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RECS:TOUGH2ECO2NNumericalModelingActivity

June8,2011

ActivityLeaders: CatherineRuprecht,cruprec@clemson.edu RonFalta,faltar@clemson.edu ClemsonUniversityEE&ES

Exercise1:InjectionintoaHomogeneousDeepSalineAquifer
ThisisabasicproblemofCO2injectionintoasalineaquifer,examiningtwophaseflowwithCO2 displacingsalinewaterunderconditionsthatmaybeencounteredinbrineaquifersatadepth ofapproximately2km.ACO2injectionwellfullypenetratesahomogeneous,isotropic,infinite actingaquiferof100mthickness,atmaximumconditionsof200barpressure,40C temperature,andasalinityof5%byweight.CO2isinjecteduniformlyataconstantrateof 15.75kg/sfor20years.ThisistheequivalentoftheamountofCO2neededtobecapturedfrom a50MWecoalburningpowerplant.Afterinjection,an80yearmonitoringperiodissimulated.

1. NewModelSetUp
OpenPetraSim.File>New SelectTOUGH2andECO2N,thencreateamodelwithboundssuchthatXMax=2000,Y Max=1,andZMax=100.PressOK.

2. EditLayers
Select fromthetoptoolbar.Enter10asthenumberofcells.PressOK.

3. CreateaMesh
Select fromthetoptoolbar. Fromthedropdownmenu,selectRadialasthemeshtype. SelectCustomdivisions. Fillinthevaluesasseeninthetablebelow.PressOK.

4. InitialConditions
File>LoadInitialConditions.NavigatetothefoldertitledInitialConditionswithinthe Exercise1folderprovided.SelecttheSAVEfileandclickOpen. Thereisnowapressuregradientequivalenttoabottomdepthof2km.Formation temperatureof40Candasalinityof5%byweighthasbeeninitialized.Examinethese propertiesusingthefrontviewbutton andtheCellColordropdownmenu.

Notethatbyselectingaradialmesh,asliceplaneofhalfacylinderhasbeenproduced. Theleftsideofthefigurerepresentsthecenterofthecylinderandtherightside representstoouteredge.ThiscylinderrepresentstheAreaofReview.

5. GlobalProperties
Select fromthetoptoolbar.ClickontheEOStab,toedittheequationofstate properties.ChooseIsothermal,leaveallelseunchanged.PressOK.

6. MaterialData
Select fromthetoptoolbar. EdittheexistingmaterialROCK1tomatchthepropertiesgiven.

SelectAdditionalMaterialData UndertheRelativePermtab,choosethevanGenuchtenMualemModelforrelative permeabilitycurves.Entertheappropriateparametersgivenbelow.

StillintheAdditionalMaterialDatabox,selecttheCapillaryPresstab. ChoosethevanGenuchtenFunctionforcapillarypressure.Entertheparametersgiven below.

PressOKtoreturntotheMaterialDatabox. UnderMaterialsselectNew. CreateamaterialnamedWELLbasedonROCK1. PressOK.

EditthenewmaterialWELLtomatchthepropertiesgiven.

SelectAdditionalMaterialData UndertheRelativePermtab,choosethevanGenuchtenMualemModelforrelative permeabilitycurves.SetSlrandSgrto2.0E02.

StillintheAdditionalMaterialDatabox,selecttheCapillaryPresstab. ChooseNoCapillaryPressure.PressOKtoreturntotheMaterialsbox.SelectOKagain toreturntothePetraSimhomescreen. 6

7. SettingMaterials
ByusingtheZoomBox fromthetoolbar,dragandreleasetozoominonthetopleft sideofthemodel.Zoominuntilthetopgridblockofthefirstcolumnisvisible.Press toselectacolumnfromthemesh.Thenselectthetopleftgridblock(theentire columnwillbeselected).

RightclickonthiscolumnandchoosetoEditCells.FromtheMaterialdropdownmenu, selectWELL.PressOK.

UsetheSelectObjectstool toleftclickandthenrightclickonthetopleftgridblock.

ChoosetoEditCells.IntheSources/Sinkstab,underInjectionclicktheCO2box. Fromthedropdownmenutotheright,chooseTable. SelectEdit Filltheinjectionratestableinwiththefollowingvalues.

PressOKtoreturntotheEditCellDatabox,thenpressOKtoreturntothePetraSim homescreen.

8. BoundaryConditions
Select forafrontviewofthemodel.Againpress toselectacolumnfromthe mesh.Thenselectanycellintherightmostgridblockcolumn(theentirecolumnwillbe selected).Rightclickonthiscolumnandchoosetoeditcells. InthePropertiestab,selectFixedStatefromtheTypedropdownmenu.PressOK.

1. SolutionControls
Select fromthetoptoolbartoaccesssolutioncontrols. IntheTimestab,edittheEndTimetobe100years. InthedropdownmenuforMaxNumTimeSteps,allowforInfinitetimesteps.

IntheWeightingtab,selectHarmonicWeightedunderthePermeabilityatInterface header.

PressOK.

10.OutputControls
Select fromthetoptoolbartoaccessOutputControls. Updatetheoutputcontrolstoprintandplotevery2000timesteps. SelectEditforAdditionalPrint&PlotTimes. OpentheAdditional_Print_Times.xlsfileprovidedintheExercise1folder.Inputthegivenprint andplottimesbycopyingandpastingthecolumnofvaluesintotheAdditionalPrintTimesbox. Oncepasted,theywillappearinscientificnotation.

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(Thesevaluescorrespondto1,5,10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,and90years.Theyareenteredin seconds.) PressOKtoreturntotheOutputControls.PressOKagaintoreturntothePetraSimhome screen.

11.RunSimulation
TorunTOUGH2ECO2N,pressthe tool. Apromptwillappeartonameandsavethesimulation.NavigatetotheExercise1folder.Name itEx1.simandpressSave.Thesimulationwillthenbeingrunning. Thissimulationwilltakeapproximately6minutestorun.

12.Examine3DResults
Selectthe3DResultstool . torotatetheimage.Onthelefthandtool

Inthe3DResultswindow,usethefrontviewtool

bar,clickonSlicePlanes.ChooseYfromthefirstdropdownmenuandsetitscoordinate valueto0.5.ClickApplyandthenclosetheSlicePlanesbox.

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Asliceplaneofpressurecontoursat1yearisnowvisible. Scroll through the Times box to watch these pressure contours evolve through the simulated injectionandmonitoringperiods.Notethatinjectionendsat6.31138e8seconds. FromtheScalardropdownmenu,selectanyvariableofinterestandscrollthroughtheprinted times.Areferencetableforthismenuisgiven. P T SG SS Pressure(Pa) Temperature(C) CO2GasSaturation SolidSaturation

XNaCl SaltMassFraction YH2OG WaterMassFractionGaseousPhase XCO2aq CO2MassFractionAqueousPhase PCAP CapillaryPressure(Pa) kred PermeabilityReduction DG DL GasDensity(kg/m3) LiquidDensity(kg/m3)

PERMODPermeabilityModifier

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Usefulcommandsinthe3DResultswindow:
Holdingtheleftclickbuttonallowsyoutorotatethegrid. HoldingtheAltkeyandleftclickbuttonallowsyoutozoominandoutofthegrid. HoldingtheShiftkeyandleftclickbuttonallowsyoutodragthegrid. Atanypoint,pressthefrontviewtool toresetthegridview.

Questionsforthought:
1. Selectsolidsaturation,SS,fromthescalardropdownmenu.Zoominontheareanear injection. a. Describewhatisgoingonduringthe20yearinjectionperiod(upto6.31138e8 seconds). b. Describewhatisgoingonduringthe80yearmonitoringperiod. c. HowdoesthesolidsaturationrelatetotheCO2gassaturation? 2. SelecttheCO2gassaturation,SG,fromthescalardropdownmenu.Usethe showthemesh. a. WhatistheradialextentoftheCO2plumeafter20yearsofinjection? b. WhatistheradialextentoftheCO2plumeafter80yearsafterinjectionends? Hint:Rightclickonanindividualgridblockandchoosetoeditcells. toolto

Exercise2:ModelingHydrogeologicHeterogeneities
ThisexercisebuildsonExercise1.Inthiscase,athreedimensionalpolygonalgridisimplemented.To examinetheeffectsofhydrogeologiccomplexities,arandom,spatiallycorrelated,heterogeneous permeabilityfieldhasbeenmappedontotheTOUGH2mesh.Initialconditions,CO2injectionrates,and

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allotherhydrogeologicparametersaresetthesameasExercise1.Toconservetime,a20yearCO2 injectionperiodfollowedbyan80yearmonitoringperiodhasalreadybeensimulated. **DoNOThittherunTOUGH2 buttonatanypointduringthisexercise.

1. Gettingstarted
OpentheEx2.simfromwithintheExercise2folder. NoticethepolygonalVoronoigridusedtodiscritizethemesh.Thisgridhasbeenrefinedaround theinjectionpoint,nowfoundinthecenteroftheTopView .

2.Examine3DResults
Selectthe3DResultstool SettheZFactorto5.0. PressOK. . FromView,selectScaleAxes

3.Isosurfaces
SelectCO2gassaturation,SG,fromtheScalardropdownmenu. ConfirmthereisacheckmarknexttoShowIsosurfaces(Scalar). UsethecommandsusedinExercise1torotateandzoominontheCO2plume.Chooseaview allowingaviewinathreedimensions.Asseenbelow.

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WatchtheCO2plumeisosurfacesevolvethroughinjectionandmonitoringperiodsthroughthe Time(s)menu.

4.SlicePlanes
SelectShowSlicePlanesandthenselecttheSlicePlanesbutton. SetXandYAxisCoordinatesto2000,andZAxisCoordinatesto100asshownbelow.

ClickClose. DeselectShowIsosurfaces.ClickontheShow/HideWellstool Rotatetheimagetowatchthecontoursevolvethroughtheinjectionandmonitoringperiods. .Sliceplaneswithcontoursof

supercriticalCO2saturationaroundtheinjectionpointarenowvisible.

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SwitchbackandforthbetweenShowIsosurfacesandShowSlicePlaneswiththeanyother scalarvariablesofinterest.

Questionsforthought:
1. Fromthe3DResultswindow:File>LinePlot AllowtheXcoordinatestospanfrom0to4000.TheYCoordinatesshouldbothbesetto 2000andtheZcoordinatesshouldbothbesetto100.

ClickOK.Awindowwithlineplotsofprimarydatawillappear.ChooseCO2gas saturation,SG,fromthevariabledropdownmenu. a. Approximately,whatisthemaximumradialextentoftheCO2plumefromthewell after20yearsofinjection? b. Afterthe80yearmonitoringperiod?


2.HowdoeshydrogeologicheterogeneityaffecttheflowofCO2?

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