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Composition- refers to what a substance is made up of and how those particles are arranged Properties characteristics used to describe

e matter; two types 1) physical 2) chemical Physical properties- characteristic that can be observed without altering the composition of the substance Some physical properties include; color, size, shape, taste, texture, state of matter and measurable quantities such as mass, volume, density, melting/boiling points

Chemical properties- properties that cannot be observed without altering the substance An example a chemical property is flammability; you can only observe something being flammable if you light the substance on fire, thus changing its composition. Other chemical properties include combustibility and the ability to rust Changes in substances occur because of energy, by increasing or decreasing energy substances can change form or be combined with other substances to create something new Physical changes- occur when the form or appearance of a substance changes but not its composition (what its made of); Some physical changes include but are not limited to: ripping, cutting, tearing and all the phase changes from ch. 22 (evaporation, condensation, deposition, vaporization, sublimation etc.) (ex. Wadding a piece of paper up; it is still paper and nothing new was formed; carving a boat out of a log, it is still wood it just changed its size and appearance, not its composition Chemical changes- occur when the composition of the substances changes (its form and/or appearance can still change); (ex. milk spoiling and turning clumpy) Possible signs of a chemical change include: 1) change in energy dough changes into cake when sufficient energy is added 2) change in color a sliced apple turns brown when exposed to oxygen in the air

3) change in odor fresh eggs/meat smell much different than rotten eggs/meat 4) production of a gas the bubbles (gas) that is produced when combining vinegar and baking soda 5) precipitate formation (a solid forming from two or more liquids) think of the blue gleup in class; also check pg. 605 in TB 6) **NOT EASILY REVERSED** (most important in classifying) you cannot change ashes back into wood

When a physical or chemical change takes place, the mass of the substance after the change will be the same as the mass of the substance before the change according to the law of conservation of mass The law of conservation of mass states that mass cannot be created or destroyed, it can only change forms Example: the mass of firewood before you burn it will be the same as the combined masses of the ashes, smoke and carbon dioxide gases after you have burned it If you had 5 grams of magnesium and 3 grams of oxygen before they chemically bonded (went through a chemical change) you would get 8 grams of magnesium oxide