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Recurring Decimals

Recurring D.: 0.2 repeats as 0.222222..., 0.1245 repeats as 0.12451245... To Convert a recurring decimal into a fraction: 1) Write an equation with the decimal equal to n. n=0.166666... 2) Multiply the decimal by a power of 10. 10n=1.666666... 3) Subtract the smaller from the larger decimal. 4) Divide the answer by the number of n. 5) If the numerator isn't a whole number, multiply top and bottom by a power of 10 so that both are whole

EXAMPLE: 0.12 = 12 4) Simplify if possible. 3) Write the fraction with the numbers before the decimal point as the numerator. 2) This is the denominator of the fraction. 1) Find the value of the column containing the last decimal digit. You can write a terminating decimal as a a fraction: Terminating Decimals have a fixed number of digits.

Terminating Decimals

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a x b = a x b (a)2=a Surds are irrational numbers which can be expressed in root form. Surds cannot be evaluated exactly.

Index Laws
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Simultaneous Equations
To solve simultaneous equations graphically, draw the lines and find the point where they cross. To solve simultaneous equations by elimination, make the coefficients of either x or y the same, positive and negative, in both equations by multiplying one equation (or occasionally both) by a number, then add or subtract the equations. If the signs are different, add the equations. If the signs are the same, subtract the equations. Then substitute the value of x or y into one of the equations to find the value of the other value.

The equation of a line can be written in the form y=mx+c, where m is the gradient and c is the y intercept. Lines with the same gradient are parallel. Increase in x Increase in y Gradient of a straight line = You only need two points to draw a straight line graph but you should always check with an extra point.

Straight Line Graphs

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Angles, Triangles and Quadrilaterals

Angles and Straight Lines Angles at a point add up to 360# Opposite angles are equal Angles that make up a half turn add up to 180# Angles and Parallel Lines Alternate angles are equal (z angles) Corresponding angles are equal (c angles)

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The Inequality symbols are:

An Inequality is a mathematical statement involving one or more inequality symbols.


-Less than

-Greater than or equal to -Less than or equal to

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-Greater than

Circle Theorems

Angle at centre is twice angle at circumference

Angles in same segment are equal.

An angle at the circumference which stands on the diameter of the circle is always a right-angle.

Circle Theorems

Opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilatral add up to 180

A tangent meets the radius of a circle at 90

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However, when you write them you have to draw a squiggily line underneath. For example AB = a.

Congruency and Similarity

Congruent shapes are identical. They can be placed exactly on top of each other. Similar shapes have the same shape but are different sizes. For example, all circles are similar. In similar shapes the corresponding angles are equal and the corresponding sides are in ratio.

When typed, geometric vectors are bold. For example AB = a. You can use a vector to describe a translation. A Vector has both magnitude (size) and direction.

Vectors and Vector Geometry

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Time Series
The Trend of a time series graph shows the general direction over a period of time. Seasonal Variations in trend are seen where the patterns of plotted points match to the seasons of the year, for example heating costs (more in winter than summer). Cyclical Variations are variations where the general shape of the graph has a tendancy to repeat. Random Variations are unpredictable and can appear in any time series graph. Time is always shown in the x axis.

Correlation is a measure of how the data relates. A Scatter Graph shows how two sets of data relate to each other.

Scatter Graphs
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