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JURUSAN TEKNIK ELEKTRO FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI INDUSTRI UNIVERSITAS BUNG HATTA

PROPOSAL SKRIPSI Nama No. BP Peminatan Judul Skripsi : : : : SYARBAINI NUR 0910017111058 INVESTIGASI PENYEBAB KENAIKAN SUHU PADA TERMINASI KABEL OKONITE DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KAMERA INFRAMERAH (THERMACAM) Pembimbing 1 Pembimbing 2 Dilaksanakan : : : Duri, 25 April 2010 Di Usulkan Oleh,

( SYARBAINI NUR ) Mengetahui : Pembimbing I, Mengetahui : Pembimbing II,

-------------------Koordinator Skripsi,

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1. INVESTIGASI PENYEBAB KENAIKAN SUHU PADA TERMINASI KABEL OKONITE DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KAMERA INFRAMERAH

(THERMACAM)

2. ABSTRAK Dalam dunia industri, salah satu jenis industrial fault yang sering terjadi adalah munculnya Hot Spot (titik panas) pada instalasi listrik yang menjadi penghubung antar konduktor, baik itu antara kabel ke busbar, kabel ke kabel, ataupun kabel ke terminal lainnya, dll. Gejala pemanasan yang terjadi ini bisa di sebabkan berbagai jenis permasalahan, dan umumnya suatu peralatan memasuki tahapan mengeluarkan panas yang berlebihan sebelum kerusakan phisik muncul. Kerusakan phisik yang terjadi ini bisa berupa kerusakan pada isolator kabel, kerusakan sambungan, ketidakseimbangan arus, atau bahkan bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya arc flash yang dapat menjadi pemicu terjadinya kebakaran. Untuk membantu mengurangi terjadinya kasus seperti tersebut penulis bermaksud untuk mempelajari penyebab yang mungkin menjadi sumber pemicu munculnya hotspot. Dengan memanfaatkan teknologi infrared thermography penulis mencoba menyingkap hal-hal yang memiliki potensi sebagai penyebab munculnya hotspot yang terjadi. Dengan harapan hal ini bisa membantu kehandalan instalasi listrik pada dunia industri, membantu menunjukkan pada dunia kelistrikan akan hal-hal yang patut diperhitungkan dalam menjaga kehandalan suatu fasilitas kelistrikan, sehingga instalasi listrik yang dipergunakan memiliki tingkat keamanan dan kehandalan yang lebih baik, mengurangi terjadinya breakdown, dan cost saving yang optimal.

Index Term : Hotspot, ThermaCam, Terminasi 3. LATAR BELAKANG

Pemakaian konduktor listrik adalah mutlak dalam dunia industri. Baik itu berupa kabel, kawat, busbar, batangan atau bahkan pelat logam. Saat transmisi listrik, konduktor yang di gunakan menanggung dua jenis beban, yaitu beban arus yang melewatinya dan beban panas sebagai akibat negatif dari besarnya arus listrik yang lewat. Banyak cara yang di tempuh dalam dunia industri untuk menekan efek negatif arus listrik yang berupa panas ini. Baik dengan memilih material yang memiliki daya tahan panas tinggi, ataupun dengan menggunakan mesin pendingin seperti Air conditioner, dll. Namun hotspot tetap bisa muncul dalam operasionalnya.

Gbr 1. Salah satu kasus hotspot pada terminasi kontaktor Seperti halnya industri lainnya, PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia juga mengahadapi tantangan yang sama, pada instalasi listrik yang di pergunakan. Terutama pada instalasi listrik 3-Phasa. Karena secara umum beban untuk listrik 3-phasa lebih besar dari pada beban listrik yang 1-phasa., sehingga konsumsi arusnya juga besar. Sebagai kompensasinya tentu saja panas yang muncul akan lebih tinggi. Sebagai efek dari terjadinya hotspot tersebut, sebagian dari kabel tersebut mengalami kerusakan pada isolatornya. Kerusakan terbanyak terjadi pada isolator ujung-ujung kabel, dan berawal dari titik-titik terminasi kabel. Bahkan ada kabel yang terbakar habis bersamaan dengan melelehnya terminasinya, karena hotspot yang terjadi sangatlah tinggi. Untuk meminimalisasi munculnya kasus-kasus seperti ini, maka penulis mencoba untuk

menganalisa penyebab kegagalan awal pada terminasi kabel yang menjadi faktor penyebab kenaikan suhu pada terminsasi instalasi listrik yang di pergunakan.

4. DEFINISI MASALAH Studi pengkajian skripsi diarahkan pada permasalahan: 1. Mengamati kondisi yang menjadi penyebab kenaikan suhu pada terminasi kabel. 2. Mengamati kondisi hotspot yang terjadi dan menganalisa penyebabnya dengan memanfaatkan kamera inframerah. 3. Menentukan parameter-parameter penyebab kenaikan suhu pada terminasi kabel .

5. BATASAN MASALAH Dalam pengerjaan skripsi ini permasalahan akan dibatasi pada hal: Terminasi kabel yang dipilih adalah terminasi kabel listrik 3-phasa yang memiliki tegangan operasional 460 V s/d 500 V. Tidak membahas tentang pengaruh kimiawi terhadap terminasi.

5. METODA PENELITIAN Langkah-langkah dalam penelitian yang akan dilakukan penulis meliputi: Studi literatur Studi Literatur yang dilakukan, disini penulis mencoba mengumpulkan data tentang kabel yang digunakan yaitu jenis OKONITE khusus untuk Tray Aplication. Data yang dikumpulkan akan mengarah ke arah kemampuan kabel sebagai penghantar arus, dan kemampuan isolatornya sebagai pembatas tegangan tembus dan suhu.

Hal lain yang akan di pelajari penulis mengarah ke kamera inframerah (ThermaCam) yang di gunakan. Prinsip dasar ThermaCam, parameter-parameter penting yang mempengaruhi pemakaian ThermaCam, dan batasan kemampuannya.

Pengumpulan dan Pengolahan Data: Penulis akan mengumpulkan data kasus-kasus munculnya hotspot yang terjadi pada instalasi listrik yang digunakan, khususnya mengarah hotspot yang muncul pada terminasi kabel OKONITE yang digunakan. Metode Instalasi yang di terapkan dilapangan, untuk spesifikasi unit yang sama, akan dilihat metode instalasi yang diterapkan. Data yang ada ini akan dikelompokkan berdasarkan beban yang dipakai, area tempat pengambilan data, dan persamaan instalasi yang diterapkan.

Experimen Pengamatan Pada tahapan ini penulis melakukan riset apa saja yang menjadi titik awal munculnya hotspot yang terjadi berdasarkan data yang di ambil. Penulis juga melakukan perbaikan terhadap kejadian hotspot yang muncul, untuk melihat apakah kasus yang sama akan berulang lagi atau tidak. Hasil percobaan, perbaikan, dan pengamatan ini akan menjadi masukan bagi penulis untuk mendata parameterparametr apa saja yang menjadi penyebab hotspot pada terminasi kabel, parameterparameter pendukung yang menjadi pemicu kemungkinan terjadinya tingkat kerusakan yang lebih tinggi, dan parameter-parametr luar yang mungkin menjadi katalis terjadinya hotspot tersebut. Pengamatan yang dilakukan penulis ruang lingkupnya meliputi kondisi lingkungan, jenis beban yang digunakan, teknik instalasi yang diterapkan, dan hal-hal lain yang mungkin menjadi faktor penyebab munculnya hotspot tersebut.

Data yang sudah ada akan diolah dengan bantuan software khusus yang menjadi alat pendukung utama dalam menganalisa kasus yang terjadi.

5. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA Pada penelitian ini penulis telah memeriksa beberapa tulisan yang memiliki hubungan dengan pengamatan yang penulis lakukan, antara lain:

A. Haas1* and J. Kindersberger1 (DETERMINATION OF AGEING OF POLYMERIC INSULATING MATERIALS BY THERMAL ANALYSIS METHODS) 1 Lehrstuhl fr Hochspannungs- und Anlagentechnik, TU Mnchen, Germany. *Email: alexander.haas@tum.de Abstract: In this paper Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetrical Analysis (TGA) are used to evaluate different kinds of ageing phenomena in polymeric insulating materials. Specimen of different polymer insulating materials (cross-linked Polyolefin, ETFE and silicone rubber) with a defined

preconditioning are subject to a DSC and a TGA, identifying parameters such as glass transition, melting temperature and degree of cross-linking and crystallisation. The samples subsequently undergo a certain treatment in form of thermal ageing or storage in hot salty water and by voltage stress. In the following, another analysis is being performed. Differences in the measured curves of new and aged samples give information about modifications in the polymer due to ageing. By the applied methods it is possible to identify physical ageing such as inclusion of water and chemical ageing such as cracking of polymer chains.

Zdena Beneov, Martin kopek, Bohu Ulrych and Ivo Doleel, Member, IEEE

( Investigation of Electric Stress of Insulation of a Three-Phase Power Cable with Respecting its Heating by Passing Currents ) Abstract The paper is aimed at determination of the electric stress of insulation of a threephase cable and check of its dielectric strength. The task is formulated as a combined electro-thermal problem. The steady-state temperature field is calculated from the Joule losses produced by the currents passing through the conductors and other metal parts of the cable. Solution to the problem is carried out numerically, by means of the FEM-based programs. The theoretical analysis is supplemented by an illustrative example and discussion of the results. I. INTRODUCTION Transmission of the electric energy by power cables results in growth of their temperature, which can negatively affect quality of their insulation and cause za substantial decrease of its lifetime [3]. The reason consists in two antagonistic trends: the tendency of transmitting currents as high as possible and, on the other hand, to prevent the temperature rise of the cable from exceeding the admissible value. Operation accompanied by such undesirable effects may occur at long-term

load of the cable by the nominal current or voltage, overload of the cable by higher currents or voltages (that must not, however, exceed certain values given as multiples of the nominal load).

Quantitative answers to different questions associated with these problems may be obtained from suitable experiments or - much more operatively and (based on the contemporary theoretical knowledge) substantially reliably - from the computer modelling. This possibility is also used in the presented paper that deals with the numerical solution of the electric stress of insulation of a three-phase cable NYFY 1 kV [1] in both above cases of the long-term load. Its resultant values are then

compared with the dielectric strength of the insulation, which is a function of the temperature (that depends on the operation regime of the cable, particularly on the passing currents). The solution starts from formulation of the particular technical problem and its mathematical model, that is given by equations describing the - steady state temperature field distribution within the cross-section of the cable, - time-dependent distribution of the electric field. The model is then solved by the FEM-based professional program QuickField [2] supplemented by special user programs. Except for the methodology of computation the paper presents the most important results of a typical illustrative example and discussion of its results. Discussed are also possibilities of further possible improvements of the described algorithm consisting in its hard-coupled formulation, that would enable to respect continuous variations of the electric resistance of the cable in dependence on its temperature rise.

5. RENCANA PENELITIAN Pada Rencana penelitian ini, penulis akan meneliti secara langsung kesesuaian dilapangan di bandingkan dengan teori berikut:

In the present study the performance of low-voltage polymer-insulated cables for application in harsh environmental conditions is investigated. Temperatures up to 423 K (150C) and saline water immersion may occur during application. The range of applied AC and DC voltage is up to 1 kV. For the given environmental conditions no knowledge of the specific ageing of the insulating materials is available. Therefore, the ageing of the polymeric insulation due to the expected

stresses is investigated in detail in this study. The focus is set on the ageing mechanism effecting the polymer structure and chemistry, since these are the cause for any decrease in the electric performance. In future investigations, the detected phenomena of polymer ageing will be compared to the electric performance of the aged cables. 2. AGEING MECHANISM Ageing can be classified in two groups: Physical ageing is a reversible, temporary reduction of properties which disappears with the removal of the influencing factor (defined as degradation [1]). On the contrary, chemical ageing causes an irreversible, permanent reduction of properties (defined as deterioration [1]). Regardless of the formal definition the term degradation is commonly used for all kinds of ageing mechanism and shall thus be used in the same way in this study. 2.1. Chemical Ageing All chemical ageing phenomena involve a chemical polymer reaction whereas. Chemical ageing can be initiated by temperature alone, by water or other fluids, by particle and ultraviolet radiation and some more [4]. In the following we will concentrate on the phenomena most characteristic in the present investigation. Thermal degradation follows the free radicals mechanism, initiated by oxygen or oxidative contamination in the material [10] or other stresses [4]. Depending on the polymer the thermal activation of reactions can lead to [10]:

depolymerisation of the main chain starting at the end of the chain statistical chain break, which may result in depolymerisation from resolving ends radical transfer and disproportionation stabilisation of fragments break of side groups

inter-chain condensation and splitting of small molecules Usually this type of degradation results in mainly the monomer and a mix of oligomeres, cycled or linear, and a variety of by-products. The main reaction, the free radicals mechanism, can be characterised by steps of initiation, radical preserving reactions and radical recombinations [5]. The path taken through the numerous possibilities of reactions is highly dependent on ambient conditions and the polymer itself. Oxidative reaction is equally a degradation process based on free radicals, which consists of steps of initiation, propagation and termination. The mechanism depends on peroxy radicals [5]. Like simple thermal degradation, oxidative reactions may lead to breaking of the main chain as well as crosslinking between chains. This generally results in the monomer itself, additionally various oxidative compounds can be formed this way Some additive materials are capable of catalyzing an oxidative reaction of polymers, such being copper and copper oxide [9]. Hydrolysis is, unlike thermal or oxidative degradation, an ion reaction, leading to random scissions of macromolecules. It may not occur in all kinds of polymers. Most vulnerable to hydrolysis attacks are ester linkages [4], which appear especially in Polyester and epoxy resin, but also in some silicone rubber compounds. The dependence of this reaction on the presence of vulnerable linkages in the polymer gives the varying sensitivity of polymers to this reaction. Hydrolysis in theory is a reversible reaction [6]. In practice the reverse reaction requires diffusion of large macromolecules which may slow the back esterification to an insignificant level [7]. 2.2. Physical Ageing

In contrary to chemical ageing the physical ageing process does not modify the chemical structure of the polymer. However, due to physical ageing mechanism significant changes in material properties can be observed. The processes which carry physical ageing can be [2]:

alteration in molecular order and crystallisation pattern diffusion of gases and fluids (including water) into the polymer evaporation of additives such as plasticisers or flame prohibiter.

Most of these phenomena are regarded to be reversible, excluding of course the evaporation of additives. Thus an electrical insulation, which has been immersed in water, may regain its original properties after complete drying as long as no hydrolytic deterioration has occurred. The crystallisation pattern of a semi crystalline polymer in its new condition is either by purpose or by chance dominated by manufacturing temperatures or thermal treatment during the production process. Every thermal storage alters the thermal history of the polymer and thus its crystallisation pattern. This physical ageing effect may influence the chemical ageing as well, since active gas particle diffusion is sensitive to the crystallinity of the polymer [8]. 3. EXPERIMENTAL 3.1. Water Storage Setup The setup for ageing by salt water storage in combination with voltage stress is shown in Figure 1. Cable specimen with a length of (2500 50) mm were prepared by removing the insulation of both ends of the cable and closely winding three complete turns on a mandrel with a diameter of 10 cm. The cables were immersed by a length l of 2 m in a 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with the ends protruding approx. 250 mm from the liquid. Grounded guard electrodes made of

copper tape were fixed at a distance from the open ends to prevent surface currents. One end of the cable was connected to a high precision 500 V DC source and the complete test setup was stored in a heating cabinet at various temperatures. The measurement electrode was immersed into the saline solution and connected to a Keithley pA-meter with 10 fA resolution. The volume resistivity of the cable insulation can thus be calculated as follows:

3.2. Thermal Storage Setup Storage of cable specimen at high temperatures was carried out in a furnace according to ISO 6722. The test samples had a minimum length of 350 mm each. The test samples were fixed by the conductor to avoid any contact between the insulation and the supports and were separated by at least 20 mm from each other and from the inner walls of the oven. Two groups of specimens were tested at different storage durations and temperatures. The first group was kept for 240 hours at a temperature of 473 K (200C), the second group for 6 hours at 498 K (225C).

3.3. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis Apparatus: The apparatus used for thermal analysis is a Linseis STA, a combination of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a

Thermogravimetrical Analyser (TGA). The system consists of a heating unit which contains the specimen on a high precision balance. Additionally, the specimen is placed upon a thermocouple, which detects the temperature of the sample in comparison to an empty sample carrier. The heating unit can operate at a thermal range from liquid nitrogen up to 1000 K. The sample weight is logged with 0.5 g accuracy, the heat flux with 0.3 W. The specimen mass was 13 mg for all samples. The chamber of the heating unit has continuously been flushed with Nitrogen during the complete measuring procedures. A two-step heating cycle is performed on all samples (Figure 2). The initial cooling is followed by the first heating run with 10 K/min from 173 K (-100C) up to 473 K (200C) for PO-X and silicone rubber and 573 K (300C) for ETFE. A second cooling period with -5 K/min gives the defined thermal history for the following second heating run, which goes up to 1000 K ( 700C) by a rate of 10 K/min. In addition, to exclude influences from the first heating run on the TG results, a separate TG analysis with another sample of the same material was performed starting from room temperature up to 1000 K by a rate of 10 K/min.

In general, a DSC analysis consists of two heating runs. The curve of the first heating run is dominated by the thermal and mechanical history of the tested material and the curve of the second heating run gives information about material characteristics. Focused on the detection of ageing effects, physical ageing can be detected in a DSC by various differences between the measurement curves of new and aged samples [2]:

The first heating run of the aged sample indicates a higher melting peak temperature and higher crystallinity than the first heating run of the new sample

In the second heating runs of new and aged sample no difference can be observed Chemical ageing in turn can be detected in a DSC as follows: The first heating runs of new and aged sample indicate differences in melting peak temperature and crystallinity The second heating run of the aged sample indicates reduced crystallinity and a lower peak temperature

5. SUMBER YANG DIPERLUKAN

Untuk kelancaran proses analisis maka diperlukan data data yang lengkap dan benar supaya tidak terjadi kesalahan yang tidak diinginkan. Untuk penelitian ini yang diperlukan adalah data data seperti : hasil pengambilan gambar dari kamera inframerah, electrical circuit diagram dari instalasi listrik yang diambil, hasil inspeksi temperature dan arus saat operasional, dan software khusus untuk mengolah dan menganalisa gambar thermacam yang sudah di ambil tersebut. Penulis juga membutuhkan data berapa unit yang mengalami munculnya hotspot dalam setahun. Di sini penulis akan mencoba membandingkan dengan data pada tahun berikutnya. Sehingga akan terlihat suatu perubahan atau tidak. Data-data mengenai infrastruktur secara kelistrikan juga akan sangat menunjang kegiatan penulis. Terutama sekali data kabel jenis OKONITE type Tray

Application yang di gunakan pada setiap unit yang akan di amati penulis.

6. JADWAL KEGIATAN KEGIATAN Studi Literatur Pengumpulan Data Pengolahan Data Analisa Data Penulisan Penyerahan BULAN 1 X X X BULAN 2 X X X X X BULAN 3 X X X BULAN 4

X X X

7. RINGKASAN Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam Skripsi ini adalah: Mendapatkan parameter apa saja yang menyebabkan kenaikan suhu pada terminasi kabel sehingga pengaruh negatif terhadap isolator kabel bisa di kurangi Mendapatkan metode pencegahan untuk meminimalisir terjadinya hotspot pada terminasi kabel.

Hasil yang diperoleh dari skripsi ini diharapkan dapat memberi manfaat sebagai berikut: Menjadi referensi dalam operasi kabel listrik Menjadi bahan pertimbangan teknis untuk mengurangi kerusakan isolator kabel power 3-phase. 5. DAFTAR PUSTAKA Wire & Cable Electrical Manual Chevron Corporation Internet Investigation of Electric Stress of Insulation of a Three-Phase Power Cable with Respecting its Heating by Passing Currents (2000) - Zdena Beneov, Martin kopek, Bohu Ulrych and Ivo Doleel, Member, IEEE DETERMINATION OF AGEING OF POLYMERIC INSULATING

MATERIALS BY THERMAL ANALYSIS METHODS (2009) A. Haas1* and J. Kindersberger1 1 Lehrstuhl fr Hochspannungs- und Anlagentechnik, TU Mnchen, Germany