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# SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: CALCULATION METHODS

SIMPLIFIED 67

## (b) Transfer from L-phase to K-phase. Vi specified; xx tc be determined.

(c) Transfer from K-phase (d) Transfer from K-phase to -phase. Recovery to -phase. xK specified; y, specified; xs be to be determined. Figure 7.2. limiting values of the ratio of phase Pow rates.

the cascade or by knowing three compositions and the slope (L/ V ) of the operating line. Equation 7.3a can be rearranged to give (7.3 c) Uxn - *o) = v(yn+i - /i) or
L = yn+i - Vi V x
(7.3d)

drawing a horizontal at ylt on the equilibrium diagram. The horizontal intersects the equilibrium curve at xu as shown. Next, the composition y2 must be determined from x1 by use of the equation for the operating line. This equation written specifically for the flow between stages 1 and 2 is L Vy, * = yXl
+

Even though the mathematical expression fd the operating line is valid for any values of yn+1 and xn, it has physical meaning only for compesitions which actually occur in the cascade. That is, the actual operating line extends from the point (x0, yx) at one end of the cascade to the point (xN, yN+1) at the other end, as shown on Figure 7.1. The equilibrium curve can be plotted in the same range o> x and y, as shown in Figure 7.1. The procedure for stepping off stages may bsgin at either end of the cascade. For example, if the calculation is begun with the composition (yx) of the K-phase leaving the cascade, the composition (xx) of the L-phase leaving the first stage is detenained by

Since the operating line is a plot of the general form of this equation, the value of y2 is determined v>y the intersection of a vertical through x1 with the operating line, as shown. Now x9 is determined by the intersection of a horizontal at yg with the equilibrium curve, and this

LxQ (7.3a)

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## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

0.1 6

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

X a , lb moles benzene/lb mole absorbent oil Figure T3. Solution to Illustration 7.1. case the operating line through (x0, yx) which first intersects the equilibrium curve gives the limiting value of K/L, which is a maximum value. Limiting ratios of L/Kcan be determined in a similar manner for the case where mass transfer is from the K-phase to the Lphase, such as in gas absorption. For transfer from the K-phase to the L-phase, the operating line will be above the equilibrium curve. When the recovery of component a is specified, the value of yx is set since yN+1 is known. Since the entering L-phase composition (xc^ is usually known, the point (x0, y{) is fixed and the limiting L/ K is located as shown in Figure 7.2c. In this case the limiting L/K is a minimum. On the other hand, when x0 and y v+1 are known instead of the recovery, xN may be sspecified. Then the point ( X N > "JN + I ) i nxel and the limiting L/K is determined as shown in Figure 7.2a". This limiting ratio is a maximum.

stepwise calculation is continued until (xN, yN+1) is reached. As shown in Figure 7.1 slightly over four stages are required. The location of the operating line below the equilibrium curve indicates that mass transfer is from the L-phase to the Kphase. On the other hand, an operating line above the equilibrium curve shows that mass transfer is from the K-phase to the Lphase. Operating Variables. Limiting values of the L/K ratio may be determined for several cases. For transfer from the Lphase to the K-phase, the minimum K/L ratio, which gives the desired separation with an infinite number of stages, can be determined as shown in Figure 12. For a specified recovery from the L-phase, the point yjV+i) is fixed. As the quantity of Kphase is reduced, the slope (L/K) of the operating line through {xN, yA+1) increases until the operating line first touches the equilibrium curve, as shown in Figure 7.2a. An attempt to step off stages shows that an infinite number of stages is required to change the composition across the point at which the operating line and equilibrium curve interseci. The term "pinch" applies here to the pinched-in stages at the point of intersection. If the concentration of the K-phase leaving the cascade is specified, the point (x0, yx) is fixed, and the pinch occurs as shown in Figure 7 26. However, the recovery is not specified; that is, xN is not fixed. In this

## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: METHODS-

SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION 69

Illustration 7.1. A benzene-air mixture is to be scrubbed in a simple countercurrent absorption tower using a nonvolatile hydrocarbon oil as solvent. The inlet gas contains 5 per cent benzene and the entering gas fiow is 600 lb moles/hr. Solubility of benzene in oil follows Raoult's law. The tower operates is<">thermally at 80F. The average molecular weight of the oil is 2u0 and the tower pressure is 1 atm. (a) What is the minimum oil rate (ib/hr) needed to recover 90 per cent of the entering benzene? (6) How many theoretical stages are reduced if the oil rate is 1.5 times the minimum? SOLUTION. Since the recovery is specified and the mass transfer is from the K-phase to the L-phase, the limiting L/K ratio will be determined as shown in Figure 7.2c. To assure a straight operating line, mole ratios will be used. This necessitates calculating the equilibrium curve for mole-ratio coordinates. The stages may be for stepped off from benzene either end. About 5.3 stages are required y* = - p X a At 30F, Pa = Va ~ ^IZxa = 0.136xa 103 mm Hg; P = 760 mm Hg. 103 1 + Ya 1+ 1 + 1 +

for a liquid rate of 15,600 lb/hr, as shown on Figure 7.3. Use of mole fraction coordinates with.Jhe. assumption of constant L j V in the problem would result in a substantial error. Although the gas phase is dilute, the liquid phase is not. The equilibrium curve shows appreciable curvature.
COUNTERCURRENT FLOW WITH REFLUX

The introduction of reflux (Figure 5.2) results in two net flows and two operatmg lines. A material balance from the soluterich end to include any stage n in ib? enriching section gives yn+1 = LXn + ^ r + V c y c (7.4)
n+1
m

+1

760' (7.4A) Since ya = - r and xa = When L and V are constant, the subscripts may be dropped.
Sn+l y n 1 y -----------x

## Ya 0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.0 5 5 Ya X, T = 0.136

A material balance between any stage m in the stripping section and the solutepoor end of the cascade gives m-l & X B ^S+l^S+l (7.5) dm
in '

_L
V m xm-\

## The values ofL and Kmay change at (7.5) the feed.

Therefore, B*a - ^s+iVs+i V where L and K are the constant values of L-phase and K-phase flow in the stripping section. In distillation calculations Vs+1 = 0 and Kc = 0; and Equations 7.4a and 7.5a become equili brium curve, as show n. The slope of this line is

These values are plotted 0.0 0.052 on Figure 7.3 5 K = COO lb ."+1 6 09 moles/hr x = o.c, y. For 90 per cent recovery, the benzene leaving in the gas will be (0.10)(O.O5)(6O0) = 3.0 lb moles. Therefore, Y x = 3.0/570 = 0.0C526 lb mole benzene/lb mo'e air, since K/ = KA'+1 = (0.95)(600) = 570 lb moles air. The conditions at the upper end of the tower are set and can be plotted: X0 = 0, Y x = 0.0^526. The minimum liquid rate occurs when the operating line 0.091 through ( X Q , Y x ) first touches the

/ L ' \ _ 0 .

0526 0.00526

[VJ^ =
0.52 - 0

or

or

## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: METHODS-

SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION 69

2/ +i =

LD
yXn + yXD

(7.46)

ym =

L + D
L LD
x

## L+ D (7.4c) (7.56) -- r X , (7.5c)

n + ~

B
-- *4

"p XB K+ B Therefore, the minimum oil rate is (0.091)(570)(200) = 10,390 ib/hr AtO'/KOactua! = 1.5(L7K')mln = (1.5X0.091) = 0.137. U = (0.137X570X200) = 15,600 lb/hr The actual operating line has a slope of 0.137, and it is determined that X N = 0.345. Inspection of the equation for the enriching-section operating line (Equation 7.46) shows that it is a straight line when L and K are constant. The slope of the line is L\ V and its intei cept at x = 0 is y = DxD] V. Furthermore, the operating line intersects the diagonal ( x = y) at xn = yn+1 = xD. Similarly, for the stripping section (Equation 7.56). the operating line has a slope L/K and a /-intercept at Bxh\V. It intersects the diagonal at

70
x

## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

The method of plotting the two operating lines depends upon the known information. The intersections with the diagonal and the slopes or {/-intercepts are commonly used. The two operating lines can be plotted on the equilibrium diagram if sufficient information is available. Equation 7.4 or 7.46 will give a straight operating line for the enriching section of the cascade as long as the L-phase and the K-ph?se flows are constant. However, the addition of me feed may change both of the phase flew rates. This results in a new operating line of a different slope for the stripping section, as given by Equation 7.5 or 7.56. The changes in the L-phase and K-phase flows depend upon the quantity and properties of the feed. > The following derivation will interrelate the two operating lines with the feed characteristics. The intersection of the two operating lines properly occurs at the feed. The equations for the two operating lines will be solved simultaneously to develop an equation which will give, in a general form, the locus of all possible values of the compositions' at the intersection. This equation will be of great use in locating the operating lines on the equilibrium diagram. The following derivation shows that the locus of the intersections can be expressed in terms of properties of the feed alone. At the intersection of the two operating lines a point on one line must be identical to a point on the other, so that xm = xi = xn and ym = y- = yn+1 where the subscript / refers to the intersection value. Equations 7.4a and 7.5a then become, at their intersections, Vyt = Lxt + DxD 4 Vyc (7.6) Ftfi = Lxi- BxB + Vys+1 (7.7) Subtracting Equation 7.6 from Equation 7.7 gives (K - V)yt = (I - L)xt - BxB - DxD + Vs+1y8+1 - Vcyc(7.8) This equation may be simplified by combining it with a material balance around the entire cascade (Figure 6.2), which is FzF = BxB + DxD + Vcyc - Vs+1ys+1 (7.9) and F = B + D + Vc - Ks+1 (7.10) Combination of Equation 7.8 with Equation 7.9 gives {L - L)x{ - FzF = (" - /)y; (7,11) From net flow considerations V = L - A = L - ( B - Vs+1) (7.12) K = L - A = L + ( D + Vc) (7.13) Substitution in Equation 7.11 for Kand Kfrom Equations 7.12 and 7.13 gives
m-i = ym = B -

FzF = ( L L B + Vs+1 an ( - L)st. - D - Vc)Vi = {L L F)y4 d from Equation 7.1C 1_ 7 x i - *9 ~Trrp~ - U ( - 14) L-L Lr The ratio / is now defined as the increase at the point of feed introduction n total flow of the L-phase per unit of feed, or Equation 7.14 becomes (7.16 ) which is the equation for the locus of all possible intersections of the two operating lines. The /-line defined by Equation 7.16 ean be plotted if / and the feed composition are known. The line has a slope of //(i 1) and intersects the diagonal (x = y) at zF. In extraction using immiscible solvents the feed will very likely contain none of tne extract solvent. Converting to the massratio coordinates gives (7.15a) I! L' F' where i is the change in mass of the uncxtracted raffmate component per unit of feed, not counting the solute in the feed. If the feed contains no extract solvent, F' is equal to the unextracted raffinate component in the feed and F' = V L'. Therefore i 1 and the Mine is a vertical line from the diagonal at zF. In the unusual case of extract solvent in the feed, F' will be greater than L' I', and i will be less than one. Equations 7.15 and 7.16 also hold for distillation. In distillation, the enthalpy of the feed determir.ss the value of (. By use of Equation 7.15 and an enthalpy balance around the feed stage, the following definition of / can be derived: heat required to convert one mole . _ of feed to a (7.156) saturated vapor latent heat of vaporization of one mole of the feed composition Equation 7.156 is an expression equivalent to the original definition of i (Equation 7.15). The variation in i and in the slope of the /-line with the thermal condition of the feed is outlined in Figure 7.4. The simplified graphical method for distillation does not usually make use of enthalpy data, since the method assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of all mixtures is constant. However, the thermal condition of the feed must be considered. For example, if the feed is a subcooled liquid, it must pick up heat as it enters the cascade, since all liquids in the cascade

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## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

must be saturated liquids. It picks up heat at the expense of the condensation of some vapor, which increases the liquid downflow.

## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION METHODS-

71

Therefore, ( L L ) > F and / > 1, as shown on Figure 7.4. Since the slope of the /-line is //(/ 1), the slope for a subcooled liquid will be positive. The other cases shown in Figure 7.4 can be treated by an analysis similar to that above. Consideration must also be given to a subcooled liquid reflux from the con denser, and a superheated vapor reflux from the reboiler must be allowed for in calculations on the equilibrium diagram. A subcooled reflux yields a liquid downflow in the column (L) which exceeds the external lefiux (LQ). A partial condenser or reboiler may contribute up to one equilibrium stage, as discussed in Chapter 6. The equations for the operating lines can be derived for these cases from enthalpy and material bcknees. The reboiler may be eliminated in favor of direct addition of heat as steam in distillations where water is one of the components. The direct feeding of steam into the bottom of the distillation column is called "ope" steam." The operating line in the stripping section for open steam can be derived from material balances around the lower part of the column. 1 .

Figure 7.4. Location of /-lines in distillation. I Slope (1) Superheated vapor of (2) Saturated + <0 "apor (3) Liquid and 0 0 vapor

1 .
Figure 7.5. Solution to Illustration 7.2.

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## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

* a xa (a)

Pinch at feed. Figur e 7.6. Deter minat ion of minimum reflux on the x-y diagram.
Illustration 7.2. A mixture of 35 mole percent a and 65 mole percent b is to be separated in a distillation tower. The concentration of a in the distillate is 93 mole percent and 96 per cent of all product a is in the distillate. The feed is half vapor and the reflux ratio (LJD) is to be 4. The relative volatility of a to b is a.a_h = 2. How many equilibrium stages are required in each section of the column? SOLUTION. An x-y diagram (Figure 7.5) is drawn for <*,_(, = 2. 0 0.20 0.40 0.50 0.6 0.80 1. 0 0 y= 8, = ' = 0.35 1 = -1 = 2 Slope of the /-line D 0.93 - 4.0 = r Slope of the enriching operating line o L D A 5 0.8 L+D

## (i) Pinch in enriching se

enriching-section operating line can be plotted by the point x0 = 0.93 = yl3 and the intercept x 0 at DxD xD 0.93 4+1 +1 = 0.186 The stripning-section operating line is a straight line from the intersection of the enriching line and the /-line to the point xB = 0.0219 = ys. The stages may be stepped off from xB or xD. Since no information on the reboiler and condenser is available, neither is assumed to contribute to the separation. There are 9.5 stages in the stripping section and l.Z stages in the enriching section. determined by stepping off stages from xD to xB between the equilibrium curve and the diagonal, as shown in Figure 7.7. Calculation of Intermediate Streams. The reasoning used in calculating intermediate streams on the equilibrium xy diagram is the same as that used on the three-variable diagrams considered in Chapter 6. The addition or removal of a stream changes the L- and K-phase flow rates and results in a new operating line. Two methods are available for locating the new operating line in the intermediate section of the cascade shown in Figure 6.13. The /-hne for the intermediate stream may be plotted regardless of whether the stream is a product or a feed. Ifvthe top reflux ratio is given, the upper operating line

G ? )

To find xB: Basis: 100 lb moles feed Moles a in feed = 35 Moles a in distillate = (35)(0.96) = 33.6 Moles a in bottoms = 1.4 Total moles in distillate = 33.6/0.93 = 36.1 Total moles in bottoms = 100 - 36.1 = 63.9 1.4 Therefore, * B = 6T7S = WG The enriching-section operating line is located by the point xD = 0.93 = and the slope =0.8. Alternatively, the Operating VariaMes. As the reflux ratio is reduced, the slope of the enrichingsection operating line decreases until one of the operating lines first intersects the equilibrium curve. For ideal mixtures this occurs at the feed, but in other cases it may occur at any point between xE and xD, as shown in Figure 7.6. At total reflux, the slope of the operating lines becomes 1.0, and they coincide with the diagonal. The minimum number of stages required can be

## 73 SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION

METHODS

may be drawn from xD to the intersection with the Mine for the intermediate stream. The operating line is continued beyond the intersection but now at a new slope corrected for the addition or removal of the intermediate stream. Th<* intermediate operating line intersects the /-line for the feed, changes siope, and continues to xu. In this case only one intermediate stream was present. In general, any number may be calculated as outlined. The second method of calculation is by defining a fictitious feed (2), which is the algebraic sum of the feed ( F ) and the intermediate stream (/). This is shown in Figure 7.8. First the three /-lines are plotted. That for the fictitious feed is calculated from the properties of the two component streams. The slope of the enriching-section operating line is usually set by fixing the top reflux ratio. Th;s operating line is drawn in and continued until it intersects the /-line for the fictitious feed (). The stripping-section operating line is then located by drawing a straight line from this intersection to xB = y. However, the enriching operating line has physical significance only until / is added and the stripping opeiating line is valid only from xB to me /-line for the feed. The operating line between the F and / /-lines is easily located by the straight line connecting the intersections of the Mines with the stripping and enriching operating lines, as shown. This method may be extended to multiple intermediate streams, but it then is less convenient than the first method outlined. Interrelation between the Concepts of an Operating Line and a Delta Point. Although calculation on the eouilibrium xy diagram is most advantageous when straight operating lines occur, the method may be applied to cases of curved operating lines. Curved operating lines result when the assumptions made earlier in this ehapter do not hold. For example, a

Figure 7.7. Determination of minimum stages at variation in total reflux. the molar overflow

in distillation caused by nonconstar.t latent heats of vaporization or significant sensible-heat changes world give a variable slope to the operating lines. Similarly, in liquid extraction a variable

J Figure 7.8. Fictitious feed lor an o intermediate two solvents would partial solubility of the stream. result in curved operating lines. The delta point and the operating line are both used to relate the compositions of the streams flowing between two stages. For any stage n (Figure 7.9A) either the delta point or the operating line may be used to determine yn from x _x, or vice versa, or to determine yn+1 from xn, or vice versa. Figure 7.96 shows the construction required to locate the point (xn, yn+l) on the operating line by use of the delta point. The compositions , and y H of the streams flowing from stage ;i are known and are plotted on the upper diagram. A straight line from xA through xn locates y,, rl at its intersection with the K-phase locus, as shown. The values of xn and yn+1 are now knewn. For calculations on the equilibrium diagram, Equation 7.3 shows that the point (xn, yn+1) must be on the operating line. The values for x and yn+1 found on the upper diagram may now be transposed to the equilibrium diagram as shown by the construction lines, thereby establishing a point cn the operating line. Additional points on the operating line may be determined in the same manner, and the curved operating line may then be drawn in, as shown. It is not necessary to use streams actually flowing between equilibrium stages to determine the operating line. Any straight Mne from the delta point cuts the L-phase and K-phase curves ft compositions which represent a point on the operating line. The complete determination of 7 curved operating lines is shown in Figure .10 for a case in distillation where the latent heat varies. Applications of Simplified Graphical Methods. In many cases in stage operations insufficient physical data are available to permit rigorous calculations utilizing the methods of the previous chapters. In such cases, the methods outlined in this chapter may be used with a

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## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

(a) Pinch at feed. () Pinch in enriching section. Figure 7.6. Determination of minimum reflux on the x-y diagram.
Illustration 7.2. A mixture of 35 mole percent a and 65 mole percent b is to be separated in a distillation tower. The concentration of a in the distillate is 93 y= mole percent and 96 per cent of all product a is in the distillate. The feed is half vapor and the reflux ratio ( L J D ) is to be 4. The relative volatility of a to b is <Ha_0 = 2. How many equilibrium stages are required in each section of the column?

enriching-section operating line can be plotted by the point x0 = 0.93 = ylt and the intercept x = 0 at DxD xD 0.93 4 4- 1 = 0.186 +1 The stripning-section operating line is a straight line from the intersection of the enriching line and the i-line to the point xB = 0.0219 = -js. The stages may be stepped off from xB or xD. Since no information on the reboiler and condenser is available, neither is assumed to contribute to the separation. There are 9.5 stages in the stripping section and 7.5 stages in the enriching section. of the operating lines first intersects the equilibrium curve. For ideal mixtures this occurs at the feed, but in other cases it may occur at any point between xE and xD, as shown in Figure 7.6. At total reflux, the slope of the operating lines becomes 1.0, and they coincide with the diagonal. The minimum number of stages required can be determined by stepping off stages from xD to xB between the equilibrium curve and the diagonal, as shown in Figure 7.7. Calculation of Intermediate Streams. The reasoning used in calculating intermediate streams on the equilibrium xy diagram is the same as that used on ihe three-variable diagrams considered in Chapter 6. The addition or removal of a stream changes the L- and F-phase flow rates and results in a new operating line. Two methods are available for locating the new operating line in the intermediate section of the cascade shown in Figure 6.13. The i-iine for the intermediate stream may be plotted regardless of whether the stream is a product or a feed. If,the top reflux ratio is given, the upper operating line

0 0.20 0.40 0.50 0.6 0.80 1. 0 0 zF = 0.35 SOLUTION. An x-y diagram (Figure 7.5) is drawn for '.- 1- 2 Slope of the i-line = j = 1 2 1
*D

= 0-*>
b

f = 4.0
4 = -=0.8

## Slope of the enriching operating lin LD L+D

To find xB: Basis: 100 lb moles feed Moles a in feed = 35 Moles a in distillate = (35)(0.96) = 33.6 Moles a in bottoms = 1.4 Total moles in distillate = 33.6/0.93 = 36.1 Total moles in bottoms = 100 - 36.1 = 63.9 1.4 Therefore, ^=619 =0.0219 The enriching-section operating line is located by the point xD = 0.93 = and the slope = 0.8. Alternatively, the Operating Variables. As the reflux ratio is reduced, the slope of the enrichingsection operating line decreases until one

## 73 SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION

METHODS

may be drawn from xD to the intersection with the /-line for the intermediate stream. The operating line is continued beyond the intersection but now at a new slope corrected for the addition or removal of the intermediate stream. The intermediate operating line intersects the /-line for the feed, changes siope, and continues to xB. In this case only one intermediate stream was present. In general, any number may be calculated as outlined. The second method of calculation is by defining a fictitious feed (2), which is the algebraic sum of the feed (F) and the intermediate stream (/). This is shown in Figure 7.8. First the three /'-lines are plotted. That for the fictitious feed is calculated from the properties of the two component streams. The slope of the enriching-section operating line is usually set by fixing the top reflux ratio. Th's operating line is drawn in and continued until it intersects the /'-line for the fictitious feed (). The stripping-section operating line is then located by drawing a straight line from this intersection to x B = y. However, the enriching operating line has physical significance only until / is added and the stripping opeiating line is valid only from xB to tne /'-line for the feed. The operating line between the F and / /'-lines is easily located by the straight line connecting the intersections of the /lines with the stripping and enriching operating lines, as shown. This method may be extended to multiple intermediate streams, but it then is less convenient than the first method outlined. Interrelation between the Concepts of an Operating Line and a Delta Point. Although calculation on the ecuilibrium xy diagram is most advantageous when straight operating lines occur, the method may be applied to cases of curved operating lines. Curved operating lines result when the assumptions made earlier in this ehapter do not hold. For example, a

// V / z (fictitious feed)
1/ /

i //
Xa

Figure 7.7. Determination of minimum stages at variation in total reflux. overflow the molar

in distillation caused by nonconstar.t latent heats of vaporization or significant sensible-heat changes world give a variable slope to the operating lines. Similarly, in liquid extraction a variable

result in curved operating lines. The delta point and the operating fine are both used to relate the compositions of the streams flowing between two stages. For any stage n (Figure 7.9a) either the delta point or the operating line may be used to determine y from or vice versa, or to determine yn+1 from xn, or vice versa. Figure 7.96 shows the construction required to locate the point (xn, y +1) on the operating line by use of the delta point. The compositions s and y H of the streams flowing from stage n are known and are plotted on the upper diagram. A straight line from xA through xn locates yu rl at its intersection with the K-phase locus, as shown. The values of xn and yB+1 are now knewn. For calculations on the equilibrium diagram, Equation 7.3 shows that the point (xn, yn+1) must be on the operating line. The values for xn and yn+1 found on the upper diagram may now be transposed to the equilibrium diagram as shown by the construction fines, thereby establishing a point cn the operating line. Additional points on the operating line may be determined in the same manner, and the curved operating line may then be drawn in, PS shown. It is not necessary to use streams actually flowing between equilibrium stages to determine the operating line. Any straight 'ine from the delta point cuts the L-phase and K-phase curves Pt compositions which represent a point on the operating fine. The complete determination of 7 curved operating lines is shown in Figure .10 for a case in distillation where the latent heat varies. Applications of Simplified Graphical Methods. In many cases in stage operations insufficient physical data are available to permit rigorous calculations utilizing the methods of the previous chapters. In such cases, the methods outlined in this chapter may be used with a

Figure 7.8. Fictitious feed lor an intermediate stream. partial solubility of the two solvents would

74

## PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS

y*+1

v Stage n
1

V +i
U'

(a)

chosen so that the molar flov/ rates remain constant. Stage Efficiencies. In actual countercurrent multistage equipment, the two phases leaving a stage are not in equilibrium, because of insufficient time of contact or inadequate oispersi^n of the two phase"; in the stage. A.s a result the concentration change for each phase in an


/ Ctage n

//
t -

7 In
> + i
A/ //

/ //*
>

## ^\\0perating / jfir T line

/ yO

Figure 7.9. Interrelation between the aelta point and the operating line.

minimum of physical data, even though the physical system does not fall within the simplifying assumptions made at the beginning of the chapter. Often the error introduced is small, and a sufficient factor of safety may be included in the design. For example, distillation of ammoniawater systems may be evaluated by the methods of this chapter, even though the latent heats, and therefore the phase flow rates, a^e not constant. An intermediate degree of accuracy may be achieved where partial data are available for the phases over the composition range of interest. For example, in distillation if only the heats of vaporization of the pure components are known, they can be plotted on an enthalpycomposition diagram, and a straight line may be drawn between the two values of the saturated-vapor enthalpy to give an approximate vapor enthalpy curve over the entire composition range. This method accounts for the latent heat of vaporization but neglects other heat effects, which are often of a much smaller magnitude. A similar imp<-ovenicrt for th* simplified procedure can be made by recomputing the equilibrium diagram using for one of the components a fictitious molecular weight,

a> ya

Figure 7.10. Determination of curved actual stage is usually less than that possible in an equilibrium stage.

## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED -75 CALCULATION METHODS ------------------------------------------------------------------

'n + 1

\
x

n n-l

(a) Equilibri"m stage. (b) Actual stage. Figure 7.11. Operating lines for a single stage.

A stage efficiency may be defined to describe the lack of equilibrium. The overall stage efficiency is defined as the ratio of the number of equilibrium stages required for a given separation to the number of actual stages required. Although it is permissible to report a fractional number of equilibrium stages, it is obvious that only an integral number of actual stages can be built. Although the over-all efficiency is simple to use in calculations, it dees not allow for the variations in efhe'ency which may occur from stage to stage. The Mwphree stage efficiencies (4) are used for individual stages. The Murphree V-phase efficiency is defined as the actual change in average K-phase composition divide J by the change that would occur if the total K-phase were in equilibrium with the L-phase actually leaving the stage LV = y* - y+i A Murphree L-phase efficiency can (Figure 1.9a), or (7.17) (7.18)
ET =

The composition yn* is mat in equilibrium with the L-phase leaving the actual stage. Because the actual L-phase composition may vary (across the width of a bubble-cap plate, for example), the Murphree stage efficiency can exceed 100 per cent. Murphree point efficiencies may be denned by Equations 7.17 and 7.18. A point efficiency refers to a single point on a bubble-cap plate at the liquid-vapor interface. For this definition yn* refers to a vapor-phase composition in equilibrium with the actual liquid at the point being considered. Point efficiencies cannot exceed lOOpercent. The Murphiee stage efficiency can be used with the methods outlined in this chapter to calculate the number of actual stages required for a given separation.

x,.

Consider the operating lines for a single stage shown in Figure 7.11. The operating line for the equilibrium stage runs from the entering conditions (xn_lf yn+1) to the leaving conditions (x , yn). The latter point lies cn the equilibrium curve since xn and yn are in equilibrium. In an actual stage (Figure 7.116) the entering conditions are the same, but the compositions (a. and yn) of the phases leaving do not lie on the equilibiium curve, since the phasea are not in equilibrium. The composition yn* is in equilibrium with the liquid composition t, leaving the actual stage, as shown. The definition of Murphree K-phase efficiency can be more fully understood by reference to Figure 7.116, where it is seen to be the ratio of the two distances (y - yn+1) and (yn* - y +1). When actual stages are stepped off between the equilibrium curve and operating line, the full vertical distance (yB* yn+1) is not used. Rather, some fraction of the vertical distance as determined by the efficiency of the stage is stepped off. Figure 7.12 illustrates a typical problem in distillation with a Murphree vapor efficiency of 50 per cent. It is convenient to draw an "effective separation curve" between the equilibrium curve and operating line at a distance determined by the efficiency. In this case the curve is located at half the vertical distance between the equilibrium curve and operating line, since the vapor efficiency is 50 per cent. The stages are then stepped off between the effective separation curve and the operating line. Stage efficiencies depend on many factors, such as the time of contact and degree of dispersion of the phases, the geometry of the stage, the rate of mass transfer, and the physical properties and flow rates of the fluids A great deal of research has been directed toward the prediction of stage efficiencies from theoretical or empirical relationships. Correlations fcr a number of

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## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED -75 CALCULATION METHODS -----------------------------------------

Keseimbangan material antara setiap m tahap di bagian pengupasan dan ujung-zat terlarut miskin kaskade memberikan

Ya X, T = 0,136

m-l (7.5) & XB - ^ S ^ S + l + l dm dalam 'm _L Vm - xm-\ (7,5 ) Nilai perubahan ofL dan Kmay pada pakan. Oleh karena itu, B * a - ^ s + infus + i V

"+1. Nilai-nilai ini diplot pada Gambar 7.3 mol K = COO lb / jam x "= o.c, y.

0.0526 di mana L dan K adalah nilai-nilai konstan L-fasa dan arus K-fase di bagian pengupasan. Dalam perhitungan distilasi Vs +1 = 0 dan Kc = 0; dan Persamaan dan 7.5A menjadi 7.4A 0.091 Untuk 90 per pemulihan persen, maka benzena meninggalkan dalam gas akan (0,10) (O.O5) (6O0) = 3.0 mol lb. Oleh karena itu, Yx = 3.0/570 = 0.0C526 lb mol benzena / lb udara mo'e, karena K / = +1 KA '= (0,95) (600) = 570 lb mol udara. Kondisi di ujung atas menara diatur dan dapat diplot: X0 = 0, Yx = 0.0 ^ 526. Tingkat cairan minimum terjadi ketika saluran operasi melalui (XQ, Yx) pertama menyentuh kurva kesetimbangan, seperti yang ditunjukkan. Kemiringan garis ini adalah / L '\ _ ,0526-,00526 [^ VJ = 0,52-0

atau

atau 2 / "+ i =

## SPECIAL CASES IN STAGE OPERATIONS: SIMPLIFIED -75 CALCULATION METHODS -----------------------------------------

* A xa (A) Pinch pada feed. (I) Pinch dalam memperkaya bagian. Gambar 7.6. Penentuan refluks minimum pada diagram xy. Ilustrasi 7.2. Campuran 35 persen mol a dan b 65 persen mol harus dipisahkan dalam menara distilasi. Konsentrasi dalam distilat adalah 93 persen mol dan 96 persen dari semua produk di distilat tersebut. Umpan adalah setengah uap dan rasio refluks (LJD) akan 4. Volatilitas relatif untuk b a.a_h = 2. Berapa banyak tahap kesetimbangan dibutuhkan dalam setiap bagian dari kolom? SOLUSI. Xy diagram (Gambar 7.5) yang ditarik untuk <*,_(, = 2. y= memperkaya-bagian saluran operasi dapat diplot oleh titik x0 = 0,93 = yl3 dan mencegat x - 0 pada 4+1 +1 XD DxD 0,93 = 0,186 G?) Saluran operasi stripning-bagian adalah garis lurus dari persimpangan dari garis memperkaya dan /-line ke titik xB = 0,0219 = ys. Tahapan mungkin turun dari xB atau xD. Karena tidak ada informasi mengenai reboiler dan kondensor tersedia, tidak diasumsikan untuk berkontribusi pemisahan. Ada 9,5 tahapan di bagian pengupasan dan LZ tahap di bagian memperkaya.