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PART 1

Question Part I Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. Answer:

The making of multi storey cakes mainly involves progression. For example when we make a cake with many layers, we must fix the difference of diameter of the two layers. So we can say that it used arithmetic progression. When the diameter of the first layer of the cake is 8inch and the diameter of second layer of the cake is 6inch, then the diameter of the third layer should be 4inch. In this case, we use arithmetic progression where the difference of the diameter is constant that is 2. Geometry To determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs, to estimate volume of cake to be produced

Calculus (differentiation) To determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate min. or max. amount of cream needed for decorating, to estimate min. or max. size of cake produced.

Progressions To determine total weight/volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions, to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking, to estimate total amount of cream for decoration.

PART 2

Best Bakery shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers Day celebration. (Diagram 11)

1.

If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 , and the height of the cake is to be 7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school.[Use = 3.142] Answer: 1 kg cake V=3800cm3 h=7.0cm =3.142 If the cake needs to be 5 kg, the volume must be ; 3800cm3x 5= 19000cm3 The height of the baking tray is fixed at 7 cm. So, the diameter of the baking tray to be used is; 19000cm3= 3.142x7xr2 r=29.392cm d= 58.784cm

2. The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a)If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,h cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used,d cm. Tabulate your answers. Answer: The inner dimension of the oven is; = 80.0cm w= 60.0cm h= 45.0cm The width of the oven is constant at 60.0cm and the volume is also fixed at 19000cm3 The formulae that can be form from the volume is;

=d d=

Height,h (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Diameter,d(cm) 155.53 109.98 89.80 77.77 68.56 63.49 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18

(b) Based on the values in your table, (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers. Answer:

the range of height that is not suitable is h<7 because the diameter is unlogical to be fit on the oven. For example; if h= 6, d=63.49 The width of the oven is only 60cm and cannot being fill by 63.49cm width baking tray.

(ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer. Answer:

the most suitable dimension of the cake is; h=8 and d=54.98 because it can fit perfectly in the oven.

(c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. [You may draw your graph with the aid of computer software.] Answer:

log d =

Log h Log d 0 2.19 1 1.69

2 1.19 3 0.69 4 0.19

(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. Answer:

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(b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained. Answer:

3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answer:

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Vol. of cream at the side surface Vol. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream ) x 1 = (3.142)( = 2375 cm Vol. of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382.23 cm Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23 cm

(b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. Answer:

The volume and the height of the cake is fixed where; v= 19000cm3, h=8

-Let the first shape will be pyramid (rectangular base). 19000= 1/3x8xbase base= 7125 cm2 = 84cmx (2375/28)cm The surface area of the pyramid (without the base)= 2(1/2x42.98x84)+2(1/2x42.48x 2375/28) =3610.32+3603.21 =7213.53cm2 The fresh cream needed; =1x7213.53 =7213.53cm3 -Let the second shape will be cuboid. The surface area for the cuboid (without the base) = 2(48x8)+ 2(2375/48x8)+(48x2375/48) =768+2375/3+2375 =3934.67cm2 The fresh cream needed; =1x3934.67 =3934.67cm 3 -Let the third shape will be pentagon. The surface area of the pentagon (without the base); =2375+5(25x19) =3325cm2 The fresh cream needed; =1x3325 =3325cm3 The shape that require least amount of fresh cream is pentagon shaped cake that is

8

3325cm 3

(c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Answer:

PART 3

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. Answer:

Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a).

19000 = (3.142)rh (1) V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = (3)

9

) =0

h = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44cm Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake: 19000=3.142xr2 xh f(r)=(3.142)r2+2(3.142)hr by using completing the square method; f(r)=3.142[r2+2hr+(h)2 -(h)2] =3.142[( r+h)2 -h2] =3.142(r+h)2 -3.142h2 When minimum or maximum value, r=0 f(r)=-3.142h2 The value is negative indicates that it is a minimum value. The value of r=-h 19000=3.142xr2 xh 19000=3.142x(-h)2 xh 6047.1=h3 h=18.22 19000=3.142xr2 x18.22

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r2 =331.90 r=18.22 therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

FURTHER EXPLORATION

Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answer:

The volume of the first, second, third and fourth cakes; v1=3.142x312x6 =18116.772cm3 v2=3.142x27.92x6 =14674.585cm3 v3=3.142x25.112x6 =11886.414cm3 v4=3.142x22.5992x6 =9627.995cm3 The pattern shows a geometric progression and the common ratio is 0.81

(b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods. Answer:

11

Sn =

n = 4.322 therefore, n 4 the maximum cakes need to bake is 4 If the number of cake is 5, S5= 18116.772(1-0.815) 1-0.81 = 62104.443cm 3 The volume of cakes will exceed 57000cm 3 If the number of cake is 4, S5= 18116.772(1-0.814) 1-0.81 =54305.767cm 3 The volume of cake still below 57000cm

12

Reflection

In the making of this project, I have spent countless hours doing this project. I realized that this subject is a compulsory to me. Without it, I cant fulfill my big dreams and wishes to be an accountant or at least a chef. I used to hate Additional Mathematic at first thought,as most people said it is hard. It always makes me wonder why this subject is so difficult to understand. I always tried to love every part of it but somehow I gave up learning it. It always an absolute obstacle for me but I made it till now. Throughout day and night self study to get or have better knowledge and feel closed with all the formula. I sacrificed my precious time to have fun to study and observation relates to additional mathematics.

From.. Monday,Tuesday,Wednesday,Thursday,Friday And even the weekend that I always looking forward to know better about

ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

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