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Student Workbook LV04 Vehicle Construction (1)
Student Workbook
LV04
Vehicle
Construction
(1)
kap all covers 6/9/03 9:48 am Page 7 Student Workbook LV04 Vehicle Construction (1) LV04/SWB
kap all covers 6/9/03 9:48 am Page 7 Student Workbook LV04 Vehicle Construction (1) LV04/SWB

LV04/SWB

Student Workbook for Technical Certificates in Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair MODULE LV04 VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION

Student Workbook for Technical Certificates in Light Vehicle Maintenance and Repair

MODULE LV04 VEHICLE CONSTRUCTION

Contents

………

Page

Page

Materials Used in Vehicle

Hinges

22

Construction:

3

Door lock mechanism

23

Main categories of materials

Weather seals

23

used in automotive construction

3

Progress check 2

24

Metals

3

Ferrous metals

4

Vehicle Chassis Types:

25

High strength steel plate

4

Chassis construction

26

Cast iron

4

Self supporting frame

26

Non–ferrous metals

4

Partly supporting frame (sub-frame)

27

Copper

4

Platform chassis

27

Tin

5

Backbone chassis

28

Lead

5

Composite body

28

Aluminium

5

Ladder frame

29

Other materials (non-metallic)

6

Monocoque body

29

Plastics

6

Space frame

30

Rubber

7

Progress check 3

31

Totally tempered glass

7

Partly tempered glass

8

Chassis Construction Sub-

Laminated glass

8

assemblies:

32

Kevlar

9

Box section

32

Progress check 1

10

Tubular section (space frame)

33

 

C shaped channel

33

Component Identification:

11

Load bearing points

34

Exercise 1

12

Progress check 4

35

Spoilers and air dams

12

Sub frames

13

Vehicle Safety Construction

Roof panel

13

Features:

36

Scuttle plate

14

Passive systems

36

Side structure

14

Crumple zones

36

Exercise 2

15

Side impact

37

Exercise 3

16

SRS airbag

38

Panel fixing

17

Locking and securing devices

18

(Cont.)

-

1

-

. Page Seat belt pre-tensioners 38 Energy absorbing steering column 39 Active systems 40 ABS

.

Page

Seat belt pre-tensioners

38

Energy absorbing steering column

39

Active systems

40

ABS (Anti-lock Braking System)

40

VSC (Vehicle Stability Control)

40

Progress check 5

41

Body Deformation and the Ripple Effect:

42

Benefits of safety systems

43

Regulations

43

Progress check 6

44

- 2 -

………

Materials Used in Vehicle Construction Main categories of materials u sed in automotive construction The

Materials Used in Vehicle Construction

Main categories of materials used in automotive construction

categories of materials u sed in automotive construction The modern motor vehicle uses a vast array

The modern motor vehicle uses a vast array of differing materials in its construction, each material adding to the vehicle’s strength, reliability, resistance to corrosion and low noise vibration and harshness (NVH). Manufacturers of motor vehicles now have to consider the impact that the use of such materials will have on the environment.

Metals

Metals form the major make up of a vehicle’s construction. The properties that metals possess lend themselves particularly well to use as a constructive material for vehicles. Metals have the following properties:

ductility – can be drawn into wire

malleability – can be rolled and hammered into sheets and foil

large specific gravity (dense)

high in electrical and thermal conductivity.

It should be noted that mercury is a metal but possesses few of the above properties.

- 3 -

Ferrous metals A ferrous metal is one that is derived from iron. Iron is seldom

Ferrous metals

A ferrous metal is one that is derived from iron. Iron is seldom used in its pure form, as it possesses poor strength and durability (it’s quite brittle). To improve its characteristics, iron is often mixed with carbon. The amount of carbon that is used has a huge effect on the material. If we use between 0.035% and 2% carbon, we have just produced steel. If we use between 2% and 6.67% we have just produced cast iron.

Carbon steel is used for body panels and some suspension components on motor vehicles.

High strength steel plate

High strength steel plate can be created by mixing carbon steel with other materials, or through special heat-treating processes. Mixing in silicon, manganese, phosphorous, titanium, vanadium or chromium can vastly increase the strength of the steel and allow a manufacturer to reduce the thickness of the material for a given required strength. This reduces cost and saves weight, improving performance all-round. Heating steel to specific temperatures and then cooling them rapidly (known as quenching) can also achieve considerable changes in steels properties.

Cast iron

Cast iron (iron containing 2% carbon or more) is often used for engine components and is hot cast into moulds as a liquid. Cast iron has good wear characteristics but is brittle.

Non-ferrous metals

Non-ferrous metals are metals that contain no iron. Some examples that are used in the construction of vehicles are:

Copper

Copper has very high electrical and thermal conductivity properties. Copper is used in the electrical harnesses and cooling systems pipe work on vehicles.

- 4 -

Tin Tin is used to a limited degree in vehicl e construction, as it is

Tin

Tin is used to a limited degree in vehicle construction, as it is prone to corrosion. It is alloyed with lead to produce solder that is used in the joining of electrical circuits on vehicles. An interesting fact is that solder has a lower melting point than both of its constituent alloy materials (lead and tin).

Lead

Lead is used in the construction of vehicle batteries and is also used in the alloyed metal of crank shaft bearings.

Aluminium

used in the alloyed metal of crank shaft bearings. Aluminium Aluminium, as well as being the

Aluminium, as well as being the most abundant metal (and therefore cheap) is extremely light and has good electrical conductivity. It is used extensively on vehicles often making up large proportions of engine components and even body panels and structural members. As can be seen from the table above, aluminium can be alloyed with many different materials to give it specific characteristics.

- 5 -

Other materials (non-metallic) Non-metallic materials are used in abundance on modern motor vehicles. They fall

Other materials (non-metallic)

Non-metallic materials are used in abundance on modern motor vehicles. They fall into two main categories – organic (natural) and inorganic. Organic materials would include leather (seat covers etc.) and plastics (derived from oil) and inorganic would include glass.

Plastics

from oil) and inorganic would include glass. Plastics A selection of plastics t hat are regularly

A selection of plastics that are regularly used in the construction of motor vehicles are shown above.

Plastics are classified as either thermoplastics or thermosetting plastics. A thermoplastic is one that becomes pliable again when reheated, a thermosetting plastic, once initially set, cannot be reheated (they burn rather than melt).

Be aware that ECU casings are often made of ABS and this can be misleading if you are trying to identify the ABS ECU (Anti-lock Braking System) as ABS is often stamped on these assemblies to identify the material not the function!

- 6 -

Rubber Rubber can be either natural or synthetic (man made). Natural rubber is made from

Rubber

Rubber can be either natural or synthetic (man made). Natural rubber is made from the sap of a rubber tree. In its natural state it is of little use, but once vulcanised – heated with sulphur – it takes on elastic properties (the ability to readopt original shape once a deflecting force is removed).

Synthetic rubber is an elastic polymer and tends to be far more suited to vehicle applications. Chemical engineers can change its structure to ensure compatibility with highly aggressive oils such as brake fluid.

Totally tempered glass

aggressive oils such as brake fluid. Totally tempered glass Totally tempered glass is heat-treated in accordance

Totally tempered glass is heat-treated in accordance with the diagram above. When you heat a given material you change its molecular structure physically. Most materials if allowed to cool slowly will readopt their original molecular condition but if you quench that material (rapidly cool it) it will stick in that changed state. This is often a highly stressed state. Glass is no exception. Totally tempered glass is cooled rapidly at the end of the process to retain strength-orientated characteristics. Quenching rapidly makes the glass around four times more shock resistant than conventional glass. However, if it does break it often shatters catastrophically because of the quenching stresses within it depriving the driver of any forward vision. For this reason it is seldom used for front screens.

- 7 -

Partly tempered glass Glass that is partly tempered receives lim ited quenching to the middle

Partly tempered glass

Partly tempered glass Glass that is partly tempered receives lim ited quenching to the middle area.

Glass that is partly tempered receives limited quenching to the middle area. This process ensures that if breakage occurs the glass that has only been partly tempered breaks into very large pieces Therefore a limited amount of frontal vision is retained.

Laminated glass

amount of frontal vision is retained. Laminated glass To laminate means to layer. Laminat ed glass

To laminate means to layer. Laminated glass is two thin sheets of glass bonded together with a transparent resin film. As a safety glass it has huge benefits.

The resin layer prevents the glass shards from falling into the vehicle when the screen breaks. It is highly resistant to penetration and frontal view is maintained upon breakage.

- 8 -

Kevlar Kevlar is a manmade organic fibre introduc ed in the early 1970’s. It combines

Kevlar

Kevlar is a manmade organic fibre introduced in the early 1970’s. It combines high tensile strength with low weight and has high chemical resistance. It is tough, with high cut resistance and is also flame proof and self-extinguishing.

Typical applications:

bullet proof vests

helmets

Formula 1 racing car bodies

aircraft bodies

brake pads and clutch linings

tyres

gaskets

transmission belts

hoses

data transmission cables

vehicle body panels.

- 9 -

Progress check 1 Answer the following questions: 1. What are the minimum and maximum carbon

Progress check 1

Answer the following questions:

1. What are the minimum and maximum carbon content values for iron to be classed as steel?

2. In the context of plastics, what does ABS stand for?

3. What does synthetic mean?

4. List five applications for Kelvar on a motor vehicle

5. What does the term laminated refer to when used in conjunction with vehicle windscreens?

- 10 -

Component Identification Doors, bonnet and boot lid It is important to understand that all co

Component Identification

Component Identification Doors, bonnet and boot lid It is important to understand that all co mponent

Doors, bonnet and boot lid

It is important to understand that all component parts that go up to make a

vehicle’s body have specific names. However, different countries often use different names. Typical!

A wing can also be a fender; a doorsill a rocker cover, a bonnet could be

referred to as a hood.

Today's vehicles evolved from early forms of transport and as such retain a

certain amount of the terminology from these periods. For example, a ‘list rail’

is a term used to describe a supporting piece stretching from one side of a

structure to the other (such as the boat lists to port or starboard). A term derived from our naval heritage.

A ‘cant rail’ is a name given to a strengthening structure running from front to

rear.

A ‘flitch plate’ is a strengthening plate inside a beam.

- 11 -

Exercise 1 Label the key components on the diagram below: Spoilers and air dams The

Exercise 1

Label the key components on the diagram below:

Exercise 1 Label the key components on the diagram below: Spoilers and air dams The front

Spoilers and air dams

key components on the diagram below: Spoilers and air dams The front air dam and rear

The front air dam and rear spoiler help to stabilise the vehicle and give better fuel economy through improved airflow over the body. Some spoilers can actually create a positive pressure above the assembly, resulting in considerable down force and vastly improved performance all round. However, this is most unusual for a road car – at best the spoiler reduces lift at high speed, at worst there are no benefits whatsoever rather than the enhancement of appeal to some drivers!

- 12 -

Sub-frames A sub-frame is often used to moun t the major assemblies on a vehicle

Sub-frames

Sub-frames A sub-frame is often used to moun t the major assemblies on a vehicle equipped

A sub-frame is often used to mount the major assemblies on a vehicle

equipped with a monocoque type chassis configuration.

Roof panel

with a monocoque type chassis configuration. Roof panel The roof panel is a major structural member,

The roof panel is a major structural member, experiencing considerable

compressive forces. If the vehicle has a factory fitted sunroof, the roof panel

is often strengthened to accommodate the loss of strength that this item would

create.

- 13 -

Scuttle plate The scuttle plate used to form part of t he integral structural strength

Scuttle plate

Scuttle plate The scuttle plate used to form part of t he integral structural strength of

The scuttle plate used to form part of the integral structural strength of a vehicle’s chassis, but designs have altered considerably over the last few years and the importance of the scuttle has diminished. It is now more often a trim panel or at most a mounting for the wiper linkage.

Side structure

or at most a m ounting for the wiper linkage. Side structure The side of the

The side of the vehicle generates a good deal of the structural integrity of a vehicle’s chassis. The major components that go to make up the structure can be seen in the figure above.

- 14 -

Exercise 2 Working directly on the picture below , assign the correct letters to the

Exercise 2

Working directly on the picture below, assign the correct letters to the component names in the list below:

chassis leg

boot floor

boot floor side extension.

chassis leg • boot floor • boot floor side extension. - 15 - Copyright © Automotive

- 15 -

Exercise 3 Complete the list of component names wo rking directly from the diagram (

Exercise 3

Complete the list of component names working directly from the diagram ( 2 have been done for you)

rking directly from the diagram ( 2 have been done for you) A B C D

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Front door

H

I

J

K

Front wing

L

M

N

- 16 -

Panel fixing Many different methods are employed to fix panels to a vehicles chassis. Below

Panel fixing

Many different methods are employed to fix panels to a vehicles chassis. Below are a few examples:

bolt

speed clip and speed bolt

hinge, bolted

hinge, pinned

locks

weather seals

fasteners

welding.

- 17 -

Locking and securing devices BoltBolt CoachCoach bolboltt S c r e S c r e

Locking and securing devices

BoltBolt
BoltBolt

CoachCoach bolboltt

Locking and securing devices BoltBolt CoachCoach bolboltt S c r e S c r e w

ScreScreww

HeHexx scscrereww

bolboltt S c r e S c r e w w HeHexx scscrereww S S e

SSeelflf ttaappppiinngg

CounCountersunktersunk screscreww

p p p i i n n g g CounCountersunktersunk screscreww There are many different types

There are many different types of locking device available, some of which are pictured here. They are all designed with one primary task in mind – holding components together, either permanently or temporarily. A common misconception is that a screw has a sharp point and is designed to cut its own thread. This is not correct in engineering terms. A screw is almost identical to a bolt with the exception that it is threaded all the way to the bottom of the head and is seldom used in conjunction with a nut (it screws into threaded components). A bolt has a thread-less shank. Only self-tapping screws (cut their own thread) have sharp points!

Hexagon head bolts and screws are used far less frequently now than was the case only a few years ago. You are far more likely to come across multi- spline types and Torx types where a securing device needs to be accommodated in a tight space (with hexagon head devices, space needs to be left around the head to accommodate a socket for the fitting and removal). Tight spaces are now commonplace on light vehicles as manufacturers strive for every gram of weight saving and every centimetre of extra occupancy space.

- 18 -

When ordering a bolt (standard design) from the parts department, they will want to know
When ordering a bolt (standard design) from the parts department, they will want to know

When ordering a bolt (standard design) from the parts department, they will want to know the following information if the device you want is not specific to task:

overall length

diameter

thread pitch

strength rating.

A typical specification could be:

75mm long, M8 coarse thread, strength rating 8.

This would give you a bolt that is 75mm in length from its threaded end to the underneath of the head, an 8 mm thread diameter with a thread pitch of 1.5mm with a strength rating that would see it safe up to a torque of 13Nm.

- 19 -

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are

Nut

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are also

Castellated nut

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are also

Flanged nut

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are also

Wing nut

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are also

Nylock nut

N u t Castellated nut Flanged nut Wing nut Nylock nut Shear nut Nuts are also
Shear nut
Shear nut

Nuts are also available in several different types. When ordering you must ensure that you ask for a nut that has the same thread as the bolt to which it is to be fitted – this means both thread diameter and thread pitch. Do you want metric fine (1.25mm pitch) or metric coarse (1.5mm pitch)? Some specialist nuts can be seen above. The flanged nut is designed to spread the compression load a little onto the component surface. The Nylock nut (trade name) is designed to grip the bolt thread through means of friction, generated by the bolts thread cutting through the nylon collar at the top of the nut. It should be noted that these nuts should never be reused. Castellated nuts are designed to be used in conjunction with split pins, and wing nuts are used where regular and easy removal is required (seldom used on modern vehicles). Shear nuts are often the choice where security is an issue such as with vehicle immobiliser equipment.

Flat washer

such as with vehicle immobiliser equipment. Flat washer Penny washer Spring washer Washers are used to

Penny washer

with vehicle immobiliser equipment. Flat washer Penny washer Spring washer Washers are used to spread load

Spring washer

equipment. Flat washer Penny washer Spring washer Washers are used to spread load and often to

Washers are used to spread load and often to reduce the possibility of the bolt shaking loose through vibration.

- 20 -

There are now many different types of chemical compounds available to do anything from locking
There are now many different types of chemical compounds available to do anything from locking

There are now many different types of chemical compounds available to do anything from locking a thread to prevent vibration loosening, to sealing joints and even temporarily sealing radiators, tyres and cylinder blocks!

Always read the instructions thoroughly before use and if you are unsure of the health and safety risks, always refer to the COSHH data sheet for that specific product.

Some panels are bonded into place and others (like rear masking panels) can be riveted. Masking panels are found under the rear light units and sit on top of rear bumper. Not all parts, like front wings are bolted into place they are also welded. Trims are held in place with plastic clips or screws. Mouldings that go down the side of vehicles can be held with plastic clips or double sided tape.

MIG Welder

Spot Welder

plastic clips or double sided tape. MIG Welder Spot Welder ````````` A spot welder is generally

````````` A spot welder is generally used but where space or access is limited or for welding panels such as chassis legs that need a seam weld a MIG welder is preferred.

- 21 -

Riveting: This kind of panel fixing is used on some steel vehicles but only a
Riveting: This kind of panel fixing is used on some steel vehicles but only a

Riveting: This kind of panel fixing is used on some steel vehicles but only a small amount. It is used on a larger scale on aluminium vehicles to fix panels together. Bonding of panels is also used on aluminium vehicles and composite cars and will be used to a greater extent in vehicle production in the future.

Hinges

greater extent in vehicle production in the future. Hinges Hinges are often bolted or pinned to

Hinges are often bolted or pinned to the vehicles chassis. Pins are passed through a locating hole in the hinge, the hinge itself being welded to the body. The hinge is in two parts - upper and lower; on the door there is one locating hinge that fixes to the hinge on the body. The pin is then inserted into the hole going through all three parts of the hinge thus fixing the door to vehicle.

- 22 -

Door lock mechanism Door lock mechanisms differ greatly in design between manufacturers, but a typical

Door lock mechanism

Door lock mechanism Door lock mechanisms differ greatly in design between manufacturers, but a typical layout

Door lock mechanisms differ greatly in design between manufacturers, but a typical layout can be seen here. The hook (mounted on the door) when engaged with the striker (on the ‘B’ post) secures the door in the closed position. The hook is rotated out of engagement with the striker, through movement of the ratchet mechanism, via the door handle.

Weather seals

the ratchet me chanism, via the door handle. Weather seals Weather seals are used in a

Weather seals are used in a variety of places on a vehicle - in door shuts, sun roofs, door frames and scuttle cowls to name but a few.

Many different cross-sectional shapes are available to realise good sealing properties across the broad range of applications.

- 23 -

Progress check 2 Answer the following questions: 1. What do other countries sometimes call a

Progress check 2

Answer the following questions:

1. What do other countries sometimes call a bonnet?

2. What is the fixing device pictured called?

call a bonnet? 2. What is the fixing device pictured called? 3. What is the purpose

3. What is the purpose of a spoiler?

4. If a vehicle is leaking water from around the windscreen what is the most likely component that to have failed?

- 24 -

Vehicle Chassis Types Vehicles have evolved from their early forms to those we have today;

Vehicle Chassis Types

Vehicles have evolved from their early forms to those we have today; a multitude of differing body styles and construction techniques are employed in building them.

Label the following body styles with the correct name:

them. Label the following body styles with the correct name: - 25 - Copyright © Automotive
them. Label the following body styles with the correct name: - 25 - Copyright © Automotive
them. Label the following body styles with the correct name: - 25 - Copyright © Automotive
them. Label the following body styles with the correct name: - 25 - Copyright © Automotive

- 25 -

the following body styles with the correct name: - 25 - Copyright © Automotive Skills Limited
Chassis construction Many different types of chassis cons truction methods have developed over the years.

Chassis construction

Many different types of chassis construction methods have developed over the years. Whichever type is used, it is important that the structure provides a good deal of stiffness (to prevent handling anomalies) and general strength. It must also minimally intrude on occupancy space and be a cost effective method under mass production conditions. Safety in the event of a collision is also of primary importance, and increasingly, we are seeing emphasis placed on the ability to recycle the materials used in construction when the vehicle reaches the end of its useable life.

A manufacturer will take these factors into account when considering their choice of chassis construction method for a given model, and will often choose a method that lends itself most favourably to the type of vehicle they are looking to build. For example, if the model were aimed at large volume sales, cost effective production suitability would be of primary importance and perhaps chassis stiffness less so.

Self supporting frame

perhaps chassis stiffness less so. Self supporting frame This type of chassis is used on 4

This type of chassis is used on 4 wheel vehicles like Toyota Land Cruisers, Land Rovers and other off road vehicles. The body is mounted to the chassis on rubber bushes and the two bolted together.

- 26 -

Partly supporting frame (sub-frame) This kind of frame was used on Minis and on older

Partly supporting frame (sub-frame)

Partly supporting frame (sub-frame) This kind of frame was used on Minis and on older Renault

This kind of frame was used on Minis and on older Renault models. It is also often referred to as a sub-frame. It is mounted on to the body and the engine and suspension are fixed to the sub frame. On some vehicles there are front and rear sub-frames.

Platform chassis

there are front and rear sub-frames. Platform chassis Volkswagen, Citroen and R enault used this method.

Volkswagen, Citroen and Renault used this method. The floor pan has the mechanical parts attached to it and the engine, transmission, steering mechanism and suspension is bolted to the platform.

- 27 -

Backbone chassis This type of frame acts as a skeletal spine and is shaped like

Backbone chassis

Backbone chassis This type of frame acts as a skeletal spine and is shaped like a

This type of frame acts as a skeletal spine and is shaped like a single tunnel. The body is bolted directly to this spine.

Composite body

The body is bolted directly to this spine. Composite body A composite designed vehicle is a

A composite designed vehicle is a chassis with a fibreglass or carbon fibre body that is secured to the chassis frame. Carbon fibre is very strong and extremely light weight.

- 28 -

Ladder frame The ladder frame is made of two parallel side mem bers that are

Ladder frame

Ladder frame The ladder frame is made of two parallel side mem bers that are joined

The ladder frame is made of two parallel side members that are joined by a number of cross members. It is commonly used on load carrying vehicles and light commercials.

Monocoque body

carrying vehicles and light commercials. Monocoque body The monocoque body is a design concept that traces

The monocoque body is a design concept that traces its origins to aircraft. The body is light yet has enough strength to withstand bends and twists due to its integrated construction. It is constructed with a combination of thin steel panels pressed into various shapes and spot welded together. Due to the combination of various panels pressed into complex shapes, once damaged the monocoque body requires extra time to repair.

- 29 -

Space frame A skeletal structure formed from sections of steel pipe. It is very costly

Space frame

Space frame A skeletal structure formed from sections of steel pipe. It is very costly to

A skeletal structure formed from sections of steel pipe. It is very costly to produce and therefore rarely used.

- 30 -

Progress check 3 Answer the following questions: 1. What is the difference bet ween a

Progress check 3

Answer the following questions:

1. What is the difference between a self-supporting frame and a monocoque chassis construction?

2. Name one advantage of carbon composite chassis construction:

3. Why do certain structural members have to be strengthened on a cabriolet-bodied vehicle?

4. What is the most common type of chassis used on commercial vehicles?

5. List two advantages of monocque construction:

- 31 -

Chassis Construction Sub-Assemblies We have seen that there are numerous different chassis construction arrangements

Chassis Construction Sub-Assemblies

We have seen that there are numerous different chassis construction arrangements from which manufacturers can choose. Most of these methods employ the use of pre-fabricated sub-assemblies. These can consist of the following:

box section

tubular section

channel.

Box section

box section • tubular section • channel. Box section The box section is made up of

The box section is made up of two C shaped channels combined. These are off-centred vertically and laterally and welded together to form the box section. This section has very high levels of stiffness but does tend to be relatively heavy. 4 wheel drive vehicles favour this design due to the expected rigours of off-road driving and the flex that this creates in chassis members.

- 32 -

Tubular section (space frame) Constructed of steel pipe welded together to form a ske leton.

Tubular section (space frame)

Tubular section (space frame) Constructed of steel pipe welded together to form a ske leton. As

Constructed of steel pipe welded together to form a skeleton. As the chassis and body are constructed of steel pipe it is not exactly an independent type frame. Racing cars often use this type of construction.

C shaped channel

cars often use this type of construction. C shaped channel This is used on ladder frame

This is used on ladder frame chassis arrangements found on light and heavy commercial vehicles.

Its properties include good stiffness and low cost. The open channel section also provides extra space for the mounting of components.

- 33 -

Load bearing points Areas marked in grey are some of the areas on a monocoque

Load bearing points

Load bearing points Areas marked in grey are some of the areas on a monocoque body

Areas marked in grey are some of the areas on a monocoque body that are load bearing members and load bearing points.

These areas provide the majority of the overall strength of the chassis in respect of driving, braking and cornering forces and also during accidents.

- 34 -

Progress check 4 Answer the following questions: 1. Name one load bearing point on a

Progress check 4

Answer the following questions:

1. Name one load bearing point on a monocoque chassis:

2. What type of vehicle often uses a ladder frame chassis construction?

3. How is a ‘list rail’ positioned on a chassis?

- 35 -

Vehicle Safety Construction Features Modern vehicles have many safety featur es ’built in’ from the

Vehicle Safety Construction Features

Modern vehicles have many safety features ’built in’ from the design stage. Some of these systems and features are more visible than others (such as airbags) and some less so - such as collapsible steering columns and crumple zones.

All vehicle safety features and systems are classified as either ‘passive’ or ‘active’.

A passive safety system is one that acts to limit injury during an accident.

An active safety system is one that acts to prevent the accident from happening in the first place.

Passive systems

The following are examples of passive vehicle safety systems:

crumple zones

side impact protection air bagsair bags

pre-tensioned seat belts

energy absorbing steering column.

Crumple zones

belts • energy absorbing steering column. Crumple zones These are pre-deformed sections in the chassis legs
belts • energy absorbing steering column. Crumple zones These are pre-deformed sections in the chassis legs

These are pre-deformed sections in the chassis legs and body that allow the front and rear of a vehicle to collapse but to retain the integrity of the passenger compartment to reduce injury to the driver and passengers.

- 36 -

A chassis leg with pre-def ormed sections absorbs the impact, absorbing the transmitted energy and

A chassis leg with pre-deformed sections absorbs the impact, absorbing the transmitted energy and reducing further damage to the vehicle in minor impacts.

Flitch panels are often drilled to help it to crumple during impact. The holes allow the panel to ‘give’, releasing the energy created by the impact.

Side impact protection

g the energy created by the impact. Side impact protection Side impact bars in the doors

Side impact bars in the doors and strengthened B posts and sills along with centre cross members protect the driver and passengers when the side of the vehicle suffers an impact.

Front and rear bumpers are made for the most part of polypropylene plastic (which provides superior resistance) with a steel or aluminium impact bar behind. This provides protection at low impact speed.

- 37 -

SRS Airbag SRS (Supplementary Restraint System) air bags are now commonplace. Airbags are now positioned

SRS Airbag

SRS Airbag SRS (Supplementary Restraint System) air bags are now commonplace. Airbags are now positioned to
SRS Airbag SRS (Supplementary Restraint System) air bags are now commonplace. Airbags are now positioned to

SRS (Supplementary Restraint System) air bags are now commonplace. Airbags are now positioned to protect the driver and passengers in the event of impact from virtually any direction with the exception of rear end shunts (where the head restraint is of primary importance). Driver’s airbags are housed within the steering wheel pad, passenger airbags within the dashboard, curtain shield airbags in the roof runner trim and side airbags in the seat back.

Some manufacturers are now fitting airbags to protect the driver’s knees and also airbags that deploy across the front screen. Rollover protection airbags can now be found under roof linings on high specification vehicles. Airbags are explosive devices and can cause serious injury if dealt with incorrectly. Technicians must not work on such systems unless trained to do so.

Seat belt pre-tensioners

systems unless trained to do so. Seat belt pre-tensioners Seat belt pre-tensioners work in conjunction with

Seat belt pre-tensioners work in conjunction with frontal protection airbags. Upon deployment of the front airbags, explosive charges remove any slack from the seat belt preventing the occupant from adopting a position dangerously close to the deploying airbag. The importance of wearing seatbelts in a vehicle equipped with airbags cannot be over stressed. Without this restraining mechanism, airbags can indeed be lethal. Hence the term SRS – Supplementary Restraint System.

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Energy absorbing steering column In heavy frontal impacts, the steering colu mn can cause considerable

Energy absorbing steering column

Energy absorbing steering column In heavy frontal impacts, the steering colu mn can cause considerable injury

In heavy frontal impacts, the steering column can cause considerable injury to

a driver thrown forwards in their seat. To reduce this likelihood, steering columns are now designed to collapse in a controlled fashion therefore absorbing the energy of this impact.

The diagram above shows the mechanism at the heart of this system. The inner steering column is fabricated in two parts mounted concentrically and pinned together. These pins are designed to shear in the event of sufficient axial force. In addition to this, the steering column outer is mounted to the bulkhead by a bending bracket. As the name suggests, this bracket bends to aid energy absorption.

It should be noted that this system is surprisingly vulnerable to damage during

stripping activities if the correct tools are not used. Worst-case scenario – the pins are weakened during removal and refit and they shear during high speed cornering. Always use the correct tools!

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Active systems The following are examples of active safety systems: • ABS • VSC /

Active systems

The following are examples of active safety systems:

ABS

VSC / ESP / DSC

collision prevention systems.

ABS (Anti-lock Braking System)

ABS is designed to prevent wheel lock up during emergency braking. A vehicle decelerates less efficiently with locked wheels and directional stability is completely lost. The ability to steer around obstructions during emergency braking can help prevent collision.

VSC (Vehicle Stability Control)

can help prevent collision. VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) Vehicle stability control is a system that reduces

Vehicle stability control is a system that reduces the tendency of a vehicle to understeer or oversteer during high speed cornering. This can help prevent a potentially dangerous vehicle attitude that the driver finds difficult to recover from. Manufacturers use different terms for this system and the following are typical:

ESP - Electronic Stability Programme

DSC – Dynamic Stability Control.

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Progress check 5 Answer the following questions: 1. Name two types of active safety systems:

Progress check 5

Answer the following questions:

1.

Name two types of active safety systems:

2.

Name two types of passive safety systems:

3

What does a seat belt pre-tensioner do?

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Body Deformation and the Ripple Effect It is advantageous for a vehicle’s chassis to deform

Body Deformation and the Ripple Effect

Body Deformation and the Ripple Effect It is advantageous for a vehicle’s chassis to deform during
Body Deformation and the Ripple Effect It is advantageous for a vehicle’s chassis to deform during

It is advantageous for a vehicle’s chassis to deform during impact as this process absorbs the energy of the impact. Major injury results from a high rate of speed change during the impact. If this process can be slowed, survival chances will increase. Deformation of the chassis slows this rate considerably.

The drawback of this process (albeit a minor one when considered in context) is that a relatively minor impact can create considerable damage through what is known as the ripple effect. A minor frontal collision can result in damage being sustained towards the rear of the vehicle also. This can make repairs very costly.

of the v ehicle also. This can make repairs very costly. Secondary damage can also add

Secondary damage can also add to repair costs. The picture above shows a potential source of such damage.

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Benefits of safety systems The design and production of crumple zones or passive and active

Benefits of safety systems

The design and production of crumple zones or passive and active safety measures over the last few years have meant that even after heavy impacts car drivers and passengers are receiving less serious injuries due to vehicle accidents. In the case of strong impacts from the front, air bags deploy rapidly in order to reduce the possibility of the head and upper torso colliding directly with the steering wheel or instrument panel. Seat belt restraining time is quicker to improve initial restraining performance and the force limiter in the seat belt absorbs the energy and reduces the load on the torso.

The crumple zones absorb the impact front and rear on the vehicle body, minimizing injury to occupants from the engine compartment or boot area. Safety glass lessens the chance of serious cuts and facial injury from the windscreen and side glass. Side impact bars and side air bags protect occupants from serious injury when involved in impacts from the off side or near side of the vehicle. All of these safety measures have led to fewer fatalities and less serious injuries due to car collisions.

Regulations

The EU and the Department for Transport (DfT) govern regulations on design and construction of motor vehicles. These departments ensure that motor manufacturers comply with all safety legislation and that vehicles are crash tested and components tested to their limits. Approved centres such as Motor Insurance Repair and Research Association (MIRRC) at Thatcham are supported and approved by the Government and the motor industry to ensure that all vehicles comply with the regulations relating to the construction, design and safety of motor vehicles.

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Progress check 6 Answer the following questions: 1. Name one application of aluminiu m in

Progress check 6

Answer the following questions:

1. Name one application of aluminium in a vehicles construction:

2. Is Kevlar natural or synthetic?

3. Where is a flitch plate located on a vehicle?

4. What is ‘Ripple Effect?’

5. What is ‘Crumple Zone’?

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