Anda di halaman 1dari 6

APPENDIX B

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values


All laboratory values listed are approximate. Consult your local laboratory for guidelines as to normal values for the
specific testing procedures used.
NORMAL VALUES: BLOOD
Albumin (S)1
Newborn:
13 years:
46 years:
79 years:
1019 years:

Ammonia (P)1
2.63.6 g/dL
3.44.2 g/dL
3.55.2 g/dL
3.75.6 g/dL
3.75.6 g/dL

Newborns:
Thereafter:

Base Excess (B)1


Newborn:
Infant:
Child:
Thereafter:

Aldolase (S)1
1024 months:
27 years:
Adults:

3.411.8 U/L
1.28.8 U/L
1.74.9 U/L

Calculated from pH and PaCO2


Newborns:
17.223.6 mmol/L
2 months2 years:
1924 mmol/L
Children:
1825 mmol/L
Adult males:
20.128.9 mmol/L
Adult females:
18.428.8 mmol/L

124 ng/dL
215 ng/dL
122 ng/dL
132 ng/dL

Alkaline Phosphatase (S)2

Bilirubin, Conjugated (S)1

Values in IU/L at 37C (98.6F) using p-nitrophenol phosphate buffered


with AMP (kinetic).
Age
Newborns (13 days)
224 months
25 years
67 years
89 years
1011 years
1213 years
1415 years
1618 years
Adults

Males
95368
115460
115391
115460
115345
115336
127403
79446
58331
41137

Females
95368
115460
115391
115460
115345
115437
92336
78212
35124
39118

Neonates:
Neonate:
Preterm (16 days):

10 mol/L
2 mol/L
10 mol/L

Bleeding Time (Simplate)2


29 min.
Blood Volume2
Premature infants: 98 mL/kg
At 1 year:
86 mL/kg (range, 69112 mL/kg)
Older children:
70 mL/kg (range, 5186 mL/kg)
Calcium (S)2

a1Antitrysin (S)1
Newborn:
13 years:
49 years:
1013 years:
1419 years:

10 to 2 mmol/L
7 to 1 mmol/L
4 to +2 mmol/L
3 to +3 mmol/L

Bicarbonate, Actual (P)2

Aldosterone (S)1
69 years:
1011 years:
1214 years:
1517 years:

50 mmol/L
035 mmol/L

143440 mg/dL
147244 mg/dL
160245 mg/dL
166267 mg/dL
152317 mg/dL

Note: Modified from:


1Soldin, S.J., Brugnara, C., & Hicks, J.M. (1999). Pediatric reference ranges
(3rd ed.). Washington, DC: AACC Press.
2Hay, W.W., Hayward, A.R., Levin, M.J., Sondheimer, J.M. (2000). Current
pediatric diagnosis and treatment (15th ed.). New York: Lange Medical
Books/McGraw Hill.

Premature infants (first week):


Full-term infants (first week):
Thereafter:

3.54.5 mEq/L (1.72.3 mmol/L)


4.05.0 mEq/L (2.02.5 mmol/L)
4.45.3 mEq/L (2.22.7 mmol/L)

Carbon Dioxide, Partial Pressure (PCO2) (B)1


Newborn:
Infant:
Children:

2740 mmHg
2741 mmHg
3248 mmHg

(3.65.5 kPa)
(3.65.5 kPa)
(4.36.4 kPa)

Carbon Dioxide, Total (P)1


Cord blood:
1 year:
Adults:

1329 mmol/L
1731 mmol/L
2430 mmol/L

1447

Chloride (S, P)1

Fasting Insulin Level3

1 year:
117 years:
Adults:

96111 mmol/L
102112 mmol/L
100108 mmol/L

1.824.6 mU/L
Fibrinogen (P)2
200500 mg/dL (5.914.7 mol/L)

Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein (S)1


19 years:
1013 years:
1419 years:

3582 mg/dL
3684 mg/dL
3565 mg/dL

(0.912.12 mmol/L)
(0.932.17 mmol/L)
(0.911.68 mmol/L)

63140 mg/dL
64136 mg/dL
59137 mg/dL

(1.633.63 mmol/L)
(1.663.52 mmol/L)
(1.533.55 mmol/L)

Cholesterol, Total (S, P)1


13 years:
46 years:
79 years:
1013 years:
1419 years:

Normal: 1 mg/dL of packed erythrocyte lysate; slightly higher in cord blood


Infants with congenital galactosemia on a milk-free diet: 2 mg/dL
Infants with congenital galactosemia taking milk: 920 mg/dL
Galactose 1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase (RBC)2

44181 mg/dL
108187 mg/dL
112247 mg/dL
125244 mg/dL
106224 mg/dL

(1.154.70 mmol/L)
(2.804.80 mmol/L)
(2.906.40 mmol/L)
(3.256.30 mmol/L)
(2.755.80 mmol/L)

Complement (S)2
C3:
C4:

1.12.1 mg/dL (0.060.12 mmol/L)


Galactose 1-Phosphate (RBC)

Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein (S)1


59 years:
1014 years:
1519 years:

Galactose (S, P)2

Normal:
308475 mIU/g of hemoglobin
Heterozygous for Duarte variant:
225308 mIU/g of hemoglobin
Homozygous for Duarte variant:
142225 mIU/g of hemoglobin
Heterozygous for congenital galactosemia: 142225 mIU/g of hemoglobin
Homozygous for congenital galactosemia:
8 mIU/g of hemoglobin
Glucose (S, P)2

96195 mg/dL
1520 mg/dL

Premature infants:
Full-term infants:
Children and adults (fasting):

Creatine Kinase (S, P)2


Newborns (13 days):
Adult males:
Adult females:

40474 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)


30210 IU/L at 37C (98F)
20128 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)

Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (RBC)2


150215 units/dL
Glucose Tolerance Test Results in Serum a2

Creatine (S, P)2

GLUCOSE

Values in mg/dL (mol/L)


Age
daysa

13
1 year
23 years
47 years
810 years
1112 years
1317 years
1820 years
a

Males

Females

0.21.0 (17.788.4)
0.20.6 (17.753.0)
0.20.7 (17.761.9)
0.20.8 (17.770.7)
0.30.9 (26.579.6)
0.31.0 (26.588.4)
0.31.2 (26.5106.1)
0.51.3 (44.2115.0)

0.21.0 (17.788.4)
0.20.5 (17.744.2)
0.30.6 (26.553.0)
0.20.7 (17.761.9)
0.30.8 (26.570.7)
0.30.9 (26.579.6)
0.31.1 (26.597.2)
0.31.1 (26.597.2)

Values may be higher in premature newborns.

Creatinine

2080 mg/dL (1.114.44 mmol/L)


30100 mg/dL (1.675.56 mmol/L)
60105 mg/dL (3.335.88 mmol/L)

Clearance2

TIME

mg/dL

mmol/L

U/mL

pmol/L

Fasting
30 min
60 min
90 min
2 hr
3 hr
4 hr
5 hr

5996
91185
66164
68148
66122
4799
6193
6386

3.115.33
5.0510.27
3.669.10
3.778.22
3.666.77
2.615.49
3.395.16
3.504.77

540
36110
22124
17105
684
246
332
537

36287
258789
158890
122753
43603
14330
21230
36265

aNormal levels based on results in 13 normal children given glucose,


1.75 g/kg orally in one dose, after 2 weeks on a high-carbohydrate diet.

Values show great variability and depend on specificity of analytical


methods used.
Newborns (1 day):
550 mL/min/1.73 m2
(mean, 18 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Newborns (6 days):
1590 mL/min/1.73 m2
(mean, 36 mL/min/1.73 m2)
Adult males:
85125 mL/min/1.73 m2
Adult females:
75115 mL/min/1.73 m2

Glycosylated Hemoglobin (Hemoglobin A1) (B)1

C-Reactive Protien (S)1

aNote:

Cord blood:
Adult:

1448

APPENDIX B

10350 g/L
688,200 g/L

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values

INSULIN

Normal:
Diabetic patients in good control
of their condition:
Diabetic patients in poor control:
Pregnant Women:
Values tend to vary with testing technique.

47% of total hemoglobin


810%
818%
5%8%

These values reflect total Hemoglobin A1 levels. When Hemoglobin


A1c is computed, values are usually 24% lower.

Growth Hormone (S)2

Immunoglobulin E (S, P)1

After infancy (fasting specimen): 05 ng/mL


In response to natural and artificial provocation (e.g., sleep, arginine, insulin,
hypoglycemia): 8 ng/mL
During the newborn period (fasting specimen): GH levels are high
(1540 ng/mL) and responses to provocation variable

012 months
13 years
410 years
1118 years

1 KIU/L
90 KIU/L
193 KIU/L
398 KIU/L

Iron (S, P)2

Hematocrit (B)1
Age

Males (%)

Females (%)

Newborns
6 months2 years
26 years
612 years
1218 years
18 years

43.456.1
30.937.0
31.737.7
32.739.3
34.843.9
33.446.2

37.455.9
31.237.2
32.037.1
33.039.6
34.040.7
33.041.0

Newborns:
6 weeks3 years:
39 years:
914 years:
1416 years:
Adults:

20157 g/dL (3.628.1 mol/L)


20115 g/dL (3.620.6 mol/L)
20141 g/dL (3.625.2 mol/L)
21151 g/dL (3.827 mol/L)
20181 g/dL (3.632.4 mol/L)
44196 g/dL (7.231.3 mol/L)

Iron-Binding Capacity (S, P)2


Newborns:
Children and adults:

Hemoglobin (B)1
Age

Males (g/dL)

Females (g/dL)

Newborns
6 months2 years
26 years
612 years
1218 years
18 years

14.718.6
10.312.4
10.512.7
11.013.3
11.514.8
10.915.7

12.718.3
10.412.4
10.712.7
10.913.3
11.213.6
10.713.5

59175 g/dL (10.631.3 mol/L)


275458 g/dL (4572 mol/L)

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) (S, P)2

See Glycosylated Hemoglobin.

Values using lactate substrate (kinetic).


13 days:
40348 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
1 month5 years:
150360 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
58 years:
150300 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
812 years:
130300 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
1214 years:
130280 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
1416 years:
130230 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
Adult males:
70178 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)
Adult females:
42166 IU/L at 37C (98.6F)

Hemoglobin Electrophoresis (B)2

Lead (B)1

A1 hemoglobin:
A2 hemoglobin:

015 years 10 g/dL (0.48 mol/L)

Hemoglobin A1C

96%98.5% of total hemoglobin


1.5%4% of total hemoglobin

Magnesium (P)1

Hemoglobin, Fetal (B)2


At birth:
At 1 year:
Up to 2 years:
Thereafter:

Values in mg/dL (mmol/L)


50%85% of total hemoglobin
15% of total hemoglobin
5% of total hemoglobin
2% of total hemoglobin

Immunoglobulins (S)1
Age
130 days
16 months
712 months
13 years
46 years
79 years
1012 years
1315 years
1618 years

IgG
(mg/dL)

IgA
(mg/dL)

IgM
(mg/dL)

2211031
195794
184974
5071407
5711550
5891717
7051871
7091907
6322108

119
159
9107
18171
47231
41252
61269
42304
89322

12117
9212
4216
63298
64298
49270
58340
57361
59360

Immunoglobulin D (S)1
Newborn:
Thereafter:

Age

Males

Females

130 days
31365 days
13 years
49 years
1015 years
1618 years

1.72.4 (0.700.99)
1.62.5 (0.661.03)
1.72.4 (0.700.99)
1.72.4 (0.700.99)
1.62.2 (0.660.91)
1.52.2 (0.620.91)

1.72.5 (0.701.03)
1.92.4 (0.780.99)
1.72.4 (0.700.99)
1.62.3 (0.660.95)
1.62.2 (0.660.91)
1.52.2 (0.620.91)

Osmolality (S)1
Birth1 month:
Adults:

275305 mOsm/kg
282300 mOsm/kg

Oxygen, Partial Pressure (PO2) (B)1


Birth:
1 hour:
1 day:

824 mmHg
5580 mmHg
83108 mmHg

1.13.2 kPa
7.310.6 kPa
11.014.4 kPa

Oxygen Saturation (B)1


0 mg/dL
08 mg/dL

Newborns:
Thereafter:

APPENDIX B

85%90%
95%99%

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values

1449

Partial Thromboplastin Time (P)2

Prothrombin Time (P)2

Children:

Children:

4254 sec

PH (B)1

1115 sec

Protoporphyrin, Free (FEP, ZPP) (B)2

06 months
612 months

7.187.50
7.277.49

Values for free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP)
are 1.22.7 g/g of hemoglobin.

Phenylalanine (S, P)2

Red Blood Cell Count (B)1

0.73.5 mg/dL (0.040.21 mmol/L)

Values  106/L. (L  mm3)

Phosphorus, Inorganic (S, P)2


Newborns:
1 year:
10 years:
Adults:

5.07.8 mg/dL (1.612.52 mmol/L)


3.86.2 mg/dL (1.232.0 mmol/L)
3.65.6 mg/dL (1.161.81 mmol/L)
3.15.1 mg/dL (1.01.65 mmol/L)

Age

Males

Females

Newborns6 months
6 months2 years
212 years
1218 years
18 years

4.25.5
4.15.0
4.04.9
4.25.3
3.85.4

3.45.4
4.14.9
4.04.9
4.04.9
3.84.8

Platelet Count (RBC)1


Sedimentation Rate (Micro) (B)2

Value  103/L. (L  mm3)


Age

Males

Newborns
12 months
26 months
6 months2 years
26 years
612 years
1218 years
18 years

2 years:
2 years:

Females

164351
275567
275566
219452
204405
194364
165332
143320

234346
295615
288598
229465
204402
183369
185335
171326

Newborns:
Children and adults:

Total
Protein

1Globulin

2Globulin

At birth
3 months
1 year
4 years

4.67.0
4.56.5
5.47.5
5.98.0

0.10.3
0.10.3
0.10.3
0.10.3

0.20.3
0.30.7
0.51.1
0.40.8

Age

-Globulin

-Globulin

At birth
3 months
1 year

0.30.6
0.30.7
0.41.0

0.61.2
0.20.7
0.20.9

4 years

Thrombin Time (P)2


Children:

1216 sec

0.51.0

0.41.3

Age

Males

130 days
1 month5 years
618 years

0.5216.00
0.557.10
0.376.00

0.7213.10
0.468.10
0.365.80

Values in g/dL (nmol/L).


Age

Males

Females

130 days
112 months
13 years
46 years
712 years
1315 years

5.921.5 (76276)
6.413.9 (82179)
7.013.1 (90169)
6.112.6 (79162)
6.713.4 (86172)
4.811.5 (62148)

6.321.5 (81276)
4.913.7 (63176)
7.114.1 (91180)
7.214.0 (93180)
6.112.1 (79156)
5.811.2 (75144)

1618 years

5.911.5 (76148)

5.213.2 (67170)

are for cellulose acetate electrophoresis and are in g/dL. SI conversion


factor: g/dL  10  g/L.

APPENDIX B

Females

Thyroxine (T4) (S, P)1

aValues

1450

133146 mmol/L
135148 mmol/L

Values in mU/L.

4.57.2 mmol/L
3.75.2 mmol/L
3.55.8 mmol/L
3.55.5 mmol/L

Proteins in Seruma2

Age

Sodium (P)1

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) (P, S)1

Potassium (S, P)2


Premature infants:
Full-term infants:
Children:
Adults:

15 mm/hr
18 mm/hr

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values

Throxine, Free (Free T4) (S, P)1

Urea Clearance2

Newborns:
112 months:
15 years:
610 years:
1115 years:
1618 years:

Premature infants:
Newborns:
212 months:
2 years:

0.802.78 ng/dL (1036 pmol/L)


0.762.00 ng/dL (1026 pmol/L)
0.901.72 ng/dL (1222 pmol/L)
0.811.68 ng/dL (1022 pmol/L)
0.791.57 ng/dL (1020 pmol/L)
0.831.53 ng/dL (1120 pmol/L)

16.232.9 mg/L
16.433.8 mg/L
16.630.8 mg/L
15.029.2 mg/L
13.428.7 mg/L

517 mg/dL (1.86.0 mmol/L)


717 mg/dL (2.56.0 mmol/L)
821 mg/dL (2.97.5 mmol/L)

Uric Acid (S, P)2

Triglycerides (S)1
Values in mg/dL (mmol/L)
Age

Males

Females

13 years
46 years
79 years
1011 years
1213 years
1415 years
1619 years

27125 (0.311.41)
32116 (0.361.31)
28129 (0.321.46)
24137 (0.271.55)
24145 (0.271.64)
34165 (0.381.86)
34140 (0.381.58)

27125 (0.311.41)
32116 (0.361.31)
28129 (0.321.46)
39140 (0.441.58)
37130 (0.421.47)
38135 (0.431.52)
37140 (0.421.58)

Triiodothyronine (T3) (S, P)1


130 days
112 months
15 years
610 years
1115 years
1618 years

Urea Nitrogen (P)1


13 years
413 years
1419 years

Thyroxine-binding Globulin (TBG) (P)1


112 months:
13 years:
46 years:
712 years:
1318 years:

3.517.3 mL/min/1.73 m2
8.733 mL/min/1.73 m2
4095 mL/min/1.73 m2
52 mL/min/1.73 m2

15210 ng/dL
50275 ng/dL
80258 ng/dL
96232 ng/dL
73211 ng/dL
69201 ng/dL

Males:
014 years:
14 years:

27 mg/dL (119416 mol/L)


38 mg/dL (178476 mol/L)

Females:
All ages:

27 mg/dL (119416 mol/L)

White Blood Cell Count (B)1


Values  103/mL. (L = mm3)
Age

Males

Newborns
6 months2 years
26 years
612 years
1218 years
18 years

Females

6.813.3
6.214.5
5.311.5
4.510.5
4.510.0
4.410.2

8.014.3
6.415.0
5.311.5
4.710.3
4.810.1
4.910.0

NORMAL VALUES: URINE


Addis Count2
Red cells (12-hr specimen):
White cells (12-hr specimen):
Casts (12-hr specimen):
Protein (12-hr specimen):

Catecholamines (Norepinephrine, Epinephrine)2


1 million
2 million
10,000
55 mg

Albumin2
First month:
Second month:
212 months:

1100 mg/L
0.234 mg/L
0.519 mg/L

Values in g/24 hr (nmol/24 hr).


TOTAL CATECHOLAMINES

AGE
1 year

20

15 years

40

615 years

80

15 years

100

Ammonia2
212 months:
116 years:

420 mEq/min/m2
616 mEq/min/m2

Calcium2
412 years:

48 mEq/L (24 mmol/L)

NOREPINEPHRINE
5.415.9
(3294)
8.130.8
(48182)
19.071.1
(112421)
34.487.0
(203514)

EPINEPHRINE
0.14.3 (0.523.5)
0.89.1 (4.449.7)
1.310.5 (7.157.3)
3.513.2 (19.172.1)

Chloride2
Infants:
Children:
Adults:

APPENDIX B

1.78.5 mmol/24 hr
1734 mmol/24 hr
140240 mmol/24 hr

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values

1451

Corticosteroids (17-Hydroxycorticosteroids)1

Phosphorus, Tubular Reabsorption

02 years:
26 years:
610 years:
1014 years:

78%97%.

24 mg/24 hr (5.511 mmol)


36 mg/24 hr (8.316.6 mmol)
68 mg/24 hr (16.622.1 mmol)
810 mg/24 hr (22.127.6 mmol)

Creatine2
1858 mg/L (1.374.42 mmol/L)

Growth

-Aminolevulinic acid:
Porphobilinogen:
Coproporphyrin:
Uroporphyrin:

07 mg/24 hr (053.4 mol/24 hr)


02 mg/24 hr (08.8 mol/24 hr)
0160 mg/24 hr (0244 mol/24 hr)
026 mg/24 hr (031 mol/24 hr)

Potassium2

Creatinine2
Newborns:
Children:
Adult males:
Adult females:

Porphyrins2

710 mg/kg/24 hr
2030 mg/kg/24 hr
2126 mg/kg/24 hr
1622 mg/kg/24 hr

Hormone1

2.213.3 years (Tanner 1):


10.314.6 years (Tanner 2):
11.515.3 years (Tanner 3):
12.717.1 years (Tanner 4):
13.519.9 years (Tanner 5):

0.46.3 ng/24 hr (0.912.3 ng/g creatinine)


0.812.0 ng/24 hr (1.014.1 ng/g creatinine)
1.720.4 ng/24 hr (1.917.0 ng/g creatinine)
1.518.2 ng/24 hr (1.314.4 ng/g creatinine)
1.214.5 ng/24 hr (0.811.0 ng/g creatinine)

26123 mmol/L
Sodium2
Infants: 0.33.5 mmol/24 hr (610 mmol/m2)
Children and adults: 5.617 mmol/24 hr
Specific Gravity
1.0101.030

Urobilinogen2
3 mg/24 hr (5.1 mol/24 hr)

Homovanillic Acid2
316 g/mg of creatinine
24 g/mg of creatinine

Children:
Adults:
Mucopolysaccharides2

Acid mucopolysaccharide screen should yield negative results. Positive


results after dialysis of the urine should be followed up with a thin-layer chromatogram for evaluation of the acid mucopolysaccharide excretion pattern.
Osmolality2
Infants:
Older children:

50600 mosm/L
501400 mosm/L

Vanillymandelic Acid (VMA)2


Because of the difficulty in obtaining an accurately timed 24-hour collection,
values based on microgram per milligram of creatinine are the most reliable
indications of VMA excretion in young children.
112 months:
135 g/mg of creatinine (31135 mg/kg/24 hr)
12 years:
130 g/mg of creatinine
25 years:
115 g/mg of creatinine
510 years:
114 g/mg of creatinine
1015 years:
110 g/mg of creatinine
(17 mg/24 hr; 535 mmol/24hr)
Adults:
17 g/mg of creatinine
(17 mg/24 hr; 535 mmol/24 hr)

NORMAL VALUES: FECES


Fat, Total2
26 months:
6 months1 year:
Children:
Adolescents:
Adults:

0.31.3 g/d
4 g/d
3 g/d
5 g/d
7 g/d

NORMAL VALUES: SWEAT


Electrolytes2
Normal:
Patients with cystic fibrosis:

40 mmol/L for both sodium and chloride.


60 mmol/L for both sodium and chloride.

NORMAL VALUES: CEREBROSPINAL FLUID


Protein1

Glucose1

Newborns:
1 month:
1 month:

1452

40120 mg/dL
2080 mg/dL
1545 mg/dL
APPENDIX B

Selected Normal Pediatric Laboratory Values

All ages: 60%80% of blood glucose