Anda di halaman 1dari 27

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37 www.elsevier.

com/locate/palaeo

Evolution of Cenozoic seaways in the circum-Antarctic region


Lawrence A. Lawver , Lisa M. Gahagan
Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, 4412 Spicewood Springs Road #600, Austin, TX 78759-8500, USA Received 14 May 2002; accepted 3 March 2003

Abstract A complete circum-Antarctic seaway did not open until both the South Tasman Rise cleared the Oates Land coast of East Antarctica and Drake Passage opened between the southern tip of South America and the northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula. Major plate motions based on dated seafloor spreading anomalies and distinct fracture zone lineations constrain the age of the opening of a seaway between the South Tasman Rise and Antarctica as very close to the Eocene^Oligocene boundary, with an unrestricted opening deeper than 2000 m dating from V32 Ma. Timing of the opening of Drake Passage is more circumstantial because the exact motions of certain micro-continental fragments are not known. The motion of Africa with respect to South America as well as the motion of East Antarctica with respect to Africa are well constrained for the Cenozoic. These major plate motions are used with the reasonable assumption of no Cenozoic motion of the Antarctic Peninsula with respect to East Antarctica to constrain the location of the Antarctic Peninsula with respect to the southern tip of South America for the critical period of late Eocene to late Oligocene. Uncertainty of motion of the South Georgia and South Orkney microcontinents and other possible continental fragments make an exact time for opening of Drake Passage difficult to ascertain. Even so, the early Oligocene position of the Antarctic Peninsula with respect to South America requires a through-going, deepwater seaway to have been open at Drake Passage prior to 28 Ma, even given the unconstrained motion of various high-standing crustal fragments in the Scotia Sea. With reasonable assumptions concerning motion of the crustal fragments in the western and central Scotia Sea, it is likely that Drake Passage or passage through Powell Basin was open to deep water circulation by V31 2 Ma. 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Antarctic seaways; Eocene^Oligocene boundary; Drake Passage; South Tasman Rise

1. Introduction The change in the Cenozoic climate from relatively warm and certainly ice free in the Paleocene to massive ice-sheets in both the southern and

* Corresponding author. Fax: +1-512-471-8844. E-mail addresses: lawver@ig.utexas.edu (L.A. Lawver), plates@ig.utexas.edu (L.M. Gahagan).

northern hemispheres in the Pliocene has been ascribed to a number of causes. Opening of circum-Antarctic seaways is only one of the factors that inuenced the Cenozoic climate. Shallow seaways versus deep seaways and development of a vigorous circum-Antarctic current are of varying importance in the evolution of the Cenozoic climate. Zachos et al. (2001) pointed out in their discussion of gateways and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations that many variables are

0031-0182 / 03 / $ ^ see front matter 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00392-4

12

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

required to explain the evolution of the Cenozoic climate. If the opening of high southern latitude seaways was the most signicant factor in Cenozoic climate evolution, then once the Australia^ Antarctic gateway and Drake Passage (Fig. 1) were fully open, the resulting circum-Antarctic seaway alone should have produced either a step or a ramp eect on the paleoclimate, and as the seaways opened farther the eect should have been enhanced or at least maintained. While the latest Eocene to earliest Oligocene formation of the East Antarctic ice-sheet may have been accelerated by opening of polar seaways, the early Oligocene East Antarctic ice-sheet is unlikely to have resulted solely from such an opening (DiesterHaass and Zahn, 1996). During the late Oligocene warming (after 26 Ma; Zachos et al., 2001), the initial early Oligocene (possibly late Eocene) East Antarctic ice-sheet retreated and East Antarctica was then either intermittently ice free or only partially ice covered from the latest Oligocene to middle Miocene. While West Antarctica may have had isolated glaciers during the Oligocene (Dingle and Lavelle, 1998), a West Antarctic icesheet that advanced onto the continental shelves did not develop until late Miocene (Anderson and Shipp, 2001). They described a proto-West Antarctic ice-sheet that consisted of isolated ice caps centered over islands and continental blocks from the Oligocene into the early Miocene. Final detachment of the South Tasman Rise from the margin of East Antarctica was proposed as a major factor in the development of a circumAntarctic current by Kennett et al. (1974). Their work, based on eight sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 29 (Kennett et al., 1975), indicated a major change in Southern Ocean sedimentation patterns at about 30 Ma (based on the Berggren (1971) biostratigraphic timescale). Kennett et al. (1974) believed that the Scotia Sea had begun to open in the early Tertiary based on Barker and Griths (1972) and so thought that the continental South Tasman Rise was the last barrier to circum-Antarctic circulation. Opening of the Australian^Antarctic seaway would have ventilated the Australo-Antarctic Gulf (Exon et al., 2001) and led to thermal isolation of East Antarctica (Kennett et al., 1974, 1975), but simple

opening of a circum-Antarctic seaway cannot be the sole factor that led to formation of a middle to late Eocene East Antarctic ice-sheet since glaciers and ice-caps formed on East Antarctica before the opening of deep seaways between East Antarctica and the South Tasman Rise and between the southern tip of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula.

2. Cenozoic glaciation The time of initiation of major Cenozoic Antarctic glaciation is a matter of debate. Abreu and Anderson (1998) inferred an early phase of East Antarctic ice-sheet development during the late Paleocene^early Eocene based on rapid oscillations found in the sequence stratigraphy chart of Hardenbol et al. (1998) and on purported evidence of early Paleocene (Danian) ice rafted debris (IRD) from DSDP site 323, even though the Initial Reports of Leg 35 (Hollister et al., 1976) found little evidence for ice rafting of detritus at site 323 and only one ice rafted granite cobble from the middle Miocene. It has recently been determined that the report of Danian IRD from site 323 is in error (Anderson, personal communication, 2002). Consequently, the oldest reported Cenozoic IRD is middle to late Eocene (Ehrmann, 1991). Other researchers (Hambrey et al., 1991; Barron et al., 1991; Browning et al., 1996; Zachos et al., 1996) placed the initial formation of Cenozoic glaciers on Antarctica at late^middle Eocene (41.3^37 Ma using the Berggren et al., 1995 timescale). Hambrey et al. (1991) and Ehrmann (1991) used the data from ODP holes 738 and 744 (Fig. 1) drilled on the southern end of the Kerguelen Plateau to argue that the rst evidence of East Antarctic glaciation at sea level is the occurrence of isolated gravel and terrigenous sand grains, which indicate possible ice rafting in the late^middle Eocene although Hambrey et al. (1991, page 120) state that The rst unequivocal ice-rafted material of Leg 119 Sites 744 and 738 occurs in early Oligocene sediments dating from about 33 Ma (Ehrmann, 1991) (age has been corrected to the Berggren et al. (1995) timescale). Ehrmann (1991, p. 197) concluded his dis-

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37
361 360

13

SOUTH AMERICA DP

MR 690
PB SI WS

689

RN

EAST

PB739 743

KP

741 742 744 740 738

AN W T

323

ANTARCTICA RS
270 273 274 73 738

CP

STR

280 281 1169 1170 282 1172 1168 283

NZ
0 Ma Present Day

AU

Fig. 1. Polar stereographic projection to 35S. Dark gray areas are Large Igneous Provinces taken from Eldholm and Con (2000), medium gray areas are continental shelves, darker lines are magnetic isochrons and fracture zone lineations, and lighter lines are plate boundaries. All are taken from the Plates project data compilation (Lawver et al., 2001). ODP and DSDP sites are marked as crosses with holes specically discussed in the text shown with their site number. Arrows purport to show the present Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). They are deduced from the root mean square slope variability that Sandwell and Zhang (1989) calculated from one year of Geosat/ERM data. The ACC is taken as the highest variations shown by Sandwell and Zhang (1989) for the circum-Antarctic region. AUS = Australia, CP = Campbell Plateau, DP = Drake Passage, KP = Kerguelen Plateau, MR = Maud Rise, NZ = New Zealand, PB = Prydz Bay, Po = Powell Basin (Antarctic Peninsula), RN = Ronne Embayment (Weddell Sea region), RS = Ross Sea, SI = Seymour Island (Antarctic Peninsula), STR = South Tasman Rise, WANT = West Antarctica, WS = Weddell Sea.

14

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

cussion of middle Eocene IRD by stating that [t]he amount of ice-rafted debris, however, is low, compared with present-day conditions. Continental glaciation is therefore not very likely. Some isolated glaciers probably reached the sea while most of the continent was unglacierized. Zachos et al. (2001) indicated that small ephemeral ice-sheets appeared in Antarctica in the early late Eocene but the rst Cenozoic East Antarctic ice-sheet to last for a signicant period of time appeared in the earliest Oligocene.

3. Eocene^Oligocene climatic indicators Many authors, from Kennett et al. (1974, 1975), McGowran et al. (1992), Moss and McGowran (1993) to Exon et al. (2001), have made the case that a signicant, sharp event occurred in the neritic to deep sea region south of Australia very near the Eocene^Oligocene boundary (33.7 Ma; Berggren et al., 1995). The ODP Leg 189 results (Exon et al., 2001) describe a sudden ventilation of the South Tasman Rise region coincident with the Eocene^Oligocene boundary. In contrast to the dramatic event found oshore of the southern margin of Australia, Dingle et al. (1998) found a gradual climatic deterioration in the northern Antarctic Peninsula from a very warm, non-seasonally wet situation at the beginning of the middle Eocene (V47 Ma) to an end Eocene (post V34 Ma) climate that was cold, frost-prone and relatively dry with some possible seasonal snow melting. They found a middle middle Eocene period (to V42 Ma) of strongly seasonal wet conditions followed by a generally cool and humid period. Evidence from the La Maseta Formation of Seymour Island (Fig. 1) shows no indication of any glacial deposition during the early Paleocene or latest Eocene cold episodes and the region remained well-vegetated for the entire Eocene (Dingle et al., 1998). Dingle and Lavelle (1998) found the earliest observed glacial event on the Antarctic Peninsula to be 29.8 0.6 Ma or at least 4 Myr later than the rst Cenozoic glacial event observed in East Antarctica. Cooling of the worlds oceans is interpreted from the N18 O data of Zachos et al. (2001) starting

during the early Eocene climatic optimum (V52^ 50 Ma) when the measured N18 O reached a minimum for the Cenozoic with equivalent deep-sea temperatures of +12C. From V50 Ma until early Oligocene, the worlds oceans seemed to have steadily cooled. Eocene climatic cooling is supported by fossil data found on the Antarctic Peninsula (Dingle and Lavelle, 1998) but does not show up in the microfossil data from the Otway Basin on the southern Australian margin (Moss and McGowran, 1993). In contrast to the gradual climatic deterioration found along the Antarctic Peninsula, Evano et al. (1992) found in east-central Wyoming an abrupt shift from a moist subtropical climate in the latest Eocene to a semiarid warm temperate climate in the early Oligocene based on sedimentology and nonmarine gastropods. Their dated boundary for the change is at or very near the Eocene^Oligocene boundary or essentially coincident with the change found in the Otway Basin. While they found only a minor decrease in temperature at the Eocene^Oligocene boundary, they did nd increased drying from the late Eocene through the middle Oligocene. Without as precise timing, Wolfe (1992) found near the Eocene^Oligocene boundary a major decline in the mean annual temperature of approximately 8C in less than one million years, based on multivariate analysis of the physiognomy of leaf assemblages from western North America including Alaska. Wolfe (1992) also found an increase in the mean annual temperature range. He correlated the abrupt changes in western North America with the planktonic chronology, but he found it dicult to explain the abruptness of the late Eocene^early Oligocene deterioration by simple plate tectonic factors that in turn may have led to changes in ocean circulation. Pearson and Palmer (2000) estimated an atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration of 2000^ s 3000 ppm for the earliest Eocene (to 52 Ma) and an erratic decline to less than 800 ppm by 40 Ma. They regarded changes in the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere as a likely forcing mechanism on the global climate because of its predicted eect on temperature over periods of geological time. A level of pCO2 s 1000 ppm is considered super-greenhouse conditions, so the

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

15

change from the high earliest Eocene values to the late middle Eocene value of 6 800 ppm should have had a signicant impact on the Earths climate. Pearson and Palmer (2000) estimated that the pCO2 has remained at about 500 ppm from 24 Ma to present. They do not have data for the critical period covering the initiation of Antarctic glaciation but Zachos et al. (2001) surmised that a relatively low pCO2 level could have led to a drop in the moisture supply and consequently made maintenance of a large polar ice-sheet problematic. They feel that moisture supply during the middle Cenozoic was the critical element controlling growth and retreat of the ice-sheet. The rise of the Himalayas and burial of a signicant quantity of the terrestrial biomass in oceanic sediments may have been one of many factors aecting the atmospheric pCO2 concentration. The post-Cretaceous reduction in Large Igneous Province production (Eldholm and Con, 2000) may have also contributed to the overall gradual Cenozoic cooling. Clearly the Earths climate underwent a major change at or very near the Eocene^Oligocene boundary but whether the change can be documented as strictly a result of opening of one or more high, southern latitude oceanic gateways, attributed to changes in atmospheric pCO2 concentrations, or is the result of multiple causes cannot be proven. That opening of a southern seaway had a sharp eect on regional oristic and vegetation changes in middle to high northern latitudes as well as in high southern latitudes, while only a moderate eect at middle latitudes, suggests more than a single cause.

4. Cenozoic seaways During the Cenozoic, a series of tectonic events impacted ocean circulation. These events included the closure of a low-latitude Tethyan seaway (Oberhansli, 1992; Lawver and Gahagan, 1998) to circulation, the mid-Cenozoic opening of a southern seaway around Antarctica (Kennett et al., 1974), the middle Miocene restriction of the Southeast Asian seaway (Lee and Lawver, 1995), and nally, closure of the Pliocene Panamanian

seaway (Coates et al., 1992; Haug and Tiedemann, 1998). At the beginning of the Cenozoic, a nearly tropical seaway spanned the globe and included the last remnants of the Tethyan Sea between Africa and Eurasia as well as an open seaway through what is now Central America (Fig. 2). Until Greater India began to collide with southern Tibet about 56 Ma (Lee and Lawver, 1995), a generally equatorial, primarily halothermal circulation kept the oceans uniformly warm with deep sea temperatures peaking during the early Eocene climatic optimum at V12C (Zachos et al., 2001). Oberhansli (1992) suggested that the early Cenozoic eastern Tethys discharged large amounts of very dense, warm, saline water into the Indian Ocean but the seaway was closed after Ypresian (49 Ma) since there is no later evidence of continued export of the dense, warm saline water eastward. With the closure of the Tethyan seaway, not only was the dense, warm, saline water cut o but the mostly equatorial circulation that detoured north of Africa up to 30N shifted to south of Africa at 45S (Fig. 2). Closure of Tethys moved the westward ocean circulation out of the tropics, where sea surface temperatures have always been relatively high and constant, into the temperate zone such that gradual cooling began. The well-documented Eocene cooling predates the suggested times of opening of either the Australia^Antarctic seaway or Drake Passage by at least 15 Ma. The Tethyan reconstructions of Dercourt et al. (1986) at the time of the Cretaceous^Tertiary boundary show an open Tethyan seaway located between V20 and 30N. By early Eocene, the eastern opening to a Tethyan seaway was presumably closed based on the ndings of Oberhansli (1996). Any evidence of a possible deep Tethyan seaway is gone by the beginning of the Eocene (Stampi et al., 2001). With the closure of the eastern Tethyan Sea in early Eocene, major westward currents were forced south of Africa at 45S, and the oceans began to cool. Kennett and Stott (1990) suggest that their Paleogene Proteus ocean was stratied in the Eocene by halothermal circulation with warm saline deep water produced at low latitudes overlain by cool Antarctic intermediate water. This layering was gradually replaced by a

16 L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

55 Ma Late Paleocene
Fig. 2. Mollweide projection of the earth at 55 Ma, showing probable deection of the late Cretaceous circum-equatorial ocean circulation from north of Africa through Tethys to south of Africa. Plate rotations, magnetic anomaly lineations and picks, and fracture zone lineations are taken from the Plates project data compilation (Lawver et al., 2001). The absolute reference frame of Muller et al. (1993) is used.

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

17

proto-oceanus condition in the Oligocene with mixed halothermal and thermohaline circulation including western Tethys produced, warm saline deep water underlain by cold, dense proto-Antarctic bottom water (Kennett and Stott, 1990). Their proto-oceanus gave way to the modern ocean governed by thermohaline circulation sometime in the latter part of the Miocene. Modern ocean circulation is characterized by interbasin gradients that prior to 15 Ma were insignicant or nonexistent according to Zachos et al. (2001). The gures presented in this paper show the tectonic development of high, southern latitude seaways during the Cenozoic with emphasis on the late Eocene and early Oligocene. The reconstructions may be used to suggest approximate times of opening of deep water passageways but oceanic seaoor subsidence and sediment loading can not be estimated given the data considered. Opening of Drake Passage and its impact on Cenozoic ocean circulation were discussed by Lawver and Gahagan (1998). They pointed out that given the higher sea level in the late Cretaceous (Haq et al., 1987) and the isostatically adjusted bedrock surface of Antarctica (Drewry, 1983), there must have been an early Cenozoic seaway between East and West Antarctica that was possibly as deep as 700 m (Fig. 3). The trans-Antarctic seaway may have persisted into the Oligocene if there was no West Antarctic ice-sheet and may have even been present as late as middle Miocene if the general Cenozoic drop in sea level (Haq et al., 1987) did not end its existence earlier. As Nelson and Cooke (2001) discussed, the trans-Antarctic seaway may have persisted until the East and West Antarctic ice-sheets grounded in the Ronne and Ross embayments during middle Miocene. Because this seaway has always been at an extremely high latitude during the Cenozoic (at all times south of 75S), there would have been little driving force and consequently little or even no water exchange between the Ross and Weddell seas. The present paper expands Lawver and Gahagan (1998) to look at the timing of both the opening of a seaway between Australia and Antarctica and the opening of Drake Passage and their possible climatic implications.

5. Methodology The plate reconstructions shown are based on a global database which consists of marine magnetic anomalies tied to the Cande and Kent (1995) timescale and fracture zone and transform fault lineations derived from ship track and satellite altimetry data (Gahagan et al., 1988; Sandwell and Smith, 1997; Smith and Sandwell, 1997). Our continental block outlines for the South Tasman Rise pieces are similar to the ones devised by Royer and Rollet (1997) but are based on our own digitization of the satellite altimetry data. Work in other areas (Lawver et al., 1998) found a close correlation between a steep gradient in the satellite altimetry data and the ocean^continent boundary based on seismic refraction and reection data (Gladczenko et al., 1998). Our database allows us to test various regional plate tectonic models in a global framework to determine if any discrepancies exist within other datasets. For the motion between Australia and Antarctica we use the poles of rotation determined by Royer and Rollet (1997). While other poles of rotation for the area have been published (Royer and Sandwell, 1989; Tikku and Cande, 2000), we believe Royer and Rollet (1997) presented the best overall plate tectonic evolution of Australia with respect to East Antarctica for the Eocene and Oligocene periods. For the opening of the Drake Passage region, we use rotation poles for South America^Africa from Muller et al. (1997), Africa^East Antarctica from Royer et al. (1988, for 85 Ma to 45 Ma), Royer and Sandwell (1989, for 65 Ma to present) and Royer and Chang (1991, for 20 Ma to present), and assume that Powell Basin opened between 34 Ma and 30 Ma as discussed in Lawver and Gahagan (1998). We have updated the Drake Passage opening with motions for some of the small, possibly continental fragments in the Scotia Sea. Many of the small block motions are unconstrained but are shown in a plausible scenario. We formalize the idea that part of the western Scotia Sea is older than 30 Ma as suggested by the major plate reconstructions shown in Lawver and Gahagan (1998) and recently discussed in the PhD thesis of Eagles (2001).

18

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

MR SAM
WEDDELL SEA

CZ

RN

PB

KP BR

BB RS
STR

AAG
TAS

CP NZ
50 Ma Early Eocene

AU LH R

ST

L RA

IA

Fig. 3. Polar stereographic projection to 45S of the southern oceans at 50 Ma. Abbreviations as in Fig. 1 with AAG = AustraloAntarctic Gulf, BB = Bentley Trough^Byrd Basin, BR = Broken Ridge, CZ = Crozet Plateau, LHR = Lord Howe Rise, TAS = Tasmania. Possible trans-Antarctic current is shown in the Ross Sea, through the Bentley Trough^Byrd Basin and possibly into the Ronne shelf area of the Weddell Sea. A very minor, wind-driven current is shown in the Australo-Antarctic Gulf, possibly crossing through the South Tasman Saddle. Due to tidal friction it is not believed that much water is transported through this region. A reasonably strong current is shown southward along the eastern margin of Australia, transiting the southern margin of the South Pacic and possibly heading northward along the west coast of South America. A minor wind-driven current is shown originating in the Weddell Sea and heading eastward to pass north of Broken Ridge and Australia.

In Lawver and Gahagan (1998), the confusion concerning the timing of the Eocene^Oligocene boundary was noted with many papers at that

time still using the Berggren et al. (1985) date of 36.6 Ma. More recent papers use the Berggren et al. (1995) date of 33.7 Ma which we adhere to in

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

19

this paper. The time of interest concerning opening of seaways around Antarctica extends from about 40 Ma until 27 Ma, or from the upper middle Eocene until mid-Oligocene. This time period includes from magnetic anomaly C18 (38.4 Ma) to about anomaly C8 (25.8 Ma). For South America^Africa motion, Muller et al. (1999) tabu lated picks at C21 (46.3 Ma), C18 (38.4 Ma), C13 (33.1 Ma) and C8 (25.8 Ma). The Muller et al. (1999) picks are not very dierent from those of Nurnberg and Muller (1991) who calculated poles of rotation for magnetic anomaly times C21, C20, C18, C16, C13, C11, C9, and C7 for South America^Africa motion. Published poles of rotation for Africa^Antarctica motion do not present as many Cenozoic poles as for South America^Africa but include picks at C21 (47.9 Ma) from Royer et al. (1988), C13 (33.1 Ma) and C6 (19.0 Ma) from Royer and Chang (1991), as well as poles of rotation for Africa^Antarctica for C20 (43.8 Ma) and C18 (40.1 Ma) modied by Royer (personal communication, 1991) based on closure around the Indian Ocean triple junction (Royer et al., 1988). Barker and Lawver (1988) published poles of rotation for South America^Antarctica plate motion for the past 50 Myr based on direct identication of magnetic anomalies on the South America^Antarctic Ridge to the east of the South Sandwich trench but such close proximity of the spreading center to trench pull may not produce the best poles for major plate motions. It is assumed in this paper that there has been no motion between the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctica in the Weddell Sea region during the Cenozoic. This assumption is supported by the lack of any Cenozoic extension in the Weddell Sea region between the Peninsula and East Antarctica as discussed in papers in Storey et al. (1996). For motion between Australia and Antarctica for the Cenozoic, the calculation of relative motion is much easier. There is a good history of seaoor magnetic anomalies that cover the time period of interest. For the youngest section, we use the Marks et al. (1999) poles of rotation for C6 (19.0 Ma) to present for motion of Australia with respect to Antarctica and the Royer and Rollet (1997) poles for the older times C24 (53.3 Ma), C18 (40.1 Ma), and C13 (33.5 Ma). Royer and

Rollet (1997) found that seaoor spreading between Australia and East Antarctica started very slowly in the late Cretaceous ( 6 5 mm/yr, half rate) until the middle Eocene, increased to about 15 mm/yr from C20 (V43 Ma) to the beginning of C18 (V39 Ma) and then increased to 24 mm/yr until V33 Ma when the half spreading rate increased again to 34 mm/yr. The change at C18 is consistent with other major plate reorganizations in the central Indian Ocean (Royer, 1992). Royer and Rollet (1997) found slightly slower rates for the equivalent time periods between the South Tasman Rise and East Antarctica. Since Muller et al. (1998) found an average of 3.1% asymmetric spreading between Antarctica and Australia with most of the asymmetry prior to 40 Ma, the dierence in rates may simply be due to changing rates of asymmetry eastward along the ridge combined with some ridge jumps. The recent paper (Cande et al., 2000) concerning possible Cenozoic extension in the Adare Trough does not aect the opening of a Cenozoic seaway between Australia and Antarctica because the possible motion discussed is east of any seaway between the South Tasman Rise and East Antarctica. Our reconstructions are based on the identied magnetic anomalies discussed above, with major plate motions controlled by apparent fracture zone trends deduced from combining published fracture zone data collected along ship tracks with satellite altimetry data from Sandwell and Smith (1997). Reconstructions are shown at 55 Ma (Fig. 2), 50 Ma (Fig. 3), 40 Ma and 35 Ma (Fig. 4), and then on a spacing of one million years for the period 34 Ma to 25 Ma (Figs. 5^8). The positions of the major plates are determined by interpolating between Euler poles of rotation obtained by rotating marine magnetic isochrons together that are assumed to have formed at a common spreading center. Asymmetry in spreading rates (Muller et al., 1998) is not important to our reconstructions since we are interested in total plate motion. Ridge jumps are important but there is no evidence for signicant ridge jumps between Australia and Antarctica during the time of opening of the seaway. For the Drake Passage region (Fig. 2), there are at least two continental fragments, the South Ork-

20

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

21

ney block (King and Barker, 1988) and South Georgia (Dalziel et al., 1975; Ramos, 1996), as well as other possibly continental, high-standing blocks in the central Scotia Sea (Barker et al., 1991) that may have impeded deep water circulation through Drake Passage. Discovery Bank is shown as an intraoceanic arc by Barker et al. (1984) ; other blocks such as Pirie and Bruce banks are of unknown structure. The Shackleton Fracture Zone ridge (Klepeis and Lawver, 1996) is presently a major obstruction to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) but it is probably a construction resulting from plate convergence that began about 4 Ma when the former Phoenix^Pacic ridge ceased to spread (Barker, 1982; Livermore et al., 2000) and the southern section of the Shackleton fracture zone became the boundary between the Antarctic and Scotia plates where previously the same section had been the boundary between the remnant Phoenix plate and the Scotia plate.

6. Reconstructions 6.1. 50 Ma Plate reconstructions of the Eastern Indian Ocean which include the pre-Cenozoic extension between Australia and East Antarctica produce a slight quandary. The very earliest seaoor produced as oceanic crust south of Australia dates from C34 or slightly earlier (95 5 Ma from Veevers, 1986). To the west of Australia, Royer and Sandwell (1989) identied magnetic anomaly C18 (V40 Ma; all ages for magnetic anomaly identications are from Cande and Kent, 1995) as the rst clear magnetic anomaly to the north of the Kerguelen Plateau. There is no obvious space for

the seaoor created on the Australia^Antarctic Ridge between 95 Ma and 40 Ma prior to the separation of Broken Ridge from the Kerguelen Plateau (Fig. 3). To the southeast of Broken Ridge is an area of seaoor that may be extended or stretched oceanic crust that lacks identiable magnetic anomalies known as the Diamantina Zone. It can be reconstructed to the Labuan Basin to the northeast of the Kerguelen Plateau (Rotstein et al., 2001). Even so, there is still a problem to the west of the Labuan Basin near Kerguelen Island where Royer and Sandwell (1989) suggested that part of what might have been Antarctic plate crust formed prior to the breakup between Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge, became part of the Indian plate when the early Australia^Antarctic spreading center shifted south. Another explanation is that the early Diamantina Zone/Labuan Basin extended to the west before joining the Southeast Indian Ridge in a triple junction but that that section was later covered by an outpouring of igneous material produced by the Kerguelen/90 East Ridge hotspot. The early Eocene reconstruction of the southern oceans at 50 Ma is shown in Fig. 3. Major plate motions indicate that the Australo-Antarctic Gulf, as it is referred to by Exon et al. (2001), was not closed on its western end. A moderate current is shown starting as the southward owing East Australian current in the Tasman Sea found in ODP site 1172 (Fig. 1) drilled on the East Tasman Rise (Exon et al., 2001). It is assumed that this current traversed the southern edge of the Pacic Ocean before turning northward and heading up the west coast of South America. The trans-Antarctic seaway is shown from the Ross Sea through the Bentley Trench and Byrd Basin, formerly known as the Bentley Subglacial Trench and Byrd Subglacial Basin respectively on the Isostatically Compensated Bedrock Geology Map of

Fig. 4. (a) Polar stereographic projection to 45S of the southern oceans at 40 Ma. Abbreviations are the same as in Figs. 1 and 3. SAM = South America. The Eocene Leeuwin Current (McGowran et al., 1997) is shown as a weak current along the western margin of Australia that brought tropical fauna intermittently along the southern margin of Australia. (b) Polar stereographic projection to 45S of the southern oceans at 35 Ma. Abbreviations are the same as in Figs. 1 and 3. By late Eocene, Broken Ridge has separated from the Kerguelen Plateau with initial possibility of deection of any eastward current to the south of Broken Ridge and into the Australo-Antarctic Gulf. The trans-Antarctic current is shown as possibly weaker to perhaps intermittent with the general decline in sea level that might have been connected to the initial appearance of small mountain glaciers and intermittent iceelds on East Antarctica.

22

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

Drewry (1983). Recent ice-penetrating radar surveys of the region (Blankenship et al., 2001; Studinger et al., 2001) conrm the s 1000 m deep Bentley Trench and its 50^100 km width. Because of the restricted nature of the seaway and its extreme high latitude (everywhere south of 75S), there was probably little or no signicant water exchange between the two oceans. As shown in Fig. 3, the Ross Sea would have been well-ventilated at this time while the narrow passage from the trans-Antarctic seaway into the Weddell Sea may or may not have allowed a large amount of water movement. A wind-driven, eastward trending current is shown originating in the Weddell Sea region, traversing north of Maud Rise, south of Crozet Plateau and then north of the combined Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge. No deep circulation is shown entering the Australo-Antarctic Gulf from the west. By 50 Ma, the Australo-Antarctic Gulf had at least 200^300 km of deep oceanic seaoor based on identied magnetic anomalies, particularly using C21 (V47 Ma based on the Cande and Kent, 1995 timescale) and the ocean^continent boundary as shown by Veevers et al. (1991) for a prole at 132E. Royer and Rollet (1997) showed an identied magnetic anomaly of C17 (V37 Ma) directly to the west of the southern end of Tasmania at 144E. The identied anomaly conrms production of normal oceanic seaoor by 38 Ma in the eastern section of the basin. Since there is at least 150 km of deep ocean crust between where Royer and Rollet (1997) showed anomaly C17 (V38 Ma) and where they indicated the ocean^continent boundary, this suggests that normal but slow seaoor spreading originated along this sector of the Australia^East Antarctica breakup similar to the region to the west at 132E. Royer and Rollet (1997) showed an abandoned spreading center to the northeast of the South Tasman Rise but south of the East Tasman Rise, with anomalies C33y to C30y identied (Royer and Rollet, 1997, g. 8). They also show C31? immediately south of the South Tasman Rise but that particular anomaly looks more like their model C28 with their C31? being perhaps an edge eect. An abandoned spreading center would make the formation and age of the

South Tasman Saddle between the South Tasman Rise and the Tasmanian continental margin as V80 Ma to V66 Ma. Such an interpretation ts with C28 being the rst recognizable magnetic anomaly to the south of the South Tasman Rise and might also explain some relative motion of the South Tasman Rise with respect to Tasmania and the East Antarctic margin since a direct reconstruction of the blocks of the Tasman Rise overlaps the East Antarctic margin if they are not rotated slightly. The South Tasman Saddle is presently at least 3000 m deep and would have cleared East Antarctica at slightly before 50 Ma as shown in Fig. 3. A possible shallow current is shown crossing the region between the South Tasman Rise, still contiguous to East Antarctica and Tasmania. Although Exon et al. (2001) asserted that the Tasmanian land bridge, at polar latitudes, completely blocked the eastern end of the widening Australo-Antarctic Gulf, T until the late Eocene, Kennett (personal communication, 2002) indicated that there may have been shelfal water depths covering their proposed land bridge. Exon (personal communication, 2002) allowed that there may have been a marine connection through the South Tasman Saddle prior to the Eocene. Such a connection would have been blocked until earliest Eocene by East Antarctica at the western end. Exon (personal communication, 2002) concluded that the late Cretaceous subsidence of the saddle was only to roughly sea level, as marine sedimentation was conned to some small half-grabens [with] basement outcrops often free of sediment. Only after nal breakup of Australia and Antarctica at about 34 Ma, did the saddle subside rapidly to its present depth of 3000 m. 6.2. 40 Ma Exon et al. (2001, g. F6) showed on their reconstruction at 40 Ma, the Australo-Antarctic Gulf as a restricted bathyal marine feature. They noted dierences in the Eocene claystones that suggest that the eastern Australo-Antarctic Gulf was more poorly ventilated than the southern Tasman Basin region to the east of the South Tasman Rise which was exposed to the southward

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

23

owing western boundary current. This East Australian Current was also apparently cooler than the restricted western side of the South Tasman Rise. Site 281 (Fig. 1) is shown by Exon et al. (2001) as being largely land at 40 Ma, even though Kennett et al. (1975) found rare late Eocene benthic foraminifera in hole 281 (now considered shelfal; Kennett, personal communication, 2002) and concluded that they had been deposited in a marine environment. In g. F6 of Exon et al. (2001), an approximately 200 km wide, restricted bathyal Australo-Antarctic Gulf is shown with a shallow marine seaway connecting it to the deep open marine waters of the Tasman Sea. By 40 Ma, major plate motions suggest that the Australo-Antarctic Gulf was actually 600^1000 km wide south of Australia (Fig. 4a) and must have been at abyssal ocean depths for much of its width as evidenced by the presence of magnetic anomaly picks C34 (83 Ma) through C20 (V43 Ma) (shown as small dots between Australia and East Antarctica). While there is no precise modern analog to the initial breakup between Australia and East Antarctica, the 800 km wide Eurasian basin of the Arctic is similar. The presently active Nansen^Gakkel Ridge rifted the Lomonosov Ridge, a continental sliver from the Barents Shelf in the early Eocene (Vogt et al., 1979). The Eurasia Basin has abyssal depths of greater than 4000 m over most of its area and its very slow spreading center is the deepest, presently active seaoor spreading center with some axial valley depths in excess of 5000 m. If Exon et al. (2001) used the term bathyal to mean water depths less than 3500 m then it is unlikely that the 600 km wide, late middle Eocene AustraloAntarctic Gulf was everywhere that shallow and may in fact have been everywhere deeper than 4500 m in places. Consequently for the Paleocene to Eocene period, it should probably be shown as a restricted deep marine basin rather than restricted bathyal marine. Given the location of magnetic anomaly C17 found immediately to the west of Tasmania and its distance from the ocean^continent boundary, there was at least 200^300 km of normal seaoor immediately to the west of Tasmania and the South Tasman Rise by 40 Ma.

The Leeuwin Current is shown coming down the western margin of Australia and entering the Australo-Antarctic Gulf. This current was considered a weak current by McGowran et al. (1997) but suciently signicant that it can be tracked by the fossil record of organisms transported by a warm water current from the western margin of Australia to the southern margin of Australia. The earliest record of transport is late middle Eocene (McGowran et al., 1997) and is rst shown in Fig. 4a. For the same period, Exon et al. (2001) concluded that there was no signicant transport of water between the Australo-Antarctic Gulf and the Tasman Sea, so the Leeuwin Current is shown as a weak current in Fig. 4 and is shown turning back west of Tasmania. Any eastward current through the South Tasman Saddle (shown with a question mark in Fig. 4) would have been weak or even nonexistent as a climatic force, given the inherent tidal friction in such a narrow passageway. Nelson and Cooke (2001) showed circulation across the South Tasman Rise region on their g. 6c covering the period 45^35 Ma with a note that the cool water ow was only latest Eocene. Motion of the major plates indicates that Drake Passage was denitely blocked in the early Cenozoic and a deep passage through that area may not have existed until as late as 28 or 29 Ma (Lawver and Gahagan, 1998). Foraminiferal work of Diester-Haass et al. (1996) at sites 689 and 690 (Fig. 1) on Maud Rise shows dierent dissolution patterns at Site 690 on the ank of Maud Rise than at Site 689 on the top of Maud Rise during the middle Eocene (43.87 Ma to 41.63 Ma). Diester-Haass et al. (1996) proposed that warm saline deep water, possibly originating from the western Tethys (Oberhansli, 1992), may have been over saturated in carbonate ions and protected the foraminifera at the deeper site, Site 690. During this middle Eocene period, they found nearly pure smectite at Site 690 with low kaolinite and illite content indicating little input from Antarctic sources. The presence of kaolinite was thought to indicate an Antarctic origin since it is absent from more northerly South Atlantic sites (Robert and Kennett, 1992). The proposed warm saline deep water supports the Proteus ocean of Kennett and Stott (1990) with warmer water at depth than

24

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

at the surface. Their Eocene-age stratied halothermal circulation with warm saline deep water produced from Tethys at low latitudes (Oberhans li, 1992) overlain by cool Antarctic intermediate water would indicate that Antarctica was beginning to cool during the middle Eocene. DiesterHaass et al. (1996) found evidence of increased productivity as well as increased illite and kaolinite at Site 690 that they interpret to be caused by a cooling event that led to stronger ocean circulation. From Site 689 they saw a rapid increase in N18 O at the end of the middle Eocene that they interpreted as signicant cooling. From the clay mineralogy, Diester-Haass et al. (1996) interpreted increased precipitation on Antarctica as well as extension of the cold continental areas of East Antarctica. These ndings t with the work of Dingle et al. (1998) from Seymour Island (Fig. 1) to the west of Maud Rise on the Antarctic Peninsula. We show Drake Passage as closed at this time but suggest that wind-driven circulation across a cooling Southern ocean could have produced the changes found both at Seymour Island and on land in western East Antarctica and may have also produced the clay mineralogical changes seen at Maud Rise. 6.3. 35 Ma The ocean circulation shown in Fig. 4b (35 Ma) is similar to that shown for 40 Ma. The major tectonic dierence is the increased separation of the Kerguelen Plateau from Broken Ridge. The southern remnant of the Ninety-East Ridge is seen nearly blocking the seaway between the Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge at its western end. With the general decline in sea level during the Eocene (Hardenbol et al., 1998), we indicate a less vigorous current entering the Ross Sea region and question if there was any substantial water exchange between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. The South Tasman Rise is shown still tight against East Antarctica in contrast to the statement from Exon et al. (2001) that the Tasmanian land bridge had separated from Antarctica in the late Eocene (37 Ma). They indicated that the South Tasman Rise and its broad shelves began to subside at this time and that cool surface cur-

rents started to circulate around Antarctica from the west. The major plate motions that are shown in Fig. 4b support the idea that the western part of the South Tasman Rise block was still against the Oates Land section of East Antarctica at this time. 6.4. 34^31 Ma In Fig. 5, reconstructions are shown for the period 34 Ma to 31 Ma at 1-Myr intervals. Timing for onset of major continental glaciation on East Antarctica during the earliest Oligocene is based on evidence of IRD (Kennett and Barker, 1990; Ehrmann, 1991) as well as the pronounced rise in N18 O (Zachos et al., 2001). Hambrey et al. (1991) found that the East Antarctic ice-sheet reached the paleoshelf break by earliest Oligocene based on dating of the early Oligocene waterlain till deposition at Site 742 (Fig. 1, Prydz Bay). The reconstructions in Fig. 5 show the South Tasman Rise denitely separated from East Antarctica at 32 Ma (Fig. 5c). No attempt is made to factor in subsidence of the seaoor but it is assumed that once true oceanic crust is formed, it is at approximately 2500 m below sea level or deeper, soon after formation. The outline and location of the western part of the South Tasman Rise with respect to the main South Tasman Rise is critical to the timing of the opening between the two margins. The outline of the assumed continental crust for the western part of the South Tasman Rise block is derived from the Sandwell and Smith (1997) satellite gravity data. A comparison of the outlines for the western part of the South Tasman Rise and the main South Tasman Rise used here to the bathymetric contours shown in Royer and Rollet (1997) gives a very close agreement to the 3000-m contour on the west and south sides of the combined structure. There is an almost exact match of the outline used here to the open circles shown in g. 3 of Royer and Rollet (1997), where they indicated gravity troughs that they interpreted to be the ocean^continent boundary. Perhaps the most important feature concerning the opening of a seaway is the very narrow, presumably continental sliver that extends south of 49S at the very southwestern tip of the South Tasman Rise which is now about 3000 m deep. For the

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

25

Fig. 5. Polar stereographic projections to 45S of the southern oceans at 34^31 Ma. Abbreviations are the same as in Figs. 1 and 3. EANT = East Antarctica. SAM = South America. Powell Basin opens between 34 Ma and 30.5 Ma. (a) 34 Ma. The western part of the South Tasman Rise is shown against East Antarctica with no evidence of a seaway between the South Tasman Rise and East Antarctica. (b) 33 Ma. Flow is no longer shown through any trans-Antarctic seaway. Instead rst initiation of production of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is indicated by the arrow above RN. Production of AABW is suggested by DiesterHaass et al. (1996). (c) 32 Ma. The western part of the South Tasman Rise has cleared East Antarctica and a deep seaway is rst opened about this time south of Australia allowing ventilation of the Otway Basin and other sites around Tasmania. Possible ow through Powell Basin is suggested by the dashed area with a question mark in the Drake Passage region. (d) 31 Ma. Based on the paleoproductivity work of Diester-Haass et al. (1996), there may not have been any AABW production at 31 Ma so it is shown dashed with a question mark.

26

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

rest of the South Tasman Rise, the outline used in this paper follows closely but not exactly the 3000-m contour shown in g. 3 of Royer and Rollet (1997). Without the southernmost sliver of the western part of the South Tasman Rise, it is possible that the Australia^East Antarctic passage was open prior to when it is shown open at 32 Ma (Fig. 5c). Royer and Rollet (1997) identied anomaly C31? (possibly C28) immediately to the south of the South Tasman Rise and actually to the east and northeast of the southwesternmost sliver of the South Tasman Rise. This might imply that there was some dierential motion between the western part and the main part of the South Tasman Rises prior to the western part of the South Tasman Rise breaking o the Coates Land margin of East Antarctica. While the western part of the South Tasman Rise is thought to have been part of the East Antarctic margin, it moved as one piece with the South Tasman Rise by the time of anomaly C17 (V38 Ma) when clearly identied magnetic anomalies are found to the west of the western part of the South Tasman Rise. Consequently the outline for the western part of the South Tasman Rise and its relationship to the main part of the South Tasman Rise were probably xed prior to C17 or 38 Ma. Based on the location of presentday deep ocean oor, there was some form of deep water passage between the South Tasman Rise and the Coates Land margin of East Antarctica (cf. Fig. 5b,c) by V32 Ma. As the East Antarctic continental ice-sheet extended to the paleoshelf break in earliest Oligocene (Hambrey et al., 1991) to the point where it may have covered the Ronne Embayment, sea level would have been proportionately lowered aecting the trans-Antarctic seaway. This is indicated by the elimination of a suggested trans-Antarctic owpath (shown in Fig. 5a but not in Fig. 5b^d). The trans-Antarctic owpath is replaced with an arrow indicating possible Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation shown in Fig. 5b^d forming under the Ronne Ice-shelf. Diester-Haass et al. (1996) found periods of strong carbonate dissolution in units of low productivity at Site 690 on Maud Rise that they assume were directly inuenced by AABW production. Five periods of car-

bonate dissolution were found in the Oligocene starting at the very earliest Oligocene and ending about 26.5 Ma. During the Oligocene there were times of low dissolution that may have lasted up to two million years, with a major interval from 31.5 Ma to V30 Ma. Low dissolution might indicate reduction or elimination of the Ronne Ice-shelf and consequently reduction or elimination of AABW formation. The sediments that might have been deposited from V36.05 to 33.7 Ma are absent in Hole 690. Diester-Haass et al. (1996) attributed the 3-Myr hiatus to intensied circulation at intermediate water depths. The opening of Drake Passage is not as simple a problem as the opening between the South Tasman Rise and East Antarctica. Diester-Haass and Zahn (2001) found indications of a strong increase in food supply at Site 689 on Maud Rise during the Eocene^Oligocene transition period while Thomas and Gooday (1996) found a threeto vefold increase in productivity. Thomas and Gooday (1996) suggested that phytodetritus input reects hydrographic conditions in the upper layers of the oceans (particularly a deep layer of winter mixing) that led to a strong phytoplankton bloom, with available oxygen as the controlling factor. Since Maud Rise is downstream of Drake Passage, it is tempting to relate the sharp paleoproductivity increase to evidence that Drake Passage was open to deep water ow at that time. While there are a number of small, possibly continental pieces that Barker et al. (1991) suggested clogged Drake Passage until after 20 Ma, Lawver and Gahagan (1998) showed that major plate motions had moved the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula away from southern South America between 35 Ma and 30 Ma (cf. Figs. 4b and 6). Heat ow measurements taken in Powell Basin indicate that Powell Basin (Fig. 1) was fully open by 30.5 Ma (Lawver and Gahagan, 1998) and could have provided a pathway for the Antarctic Circumpolar current beginning near the Eocene^Oligocene boundary (Fig. 5c). Lawver et al. (1994) erred when they suggested that the uncorrected heat ow measurements indicated Powell Basin was open by 38 Ma, the corrected heat ow measurements indicate an opening of Powell Basin between 34 and 30 Ma. An initial earliest Oligo-

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

27

cene pathway through Powell Basin would have a greater impact on conditions at Maud Rise than an opening to the north of the South Orkney continental block (King and Barker, 1988) where any eastward current might pass far to the north of Maud Rise after passing north of the South Orkney block. In Fig. 5, Powell Basin between the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Orkney continental block is shown as actively opening in a generally east^west direction from 34 to 30 Ma. Barker et al. (1991) indicated the Protector Basin section of the west-central Scotia Sea (Tectonic Map, 1985) to be of unknown age but possibly anomaly C5C and younger. Eagles (2001) reevaluated the Protector Basin region of Barker et al. (1991) and suggested that it consists of older oceanic crust. Without being able to constrain the pre-Anomaly C10 motion of the possibly continental pieces in the Scotia Sea, i.e. Pirie Bank, Bruce Bank and South Georgia, it is dicult to state precisely when Drake Passage opened. The geology of South Georgia suggests that it was originally south of Burdwood Bank and in geological proximity to Tierra del Fuego (Dalziel, 1991) which is where it is shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Fig. 5 keeps South Georgia xed to the motion of the Antarctic Peninsula which begins its eastward journey at about 43 Ma. By the time of anomaly C10 (28.5 Ma), it is clear using the major plate circuit of South America to Africa to East Antarctica that the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, with or without Powell Basin open, is suciently far from southern South America that, no matter how the continental fragments mentioned previously are arranged, Drake Passage was open. In Fig. 5c at 32 Ma, Drake Passage per se was probably still clogged by the continental pieces but some passageway may have operated between the South Orkney block and the tip of the Peninsula. 6.5. 30 Ma By 30 Ma, there was an open seaway around Antarctica with both Drake Passage open and the South Tasman Rise well away from East Antarctica. South Georgia is shown moving with

Antarctica since it must move signicantly eastward from its pre-breakup position near Tierra del Fuego (Dalziel et al., 1975). After its eastward translation with the South Orkney block, it moved northward when seaoor spreading began in the central Scotia Sea. Northward movement of the South Georgia continental fragment was dated by Barker and Hill (1981) as from slightly older than anomaly C6 (V20 Ma) to slightly younger than anomaly C4 (V8 Ma). Therefore, we move the South Georgia continental block with the South Orkney block from 35 Ma until 20 Ma. Since Powell Basin is assumed to have been fully open by 30 Ma, the South Orkney block is moved with East Antarctica after 30.5 Ma. Subduction of Weddell Sea crust occurred during this time (Barker et al., 1984) at Jane Bank, a subduction zone on the eastern margin of the South Orkney block, and accommodated the dierential plate motion involved in opening of Powell Basin and the southwestern Scotia Sea. Since circum-Antarctic circulation tends to move northward as it is driven eastward by the wind, the ACC is shown in Fig. 6 traveling north of Crozet Plateau and then eastward between Kerguelen Plateau and Broken Ridge. To the east, it is forced south of the South Tasman Rise and continues eastward, probably staying south of the elevated Pacic^Antarctic spreading center. It is then shown splitting with one component continuing to the north up the western margin of South America and another component entering the western Scotia Sea. Continued production of AABW is indicated coming o the Ronne Ice-shelf although the low dissolution of carbonate foraminifera found by Diester-Haass et al. (1996) at Site 690 between 31.5 Ma and V30 Ma may indicate there was a temporary elimination of the Ronne Ice-shelf and no formation of AABW at 30 Ma. 6.6. 29^26 Ma In Fig. 7, timeslices for 29 Ma to 26 Ma are shown. There is clear evidence that a passage south of Australia is completely open. The N18 O data of Zachos et al. (2001) indicate a slightly

28

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

MR SAM DP

CZ

RN EAST BB RS

PB

KP BR

ANTARCTICA

STR

TAS

CP NZ
30 Ma Early Oligocene

ST U

L RA

IA

LH

Fig. 6. Polar stereographic projections to 45S of the southern oceans at 30 Ma. Abbreviations are the same as in Figs. 1 and 3. Major plate motions have moved the Antarctic Peninsula longitudinally away from South America (Cunningham et al., 1995). If Powell Basin was not open by 30 Ma, it is possible that the continental fragments of South Georgia (Dalziel et al., 1975) and the South Orkney (King and Barker, 1988) blocks may have still blocked Drake Passage to deep water ow. Renewal of AABW production is shown at this time based on the work of Diester-Haass et al. (1996). The ACC is deected to almost 70S as it passes through the seaway south of the South Tasman Rise.

increasing value approaching 3x during this period. These data with other indicators are taken by most investigators to be evidence of an icesheet covering nearly all of East Antarctica for

this time. Dingle and Lavelle (1998) found the earliest observed glacial event on the Antarctic Peninsula to be 29.8 0.6 Ma while Diester-Haass et al. (1996) found maxima in chlorite and illite

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

29

between 80 and 75 mbsf at Site 690 on Maud Rise or from about 29.3 Ma to 28 Ma. They propose that the clay maxima were caused by maximum erosion of the Antarctic substrates, probably induced by intense glaciation.

LaBrecque and Rabinowitz (1977) identied the rst magnetic anomalies in the western Scotia Sea as anomaly C10 (V28.5 Ma). These anomalies are just visible north of the arrow shown in Drake Passage in Fig. 7b (28 Ma). While the present-day

Fig. 7. Polar stereographic projections to 45S of the southern oceans at 29 to 26 Ma. Abbreviations as in Figs. 1 and 3. The rst magnetic anomalies identied in the western Scotia Sea are seen as very small specks to the left of the arrow in Drake Passage on Fig. 5b^d. There is no apparent trans-Antarctic seaway based on the assumption that the East Antarctic ice-sheet may have covered this region, precluded ow and lowered sea level.

30

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

North Scotia Ridge between Burdwood Bank and the South Georgia microcontinent (Tectonic Map, 1985) might have earlier blocked ow through Drake Passage, it is unlikely to have been a signicant feature during this period. Ludwig and Rabinowitz (1982) found that the South American plate is presently being subducted beneath the North Scotia Ridge, consequently most of the compressive topography of the North Scotia Ridge probably developed only after the southward-directed subduction began. Such subduction of the South American plate beneath the Scotia Sea region began after subduction at Jane Bank ceased on the southern margin of the Scotia Sea when the western section of the American^Antarctic spreading center was subducted at about anomaly C6 time (V20 Ma; Barker et al., 1984). Barker and Lawver (1988) found a complete reorganization of spreading on the American^Antarctic ridge immediately after the early Miocene subduction of the western section of the American^Antarctic ridge and a resulting change from NW^SE spreading to E^W spreading between the South American and Antarctic plates. The change to E^W spreading occurred shortly before the relatively rapid east^west opening of the eastern Scotia Sea. The ACC circulation is shown in Fig. 7 across what is now the North Scotia Ridge, presently located at a depth of 2000^3000 m. 6.7. 25 Ma Immediately after 26 Ma, a sharp decrease is found in N18 O in benthic foraminifera (Zachos et al., 2001) indicating a substantial increase in water temperature (modeled as V4C). The continentwide East Antarctic ice-sheet and West Antarctic glaciation receded in the late Oligocene entering a period of isolated ice-caps or intermittent ice-sheets in East Antarctica only from 26 Ma until V14 Ma. Since no late Oligocene or early Miocene sediments were cored at Prydz Bay (Hambrey et al., 1991) it is dicult to assess actual glacial conditions there during this period. Around the South Tasman Rise, Exon et al. (2001) found a signicant change in weight percent CaCO3 generally near the Oligocene^Miocene boundary.

In Fig. 8 we show a possible return of a transAntarctic seaway as suggested by Nelson and Cooke (2001) even though the long-term sea level curve does not show a rise in sea level until closer to the Oligocene^Miocene boundary at 23.8 Ma. The Haq et al. (1987) sea level curve, recalibrated to Berggren et al. (1995) by Hardenbol et al. (1998), shows a substantial rise in sea level at 23.8 Ma, decidedly later than the sharp change in the N18 O found by Zachos et al. (2001) at V26 Ma. Kominz et al. (1998) found much subdued estimates of Cenozoic sea level changes using data from the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their results from back-stripping may actually show a fall in sea level about 25 Ma followed by a nearly steady sea level until present. While the Cenozoic sea level record may not be a good proxy for Antarctic ice-sheet formation, it seems to indicate that the Oligocene East Antarctic ice-sheet was certainly 50% or less of the present-day ice-sheet volume as Zachos et al. (1993) estimated since there are no 70+ m changes as are predicted by the present-day ice volume. The sea level proxies for ice volume estimates that are available for the last 35 Ma may not be easily distinguishable from other tectonic factors. Consequently, it is strictly speculation that there may have been a trans-Antarctic seaway during the late Oligocene and into the Miocene. 6.8. 20^5 Ma From 20 Ma to 5 Ma, shown in Fig. 9, the circum-Antarctic seaway widened with Australia moving out of the polar region and into the temperate region. The southern Australian margin conned the Australo-Antarctic Gulf to south of 60S at 55 Ma but has since moved to 35S. As late as middle Eocene when McGowran et al. (1997) found tropical fauna that had been transported to the southern Australian margin by the southward Leeuwin current along the western margin of Australia, the southern margin was still at about 60S. By 20 Ma the southern margin of Australia was at 45^48S and moving northward rapidly. In contrast, the southern tip of South America has remained nearly stationary latitudinally, from early Eocene (V50 Ma) until present (Cunning-

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

31

MR SAM DP RN EAST

CZ

PB

KP

ANTARCTICA RS

NZ
25 Ma Late Oligocene

LH

Fig. 8. Polar stereographic projections to 45S of the southern oceans at 25 Ma. Abbreviations as in Figs. 1 and 3. At about 26 Ma, Zachos et al. (2001) show a dramatic decrease in N18 O and a presumed decrease in East Antarctic ice cover. As Nelson and Cooke (2001) suggest, there may have been a trans-Antarctic seaway but with little transport, so it is shown as a dashed arrow. Magnetic anomalies are seen in the western Scotia Sea and both Drake Passage and the seaway south of the South Tasman Rise were open to deep ow.

ham et al., 1995), moving only a few degrees northward during the Cenozoic. As the Australian^Antarctic seaway widened, the developing ACC trended northward. The present-day current (Fig. 1) is seen in the highest variations of the root mean square slope variability that Sandwell and Zhang

(1989) calculated from one year of repeat Geosat/ ERM data. The ACC is deected around the Campbell Plateau south of New Zealand, not across the 500^1000 m deep plateau. The opening of Drake Passage during the Miocene and younger period is mostly a case of Ant-

AU

CP

ST

TAS

RA

STR

LI

32

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

Fig. 9. Polar stereographic projections to 45S of the southern oceans at 20, 15, 10 and 5 Ma. Abbreviations as in Figs. 1 and 3. Australia moves rapidly northward while South America stays nearly latitudinally stationary as Antarctica rotates a few degrees eastward. Most opening in the eastern Scotia Sea is accommodated by rapid trench rollback (Barker, 1995). The closure of the circum-equatorial seaway between Southeast Asia and New Guinea/Australia results in vigorous circum-Antarctic circulation and an enhanced ACC. This is reected in the growth of the East Antarctic ice-sheet after 15 Ma.

arctica and South America moving apart longitudinally. Drake Passage has always been lled with some high-standing seaoor blocks of varying composition. The pieces vary from the clearly con-

tinental South Georgia and South Orkney blocks (Dalziel et al., 1975; Barker et al., 1991), to recent compressional constructs such as the Shackleton Fracture Zone Ridge (Klepeis and Lawver, 1996)

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

33

which may only be as young as Pliocene. It should be kept in mind that the motion of the continental fragments in Drake Passage, shown in Figs. 5^9, is not well constrained and is open to diering interpretations. The most important tectonic event during the Miocene with respect to ocean circulation was the collision of the Australia^New Guinea block with Southeast Asia around 15 Ma (Lee and Lawver, 1995). By blocking substantial equatorial transport of water from the Pacic into the Indian Ocean, the currents were shifted to owing southward along the eastern margin of Australia and northward along the eastern margin of Asia. This factor greatly enhanced transport and driving forces of the ACC and led to the late middle Miocene expansion of the East Antarctic icesheet. This is shown by the elimination of any suggested, trans-Antarctic ow from Fig. 9c,d and the return of production of AABW in those two gures. The nal tectonic event aecting global ocean circulation was closure of the Panamanian seaway between 3.7 Ma and 3.0 Ma (Keigwin, 1982), a major factor in the late Pliocene formation of the West Antarctic and northern hemisphere ice-sheets. Closure of the Panamanian seaway increased thermohaline circulation and increased the moisture supply to high latitudes where the additional heat may have initially inhibited ice growth (Driscoll and Haug, 1998). Collins et al. (1996) and Ibaraki (1997) support a late Pliocene age of closure of a Panamanian seaway with V3.5 Ma being the time that Coates et al. (1992) found from nearshore marine calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifera collected from onshore sections around Panama and Costa Rica.

7. Discussion The closure of Tethys during early Eocene resulted in the end of circum-equatorial circulation and forced circulation south of Africa and into the temperate zone. Pearson and Palmer (2000) noted a dramatic decrease in atmospheric CO2 around 50 Ma and that high-latitude cooling began at about the time of a sharp sea-level re-

gression that corresponds to a widespread hiatus in marine sediments. At about this same time, both the North Atlantic and the Eurasian basin opened (Vogt et al., 1979). Input of thermal heating and carbon dioxide from shallow ridges in the North Atlantic and Eurasian basins may have produced the high, early Cenozoic pCO2 levels and the newly opened ocean basins may have contributed to the sea level drop. These early Eocene events are the rst of four major steps that punctuate the long-term history of Cenozoic cooling (McGowran et al., 1992). They proposed that a reverse greenhouse eect operated at that time, caused by high levels of siliceous plankton productivity in the oceans and correspondingly enhanced rates of marine Corg burial. In the Weddell Sea region, there was real Eocene climate deterioration at Seymour Island (Dingle et al., 1998) as aected by westerlies as the oceans were cooling at high latitudes. In contrast Maud Rise and the Otway Basin along the southern margin of Australia did not see any real evidence of Eocene climate decay. In the case of the Otway Basin, the restricted nature of the Australo-Antarctic Gulf may have kept the Eocene climate protected from the cooling seen elsewhere. While there may have been development of isolated ice-caps on East Antarctica during late Eocene, there is no evidence for any inuence of the ACC prior to the earliest Oligocene. It was only when both the South Tasman Rise nally cleared East Antarctica and Drake Passage opened that a substantial mass of chilled water aected much of the southern ocean. Only by allowing circum-Antarctic circulation at a level below 2000 m could signicant environmental changes take place. A major change occurred at the Eocene^Oligocene boundary with increased production of AABW as seen on Maud Rise. Even though there is oceanographic and certainly N18 O evidence for opening of a circum-Antarctic seaway in the early Oligocene there is not a great deal of evidence to support a vigorous ACC until the Miocene (Rack, 1993).

8. Conclusions Strict interpretation of major plate motions

34

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37

would indicate that a deep seaway rst opened between the South Tasman Rise and East Antarctica about 32 Ma. There is reasonable evidence to suggest that a shallow to mid-level seaway across the South Tasman Saddle may have existed as early as V50 Ma when Tasmania rst cleared East Antarctica. The South Tasman Saddle was perhaps as deep as 1000 m. It formed when the South Tasman Rise separated from Tasmania during the late Cretaceous based on tentative magnetic anomaly identications to the south of the East Tasman Rise (Royer and Rollet, 1997). Legs 29 (Kennett et al., 1974) and 189 (Exon et al., 2001) drilled on and around the South Tasman Rise indicate that the depocenters were anoxic in the late Eocene and some showed laminations similar to what is found in the Santa Barbara Basin (Kennett, personal communication, 2001). The drilling evidence suggests that the Eocene South Tasman Rise was shelfal or shallower in many places. Since the ACC (Fig. 1) is clearly deected by the 500^1000 m deep Campbell Plateau (Sandwell and Zhang, 1989), it is not surprising that a strong current did not develop over the South Tasman Rise or through the South Tasman Saddle during the Eocene. Tidal friction alone would probably have prohibited any large transport of water masses. Even if there was a shallow or even slightly deeper seaway between Australia and Antarctica prior to the South Tasman Rise separating at 32 Ma, it did not eect major water transport. Opening of Drake Passage is a more dicult problem given that there are numerous small, unconstrained pieces that need to be considered. Even so, the identication of the earliest magnetic anomalies in the western Scotia Sea (LaBrecque and Rabinowitz, 1977) as C10 (V28.5 Ma) and the resulting space suggested by major plate motions (Lawver and Gahagan, 1998) support the evidence that Drake Passage was open to deep water ow by 29 Ma. It is probable that it in fact opened earlier, perhaps as early as 31 2 Ma. The best evidence to support opening of Drake Passage in the earliest Oligocene is the profound oceanographic and paleoproductivity changes seen at Maud Rise (Kennett and Barker, 1990; Kennett and Stott, 1990; Diester-Haass et al., 1996).

Acknowledgements We wish to acknowledge the editorial help of Fabio Fabrizio and Alan Cooper. We would also like to thank Jim Kennett, Neville Exon, Graham Moss and numerous others for helpful discussions. The paper was improved by two anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by the Plates Project, an industry-sponsored plate tectonic research program at the Institute for Geophysics and National Science Foundation grants OPP9615161 and OPP-0126279 to Lawver. This is Institute for Geophysics contribution 1643.

References
Abreu, V.S., Anderson, J.B., 1998. Glacial eustasy during the Cenozoic; sequence stratigraphic implications. AAPG Bull. 82, 1385^1400. Anderson, J.B., Shipp, S.S., 2001. Evolution of the West Antarctic ice-sheet. In: Alley, R.B., Bindschadler, R.A. (Eds.), The West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Behavior and Environment. AGU Antarct. Res. Ser. 77, 45^58. Barker, P.F., 1982. The Cenozoic subduction history of the Pacic margin of the Antarctic Peninsula. J. Geol. Soc. London 139, 787^801. Barker, P.F., 1995. Tectonic framework of the East Scotia Sea. In: Taylor, B. (Ed.), Backarc Basins: Tectonics and Magmatism. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 281^314. Barker, P.F., Griths, D.H., 1972. The evolution of the Scotia Ridge and Scotia Sea. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A Math. Phys. Sci. 271, 151^183. Barker, P.F., Hill, I.A., 1981. Back-arc extension in the Scotia Sea. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A Math. Phys. Sci. 300, 249^262. Barker, P.F., Lawver, L.A., 1988. South American-Antarctic plate motion over the past 50 myr., the evolution of the South American-Antarctic Ridge. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 94, 377^386. Barker, P.F., Barber, P.L., King, E.C., 1984. An early Miocene ridge crest-trench collision on the South Scotia Ridge near 36W. Tectonophysics 102, 315^332. Barker, P.F., Dalziel, I.W.D., Storey, B.C., 1991. Tectonic development of the Scotia Arc region. In: Tingey, R.J. (Ed.), Geology of Antarctica. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 215^248. Barron, J., Larsen, B., Baldauf, J.G., 1991. Evidence for late Eocene to early Oligocene Antarctic glaciation and observations on late Neogene glacial history of Antarctica: results from Leg 119. In: Barron, J., Larsen, B., Baldauf, J.G. (Eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Results 119, 869^891. Berggren, W.A., 1971. Tertiary boundaries and correlation. In: Funnell, B.M., Riedel, W.R. (Eds.), The Micropaleontology

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37 of Oceans. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 693^809. Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Flynn, J.J., Van Couvering, J.A., 1985. Cenozoic geochronology. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96, 1407^1418. Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Swisher, C.C., III, Aubry, M.-P., 1995. A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In: Berggren, W.A., Kent, D.V., Aubry, M.-P., Hardenbol, J. (Eds.), Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. SEPM Spec. Publ. 54, 129^212. Blankenship, D.D., Morse, D.L., Finn, C.A., Bell, R.E., Peters, M.E., Kempf, S.D., Hodge, S.M., Studinger, M., Behrendt, J.C., Brozena, J.M., 2001. Geologic controls on the initiation of rapid basal motion for west Antarctic Ice Streams: a geophysical perspective including new airborne radar sounding and laser altimetry results. In: Alley, R.B., Bindschadler, R.A. (Eds.), The West Antarctic Ice Sheet: Behavior and Environment. AGU Antarct. Res. Ser. 77, 105^122. Browning, J.V., Miller, K.G., Pak, D.K., 1996. Global implications of lower to middle Eocene sequence boundaries on the New Jersey coastal plain: The icehouse cometh. Geology 24, 639^642. Cande, S.C., Kent, D.V., 1995. Revised calibration of the geomagnetic polarity timescale for the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 6093^6095. Cande, S.C., Stock, J.M., Mueller, R.D., Ishihara, T., 2000. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica. Nature 404, 145^150. Coates, A.G., Jackson, J.B.C., Collins, L.S., Cronin, T.M., Dowsett, H.J., Bbell, L.M., Jung, P., Obando, J.A., 1992. Closure of the Isthmus of Panama: The near-shore marine record of Costa Rica and western Panama. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 104, 813^829. Collins, L.S., Budd, A.F., Coates, A.G., 1996. Earliest evolution associated with closure of the Tropical American seaway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 6069^6072. Cunningham, W.D., Dalziel, I.W.D., Lee, T.-Y., Lawver, L.A., 1995. Southernmost South America-Antarctic Peninsula relative plate motions since 84 Ma: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Scotia Arc region. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 8257^8266. Dalziel, I.W.D., Dott, R.H., Jr., Winn, R.D., Jr., Bruhn, R.L., 1975. Tectonic relations of South Georgia Island to the southernmost Andes. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 86, 1034^1040. Dalziel, I.W.D., 1991. Pacic margins of Laurentia and East Antarctica-Australia as a conjugate rift pair: Evidence and implications fo an Eocambrian supercontinent. Geology 19, 598^601. Dercourt, L.E., Zonenshain, L.P., Ricou, L.-E., Kazmin, V.G., Le Pichon, X., Knipper, A.L., Grandjacquet, C., Sbortshikov, I.M., Geyssant, J., Lepvrier, C., Perchersky, D.H., Boulin, J., Sibuet, J.-C., Savostin, L.A., Sorkhtin, O., Westphal, M., Bazhenov, M.L., Lauer, J.P., Biju-Duval, B., 1986. Geological evolution of the Tethys belt from the Atlantic to the Pamirs since the Lias. Tectonophysics 123, 241^314.

35

Diester-Haass, L., Zahn, R., 2001. Paleoproductivity increase at the Eocene-Oligocene climatic transition: ODP/DSDP sites 763 and 592. Paleogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 172, 153^170. Diester-Haass, L., Zahn, R., 1996. Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Southern Ocean; history of water mass circulation and biological productivity. Geology 24, 163^166. Diester-Haass, L., Robert, C., Chamley, H., 1996. The EoceneOligocene preglacial-glacial transition in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (ODP Site 690). Mar. Geol. 131, 123^149. Dingle, R.V., Lavelle, M., 1998. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic climatic variations of the northern Antarctic Peninsula; new geochemical evidence and review. Paleogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 141, 215^232. Dingle, R.V., Marenssi, S.A., Lavelle, M., 1998. High latitude Eocene climate deterioration; evidence from the northern Antarctic Peninsula. J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 11, 571^579. Drewry, D.J., 1983. Glaciological and Geophysical Folio. Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge. Driscoll, N.W., Haug, G.H., 1998. A short circuit in thermohaline circulation; a cause for Northern Hemisphere glaciation? Science 282, 436^438. Eagles, G., 2001. Modelling Plate Kinematics in the Scotia Sea. PhD Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds. Ehrmann, W.U., 1991. Implications of sediment composition on the southern Kerguelen Plateau for paleoclimate and depositional environment. In: Barron, J., Larsen, B., Baldauf, J.G. (Eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Results 119, 185^210. Eldholm, O., Con, M.F., 2000. Large igneous provinces and plate tectonics. In: Richards, M.A., Gordon, R.G., van der Hilst, R.D. (Eds.), The History and Dynamics of Global Plate Motions. AGU Geophys. Monogr. 121, 309^326. Evano, E., Prothero, D.R., Lander, R.H., 1992. Eocene-Oligocene climatic change in North America: The White River formation near Douglas, East-Central Wyoming. In: Prothero, D.R., Berggren, W.A. (Eds.), Late Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic EVolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 116^130. Exon, N.F., Kennett, J.P. et al., 2001. Leg 189 Summary. Proc. ODP Part A Init. Rep., Leg 189. Gahagan, L.M., Royer, J.-Y., Scotese, C.R., Sandwell, D.T., Winn, J.K., Tomlins, R.L., Ross, M.I., Newman, J.S., Mu ller, R.D., Mayes, C.L., Lawver, L.A., Heubeck, C.E., 1988. Tectonic fabric map of the ocean basins from satellite altimetry data. Tectonophysics 155, 1^26. Gladczenko, T.P., Skogseid, J., Eldholm, O., 1998. Namibia volcanic margin. In: Erzinger, J., Sibuet, J.-C., Talwani, M. (Eds.), Volcanic Margins. Mar. Geophys. Res. 20, 313^341. Hambrey, M.J., Ehrmann, W.U., Larsen, B., 1991. Cenozoic glacial record of the Prydz Bay continental shelf, East Antarctica. In: Barron, J., Larsen, B., Baldauf, J.G. (Eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Results 119, 77^132. Haq, B.U., Hardenbol, J., Vail, P.R., 1987. Chronology of uctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science 235, 1156^ 1167. Hardenbol, J., Thierry, J., Farley, M.B., Jacquin, T., de Gra-

36

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37 Lawver, L.A., Williams, T., Sloan, B.J., 1994. Seismic stratigraphy and heat ow of Powell Basin. Terra Antarct. 1, 309^ 310. Lawver, L.A., Gahagan, L.M., Dalziel, I.W.D, 1998. A tight t ^ Early Mesozoic Gondwana, a plate reconstruction perspective. In: Motoyoshi, Y., Shiraishi, K. (Eds.), Origin and Evolution of Continents. Mem. Natl. Inst. Polar Res. Spec. Issue 53, 214^229. Lawver, L.A., Con, M.F., Dalziel, I.W.D., Gahagan, L.M., Campbell, D.A., 2001. The Plates 2001 atlas of plate reconstructions (750 Ma to Present day), Plates Progress Report No. 260-0801, University of Texas, Austin, TX, UTIG Technical Report 189. Lee, T.-Y., Lawver, L.A., 1995. Cenozoic plate reconstruction of Southeast Asia. In: Hilde, T.W.C., Flower, M.F.J. (Eds.), Southeast Asia Structure and Tectonics. Tectonophysics 251, 85^138. Livermore, R., Balanya, J.C., Maldonado, A., Martinez, J.M., Rodriguez-Fernandez, J., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Galindo Zaldivar, J., Jabaloy, A., Barnolas, A., Somoza, L., Hernandez-Molina, J., Surinach, E., Viseras, C., 2000. Autopsy on a dead spreading center; the Phoenix Ridge, Drake Passage, Antarctica. Geology 28, 607^610. Ludwig, W.J., Rabinowitz, P.D., 1982. The collision complex of the North Scotia Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research 87, 3731^3740. Marks, K.M., Stock, J.M., Quinn, K.J., 1999. Evolution of the Australian-Antarctic discordance since Miocene time. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4967^4981. McGowran, B., Moss, G., Beecroft, A.. 1992. Late Eocene and early Oligocene in southern Australia: local neritic signals of global oceanic changes. In: Prothero, D.R., Berggren, W.A. (Eds.), Late Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 178^201. McGowran, B., Li, Q., Cann, J., Padley, D., McKirdy, D.M., Shak, S., 1997. Biogeographic impact of the Leeuwin Current in southern Australia since the late middle Eocene. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 136, 19^40. Moss, G., McGowran, B., 1993. Foraminiferal turnover in neritic environments: the end-Eocene and mid-Oligocene events in southern Australia. Mem. Assoc. Australas. Palaeontol. 15, 407^416. Muller, R.D., Royer, J.-Y., Lawver, L.A., 1993. Revised plate motions relative to the hotspots from combined Atlantic and Indian Ocean hotspot tracks. Geology 21, 275^278. Muller, R.D., Roest, W.R., Royer, J.-Y., Gahagan, L.M., Sclater, J.G., 1997. Digital isochrons of the worlds ocean oor. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3211^3214. Muller, R.D., Roest, W.R., Royer, J.-Y., 1998. Asymmetric sea-oor spreading caused by ridge-plume interactions. Nature 396, 455^459. Muller, R.D., Royer, J.-Y., Cande, S.C., Roest, W.R., Ma schenkov, S., 1999. New constraints on the Late Cretaceous/Tertiary plate tectonic evolution of the Caribbean. In: Mann, P. (Ed.), Caribbean Basins. Sedimentary Basins of the World. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp. 33^59. Nelson, C.S., Cooke, P.J., 2001. History of oceanic front de-

ciansky, P-C, and Vail, P.R., 1998. Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequence chronostratigraphic chart (Chart 1). In: de Graciansky, P.-C., Hardenbol, J., Jacquin, T., Vail, P.R. (Eds.), Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins. SEPM Spec. Publ. 60. Haug, G.H., Tiedemann, R., 1998. Eect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature 393, 673^676. Hollister, C.D., Craddock, C., Shipboard Scientic Party, 1976. Site 323. Init. Rep. DSDP 35, 63^126. Ibaraki, M., 1997. Closing of the Central American Seaway and Neogene coastal upwelling along the Pacic Coast of South America. In: Tsuchi, R., Nishimura, S., Beu, A.G. (Eds.), Neogene Evolution of the Pacic; Tectonics of Gateways and Associated Responses. Tectonophysics 281, 99^ 104. Keigwin, L.D., 1982. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and East pacic: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time. Science 217, 350^353. Kennett, J.P., Barker, P.F., 1990. Latest Cretaceous to Cenozoic climate and oceanographic developments in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: an ocean-drilling perspective. In: Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P. (Eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Results 113, 937^960. Kennett, J.P., L.D. Stott, 1990. Proteus and Proto-Oceanus: Ancestral Paleogene oceans as revealed from Antarctic stable isotopic results; ODP Leg 113. In: Barker, P.F., Kennett, J.P. (Eds.), Proc. ODP Sci. Results 113, 865^880. Kennett, J.P., Houtz, R.E., Andrews, P.B., Edwards, A.R., Gostin, V.A., Hajos, M., Hampton, M., Jenkins, D.G., Margolis, S.V., Ovenshine, A.T., Perch-Nielsen, K., 1974. Development of the circum-Antarctic current. Science 186, 144^147. Kennett, J.P., Houtz, R.E., Andrews, P.B., Edwards, A.R., Gostin, V.A., Hajos, M., Hampton, M., Jenkins, D.G., Margolis, S.V., Ovenshine, A.T., Perch-Nielsen, K., 1975. Cenozoic paleoceanography in the southwest Pacic Ocean, Antarctic glaciation, and the development of the circumAntarctic current. In: Kennett, J.P., Houtz, R.E. (Eds.), Init. Rep. DSDP 29, 1155^1169. King, E.C., Barker, P.F., 1988. The margins of the South Orkney microcontinent. J. Geol. Soc. London 145, 317^331. Klepeis, K.A., Lawver, L.A., 1996. Tectonics of the AntarcticScotia plate boundary near Elephant and Clarence Islands, West Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 20211^20231. Kominz, M.A., Miller, K.G., Browning, J.V., 1998. Long-term and short-term global Cenozoic sea-level estimates. Geology 26, 311^314. LaBrecque, J.L., Rabinowitz, P.D., 1977. Magnetic anomalies bordering the continental margin of Argentina. Map Series Cat. 826, Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Tulsa, OK. Lawver, L.A., Gahagan, L.M., 1998. Opening of Drake Passage and its impact on Cenozoic ocean circulation. In: Crowley, T.J., Burke, K.C. (Eds.), Tectonic Boundary Conditions for Climate Reconstructions. Oxford Monographs on Geology and Geophysics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 212^223.

L.A. Lawver, L.M. Gahagan / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 198 (2003) 11^37 velopment in the New Zealand sector of the southern Ocean during the Cenozoic ^ a synthesis. N.Z. J. Geol. Geophys. 44, 535^553. Nurnberg, D., Muller, R.D., 1991. The tectonic evolution of the South Atlantic from Late Jurassic to present. Tectonophysics 191, 27^53. Oberhansli, H., 1992. The inuence of the Tethys on the bot tom waters of the Early Tertiary Ocean. In: Kennett, J.P., Warnke, D.A. (Eds.), The Antarctic Paleoenvironment: A Perspective on Global Change. AGU Antarct. Res. Ser. 56, 167^184. Oberhansli, H., 1996. Klimatische und ozeanographische Ver anderungen im Eozan. Z. Dtsch. Geol. Ges. 147, 303^412. Pearson, P.N., Palmer, M.R., 2000. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature 406, 695^699. Rack, F.R., 1993. A geologic perspective on the Miocene evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system. Tectonophysics 222, 397^415. Ramos, V.A., 1996. Geologia de las Islas Georgias del Sur. In: Ramos, V.A., Turic, M.A. (Eds.), Geolgogia y Recursos Naturales de la Plataforma Continental Argentina. XIII Congreso Geologico Argentino y III Congreso de Exploracion de Hidrocarburos, Buenos Aires, pp. 359^368. Robert, C., Kennett, J.P., 1992. Paleocene and Eocene kaolinite distribution in the South Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Antarctic climatic and paleoceanographic implications. Mar. Geol. 103, 99^110. Rotstein, Y., Munschy, M., Bernard, A., 2001. The Kerguelen Province revisited: additional constraints on the early development of the Southeast Indian Ocean. Mar. Geophys. Res. 22, 81^100. Royer, J-Y., 1992. The opening of the Indian Ocean since the Late Jurassic: an overview. In: Plummer, P.S. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Indian Ocean First Seminar on Petroleum Exploration, Seychelles. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation Development, New York, pp. 169^ 185. Royer, J.-Y., Chang, T., 1991. Evidence for relative motions between the Indian and Australian plates during the last 20 m.y. from plate tectonic reconstructions implications for the deformation of the Indo-Australian plate. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11779^11802. Royer, J.-Y., Rollet, N., 1997. Plate-tectonic setting of the Tasmanian region. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 44, 543^560. Royer, J.-Y., Sandwell, D.T., 1989. Evolution of the Eastern Indian Ocean since the Late Cretaceous: Constraints from Geosat altimetry. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 13755^13782. Royer, J.-Y., Patriat, P., Bergh, H., Scotese, C., 1988. Evolution of the southwest Indian Ridge from the Late Cretaceous (anomaly 34) to the Middle Eocene (anomaly 20). Tectonophysics 155, 235^260.

37

Sandwell, D.T., Smith, W.H.F., 1997. Marine gravity anomaly from Geosat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10039^10054. Sandwell, D.T., Zhang, B., 1989. Global mesoscale variability from the Geosat exact repeat mission Correlation with ocean depth. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 17971^17984. Smith, W.H.F., Sandwell, D.T., 1997. Global sea oor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science 277, 1956^1962. Stampi, G., Borel, G., Cavazza, W., Mosar, J., Ziegler, P.A., 2001. The paleotectonic atlas of the periTethyan domain, The European Geophysical Society, a CDrom. Storey, B.C., King, E.C., Livermore, R.A. (Eds.), 1996. Weddell Sea Tectonics and Gondwana Break-up. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. 108. Studinger, M., Bell, R.E., Blankenship, D.D., Finn, C.A., Arko, R.A., Morse, D.J., Joughin, I., 2001. Subglacial sediments: a regional geological template for ice ow in West Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters 28, 3493^3496. Tectonic Map of the Scotia Arc, 1985. Scale 1:3,000,000. BAS (Misc.) 3. British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge. Thomas, E., Gooday, A.J., 1996. Cenozoic deep-sea benthic foraminifers: tracers for changes in oceanic productivity? Geology 24, 355^358. Tikku, A.A., Cande, S.C., 2000. On the t of Broken Ridge and Kerguelen plateau. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 180, 117^ 132. Veevers, J.J., 1986. Breakup of Australia and Antarctica estimated as mid-Cretaceous (95+5 Ma) from magnetic and seismic data at the continental margin. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 77, 91^99. Veevers, J.J., McPowell, C.A., Roots, S.R., 1991. Review of seaoor spreading around Australia; I, Synthesis of the patterns of spreading. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 38, 373^389. Vogt, P.R., Taylor, P.T., Kovacs, L.C., Johnson, G.L., 1979. Detailed aeromagnetic investigations on the Arctic Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 84, 1071^1089. Wolfe, J.A., 1992. Climatic, oristic, and vegetational changes near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary in North America. In: Prothero, D.R., Berggren, W.A. (Eds.), Late Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, pp. 421^436. Zachos, J.C., Lohmann, K.C., Walker, J.C.G., Wise, S.W., 1993. Abrupt climate changes and transient climates during the Paleogene; a marine perspective. J. Geol. 101, 191^213. Zachos, J.C., Quinn, T.M., Salamy, K.A., 1996. High-resolution (104 years) deep-sea foraminiferal stable isotope records of the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Paleoceanography 11, 251^266. Zachos, J.C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., Billups, K., 2001. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present. Science 292, 686^693.