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9/13/2010

Surface Production Operations ENPE 505

Hassan Hassanzadeh EN B204M hhassanz@ucalgary.ca

Review of Fluid Properties Learning objectives


describe various properties of reservoir fluids and utilize these properties in common production engineering calculations.

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Reservoir fluid properties


classification of reservoirs fluids density gas compressibility factor gas formation volume factor isothermal gas compressibility gas viscosity oil gravity gas-oil ratio oil formation volume factor isothermal oil compressibility oil density oil viscosity surface tension water formation volume factor gas solubility in water brine viscosity water isothermal compressibility

P-T Diagram
Cricondenbar Liquid Critical point

Pressure

Two-phase 100% 90% 70% Quality lines 50% Gas Cricondentherm 30% 5% Temperature
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Oil Reservoirs

Undersaturated oil reservoir Pressure Pressure Saturated oil reservoir

Critical point

Properties exhibited by the crude oil, including physical properties, composition, GOR, appearance, and pressure-temperature phase diagrams.

Temperature

Ordinary black oil Low-shrinkage crude oil High-shrinkage (volatile) crude oil Near-critical crude oil

Gas Reservoirs
retrograde gas reservoir GOR: 8000-70000 SCF/STB API: above 50 Color: Liquid is water-white GOR: 60000-100000 API: above 60 Color: like water wet gas critical point dry gas GOR: above 100000 API: Color:

Reservoir

Two-phase

Temperature

Retrograde gas-condensate Near-critical gas-condensate Wet gas Dry gas

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Properties of natural gases

pV = ZnRT
p = absolute pressure, psia V = volume, ft3 T = absolute temperature, R n = number of moles of gas, lb-mole R = the universal gas constant which, for the above units, has the value 10.730 psia ft3/lb-mole R

Z=

Actual volume Ideal volume

T=cte

m m ZRT p= ZRT = VM V M pM m = = ZRT V


M = molecular weight, lb/lb-mol

Properties of natural gases


Average MW

M ave = yi M i
i =1

Mave = apparent or average molecular weight of a gas mixture Mi = molecular weight of the ith component in the mixture yi = mole fraction of component i in the mixture Standard volume per mole

VSC =

ZnRTSC (1)(1)(10.73)(60 + 460) = = 379.4 SCF/lb - mole pSC 14.7

Specific gravity

g =

g M M = ave = ave Air M Air 28.97

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Gas mixtures
Compressibility factor from pseudocritical properties ppc and Tpc Sutton correlation (0.57< <1.68)
2 p pc = 756.8 131.0 g 3.6 g
2 Tpc = 169.2 + 349.5 g 74.0 g

p pr = p / p pc
T pr = T / T pc
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Pseudo-critical properties of gases


700

600

500

400

300 0.5 Gas gravity 1.8


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Standing-Katz Compressibility Factor Chart

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Correction for impurities


Wichert and Aziz correction method for CO2 &H2S (1972 )

= 120 ( y H 2 S + yCO 2 )0.9 ( y H 2 S + yCO 2 )1.6 + 15 y H 2 S 0.5 y H 2 S 4


T pc = T pc , p pc =

] (

(T

pc

+ y H 2 S (1 y H 2 S ) )

p pcT pc

Wichert and Aziz correlation have an absolute error 0f 0.97% over 154<p(psia)<7026 & 40<T(oF)<300 Good for mole % of CO2<54.4% & H2S<73.8%

Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows correction for N2, CO2 & H2S (1954)

T pc = T pc 80 yCO 2 + 130 y H 2 S 250 y N 2 p ' pc = p pc + 440 yCO 2 + 600 y H 2 S 170 y N 2


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Gas formation volume factor


It relates the volume of gas in the reservoir to the volume on the surface (SC). It is generally expressed in either ft3/SCF or bbl/SCF.
zres nRTres V , ft pres p z T (14.7 )(Z )(T ) = 0.02827 zT ft 3 /SCF Bg = res = = sc res res = z sc nRTsc Vsc , SCF Tsc pres (60 + 460)( p ) p psc
3

In terms of bbl/SCF we have

Bg = 0.02827

ZT ft 3 1 bbl ZT bbl = 0.00504 3 p SCF 5.615 ft p SCF


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Isothermal compressibility
The change in volume with pressure for gases under isothermal conditions is called isothermal gas compressibility. at isothermal condition we have V =
cg = 1 dV V dp T

ZnRT Z = constant p p

dV nRT dZ ZnRT ZnRT 1 dZ ZnRT = = p Z dp p dp p dp p2

1 1 dZ 1 =V V p Z dp p

1 dV 1 dZ 1 = V dp Z dp p
For an ideal gas

cg =

1 1 dZ p Z dp
.

cg =

1 p

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Gas viscosity
The Lee-Gonzalez-Eakin Method (1966)

g = K exp(X Y )10 4 = 1.4935 10 3 pM / ZT


K = (9.4 + 0.02 M )T 1.5 / (209 + 19 M + T ) X = 3.5 + 986 / T + 0.01M Y = 2. 4 0. 2 X
, in g/cc, p, in psia, T, in oR
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Review of crude oil properties


Solution gas oil ratio
From Lab data or Correlations 600 SCF/STB 600 Initial pressure RS

0 0

pb 2500 Pressure (psia)

3500
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Solution gas oil ratio


Standing correlation (Beggs)
p Rs = g , Yg 18 10 Yg = 0.00091T 0.0125 API T = in o F, p in psia.
Absolute error 4.8% 130<pb<7000 psia 100<T<258 oF 20<GOR<1425 SCF/STB 16.5<API<63.8 0.59<<0.95 1.024<Bo<2.05 bbl/STB
1.204

p pb

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Formation volume factor


Standing correlation (Beggs)
From Lab data or Correlations 1.4 bbl/STB Bo

Bubble point pressure

Initial pressure

1.00 0 pressure 2500

3500 psia

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Oil formation volume factor


Standing correlation (Beggs)
Bo = 0.972 + 0.000147 F 1.175 F = Rs g o T = in o F, + 1.25T p in psia.
0.5

p pb

Absolute error 1.17%

for p > pb Bo = Bob exp[co ( pb p )]


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Isothermal oil compressibility


co = 1 V V p T

VillenaVillena-Lanzi

ln (co ) = 0.664 1.43 ln( p) 0.395 ln( pb ) + 0.390 ln(T ) + 0.455 ln( Rsob ) + 0.262 ln( API ), p < pb
31x10-6<co <6600x10-6 psi-1, 500<p<5300 , psia, 763<pb<5300 psia 78<T<330 oF, 1.5<GOR<1947 SCF/STB, 6<API<52, 0.58<<1.2

Vasquez & Beggs


co = (5 Rsob + 17.2T 1180 g + 12.61API 1433) / p 105 ,
126<p<9500 , psia, 78<T<330 oF, 9.5<GOR<2199 SCF/STB, 15.3<API<59.5, 0.511<<1.351, 1.006<Bo<2.226 bbl/STB
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p > pb

Oil viscosity
Egbogahs correlation for dead oil p pb
Oil viscosity pb pressure

Beggs and Robinson correlation for live oil

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Oil viscosity
Vasquez and Beggs for

p > pb

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Review of formation water properties


McCain correlation for Bw

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Review of formation water properties


McCain correlation for Solution gas water ratio
0.285854 Rsw ) = 10 (0.0840655 ST Rswp

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Water isothermal compressibility


Osif correlation p>pb:

McCain correlation p<= pb:

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Formation water viscosity


McCain correlation

w1 = AT B

valid for p<=15000 psia and 86<T<167 F.

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Formation brine properties


Fresh water S<1,000 ppmm Slightly saline water 1,000<S<3,000 Moderately saline water 3,000<S<10,000 Highly saline water 10,000<S<35,000 Sea water 35,000 Saturated saline water 300,000

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