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The Old Kladruber Horse

21st May 2011

Martina Truhlov TABLE OF CONTENTS

2nd year AJ HI VZ

Introduction 1.1. History of the Old Kladruber Horse 1. 1. 1. Breed characteristics 1. 1. 2. Famous stallions 1.2. Breeding of the Old Kladruber Horse 1. 2. 1. Breeding in Czech Republic Conclusion References List of Images

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The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

Introduction

The breeding aim for the only original Czech breed of horse, which is founded on Spanish-Neapolitan blood and has been bred here for over 400 years, is the gala carriage horse. These horses are just beautiful creatures that always were, are and will be connected with the Habsburgs on the throne. The Old Kladruber horses and the Lipizzaner horses are my very favorite horse breeds. Therefore I would like to introduce them to you.

Picture 1 - The Old Kladruber carriage

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

1. 1. History of the Old Kladruber Horse

The Old Kladruber is the oldest Czech horse breed, and today is considered very rare. The main breeding centre is in National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem in the Czech Republic where the Old Kladrubers have been bred for more than 400 years, being now one of the world's oldest horse breeds. The Old Kladrubers have always been bred to be a gala carriage horse - a heavy horse for the court of the House of Habsburg. Bred in Kladruby nad Labem national stud, the Old Kladruber breed is almost 400 years old, yet is remarkably rare (90 mares as of 1995). Kladruby stud farm was founded in 1579 by Rudolf II as an Imperial stud, at the Pernstein stables. The breed was based on imported Spanish (such as the Andalusian) and Italian horses, crossed with Neapolitan, Danish, Holstein, Irish, and Oldenburg blood, in addition to the heavy Czech breeds. The animal was first developed to be a heavy type of carriage horse used to pull the imperial coach, usually in a four- or six-in-hand, at ceremonies and funerals. It originally came in a variety of colors, including palomino and appaloosa, although today the breed is strictly gray or black, due to a breeding program requiring 18 "white" (i.e. fully mature grays) and 18 black stallions for various ceremonies of the court. The origin stud farm was evacuated during the Seven Years' War to

Kopany, Slovakia and Enyed, Hungary. Due to a fire in 1757, the earliest 200 years of breeding records were lost, and the stud was dissolved before the remaining breeding stock was brought back to the a new stud farm in Kladruby. The surviving records show a particular influence by several stallions on the herd of gray Kladrubers. 1. 1. 1. Breed characteristics Modern Kladrubers are usually gray. Many stand between 170 to 180 cm at withers and primarily used in harness. They are suitable for light draft and agriculture, and can be seen at the international levels in the sport of combined driving. This FEI sport makes good use of the Old Kladruber's calm nature, endurance, and relative speed. The Old Kladruber is also occasionally crossbred with lighter breeds to produce a more suitable riding horse, usually for dressage.

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

Due to their small gene pool and long history of selective breeding, the Old Kladruber type is well "set" and they possess recognizable breed characteristics. Many of these characteristics, such as a prominent Roman or convex facial profile, have been retained from their Baroque ancestors. While the relatively upright shoulder, pasterns and hooves, long back, and short croup are not desirable in a riding horse, these qualities allow high-stepping gaits in a driving horse. The high-set, powerful and well-arched neck of the Old Kladruber was a trademark feature of their Spanish-Neapolitan ancestors, and not only contributes to their appearance in harness. A horse of substance, the Old Kladruber possesses a deep, broad chest and sound legs with large joints and hooves. Their legs are unfeathered, though the mane and tail are thick and flowing, and the features are lean rather than fleshy. All gaits, though most especially the trot, should have high action and elasticity with a clear cadence. 1. 1. 2. Famous stallions Pepoli - a gray who sired the colt Generale in Kopcany in 1787. Generale is thought to be the progenitor of all gray Kladrubers today, and he produced the son Generalissimus (1797) who produced a separate lineage. Maestoso (1773) and Favory (1779) - born in Kladruby, became two of the six founding Lipizzaner stallion lineages. Favory returned to Kladruby after WWII, to add new blood to the decimated herd.

Picture 2- Favorys descendant

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

Barzoi and Legion - Orlov Trotters added new blood between WWI and WWII. Rudolfo - a Lusitano from Portugal, added new blood after WWII.

Picture 3 - Rudolfo

The herd of black Kladrubers had two particular influential stallions, Sacramoso (born 1799) and Napoleone (born 1845), and was regenerated in Slatinany. The black and white Kladrubers have several differences due to their breeding. The white is finer, more Thoroughbredish in type, and usually taller than the black. The black has more Neapolitan blood, and thus is heavier, has a shorter croup, a different head and neck, and a more "Nordic" look to it. Pepoli's bloodlines are still bred at the Kladruby Stud, but the herd of black horses sired by Sacromoso and Nepoleone was destroyed in the 1930s, after many of the animals were sold for meat. Despite the decimated herd, a few horses were saved and efforts have been made by breeders to re-establish their bloodlines at a new stud farm in Slatinany, at The Research Institute for Horse Breeding.1

1. 2. Breeding of the Old Kladruber Horse


1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kladruber

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

1. 2. 1. Breeding in the Czech Republic National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem is the oldest major stud in the world. Its situated close to Pardubice in Polab lowlands where the soil conditions are ideal for a studfarm (sandy soil and loamy-sandy soil). Presently all the horses of National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem, s.p.o. are bred in Kladruby n. Labem (white horses) and also in Slatiany (black horses). In Kladruby nad Labem there are the Old Kladruber white horses housed in several facilities. Right in Kladruby nad Labem there are stabled horses of a base batch studhorses and brood mares, foals for separation, horses in training, sports horses and horses for sale. Weaned horses come to the Paddock and in one year later they are moved to a breeding stud in Selmice. Nowadays there are mostly only warm-blooded mares. Some of them are placed in Josefov where they are stabled low-in foal breeder mares or effete mares. The breeding stud farm Selmice is large along lime blossom trees which cross the pasture. In Selmice they are in separated into batches of stud horses and batches of mares breed three year classes of young horses yearling, biennial and triennial. Currently National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem, s.p.o. breeds around 540 horses. In Kladruby nad Labem the visitors can look at the Old Kladruber white horses. In Kladruby there are around 290 horses together with a small batch of Czech Warmbloods and private horses. In Slatiany stud there are around 250 Old Kladruber stud horses. The Old Kladruber white horses were primarily used for ceremonies and the Old Kladruber black horses were for the clergy. Nowadays you can find the Old Kladruber white horses from the National stallion being used in the Swedish and Danish courts and some are even representing mainly in team contests, in classical manage, in a contest of baroque team, in demonstration to Spanish High school or by the police in Prague, Pardubice and in Ostrava. The Old Kladruber horses are world-known for their good tempered character and have also been used for hypo therapy and recreational horseback riding.2

Conclusion
2

http://nhkladruby.cz/national-stud

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

With regard the Royal Wedding of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, better known as Prince William and Kate Middleton National stud farm Kladruby nad Labem gave one as a countrys wedding gift. Genetic samples from a special Czech breed of horse, the white Kladruby, offered by the Czech government as a present to the royal couple, was dispatched at the request of British authorities before the gift itself makes the journey. Why the generic sample was requested still remains unclear. The white Czech stallion to be given to William and Kate, valued at 30,000, hails from what claims to be the worlds oldest stud farm. Those are the latest news that have made me upset. Our country is giving to the royal couple the best what is left to give and they want the sperm first. Why? Are they going to inseminate other mare with it? Or do they need to proceed with genetic tests to make sure that Czech Republic is not giving them a horse with unsuitable DNA? In my honest opinion this horse breed is absolutely unique; therefore everyone who gets one of the Kladruber blood line should appreciate it even if the presentee has an allergy to horses. What is the proverb? Oh, I know. Never look a gift horse in the mouth.

Picture 4 - A herd of Old Kladrubers

References

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov

Websites: Nrodn hebn Kladruby nad Labem, accessed on 05/21/2011 http://nhkladruby.cz/national-stud Wikipedia, accessed on 05/21/2011 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kladruber List of Images Picture 1 http://www.konekonicikone.estranky.cz/fotoalbum/konicci/fotecky-od-christiane-slawik__/ Picture 2 http://www.novinky.cz/cestovani/145307-pardubickym-krajem-se-v-konskem-sedledostanete-kamkoli.html Picture 3 http://www.google.cz/imgres? imgurl=http://th00.deviantart.net/fs24/150/i/2008/026/4/0/Old_Kladruber___Rudolfo_by_sar ming.jpg&imgrefurl=http://sarming.deviantart.com/art/Czech-Warmblood86859069&usg=__L9NfhcmVReECMFTNEHkn9Bg8kQ=&h=129&w=150&sz=8&hl=cs&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=O8P3 mihxTzeqHM:&tbnh=102&tbnw=120&ei=st_XTa7iLo_G-QbT2LSfDw&prev=/search%3Fq %3Drudolfo%2Bkladruber%26hl%3Dcs%26biw%3D1639%26bih%3D720%26tbm %3Disch&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=168&vpy=172&dur=339&hovh=102&hovw=120&tx=115 &ty=50&sqi=2&page=1&ndsp=37&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0 Picture 4 http://www.novinky.cz/zahranicni/evropa/183555-pri-autonehode-v-italii-zemrel-spravcekladrubskeho-hrebcina.html

The Old Kladruber Horse

Martina Truhlov