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Abstract-- This paper investigates a novel high frequency

power conversion system to harness clean energy from


distributed resources. A generalized link involving multi-stage
power conversion is investigated for a wind energy system,
wherein a three-phase source with variations in voltage and
frequency is considered. The first intermediate stage of the link
uses a quasi-square wave DC-AC inverter operating at 20 kHz. A
transformer is fed from the high frequency quasi-square wave
inverter to maintain power handling capability to the level of a
60Hz transformer and reduce the size and cost of the
transformer and passive elements. A feed forward and feedback
based multi-loop control system is used to regulate output voltage
irrespective of variations in supply voltage and frequency.
Detailed mathematical model of the entire system is provided.
Simulation results are given to establish the idea of high
frequency energy conversion link for distributed sources and a
variety of loads.
Index Terms-- High frequency energy conversion, renewable
energy systems, distributed energy resource management, feed
forward control, and power electronics converters.
I. INTRODUCTION
variety of distributed energy resources and their
management with optimum energy efficiency could
become an enabling technology to supplement the
current energy system, which is mainly based on fossils fuels.
Distributed power generation systems contain a combination
of elements including wind turbines, photovoltaic generators,
and fuel cells, which provide power to consumers in close
proximity. Currently, renewable energy systems are favored
both environmentally and could become economically feasible
with the development in new technology focused on power
electronics and control systems. Distributed energy resource
management requires flexible control systems, which can
provide a constant power supply for a range of variable wind
speeds or other AC supplies. For a galvanic isolation between
the grid and distributed energy sources, large isolation
transformers are required, which lead to higher power losses
besides being a costly proposition for initial investment and
post installation maintenance.
This paper deals with a detailed investigation of a novel
high frequency power conversion system to harness clean
energy from distributed resources. In the proposed power
conversion system, there could be a variety of energy sources

The authors with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Sceince, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (e-mail:
mpeters2@tulane.edu; singh@eecs.tulane.edu).
such as wind turbine driven generators, internal combustion
engine driven generators or micro turbines, photovoltaic (PV),
fuel cells, etc. For greater reliability of continued power
supply, the power conversion link could also be equipped with
energy storage devices such as a battery pack, SMES, etc.
There have been attempts on high frequency energy
conversion links but those were focused to UPS and source
specific power conversion systems such as PV etc [1-4]. Also,
there are some attempts made on high frequency power
conversion systems [5-9]; however, these investigations are
limited to very specific energy sources and applications. In
this paper, a generalized power conversion link involving
multi-stage (four stages) power conversion is investigated.
Sample simulation results cover only wind energy systems,
wherein a three-phase source with wide variations in voltage
and frequency is considered as input source. The output stage
of the power conversion link is constituted by a three-phase
four-pole DC-AC inverter. The first intermediate stage of the
power converter link uses a quasi-square wave DC-AC
inverter. This inverter operates at 20 kHz and utilizes a multi-
loop control system. The proposed energy conversion link
regulates output voltage irrespective of variations in the
source voltage and frequency in the case of AC sources and
voltage only in the case of DC sources at the input stage of the
link. The output stage provides voltage and frequency suitable
for grid interface as well as feeding power to isolated loads.
The intermediate high frequency inverter provides a high
frequency quasi-square wave at the primary side of a high
frequency transformer. Transformer core area is inversely
proportional to operating frequency. Therefore, a transformer
fed from a high frequency quasi-square inverter will be
significantly smaller while keeping power handling capability
to the level of a 60Hz transformer. Moreover, with a high
frequency inverter, other passive elements, such as capacitors
and inductors, can also be reduced. A multi-loop control
system is used to regulate the voltage and frequency at the
output stage of the proposed energy conversion link.
A detailed mathematical model of the entire system
including the control system is presented. Simulation results
are given to establish the concept of a high frequency
conversion link applied to distributed energy resource
management.
Design, Control, and Simulation of a Novel
Power Conversion System
M. Peterson, Student Member, IEEE, and B. N. Singh, Member, IEEE
A
1398 142440178X/06/$20.002006IEEE PSCE2006
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II. ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEM
Fig. 1 shows the schematic of the proposed power
conversion link. The proposed system can provide a stable
power supply from the three-phase variable frequency sources
to loads. These loads can not tolerate any power disturbance
or failure. The front end converter, which is an uncontrolled
three-phase AC-DC rectifier, converts the three-phase variable
frequency AC source voltages and provides an uncontrolled
DC voltage used as an input to the high frequency inverter and
for charging in case of energy storage devices placed at the
input of the high frequency inverter. In the absence of variable
frequency AC sources, the front end AC-DC rectifier may not
be in use; however, an alternative possibility could be the
inclusion of batteries, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems at
DC bus of the high frequency inverter. The high frequency
quasi-square voltage from the output of the inverter appears at
the primary side of the high frequency transformer. The
voltage at transformer input could be regulated using a multi
loop control system for the single-phase quasi-square wave
inverter. The transformer will provide isolation between input
sources (AC or DC in nature) and output loads. The output of
transformer could be either connected to isolated loads or to
the electric grid. Since the majority of loads and grid are
designed to operate at 60Hz, the transformer output voltage
needs to be transformed to match load or grid requirements
from frequency and voltage standpoint. The output of the
transformer is fed to a diode rectifier to convert high
frequency quasi-square voltage into a DC voltage. Using a
four-pole DC-AC inverter at the output stage, the obtained DC
voltage is converted into a 60Hz fixed voltage.
III. MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND CONTROL EQUATIONS
The proposed high frequency AC-AC link is made of four
stages, (a) input stage: three-phase AC-DC uncontrolled
rectifier, (b) first intermediate stage: single-phase high
frequency quasi-square wave DC-AC inverter, (c) second
intermediate stage: a single-phase uncontrolled rectifier, (d)
output stage: three-phase voltage controlled DC-AC inverter.
Mathematical equations for each stage are given and the
control strategy is also briefly outlined wherever it is needed
for controlled power converters in the link.
Mathematical equations for the input stage (three-phase
AC-DC uncontrolled rectifier) are outlined below. The three-
phase supply voltages (v
an,bn,cn
) without line impedance drop
could be expressed as:
) sin(
) sin(
) sin(
3
2
3
2
t
t
e
e
e
+ =
=
=
t V v
t V v
t V v
m cn
m bn
m an
(1)
The voltages at the input of the rectifier (v
sa,sb,sc
) can be
expressed as:
dt
di
L i R v v
dt
di
L i R v v
dt
di
L i R v v
sc
s sc s cn sc
sb
s sb s bn sb
sa
s sa s an sa
=
=
=
(2)
where, i
sa
, i
sb
, and i
sc
are the rectifier input currents. The
mathematical equation for the load current of the six-pulse
rectifier is expressed as:
0 =
bn sb s
sb
s i
sa
s sa s an
v i R
dt
di
L v
dt
di
L i R v
(3)
where, v
i
is the voltage across DC capacitor (C
i
). This
equation is only valid for the 30 to 90 interval of the three-
phase supply voltages. Since the input currents (i
sa
and i
sb
) are
the same as the output rectifier current (i
s
), the input currents
can be replaced by the output current. The above equation is
simplified, and the derivative of the output rectifier current is
expressed as:
s
i S s bn an S
L
v i R v v
dt
di
2
2
=
(4)
Voltage across DC bus capacitor of the six-pulse rectifier
is expressed by the following equation:
B
D
1
D
3
D
5
D
4
D
6
D
2
S
1
S
3
1 : 3
A
C
N
S
4
S
2
SW
1
SW
3
SW
5
SW
4
SW
6
SW
2
DR
1
DR
3
DR
4
DR
2
v
an
v
bn
v
cn
R
S
R
S
R
S
L
S
L
S
L
S
C
i
C
dc
/2
C
dc
/2
C
f
C
f
C
f
R
f
, L
f
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
v
i
v
hf
i
hf
= i
sec
v
dc
i
La
i
Lb
i
Lc
v
La
v
Lb
v
Lc
i
s
i
inv
R
f
, L
f
R
f
, L
f
a
b
c
i'
La
i'
Lb
i'
Lc
i
inv2
abs(i
sec
)
i
C
Fig. 1. Proposed energy conversion system for distributed energy resource management
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|
|
.
|

\
|
=

= =
inv
i
i
S
i i
inv L S
i
c i
i
R
v
i
C C
i i i
C
i
dt
dv 1
(5)
where, v
i
/R
i
represents dielectric losses in capacitor C
i
. The
next stage of the proposed energy conversion link is a single-
phase high frequency quasi-square wave controlled inverter.
In this inverter circuit, controlled switches are labeled as S
1
,
S
2
, S
3
, and S
4
. When either pair of switches S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
is
ON, the mathematical equation for inverter current (i
inv
) is
expressed as:
( )
p inv
inv p inv inv i
inv
L L
i R i R v
dt
di
+

=
(6)
When neither pair of switches S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
is ON, the
inverter current flows through the anti-parallel diodes. In this
case, Equation (6) changes to represent the dynamics of the
inverter circuit. The new dynamic equation is given below:
( )
p inv
inv p inv inv i
inv
L L
i R i R v
dt
di
+

=
(7)
If neither pair (S
1
S
2
or S
3
S
4
) of switches is ON and the
inverter current (i
inv
) becomes negative, its derivative (di
inv
/dt)
is set to zero to represent inverter dynamics.
The quasi-square wave switching signals for a single-phase
inverter are generated by comparing a high frequency (20
kHz) sinusoidal wave with a signal corresponding to the peak
supply voltage (V
s
), which is computed using:
( )
2 2 2
3
2
sc sb sa s
v v v V + + =
(8)
When switching signals for quasi-square wave inverter are
obtained by comparing representative of V
s
with the 20 kHz
sinusoidal signals, a feed forward control of single-phase high
frequency inverter is obtained. Also, for the multiple loop
control system, the high frequency sinusoidal signal is
compared with a signal voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)) consisting of a
weight function obtained from peak supply voltage and peak
of load voltage (V
L
). The peak load voltage is computed as
below:
( )
2 2 2
3
2
Lc Lb La L
v v v V + + =
(9)
If the instantaneous value of the 20 kHz sinusoidal wave is
greater than the peak control voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)),
switches S
1
S
2
are turned on. If the instantaneous value of
negated sinusoidal wave is greater than the peak control
voltage (V
c
= f(V
s
, V
L
)), switches S
3
S
4
are turned on.
In Equations (6) and (7), R
inv
i
inv
represents losses in the
single-phase quasi-square wave inverter, and R
P
and L
P
are
transformer leakage resistance and inductance, respectively.
When the switches S
1
S
2
are either currently ON or have
just turned OFF, the primary transformer current is the same
as the inverter input current. When the switches S
3
S
4
are either
currently ON or have just turned OFF, the primary
transformer current is the negated inverter input current. The
current appearing at the secondary side of the high frequency
transformer is represented by the product of the turn ratio and
the primary current. The output of the transformer feeds a
single-phase diode rectifier, which is the second intermediate
stage in the proposed energy conversion link. The
mathematical equation of the rectified voltage at the output of
single-phase diode rectifier is represented as:
dc
inv
inv
dc
dc
C
i
R
v
i
dt
dv
2
2
sec

=
(10)
where, i
inv2
is the input current of the three-phase DC-AC
inverter. The quantity, v
dc
/R
inv2
, represents dielectric loss in the
inverter capacitor C
dc
. The input current of the three-phase
inverter can be expressed in terms of the switching states (SA,
SB, SC) and output currents of the inverter (
La
i' ,
Lb
i' , and
Lc
i' ).
Lc Lb La inv
i SC i SB i SA i ' + ' + ' =
2
(11)
The final stage of the high frequency link is the three-
phase inverter with the following mathematical equations:
f
Lc Lc f c
Lc
f
Lb Lb f b
Lb
f
La La f a
La
L
v i R e
dt
i d
L
v i R e
dt
i d
L
v i R e
dt
i d
'
=
'
'
=
'
'
=
'
(12)
In Equation (12), v
La,Lb,Lc
are the three phase voltages at
PCC, i'
La,Lb,Lc
are the three-phase output currents from the
inverter, and e
a,b,c
are the three phase PWM voltages at the
inverter pole points a, b, and c. The PWM voltages at the
inverter pole points could be expressed in terms of the
inverters DC bus voltage and switching states (SA, SB, SC)
as follows:
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
3
) 2 (
3
SC SB SA
v
e
SC SB SA
v
e
SC SB SA
v
e
dc
c
dc
b
dc
a
+ =
+ =
=
(13)
The switching states (SA, SB, and SC) are generated by
comparing a three-phase 60 Hz sinusoidal wave
( )
* * *
and , ,
Lc Lb La
v v v
to a triangular carrier wave. The magnitude
of this 60 Hz sinusoidal wave is generated from a PI
controller. The input to the PI controller are the peak value of
the actual, V
L
(Equation 9), and reference, V
L
*
, load voltages.
The three-phase unit magnitude sinusoidal signal is multiplied
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with the PI controller output to obtain the three-phase
reference load voltages
( )
* * *
and , ,
Lc Lb La
v v v
.
The derivative of the three-phase load voltages at the point
of common coupling (PPC) is computed from the unfiltered
( )
Lc Lb La
i
, ,
' and filtered (i
La,Lb,Lc
) output currents as stated below.
( )
( )
( )
Lc Lc
f
Lc
Lb Lb
f
Lb
La La
f
La
i i
C dt
dv
i i
C dt
dv
i i
C dt
dv
' =
' =
' =
1
1
1
(14)
Finally, these filtered output currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
),
which are also load currents, can be determined from the
voltages at PCC and load parameters. Mathematical equations
for load currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
) are given below:
L
Lc L Lc Lc
L
Lb L Lb Lb
L
La L La La
L
i R v
dt
di
L
i R v
dt
di
L
i R v
dt
di

=
(15)
In Equation (15), parameters R
L
and L
L
represent the three-
phase load at the output of the high-frequency AC-AC
converter link.
IV. CONTROL SYSTEMDETAILS
To accomplish a regulated 60 Hz sinusoidal voltage at the
output of the proposed link, the high frequency single-phase
inverter at the intermediate stage must be controlled into
quasi-square mode. To control switches S
1
, S
2
, S
3
, and S
4
,
quasi-square switching signals are generated. The duration of
ON period of the quasi-square switching signal depends upon
the peak magnitude of the source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and v
cn
).
Therefore, for lower value of the source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and
v
cn
), the ON period is higher, and for higher value of the
source voltages (v
an
, v
bn
, and v
cn
), the ON period is kept lower.
However, switching frequency of the quasi-square signal is
maintained at 20 kHz, which results in a reduced size of the
isolation transformer. The control of the ON period of quasi-
square wave switching signal ensures a regulated voltage at
the input of three-phase four-pole inverter, which is placed at
the output stage of the proposed energy conversion link.
Therefore, for changing values of voltage v
i
, the voltage v
dc
remains well within a desired range, resulting in a regulated
voltage at the output of the proposed link. Also, for changing
values of load currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
), the quasi-square
control function should also depend upon the peak value of
output voltage (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
). Therefore, feed forward control
of the high frequency quasi-square single-phase inverter
exhibits two loops. The first loop depends upon the peak value
of the input voltages (v
sa
, v
sb
, and v
sc
), and the second loop
depends upon the output load voltages (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
). Though
not confirmed by results, as we are in a preliminary stage of
our research investigation, the second control loop, which is
based on the output load voltages (v
La
, v
Lb
, v
Lc
), is anticipated
to provide fast compensation for desired rise and fall in the
currents (i
La
, i
Lb
, and i
Lc
) for dynamic loads and/or any
combination of dynamic, static, and grid loads connected at
the output of the proposed link. The output stage of the
proposed link is controlled using 60 Hz three-phase sinusoidal
modulating voltages and a 5 kHz carrier signal. Comparison
of the modulating voltages with a 5 kHz carrier signal
generates switching signals for the inverter devices (SW
1
,
SW
2
, SW
3
, SW
4
, SW
5
, and SW
6
).
V. MERITS OF ENERGY CONVERSION
The high frequency energy conversion link exhibits
numerous advantages. These are (a) improved power quality,
because current and voltage harmonics are of higher order and
can be easily filtered out, (b) higher frequency power
transformers become smaller, (c) smaller transformers lead to
lower power losses and lower temperature rise, (d) capacitors
needed to smooth out DC voltage are smaller at high
frequency, for example, capacitor at DC bus of output stage
inverter is chosen to be only 10uF, (e) energy storage devices
can be easily connected with the proposed high frequency
link, thereby increasing the reliability of the micro-grid and
distributed energy system.
VI. SIMULATION RESULTS
The MATLAB schematic to obtain simulation results of
the proposed energy conversion system is shown in Fig. 2.
Figs. 3 and 4 show the start-up response of the AC-AC
energy conversion link. Fig. 3 relates to the quasi-square
inverters modulating frequency to be 60Hz, whereas, Fig.4
pertains to 20 kHz modulation frequency of quasi-square
inverter. A quick comparison of the results provided in these
figures reveals that the proposed AC-AC conversion link
offers superior performance at high frequency. At high
frequency charging is quite fast due to substantially reduced
values of passive elements (inductors and capacitors). Also,
transformer parameters are much smaller due to substantially
reduced size of the transformer core and winding length.
Therefore, it is anticipated that with the multi loop control
system, the proposed high frequency energy conversion link
will quickly regulate the output voltage and frequency for
changing load currents drawn by static and dynamic loads.
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0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-400
-200
0
200
400
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0
200
400
600
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
0
500
1000
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-500
-250
0
250
500
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-200
-100
0
100
200
Time(s)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14
-20
-10
0
10
20
Time(s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Fig. 3. Start-up response of AC-AC energy conversion system at 60Hz
operating frequency of quasi-square wave inverter; (a) input stage voltage for
phase a (van), (b) input stage phase a current (isa), (c) DC bus voltage (vi) at
output of front end rectifier, (d) voltage (vhf) across secondary winding of
transformer, (e) current (ihf) coming off secondary winding of transformer, (f)
DC bus voltage (vdc) voltage of output stage inverter, (g) three-phase load
voltages (vLa, vLb, and vLc) at output stage, and (h) three-phase load currents
(iLa, iLb, and iLc) at output stage
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-400
-200
0
200
400
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-40
-20
0
20
40
Time (s)
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
-50
-25
0
25
50
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-200
0
200
400
600
800
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
0
200
400
600
Time (s)
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009 0.01
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-400
-200
0
200
400
Time (s)
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
-40
-20
0
20
40
Time (s)
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Fig. 4. Start-up response of AC-AC energy conversion system at 20 kHz
operating frequency of quasi-square wave inverter; (a) input stage voltage for
phase a (van), (b) input stage phase a current (isa), (c) DC bus voltage (vi) at
output of front end rectifier, (d) voltage (vhf) across secondary winding of
transformer, (e) current (ihf) coming off secondary winding of transformer, (f)
DC bus voltage (vdc) voltage of output stage inverter, (g) three-phase load
voltages (vLa, vLb, and vLc) at output stage, and (h) three-phase load currents
(iLa, iLb, and iLc) at output stage
VII. CONCLUSION
The proposed high frequency AC-AC (AC-DC-AC-DC-
AC) energy conversion link has been investigated for its
possible deployment in the distributed energy resource
management. The proposed concept has been simulated in
MATLAB with four different operating frequencies (60 Hz,
600 Hz, 6 kHz, and 20 kHz) of the quasi-square inverter.
However, results only for 60Hz and 20 kHz have been
reported. A systematic investigation approach we adopted to
start from 60Hz and reach 20 kHz operating frequency has
resulted in a quite accurate mathematical model and control
system of the proposed energy conversion link. A detailed
mathematical model of all parts of the proposed energy
vhf
vLa,b,c
i hf
iLa,b,c
Vdc
Van, i sa
+
-
v
+
-
v
+
-
v
+
-
v +
-
v
+
-
v
Vdc+
Vdc -
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
Pole_A
Pole_B
Pole_C
Pole_N
Three-phase four-pole
DC-AC Inverter
A_in
B_in
C_in
G1
G2
G3
G4
Pole1
Pole2
Si x-pulse Rectifier & Single-phase
High Frequency Inverter
A-In
B-In
DC+
DC-
Si ngl e Phase
Recti fier
>=
>=
K
Quasi -Square Inverter
Output Vol tage Control
Quasi-Square Inverter
Frequency Control
Mux
Mux
Mux
High Frequency
Transformer
K
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
Control System for 3-Phase Four-Pole Inverter
+
i
-
+
i
-
+
i
-
+
i
-
+
i
-
Fig. 2. MATLAB schematic of developed simulation model of high frequency energy conversion system
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conversion link has been outlined including the multi loop
control scheme of the proposed energy conversion system and
simulated results are presented to establish the concept of a
high frequency conversion link applied to distributed energy
resource management.
VIII. REFERENCES
[1] P. T. Krein, X. Geng, and R. Balog, High-frequency link inverter based
on multiple-carrier PWM, in Proc. 2002 IEEE Applied Power
Electronics Conf., pp. 997-1003.
[2] I. Yamato, N. Tokunaga, Y. Matsuda, Y. Suzuki, and H. Amaro, High
frequency link DC-AC converter for UPS with a new voltage clamper,
in Proc. 1990 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 749-756.
[3] I. Yamato and N. Tokunaga, Power loss reduction techniques for three
phase high frequency link DC-AC converter, in Proc. 1993 IEEE
Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 663-668.
[4] A. K. S. Bhat and S. B. Dewan, A novel utility interfaced high-
frequency link photovoltaic power conditioning system, IEEE Trans.
Industrial Electronics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 153-159, Feb. 1988.
[5] P. K. Sood and T. A. Lipo, Power conversion distribution system using
a high-frequency AC link, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.
24, no. 2, pp. 288-300, March/April 1988.
[6] P. K. Sood, T. A. Lipo, and I. G. Hansen, A versatile power converter
for high-frequency link systems, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics,
vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 383-390, October 1988.
[7] K. Tazume, T. Aoki, and T. Yamashita, Novel method for controlling a
high-frequency link inverter using cycloconverter techniques, in Proc.
1998 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 497-502.
[8] M. Z. Ramli, Z. Salam, L. S. Toh, and C. L. Nge, A bidirectional high-
frequency link inverter using center-tapped transformer, in Proc. 2004
IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 3883-3888.
[9] Y. J. Song and P. N. Enjeti, A high frequency link direct DC-AC
converter for residential fuel cell power systems, in Proc. 2004 IEEE
Power Electronics Specialists Conf., pp. 4755-4761.
IX. BIOGRAPHIES
Maryclaire Peterson (SM2003) was born in New Orleans, LA on March
30, 1981. She obtained a BS in Computer Engineering and an MS in
Computer Science from Tulane University, New Orleans, LA in 2003 and
2004 respectively.
In 2004, she joined the Ph.D program in Electrical Engineering at Tulane
University in the area of power electronics, renewable energy systems, and
control systems. In 2001, she joined the Army Corps of Engineerings, New
Orleans District as a Computer Science intern where she currently works in
the area of software development.
Brij N. Singh (M1992) was born at Shahpur Charki, UP, India on October
18, 1968. He has obtained BE Electrical Engineering from Madan Mohan
Malviya Engineering College, Gorakhpur, UP, India, ME Electrical
Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India,
and Ph.D. Electrical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
India in 1989, 1991, and 1996, respectively.
In 1996, he joined Department of Electrical Engineering, Quebec
University, Montreal, Canada as a Post Doctoral Fellow to work in the area of
Power Quality, Active Filters, and FACTS. In 1999, he joined Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal,
Canada as an associate researcher to work on power supplies for
telecommunication systems, computers, and electronic gadgets. In 2000, he
joined Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Tulane
University, New Orleans as an Assistant Professor. His area of research
includes power electronics, renewable energy systems, computational
intelligence, materials and sensors.
Dr. Singh is a member of several IEEE societies and a life-time member
of IEEE Industrial Electronics and Power Electronics societies.
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