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Global Marketing Management

Strategies Memasuki Pasar global dan ekspansi

Tujuan pembelajaran:
Mengidentifikasi kriteria sleksi pasaran luar negeri Memahami alternatif pasar yang dapat dimasuki perusahaan. Mengenal aktivitas ekspor sebagai sebuah proses pengembangan dari waktu ke waktu Memahami strategi memasuki pasar yang berbeda: sourcing, lisensi,investasi & kepemilikan

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 2

Decision Criteria for IB


Political risk Market access Factor cost & conditions Shipping consideration Country infrastructure Foreign Exchange
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 3

Selesi Pasar Asing


... Harus didasarkan pada beberapa kriteria:
Karkteristik pasar Aspek biaya Rancangan undang-undang tarif, kewajiban & batasan non-tarif dalamperdagangan

Tingkat kepentingan kriteria seleksi tergantung pada berbagai industri dan pasar
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 4

Kritria Selesi Pasar


1. Potensi pasar 2. Akses memasuki pasar 3. Biaya pengiriman dan waktu 4. Tingkatan penilaian & Qualitas kompetisi 5. Pelayanan 6. Kesesuaian produk
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 5

Prtanyaan kritis untuk profil pasar produk: The 9 Ws


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Siapa pembeli produk kita? Siapa yang tidak membeli produk kita? Kebutuhan apa atau fungsi apa yang dipenuhi dengan produk kita? masalah apa yang dipecahkan oleh produk kita? Apa yang dibeli konsumen saat ini untuk memuaskan kebutuhan atau memecahkan masalah dimana produk kita ditargetkan Berapa harga yang mempu dibayar untuk produk yang dibeli saat ini? Kapan rpoduk kita dibeli? Dimana produk kita dibeli? Mengapa produk kita dibeli?

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 6

A Multi-Stage Selection Process


Approx. 150 countries

Markets which drop out due to restrictions (must criteria)

Source: adapted from D.J.G. Schneider, and R.U. Mller, Datenbankgesttzte Marktselektion: Eine methodische Basis fr Internationalisierungs-strategien, Stuttgart, 1989

Markets which are filtered out based on a first set of selection criteria Markets which are filtered out based on a second set of selection criteria Potential foreign target markets

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 7

Visiting the Potential Market


... is essential after assessment & selection of potential market(s) goals:
to confirm (or contradict) assumptions regarding market potential to gather additional (primary) data to develop a marketing plan in co-operation with the local agent or distributor

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 8

Production Abroad
Ownership and Control
100 % Ownership & Strategic Alliances

Ownership

Equity Joint Ventures

Licensing 0 0

Franchising Control

Management Contracts 100 %

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 9

Direct Exporting
Direct market representation
via wholesalers or retailers or directly to the consumers

Independent representation
independent distributor

Piggyback marketing
distribution through another distributors channel

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 10

Exporting: A Developmental Process


Stages of the firm
1. ... is unwilling to export. 2. ... fills unsolicited export orders (export seller). 3. ... explores the feasibility of exporting (may bypass stage 2). 4. ... exports to one or more markets on a trial basis. 5. ... is an experienced exporter to one or more markets. 6. ... pursues country or region focused marketing. 7. ... evaluates the global market potential. All markets, domestic & international, are regarded as equally worthy of consideration.

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 11

Export-Related Problems
Logistics Legal procedure Servicing exports Sales promotion Foreign market intelligence

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 12

Sourcing Decision Factors


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Factor costs & conditions Logistics Country infrastructure Political risk Market access Exchange rate, availability & convertibility of local money
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 13

Licensing
contractual arrangement whereby one company (licensor) makes an asset available to another company (licensee) in exchange for royalties, license fees or other form of compensation

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

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Franchising
A form of licensing a company permits its name, logo, cultural design and operations to be used in establishing a new firm or store.

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

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Joint Ventures
Company run by two or more partner firms Risk is shared and different value chain strengths are combined Influence depends on degree of ownership Good opportunity to build on local know-how JV finds greater acceptance by local authorities

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 16

Wholly-owned Subsidiaries/Acquisition
Represents the most extensive engagement abroad Subsidiary is either established through the creation of a new facility or the acquisition of an existing firm Company has complete decision power & control Investor achieves greater flexibility In many countries majority or 100% ownership by foreign companies is forbidden

Keegan: Global Marketing Management

Chapter 8 / 17

Strategi Perluasan Pasar


Narrow focus: concentrated markets/concentrated countries Country focus: diverse markets/concentrated countries Country diversification: concentrated markets/diverse countries Global diversification: diverse markets/diverse countries
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 18

Ringkasan
Pemilihan pasar luar yang potensial harus didasarkan pada evaluasi kriteria yang mempengaruhi potensi keberhasilan di luar negeri disecra teliti; seperti potensi pasar, kemudahan memasuki pasar, atau kesesuaian product . Sekali pasar luarnegri yang potensial dipilih, perusahaan harus memutuskan untuk memasuki paar tersebut company has to decide how to enter this market.
Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 19