSK

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK

Channel bandwidth required to transmit M-ary FSK signals as M B= 2T Channel bandwidth of M-ary FSK signals is

Rb M B= 2 log 2 M

Rb 2 log 2 M = = B M

Bandwidth efficiency of M-ary FSK

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Thus far, the only figure of merit we have used to assess the noise performance of digital modulation schemes has been the average probability of symbol error When the requirement is to transmit binary data, it is often more meaningful to use another figure of merit called the probability of bit error or bit error rate (BER)

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Case 1:

The mapping from binary to M-ary symbols is performed in such a way that the two binary M-tuples corresponding to any pair of adjacent symbols in the M-ary modulation scheme differ in only one bit position (Gray code) When the probability of symbol error Pe is acceptably small, we find that the probability of mistaking one symbol for either of the two nearest (in-phase) symbols is much greater than any other kind of symbol error Moreover, given a symbol error, the most probable number of bit errors is one, subject to the aforementioned mapping constraint

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Case 1

Since there are log2M bits per symbol, it follows that the bit error rate is related to the probability of symbol error by a formula

BER =

pe log 2 M

M 2

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Case 2:

We assume that all symbol errors are equally likely and occur with probability

Pe Pe = K M 1 2 1

where Pe is the average probability of symbol error K = log2M

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Case 2:

There are in which k bits out of K may be in error The average number of bit errors per K-bit symbol is given by

K ways k

Pe 2 K 1 k ( ) 2 K 1 = 2 K 1 KPe k =1

K K k

Bit versus symbol error probabilities

Case 2

The bit error rate is obtained by dividing the result by K

2 K 1 BER = K Pe 2 1

M BER = 2 Pe M 1

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