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Practical Nonsingular Terminal Sliding-Mode Control of Robot Manipulators for High-Accuracy Tracking Control

Maolin Jin, Member, IEEE, Jinoh Lee, Student Member, IEEE, Pyung Hun Chang, Member, IEEE, and Chintae Choi

AbstractThis paper presents a practical nonsingular terminal sliding-mode (TSM) tracking control design for robot manipulators using time-delay estimation (TDE). The proposed control assures fast convergence due to the nonlinear TSM, and requires no prior knowledge about the robot dynamics due to the TDE. Despite its model-free nature, the proposed control provides highaccuracy control and robustness against parameters variations. The simplicity, robustness, and fast convergence of the proposed control are veried through both 2-DOF planar robot simulations and 3-DOF PUMA-type robot experiments. Index TermsModel-free control, nonsingular terminal sliding mode (NTSM), terminal sliding mode (TSM), time-delay estimation (TDE).

I. I NTRODUCTION LIDING-MODE control (SMC), one of the most signicant discoveries in modern control theory, is an efcient and effective tool to resolve the control problems of nonlinear systems [1][3]. It is well known that SMC is insensitive to model uncertainties, parameter variations, and external disturbances. Thus, it has been widely implemented in many real control systems such as robots [4], [5], dcdc converters [6], belt drives [7], cranes [8], smart beam [10], constrained multibody systems [11], active suspensions [12], piezoactuated stage [9], and stand-alone photovoltaic generation systems [13]. The SMC method consists of two components: a driving component that forces the systems trajectory to reach a stable hyperplane or manifold, and a sliding surface that assures the desired error dynamics of the plant. Linear sliding hyperplanes and manifolds guarantee asymptotic stability of the system in the sliding mode, but the system states converge to the equilibrium point at an innite time. In order to assure nite time convergence, nonlinear sliding mode called terminal sliding mode (TSM) has been proposed that provides faster convergence than linear hyperplane-based sliding mode [14], [15]. The TSM has been widely used to

Manuscript received August 30, 2008; revised May 19, 2009. First published June 5, 2009; current version published August 12, 2009. M. Jin and C. Choi are with the System Solution Research Department, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang 790-330, Korea (e-mail: mulim@rist.re.kr; chintae@rist.re.kr). J. Lee and P. H. Chang are with the Robotics and Control Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701, Korea (e-mail: jinoh_lee@mecha.kaist.ac.kr; phchang@mecha.kaist.ac.kr). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TIE.2009.2024097

control both linear and nonlinear systems with uncertainties [16], [17], and applied to control robot manipulators [15], [18], and become one of the most popular continuous sliding-mode algorithms in recent years [19], [20]. The TSM design methods, however, have a singularity problem [21], [22]; accordingly, nonsingular TSM (NTSM) control has been proposed to avoid the singularity, and applied to the control of robot manipulators [23], [24]. To implement the NTSM controls for robot manipulators [23], [24], calculations of the robot nominal model are required. However, dynamics of robot manipulators are highly nonlinear and complicated, and exact models of the robot systems are not always obtainable. Therefore, fuzzy wavelet networks are incorporated to estimate unknown functions so that no ofine identication or prior knowledge of nominal model is required [25]. The use of fuzzy wavelet networks, however, introduces a number of tuning parameters (ve parameters for each joint) to estimate uncertainties, and the overall performance of fuzzy wavelet-based NTSM control is heavily dependent on the tuning parameters [25]. Thus, the fuzzy wavelet-based NTSM control is not easy to implement. What practicing engineers need is a controller that is of low complexity, computer implementable, and free of numerical problems when implemented [26]. In this paper, we present a simple model-free NTSM control to pursue simplicity while preserving robustness. The NTSM is adopted to exploit fast convergence of nonlinear sliding mode if properly designed, and time-delay estimation (TDE) is used to realize simple model-free control. The TDE was introduced in [27][29], and the main idea of the TDE is to estimate unknown dynamics and disturbances by intentionally using time-delayed information. To ensure TDE functions correctly, the time-delay L should be sufciently small. (Mostly, L is chosen to be the sampling time.) It is interesting that TDE was proposed in the late 1980s, when it became already possible to obtain fast sampling frequency thanks to the signicant development of microprocessors and computing devices. The effectiveness of the TDE has been demonstrated in [28] and [29] with linear error dynamics. To authors knowledge, the TDE has not been used together with nonlinear error dynamics. The combination of the NTSM, a nonlinear error dynamics, and the TDE in the proposed control yields the following synergistic effects: The NTSM offers fast convergence to improve tracking accuracy; the TDE not only offers model-free control but also enables to facilitate a switching gain with much

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reduced magnitude. As a result, the proposed TDE-based NTSM control is simple in form, easy to implement, and yet highly robust and accurate. These attributes of the proposed control are veried through two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) planar robot simulations and 3-DOF PUMA-type robot experiments. This paper is organized as follows. Section II proposes the TDE-based NTSM control, and discusses its simplicity and efciency. In Section III, the effectiveness of the TDE and the fast convergence of NTSM are veried through 2-DOF planar robot simulations. In Section IV, experiments are performed to verify the easiness of implementation, high accuracy, and robustness of the proposed control using a 3-DOF PUMA-type robot. Finally, Section V concludes this paper.

where K and Ksw are diagonal design matrices, and {sgn(s)}i = sgn(si ). Here, denotes estimated value of , and i denotes the ith element of . Here, N(q, q, q) can be estimated by the TDE [27][29] as N(q, q, q) = N(q, q, q)tL (7)

where N(q, q, q) denotes the estimate of N(q, q, q), tL denotes time-delayed value of , and L is the estimation time delay. The smallest achievable L is the sampling period in practical digital implementation. The assumption is valid with sufciently fast sampling frequency because a digital control system can be regarded as a continuous system when the sampling rate is faster than 30 times the system bandwidth [30]. From (2), we can obtain q N(q, q, q)tL = tL M tL . (8)

II. NTSM C ONTROL W ITH TDE A. Controller Structure The standard form of the dynamics equations of n-DOF robot manipulator is as follows: M(q) + C(q, q)q + G(q) + F(q, q) + d = q (1)

Thus, with the combination of (5)(8), the control law is expressed by q q = tL M tL + M qd + K1 e2p/q +Ksw sgn(s) . p (9) Proof of the stability of the control is given in the Appendix. B. Use of Saturation Function To avoid control chattering, a boundary layer can be used to smooth out the control discontinuity caused by sgn(s) in the control law (9). Replace sgn(s) by sat(s, ), we have q q = tL M tL + M qd + K1 e2p/q +Ksw sat(s, ) p (10) where {sat(s, )}i =

si |si | si i

where q, q, q Rn represent the position, velocity, and acceleration of the joints, respectively, and M(q) Rnn stands for the generalized inertia matrix, C(q, q) Rnn the Coriolis/centripetal matrix, G(q) Rn the gravitational vector, F(q, q) Rn the friction forces, d Rn the disturbance torques, and Rn the joint torques. Introducing a constant, diagonal matrix, M, one can obtain another expression of (1) as follows: q M + N(q, q, q) = where q N(q, q, q) = [M(q) M] +C(q, q)q+G(q)+F(q, q)+d . (3) Suppose the reference input trajectory is denoted by qd , the control objective of robot trajectory tracking is to make a robot position vector q follow qd . To this end, we rst dene e = qd q, e = qd q, and e = qd q. The nonsingular terminal sliding surface for an n-link robot manipulator is chosen as [23], [25] s = e + Kep/q (4) (2)

if |si | i if |si | i .

(11)

C. Simplicity and Efciency Let us compare the proposed control with NTSM controller in [23] which is listed in the following: ntsm = C0 (q, q)q+G0 (q)+F0 (q, q)+M0 (q) d +ua +ub q (12) where q ua = M0 (q) K1 e2p/q p T q sT Kdiag(ep/q1 )M1 (q) 0 s ub = p sT Kdiag(ep/q1 )M1 (q) 0 (13)

where K is a design matrix, 1 < p/q < 2 and p and q are positive odd integers. The control input can be selected as = Mu + N(q, q, q) where q u = qd + K1 e2p/q + Ksw sgn(s) p (6) (5)

Kdiag(ep/q1 )M1 (q) (b0 + b1 q + b2 q ) 0 (14) where 0 denotes nominal model of ; and b0 , b1 , and b2 are supposed to be known parameters.

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Fig. 1.

Two-degrees-of-freedom robot.

It is clear that the implementation of NTSM (12)(14) is highly complicated: calculations of robot nominal model and the bounds b0 , b1 , and b2 are required. The implementation of NTSM may be limited since the exact models of the robot systems and aforementioned bounds are not always obtainable in practice. Our proposed control, thanks to the TDE, is model free and has low complexity. The proposed TDE-based NTSM control (9), (10) uses recent past control input and acceleration tL q M tL to cancel out N(q, q, q)which includes inertia uncertainty, Coriolis/centripetal vector, gravitational vector, and friction. In practice, the past acceleration qtL is given by numerical differentiation as qtL = (qt 2qtL + qt2L )/L2 . (15)

The parameter values of the robot model are m1 = 1.0 kg, m2 = 1.0 kg, l1 = 1.0 m, l2 = 0.8 m, Fv1 = 5.0 N m s/rad, Fv2 = 5.0 N m s/rad, FC1 = 5.0 N m, FC2 = 5.0 N m, and g = 9.8 m/s2 . A fth-order polynomial trajectory is used for the eight path segments listed in Table I, where both the initial position and the nal position of each segment are listed along with the initial time and the nal time. The velocity and the acceleration at the beginning and end of each segment are set to zero. The desired trajectory for both q1d and q2d are shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b). B. Simulation Results The parameters of the proposed control are p = 5, q = 3, M = diag(0.25, 0.25), K = diag(0.9, 0.9), Ksw = diag(5.0, 5.0), and = [0.004, 0.004]T . Simulation results of the proposed control are shown in Fig. 2(c)(h). The maximum tracking errors of the proposed control are about 0.06 for joint 1, and 0.03 for joint 2. The control inputs of both joints show no chattering, as shown in Fig. 2(e) and (f). The high-accuracy tracking performance comes from the effectiveness of the TDE. In Fig. 2(g) and (h) are plotted the nonlinear term N(q, q, q) (dotted), the estimation term tL q MtL (dashed), and the estimation error N(q, q, q) q ( tL M tL ) (solid), respectively. The estimation error remains close to zero, except for the pulse-type error due to discontinuity of Coulomb friction when the velocity changes its sign. In other words, when the proposed TDE-based NTSM control (10) is used to control the plant (2), almost perfect canq cellation of N(q, q, q) by tL M tL occurs most of the time. Since much of uncertainty is canceled by the TDE, to that extent can the proposed control reduce the size of Ksw most of the time. Thus, with the TDE, chattering can be reduced while preserving the tracking accuracy. This is why the proposed control, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity and efciency, shows high-accuracy tracking performance without control chattering. The high-accuracy tracking performance also comes from the fast convergence of the NTSM. The proposed control is compared with TDE with linear error dynamics [29], given by q q = tL M tL + M( d + KD e + KP e). (20)

Obviously, the calculation of (15) is simple. The TDEbased NTSM control (9), (10) are simple and efcient because calculation of robot dynamics and knowledge of the bounds b0 , b1 , b2 are not required by the use of the TDE. A question may rise: Is the TDE (7), (8) really effective? In the next section, numerical simulation is performed to verify the effectiveness of the TDE with NTSM. III. N UMERICAL S IMULATION A. Simulation Setup A 2-DOF simulation are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed TDE-based NTSM control. M(q), C(q, q)q, G(q), and F(q, q) of the two-link planar manipulator, shown in Fig. 1, are taken from [31], and given by

2 2 M(q)11 = l2 m2 + 2l1 l2 m2 c2 + l1 (m1 + m2 ) 2 M(q)12 = M(q)21 = l2 m2 + l1 l2 m2 c2 2 M(q)22 = l2 m2

m2 l1 l2 s2 q2 2

m2 l2 gc12 + (m1 + m2 )l1 gc1 m2 l2 gc12 Fv1 q1 + FC1 sgn(q1 ) Fv2 q2 + FC2 sgn(q2 )

where li , mi , Fvi , and FCi denote the ith link length, mass, viscous friction coefcient, Coulomb friction coefcient, respectively; g denotes the local acceleration due to gravity, and si = sin(qi ), ci = cos(qi ), and cij = cos(qi + qj ).

The parameters of the TDE with linear error dynamics are M = diag(0.25, 0.25), KD = diag(20, 20), and KP = diag(100, 100). Simulation results are shown in Fig. 3, where the proposed control shows smaller tracking error than TDE with linear error dynamics. The peaks of tracking errors of TDE

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Fig. 2. Simulation results of the TDE-based NTSM control. (a) Desired trajectory of joint 1. (b) Desired trajectory of joint 2. (c) Tracking error of joint 1. (d) Tracking error of joint 2. (e) Control input of joint 1. (f) Control input of joint 2. (g) and (h) are plots of (dotted) the nonlinear term N(q, q, q), (dashed) q q the estimation term tL M tL , and (solid) the estimation error N(q, q, q) ( tL M tL ) of joints 1 and 2, respectively. The estimation error remains close to zero, except for the pulse-type error due to discontinuity of Coulomb friction when the velocity changes its sign.

Fig. 3. Simulation results of (solid) the TDE-based NTSM control and (dashed) the TDE with linear error dynamics. (a) Comparison of tracking errors of q joint 1. (b) Comparison of tracking errors of joint 2. (c) Estimation errors of joint 1 [N(q, q, q) (tL M tL )]1 . (d) Estimation errors of joint 2 q [N(q, q, q) (tL M tL )]2 .

with linear dynamicsmarked with dashed lines in Fig. 3(a) and (b)come from the pulse-type TDE errors shown in Fig. 3(c) and (d) due to discontinuity of Coulomb friction.

However, these peaks are reduced dramatically in the proposed controlmarked with solid lines in Fig. 3(a) and (b). This is because the NTSM speeds up the rate of convergence near an

JIN et al.: PRACTICAL NTSM CONTROL OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS FOR HIGH-ACCURACY TRACKING CONTROL

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possible to attenuate noise: by lowering the elements of M as explained below [32], [33]. Combining (5) and (6) leads to a compact expression of (9) = tL + M(u qtL ). (21)

If a digital low-pass lter with the cutoff frequency is adopted, the control law can be modied as follows:

f f = (1 + )1 + (1 + )1 tL , ( = L)

(22)

Fig. 4. (Left) Picture of 3-DOF PUMA-type robot in which the positive direction is denoted by the arrows. (Right) The 3-DOF PUMA-type robot with payload 2.15 kg.

where denotes the input to the lter and f is the output from the lter. Substituting (21) into (22), one can obtain the following ltered control law:

f f = tL + (1 + )1 M(u qtL ).

(23)

Fig. 5.

equilibrium point [23]. It can be concluded that the NTSM, if properly designed, provides faster convergence than linear error dynamics. To summarize, the effectiveness of the TDE and the fast convergence of NTSM are conrmed. The proposed control provides small switching gain, continuous control input without chattering, and fast error dynamics. Thus, the proposed control provides model-free high-accuracy control performance despite its simplicity and efciency. IV. E XPERIMENTAL S TUDIES A. Experimental Setup The proposed control is implemented to control Samsung Faraman-AT2 shown in Fig. 4. Its maximum payload is 3 kg, and the maximum continuous torques are 0.637, 0.637, and 0.319 N m for joints 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The gearreduction ratio and the encoder resolution of each joint are 120 : 1 and 2048 pulses/rev, respectively. Resolution of each robot joint is 3.66 104 deg (quadrature encoder). The parameters of robot dynamics were assumed to be unknown, and thus were not used. All of the joints are commanded by the same trajectory shown in Fig. 5. B. Considerations for Practical Implementation In real experiments, the encoder signal is always contam inated by noise. The noise effect is amplied when qtL is calculated by numerical differentiation (15). As a good solution to this problem, low-pass lter may be used before qtL is differentiated. Without using a low-pass lter, however, it is

Comparing (21) with (23), one can conclude that lowering the elements of M has the same effect as using a rst-order digital low-pass lter. Tuning M, a diagonal matrix, is quite easy: to increase the diagonal elements from small positive values, while checking the control performance by trial error. Incidentally, selection of the other parameters of proposed control p, q, K, and are straightforward as described in [23]. Ksw can be selected from (27). In the experiment, we found that the heuristical tuning of K and Ksw does not take much time. Tuning of the proposed TDE-based NTSM control is easy and straightforward, since the controller is model free and all the parameters of the controller have clear meanings. It took us about 1.5 h to implement the proposed control for 3-DOF joint control of Faraman-AT2. C. Experimental Results We have experimented with the two model-free controls: the proposed TDE-based NTSM control and TDE with linear error dynamics. The same M = diag(0.7891, 0.6109, 0.2447) kg m2 is used for comparison. The parameters of the TDE-based NTSM are selected as p = 5, q = 3, K = diag(0.9, 0.9, 0.9), Ksw = diag(2.25, 3.5, 21.0), and = [0.0015, 0.002, 0.009]T . The gains of the TDE with linear error dynamics are selected as, KD = diag(20, 20, 20), and KP = diag(100, 100, 100). The experimental results are shown in Fig. 6 and Table II, and the tendency is in good agreement with the previous simulation results. The proposed control shows smaller errors than TDE with linear error dynamics, as shown in Figs. 6(a), (c), and (e)basically the same tendency as observed in previous numerical simulation. Fig. 6(b), (d), and (f) shows that the control inputs are a little noisy but bounded without any noticeable control chatterings. In order to show the robustness of the proposed control against parameter variations, we rst tuned the control for nopayload condition, and then veried the performance using the same gains with 2.15-kg payload (72% of maximum payload). The experimental results are shown in Fig. 7 and Table III. Control inputs of joints 2 and 3 (absolute value) are increased to compensate the payload gravity shown in Fig. 7(d) and (f).

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Fig. 6. Experimental comparison of (solid) TDE-based NTSM control versus (dashed) TDE with linear error dynamics. (a), (c), and (e) are plots of tracking errors of joints 1, joint 2, and joint 3, respectively. (b), (d), and (f) are plots of control input of joints 1, joint 2, and joint 3, respectively. The proposed TDE-based NTSM shows smaller errors than TDE with linear error dynamics.

From the comparison of Fig. 7(a), (c), and (e) with Fig. 6(a), (c), and (e), one may observe slight differences in outlook of tracking errors, but not any signicant difference in accuracy. More precisely, the root-mean-squared (rms) errors of joints 2 and 3 in Table III are slightly larger with payload than that of no-payload condition, but the differences of tracking errors are extremely small (order of 104 deg). To summarize, high-accuracy control (order of 103 deg) can be realized through the proposed control, as shown in Table II. That the proposed control is robust against parameter variations is shown in Table III. Hence, the easiness of implementation, high accuracy, and robustness of the proposed control are well veried through the experiment. V. C ONCLUSION Synergistic effects have been obtained with the combination of the NTSM and the TDE. The proposed control assures fast convergence due to the NTSM, and provides mode-free control due to the TDE. The TDE also facilitates a much smaller size of

switching gain to smoothen control input. The proposed TDEbased NTSM control is practicalmodel free, simple in form, highly accurate, and robust. The proposed control was implemented to control 2-DOF planar robot in simulations and 3-DOF PUMA-type robot in experiments. The simulation results and experimental results were agreed well each other. It was veried through both simulations and experiments that the proposed control is easy implementable, highly accurate, and robust against parameter variations. A PPENDIX S TABILITY A NALYSIS The stability analysis can be proved in the same manner of the stability proof in [34] and [33]. Boundedness of Error Substituting the control input (5)(7) into robot dynamics (2) yields q e = K1 e2p/q Ksw sgn(s) + p with the TDE error dened as = M1 (N NtL ).

(24)

(25)

JIN et al.: PRACTICAL NTSM CONTROL OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS FOR HIGH-ACCURACY TRACKING CONTROL

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Fig. 7. Experimental results of the proposed TDE-based NTSM control (solid) without payload and (dashed) with 2.15-kg payload. (a), (c), and (e) are plots of tracking errors of joints 1, 2, and 3, respectively. (b), (d), and (f) are plots of control inputs of joints 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The proposed TDE-based NTSM control is robust against parameter variations. Control inputs of joints 2 and 3 are increased to compensate the payload gravity. TABLE III C OMPARISON OF RMS E RRORS (103 deg)

Thus, if is bounded, the stability condition {Ksw }ii > |i | assures the time derivative of the Lyapunov function is negative, and the error is bounded. Boundedness of Using (6), (24) gives

Consider the Lyapunov function V = 1/2sT s. Differentiating V with respect to time, and substituting (24) into it yields V = sT s p = sT e + Kdiag(ep/q1 ) e q =s

T

(28)

= Mu + Cq + G + F + d Mu NtL . (29) From (3), the delayed nonlinear term is given by q NtL = [MtL M] tL +(Cq)tL + GtL + FtL + (d )tL . Substituting (30) into (29), we have q M = (M M)u (MtL M) tL + where (27) = Cq+G+F+d (Cq)tL GtL FtL (d )tL . (32) (31) (30)

=s

In equation (26), since p and q are positive odd integers and p/q1 1 < p/q < 2, ei > 0 for ei = 0 [23]. Therefore, the timederivative of the Lyapunov function is negative denite if {Ksw }ii > |i | where ii denotes ith diagonal element of .

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The friction term in (32) can be divided as F = Fv + FC , where viscous friction Fv is continuous, and Coulomb friction FC is bounded and discontinuous at velocity reversal. Divide into continuous term and discontinuous term, as = con + discon where con = Cq + G + Fv + d (Cq)tL GtL (Fv )tL (d )tL . discon = FC (FC )tL .

Stability Suppose the desired trajectory and the initial error are bounded, E < 1 assures boundedness of the , and the boundedness of the and {Ksw }ii > i assure bounded ness of the error, and Cq + G + Fv + d is bounded. Thus, once the error is bounded (and this is initial condition of the problem), the error and the TDE error will never grow unboundedly and the system is always stable (spiral reasoning). R EFERENCES

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(33)

(34) (35)

If boundedness and continuous condition of Cq + G + Fv + d is satised, con = O(L2 ) [35], where big O is used to describe the error term in an approximation to a mathematical function. In addition, it is clear that discon Thus, is bounded by b + O(L2 ) (37) b, 0, at velocity reversal otherwise. (36)

for a sufcient small L, where b is constant vector. The approximation error can be made small by reducing the sampling time L. Substituting qtL = utL tL from (28) into (31) yields q M = (M M)u (M M) tL + (M MtL ) tL + q = (M M)u (M M)(utL tL ) + (M MtL ) tL + q = (M M)tL + (M M)(u utL ) + (M MtL ) tL + . q Therefore, is given by = EtL + E1 + 2 where E = I M1 M 1 = u utL 2 = M

1

(38)

(39)

[(M MtL ) tL + ] . q

For a sufciently small time delay L, 1 and 2 are bounded. Note that the assumption E < 1 can be easily satised by suitable choice of M [36]. In the discrete-time domain, (39) can be represented as (k) = E(k)(k 1) + E(k)1 (k) + 2 (k). (43)

E < 1 implies that roots of E(k) reside inside a unit circle; thus, the rst-order difference equation (43) is asymptotically bounded with bounded forcing function 1 and 2 .

JIN et al.: PRACTICAL NTSM CONTROL OF ROBOT MANIPULATORS FOR HIGH-ACCURACY TRACKING CONTROL

3601

[22] Y. Wu, X. Yu, and Z. Man, Terminal sliding mode control design for uncertain dynamic systems, Syst. Control Lett., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 281 288, Jul. 1998. [23] Y. Feng, X. H. Yu, and Z. H. Man, Non-singular terminal sliding mode control of rigid manipulators, Automatica, vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 2159 2167, Dec. 2002. [24] Y. Feng, S. Bao, and X. Yu, Inverse dynamics nonsingular terminal sliding mode control of two-link exible manipulators, Int. J. Robot. Autom., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 91102, 2004. [25] C. K. Lin, Nonsingular terminal sliding mode control of robot manipulators using fuzzy wavelet networks, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 849859, Dec. 2006. [26] B. Anderson, Controller design: moving from theory to practice, IEEE Control Syst. Mag., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1625, Aug. 1993. [27] R. Morgan and U. Ozguner, A decentralized variable structure control algorithm for robotic manipulators, IEEE Trans. Robot. Autom., vol. RA1, no. 1, pp. 5765, Mar. 1985. [28] K. Youcef-Toumi and O. Ito, A time delay controller design for systems with unknown dynamics, Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 133142, Mar. 1990. [29] T. C. Hsia, T. A. Lasky, and Z. Guo, Robust independent joint controller design for industrial robot manipulators, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 2125, Feb. 1991. [30] G. F. Franklin, J. Powell, and M. Workman, Digital Control of Dynamic Systems. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1998. [31] J. J. Craig, Introduction to Robotics Mechanics and Control. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1989. [32] K. Youcef-Toumi and S. T. Wu, Input/output linearization using time delay control, Trans. ASME, J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 1019, Mar. 1992. [33] M. Jin, S. H. Kang, and P. H. Chang, Robust compliant motion control of robot with nonlinear friction using time-delay estimation, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 258269, Jan. 2008. [34] S. Jung, T. C. Hsia, and R. G. Bonitz, Force tracking impedance control of robot manipulators under unknown environment, IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 474483, May 2004. [35] W. C. Su, S. V. Drakunov, and U. Ozguner, AnO(T2 ) boundary layer in sliding mode for sampled-data systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 482485, Mar. 2000. [36] M. Spong and M. Vidyasagar, Robust linear compensator design for nonlinear robotic control, IEEE J. Robot. Autom., vol. RA-3, no. 4, pp. 345351, Aug. 1987.

Jinoh Lee (S09) received the B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea, in 2003. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree (M.S.Ph.D. joint program) in mechanical engineering at Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea. His research interests include robust control of nonlinear systems, robot impedance control, and dual-arm dexterous manipulation.

Pyung Hun Chang (S86M89) was born in Pusan, Korea, in 1951. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1974 and 1977, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, in 1987. From 1984 to 1987, he was involved in a research project in the eld of robotics as a Research Assistant in the Articial Intelligence Laboratory, MIT. Since 1987, he has been a member of the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, where he is currently a Professor. His current research interests include robust impedance control of nonlinear plants as applied to robot manipulators and human impedance measuring, dynamic control of redundant manipulators, and the target-oriented design approach to rehabilitation robots and safety. Dr. Chang is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, and the Korean Society for Precision Engineering.

Maolin Jin (S06M08) received the B.S. degree in material science and mechanical engineering from Yanbian University of Science and Technology, Jilin, China, in 1999, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea, in 2004 and 2008, respectively. In 2008, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher with the Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, KAIST. He is currently with the System Solution Research Department, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea. His research interests include robust control of nonlinear plants, time-delay control, robot motion control, and factory automation. Dr. Jin is a member of the Institute of Control, Robotics and System Engineers, Korea.

Chintae Choi received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Busan National Nuniversity, Busan, Korea, in 1982, 1984, and 1997, respectively. He was with the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign as a Postdoctoral Research Associate from 1997 to 1998. He is currently a Principal Research Associate in the System Solution Research Department, Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea. His research interests include preview control, high-accuracy positioning applications, and controller design for industrial robots applied to the steel industry. Dr. Choi is a Life Member of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Institute of Control, Robotics and System Engineers in Korea.

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