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Global Marketing Management

Strategies Memasuki Pasar global dan ekspansi

Mengenal aktivitas ekspor sebagai sebuah proses pengembangan dari waktu ke waktu Memahami strategi memasuki pasar yang berbeda: sourcing.investasi & kepemilikan Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 2 .Tujuan pembelajaran: Mengidentifikasi kriteria sleksi pasaran luar negeri Memahami alternatif pasar yang dapat dimasuki perusahaan. lisensi.

Decision Criteria for IB Political risk Market access Factor cost & conditions Shipping consideration Country infrastructure Foreign Exchange Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 3 .

Selesi Pasar Asing . kewajiban & batasan non-tarif dalamperdagangan Tingkat kepentingan kriteria seleksi tergantung pada berbagai industri dan pasar Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 4 . Harus didasarkan pada beberapa kriteria: Karkteristik pasar Aspek biaya Rancangan undang-undang tarif...

Akses memasuki pasar 3. Pelayanan 6. Kesesuaian produk Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 5 .Kritria Selesi Pasar 1. Potensi pasar 2. Tingkatan penilaian & Qualitas kompetisi 5. Biaya pengiriman dan waktu 4.

5. 2. 8. Siapa pembeli produk kita? Siapa yang tidak membeli produk kita? Kebutuhan apa atau fungsi apa yang dipenuhi dengan produk kita? masalah apa yang dipecahkan oleh produk kita? Apa yang dibeli konsumen saat ini untuk memuaskan kebutuhan atau memecahkan masalah dimana produk kita ditargetkan Berapa harga yang mempu dibayar untuk produk yang dibeli saat ini? Kapan rpoduk kita dibeli? Dimana produk kita dibeli? Mengapa produk kita dibeli? Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 6 . 6. 3. 4. 9.Prtanyaan kritis untuk profil pasar produk: The 9 W´s 1. 7.

Müller. Stuttgart. 1989 Markets which are filtered out based on a first set of selection criteria Markets which are filtered out based on a second set of selection criteria Potential foreign target markets Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 7 .U. and R.A Multi-Stage Selection Process Approx. Datenbankgestützte Marktselektion: Eine methodische Basis für Internationalisierungs-strategien. Schneider.G. 150 countries Markets which drop out due to restrictions („must“ criteria) Source: adapted from D.J.

Visiting the Potential Market .. is essential after assessment & selection of potential market(s) goals: to confirm (or contradict) assumptions regarding market potential to gather additional (primary) data to develop a marketing plan in co-operation with the local agent or distributor Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 8 ..

Production Abroad Ownership and Control 100 % Ownership & Strategic Alliances Ownership Equity Joint Ventures Licensing 0 0 Franchising Control Management Contracts 100 % Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 9 .

Direct Exporting Direct market representation via wholesalers or retailers or directly to the consumers Independent representation independent distributor Piggyback marketing distribution through another distributor´s channel Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 10 .

. domestic & international. explores the feasibility of exporting (may bypass stage 2).... exports to one or more markets on a trial basis. . 6. ... evaluates the global market potential. .. .. 7. 5.. pursues country or region focused marketing. 4.Exporting: A Developmental Process Stages of the firm 1. 2..... is an experienced exporter to one or more markets.. 3. All markets. are regarded as equally worthy of consideration. fills unsolicited export orders (export seller). . is unwilling to export.. Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 11 . .

Export-Related Problems Logistics Legal procedure Servicing exports Sales promotion Foreign market intelligence Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 12 .

5. Factor costs & conditions Logistics Country infrastructure Political risk Market access Exchange rate.Sourcing Decision Factors 1. 3. 6. 2. availability & convertibility of local money Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 13 . 4.

Licensing “contractual arrangement whereby one company (licensor) makes an asset available to another company (licensee) in exchange for royalties. license fees or other form of compensation” Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 14 .

Franchising A form of licensing “a company permits its name.” Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 15 . logo. cultural design and operations to be used in establishing a new firm or store.

Joint Ventures Company run by two or more partner firms Risk is shared and different value chain strengths are combined Influence depends on degree of ownership Good opportunity to build on local know-how JV finds greater acceptance by local authorities Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 16 .

Wholly-owned Subsidiaries/Acquisition Represents the most extensive engagement abroad Subsidiary is either established through the creation of a new facility or the acquisition of an existing firm Company has complete decision power & control Investor achieves greater flexibility In many countries majority or 100% ownership by foreign companies is forbidden Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 17 .

Strategi Perluasan Pasar Narrow focus: concentrated markets/concentrated countries Country focus: diverse markets/concentrated countries Country diversification: concentrated markets/diverse countries Global diversification: diverse markets/diverse countries Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 18 .

perusahaan harus memutuskan untuk memasuki paar tersebut company has to decide how to enter this market. atau kesesuaian product . Sekali pasar luarnegri yang potensial dipilih. Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 19 . seperti potensi pasar.Ringkasan Pemilihan pasar luar yang potensial harus didasarkan pada evaluasi kriteria yang mempengaruhi potensi keberhasilan di luar negeri disecra teliti. kemudahan memasuki pasar.