Anda di halaman 1dari 90

SUBSTATION PROTECTION 2

SOMPOL C.

Busbar Protection

Bus arrangement 1. Radial bus 2. Main and transfer 3. Double breaker double bus 4. Ring bus 5. Breaker and a half

Busbar Protection

Busbar Protection
Main Bus
Disconnect Switch Circuit Breaker

Circuit

Radial bus

1. Radial bus Advantages

Busbar Protection

Lowest cost Small land area required Easy to expand Simple to operate Simple protective relay

1. Radial bus Disadvantages

Busbar Protection

Low reliability Low flexibility of operation for maintenance Bus fault and failure of breaker requires substation be removed from service

Busbar Protection
Main Bus
Disconnect Switch

Transfer Circuit Breaker (N.O.)

Circuit Breaker

N.O.

N.O.

N.O.

Transfer Switch

Transfer Bus
Circuits
Circuits

Main and transfer

2. Main and transfer Advantages

Busbar Protection

Small land area required Easy to expand Increased flexibility of operation over radial bus Any breaker can be removed from service without an outage

2. Main and transfer Disadvantages

Busbar Protection

Increased cost over radial bus Increased complexity of operation over radial bus Increased complexity of protection over radial bus Low reliability

Busbar Protection
Circuits

Bus No. 1
Disconnect Switch
Circuit Breaker

Circuit Breaker

Double breaker double bus

Circuits

Bus No. 2

3. Double breaker double bus Advantages

Busbar Protection

Very high reliability Very flexibility operation Any breaker can be removed from service without an outage

3. Double breaker double bus Disadvantages

Busbar Protection

High cost Large land area required Complex protective relaying and control

Busbar Protection
Load
Line Disconnect Switch

Source
Disconnect Switch
Circuit Breaker

Source

Ring bus

Load

4. Ring bus Advantages

Busbar Protection

High reliability Flexibility operation Low cost Any breaker can be removed from service without outage Expandable to breaker and a half configuration

4. Ring bus Disadvantages

Busbar Protection

Complex protective relaying and control Failed breaker during fault caused outage of one additional circuit

Busbar Protection
Circuits

Main Bus No. 1

Line Disconnect Switch

Disconnect Switch

Circuit Breaker

Breaker and a half

Circuits

Main Bus No. 2

5. Breaker and a half Advantages

Busbar Protection

Very high reliability Very flexibility operation Any breaker can be removed from service without an outage

Busbar Protection
5. Breaker and a half Disadvantages
Large land area required High cost Complex protective relaying and control

Busbar Protection
Approximate per unit cost Reliability

Radial Main and transfer Ring bus Breaker and a half Double breaker double bus

1 1.2 1.25 1.45 1.75

5 4 3 2 1

Busbar Protection

Radial bus

Busbar Protection

Main and transfer

Busbar Protection

Double breaker double bus

Busbar Protection

Breaker and a half

Practice 0

- What kind of bus arrangement in single line diagram 1 and 2 ? - Where is the zone of protection of 87B1 and 87B2 ?

Busbar Protection
Criteria of Bus Differential relay (87B) Check the difference current between the current flow in and out of the protected bus ( vector summation at relay = 0 )

Busbar Protection Bus differential has 2 types


1. High impedance 2. Low impedance

High impedance bus differential

Busbar Protection

1. Every bay must use same class and CT ratio 2. Suitable for non switching substation 3. Easy to expand 4. Easy to use

Because of fault current at bus bar is very high, so some CT may saturate and make 87B misoperation on external fault..

Assume one CT saturate on external fault

saturate
Voltage = 0 at 87B

CT saturation
- Equivalent circuit ( saturate ) Ip/n Is Rct
Im

saturate

Ip/n

Is

Rct

Lm

Rct
E
If

Lm = 0 Im =

Equivalent circuit = Rct

Assume one CT saturate on external fault

Rct

87B
Voltage > 0 at 87B

Ex Calculation of 87B
- CT ratio 2000/5 ( N ) - Rct = 1.2

Data - 3 phase fault current at bus = 25000 A ( If - 3phase ) - 1 phase fault current at bus = 23600 A ( If - 1phase )

- RL = 1.5 ( lead resistance between relay and CT ) - Relay setting range ; 175, 225, 275, 325 v - Vk = 800 v

Setting of 87B ( Vs )
Vs1 >= ( If / N )* ( Rct + 2RL ) ; 1phase fault Vs3 >= ( If / N )* ( Rct + RL ) ; 3 phase fault Vs1 = 249.6 v Vs3 = 169.8 v So set Vs = 325 v; ( Vk >= 2Vs )

Practice 1

- From single line diagram 2, if - 3phase fault =17000 A - 1phase fault = 13000 A What is the setting of Vs ?

Low impedance bus differential

Busbar Protection

1. Can use difference CT ratio for each bay 2. Suitable for switching substation 3. Not easy to expand

Function of bus differential Trip all circuit breakers that connected to the fault bus via 86B ( bus differential lockout relay ) and interlock all circuit breakers also.

Busbar Protection

Practice 2
From single line diagram 2 - Which circuit breaker should be tripped if 87B1 operated? - What is the operating time of 87B?

Transmission line Protection

Transmission line protection


Since the impedance of a transmission line is proportional to its length, for distance measurement it is appropriate to use a relay capable of measuring the impedance of a line up to a predetermined point. Such a relay is called distance relay ( 21 ).

Transmission line protection


The basic principle of impedance measurement ( Z ) involves the comparison of the fault current ( I ) with the voltage ( V ) seen by the relay at the relaying point.

Zr = Vr / Ir

Transmission line protection


Relay point

ZS

Ir

Z line

Vs

Vr

Zr

Z load

Impedance seen by relay Zr = Zline + Zload

Transmission line protection

Basic operation of distance relay

Operating condition :

Transmission line protection


Since the relay see current via CT and voltage via VT, so actual impedance that relay seen is :

Z relay = Zr * CT ratio / PT ratio

Transmission line protection


We use R-X diagram to represent the line impedance:

Z = R + jX

Relation between rectangular and polar form


Rectangular form Polar form

R = P cos X = P sin

Z = R + jX P P

2 + X2 = R

-1 X/R = tan

Transmission line protection


We use R-X diagram to represent the line impedance:

Z = R + jX

Transmission line protection


jX
P1 1 P2 2

Z1=R1+jX1

Z2=R2+jX2
2 1

Load area

R-X diagram

Transmission line protection


jX

Plain impedance

Transmission line protection Plain impedance has no direction !

Transmission line protection


Plain impedance with direction

Transmission line protection


jX

Mho
R

Transmission line protection


jX

Offset mho

Transmission line protection


Quadrilateral

Stepped distance protection

Transmission line protection

- 3 zone of protection, zone1, zone2, zone3 - 3 difference tripping time


T3A T2 Z2A Z1B Z1A A T2 B Z3A

Z1B T2B Z3C T3C Z2C T2C

Z1C

Transmission line protection


Example criteria Zone1 = 85 % line , instantaneous trip Zone2 = 120 % line , delay trip T2 Zone3 = 100 % line+120 % next line delay trip T3

Ex Calculation of 21
Data - Base voltage =115 kV - Base MVA = 100 MVA - CT ratio = 800/5 - PT ratio 115/115 kV/V - Conductor type : 477 MCM AAC 590 A

Data - Length of line AB = 70 km, line BC = 30 km, line BD = 50 km - Impedance data : AB : z1= z2 = 9.7 + j29.1 p , z0 = 25.4 + j101 p BC : z1= z2 = 5.8 + j16.9 p BD : z1= z2 = 8 + j25 p C A
21

Multiply by 0.16, so AB : z1= z2 = 1.55 + j4.65 s , z0 = 4 + j16.1 s = 4.91 71.5 s BC : z1= z2 = 0.92 + j2.7 s BD : z1= z2 = 1.28 + j4 s Setting Zone 1 = 85% line AB = 4.17 71.5 s Zone2 = 120% line AB = 5 71.5 s , 0.5 sec Zone3 = 100% line AB + 120% line AB = 9.17 71.5 s ,1 sec

jX

zone3 B zone2 zone1

71.5
A

Earth fault compensate

Kn = ( z0 z1 ) / 3z1
= 2.51 + j11.51 = 11.78 77.6 4.67 + j13.97 14.73 71.5 = 0.799 6.15

Practice 3
From single line diagram 2 - Which circuit breaker should be tripped if 21 line 1 operated ( both primary and back up )? - Which circuit breaker should be reclosed? - Where is the zone of protection of 21?

Transmission line protection


Zone1 can over trip due to :
- CT, PT error - Impedance data and calculation error - Relay error

So zone1 should not set 100 % line

Tele Protection

Transmission line protection


Because zone 1 cannot clear fault at the end of line ( 15 % ), fault must be cleared by zone 2 with delay time T2. Too slow! To solve this problem communication system is required.

Transmission line protection

Teleprotection scheme
1. Permissive underreach transfer trip ( PUTT ) 2. Permissive overreach transfer trip ( POTT )

Transmission line protection


1. Permissive underreach transfer trip ( PUTT ) - Send carrier by zone 1 - High speed trip ( by pass T2 ) when

zone 2 start and carrier received

Transmission line protection


2. Permissive overreach transfer trip ( POTT ) - Send carrier by zone 2 - High speed trip ( bypass T2 ) when

zone 2 start and carrier received

Transmission line protection

Benefit of teleprotection
- clear fault 100% line as fast as zone 1 - on more over trip - also initiate recloser as zone 1

Transmission line protection Other functions in distance relay


* Power swing blocking * Fuse failure * Switch onto fault ( SOTF )

Transmission line protection


Power Swing Blocking distance relay operate by detect impedance in its zone, and sometime voltage and current in the system are disturb by fault. System impedance also change and if impedance move into relays zone, Its trip. Wrong operation!

Transmission line protection


To prevent this situation, relay use PSB. By detect rate of change of the impedance, relay will know which one is fault which one is power swing and block itself to trip

Transmission line protection


Fuse failure Distance relay calculate impedance by the ratio of voltage to current. If voltage goes to zero, impedance will be zero also. Zero impedance means fault is very close to distance relay and should trip the transmission line.

Transmission line protection


PT fuse blows can make distance relay see zero impedance in spite of no fault in high voltage system. Distance relay use zero sequence concept to protect itself from misoperation

Transmission line protection


Switch OnTo Fault ( SOTF ) For safty in transmission line maintenance, the line should be grounded for all 3 phases. After finish the job, sometime ground are forgotten to remove from line. When CB is closed, it closed to fault.

Transmission line protection


Distance relay use healthy voltage for reference, so when close into 3 phase fault , no voltage reference at all. Its possible that all the zones are not trip!. Memory feature is now used to make high speed trip instead. Its SOTF.

Auto recloser relay ( 79 )

Transmission line protection

- Close circuit breaker after tripped by distance relay

( only trip by high speed zone ) - Single or multi shots - Single or three poles - Dead time and reclaim time should be set properly - Helpful for temporary fault

Trip & reclose

Dead time

Synchrocheck relay ( 25 )

Transmission line protection

- Supervise recloser relay befor close circuit breaker by check voltage level, frequency, and phase angle at both sides of circuit breaker ( sync. Function , BH-LH or LL-LB) - Only check voltage level for charge line function ( voltage check Function, BH-LD or DL-LB )

Back up Protection

Back up Protection
In protection system, each equipment should have 2 sets of protective relay. One set we call primary protection and the another is call back up protection.

Example :

Back up Protection

Transformer Primary 87K, self protection, Back up 51T, BF Feeder Primary 51/51G, Back up 51T, BF

Transmission line Primary zone1, Back up zone2, zone3 and others distance relay ( 115 kV ), BF Primary protection primary, Back up protection back up and others distance relay ( 230 kV ) , BF

Back up Protection

Bus bar Primary 87B, Back up zone2, zone3 of others distance relay at remote end substation ( 115 kV ), BF

Back up Protection

Back up Protection
Principle of Breaker failure
Measure the duration of fault current from the instance at which any relay operates to trip circuit breaker. If current is still flowing after preselected time delay, it is considered that the circuit breaker has failed to trip.

Back up Protection
Principle of Breaker failure
Normally breaker failure timer should less than zone 2 timer of distance relay at remote end substation to limit the tripping area only in substation that breaker fail.

Back up Protection
Element of Breaker failure
1. Main protection operate 2. Current detector operate ( 50BF) 3. Breaker fail timer operate ( 62BF) 4. On this function by cut off switch ( BFCO)

Back up Protection
Function of Breaker failure
When breaker fail to trip, the tripping and interlocking of all other circuit breakers connected to the failed circuit breaker will be initiated. Another lockout relay, 86BF, is required.

Practice 4
From single line diagram 2 - If circuit breaker 80722 fail to trip, which circuit breakers should be tripped? From single line diagram 1 - If circuit breaker 7052 fail to trip, which circuit breakers should be tripped?

Question ?

Have a nice day!

The end