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Properties of light: Travels in straight lines Travels faster than sound Reflected/absorbed off of objects Shadows occur when light is blocked Light: Particle & wave Does not need a medium to travel Electromagnetic Spectrum: Visible spectrum- ROYGBIV (colours of the rainbow) Invisible light- electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic Radiation:        Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared Visible Ultra Violet X-rays Gamma Rays Low Energy

High Energy

Methods of Light Production: Incandescence- the production of light as a result of high temperature Electric Discharge- the process of producing light by passing an electric current through a gas Phosphorescence- the process of producing light by absorption of ultraviolet light resulting in the emission of visible light over an extended period of time Fluorescence- the immediate emission of visible light as a result of the absorption of ultraviolet light Chemiluminescence- the direct production of light as the result of a chemical reaction with little or no heat produced Bioluminescence- the production of light in living organisms as a result of a chemical reaction with little or no heat produced Trioboluminescence- the production of light from friction as a result of scratching, crushing, or rubbing certain crystals Light Emitting Diode- light produced as a result of an electric current to flow in only one direction Ray Model of Light: Light Ray a line that represents path and direction of light Optics using light rays to determine the behaviour of light Opaque object that reflects or absorbs light Transparent an object that transmits light


an object that transmits some light and reflects/absorbs some

Law of Reflection: The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection Normal- a dotted line that is perpendicular to the mirror Incident Ray- incoming ray Angle of Incidence- angle between incident ray and normal Angle of Reflection- angle between reflected and normal Reflected Ray- light ray that is bounced off the mirror Specular Reflection- light is reflected perfectly and a shiny, flat and clear image is produced Diffuse Reflection- light reflects off an irregular or dull surface Images in Plane Mirrors Our brains are used to light traveling in straight lines Brain projects image backwards in a straight line Image and object are both equidistant to the mirror Describing Images: S- Size bigger, smaller, same as object A- Attitude upright/inverted L- Location behind/in front of a mirror T- Type Real Virtual Projected on a screen Cannot be projected on a screen Real light No real light Refraction: When light travels from one medium to another, it bends/changes direction (refracts) Rules: Light bends towards the normal when it enters a slower medium Light bends away from the normal when it enters a faster medium F A S T fast away slow towards Partial Reflection & Refraction: Refraction usually occurs with some reflection Uses: mirrored glasses, one way mirrors, mirrored windows in office buildings (save $) Index of Refraction: A measure/indicator of how fast a material is The ratio of the speed of light (vacuum) to the speed of light (in a material)

Phenomena Related to Refraction: 1. Apparent Depth Objects always appear nearer to the surface then they actually are

2. Water on Pavement Mirage Virtual image of the sky Only happens when there is hot air Hot air has a slightly higher index of refraction Appears when light is traveling from cool air to warm 3. Shimmering Caused by light being refracted as it passes through air of different temperatures Multiple virtual images of the moon on the waters surface 4. Rainbow Produced by water droplets in the atmosphere Sunlight gets refracted in water and then refracted again when leaves droplet Multiple refractions create colours 5. The Flattened Sun When the sun is close to the horizon, light from the bottom of the sun is refracted more than light from the top of the sun because it has to pass through more of earths atmosphere Total Internal Reflection: Light bends away from the normal when it enters a faster medium As the angle increases, the refraction increases Applications of Total Internal Reflection: 1. Fibre Optics Uses light to transmit information along a glass cable Used for phones, computers and televisions 2. Retro Reflectors Optical device that returns any incident light back in exactly the same direction from w which it came Used in bikes and road signs 3. Periscopes and binoculars 4. Diamonds When cutting a diamond, the light needs to hit a larger than a critical angle to be shiny 5. Touch Screens Technology Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy Used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, photoconductivity or Raman scattering of a solid, liquid or gas 6. Cool Photos You need to get an extremely shallow angle with the surface of the water (total internal reflection) Magnification Equation:  Sign Convention: = + upright - Inverted

+ Upright - Inverted

Concave (converging) Mirrors: Curves or bends inwards Makes an object look bigger and nearer than it actually is It makes light rays seen as if they are coming from a point in front of the mirror, which is closer to our eyes Used in: car mirrors and make up mirrors Convex (diverging) Mirrors: Curves or bends outwards Makes an object look smaller and farther away than it actually is It makes light rays seem to come from a point behind the mirror, further from our eyes Used in: security mirrors Lens: A piece of glass/plastic curved at least on one side Converging Lens: middle is the thickest Diverging Lens: edges are the thickest Lens Equations: Another method to determine characteristics of images Terms: : Distance from object to o : Distance from image to o : Height of object : Height of image : Focal length (distance from f to o) Think Lens Equation:

Sign Convention: (Positive) (Real Image) IF (Virtual Image) (Converging Lens) (Diverging Lens) Lens Application: 1. Camera Converging lens produces an inverted real image as long as the object is a distance greater then F Takes light from large, distant objects and forms smaller, real images





Digital cameras use light sensitive device made of silicon called a charge coupled device Movie Projector Opposite of camera Takes a small object and projects a large, inverted, real image on a screen The Magnifying Glass Converging Lens No real image is produced Refracted rays spread apart or diverge Human brain produces an enlarged, virtual image located on the same side as the object Compound Microscope Consists of two converging lenses Produces two enlarged, inverted images: one real and one virtual Objective lens produce real image, but it is not seen because it is in the body tube of the microscope Eyepiece lens create virtual image that is larger Refracting Telescope Produces two enlarged, inverted images: one real image that you do not see, and virtual which you do Works like a compound microscope, only the distance of the object is much farther away

Ionic Bond: Involves the transfer of electrons from a metal to one or more non-metal atoms Covalent Bond: Involves the sharing of 1,2,3 electrons between two or more non-metal atoms Bohr-Rutherford Diagram:

Lewis Dot Diagrams:

Law of Conservation of Mass: Total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products Guidelines for Balancing Chemical Equations: 1. Start with polyatomic ions and balance the group 2. Next, balance any element that appears in only one reactant and product 3. Balance Hydrogen and Oxygen last

4. Check to ensure that the number of atoms of each element is the same for the reactants and products Ex.: Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen Gas   C: 6, 6 H: 12, 12 O: 18, 18 Phosphates: Used in laundry detergents Ends up in bodies of water Causes algal bloom Kills water ecosystems Nitrates: Used in food preservations Causes cancer in high degree in rats Protects heart attack/transplant from second attack Types of Chemical Reactions: Synthesis: Decomposition: Single Displacement: Double Displacement: Combustion: Complete Combustion: Incomplete Combustion:  Neutralization:  Single Displacement: A metal will only displace a metal A non-metal will only displace a non-metal A reaction will occur only if the pure element is more reactive than the element it is displacing Double Displacement: All reactions occur in double displacement Why is Incomplete Combustion Dangerous? Carbon monoxide, which is produced during an incomplete combustion reaction, combines about 200 times more readily with haemoglobin (protein in red blood cells that carries O2 to cells and CO2 out of the body) then O2. As a result CO blocks O2 absorption which can lead to death. Application of Neutralization Reactions: Chemical Spills: Train derailment Sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide spill and calcium oxide is added to the river which the chemicals are in, and neutralize them in order to produce water and harmless salt This does not hurt the environment and prevents further damage to the ecosystem Antacids: Stomach produces hydrochloric acid with PH of 1.5 This is necessary for digestion

Sometimes, stomach acid can irritate the lining of the stomach, causing discomfort or pain Antacids provide relief by neutralizing the acid Only metal atoms can exist naturally as single atoms (solid), the elements FONClBrISH exist as diatomic gases Common Polyatomic Ions: Ammonium NH4 Hydroxide Ion OH Carbonate CO3 Nitrate NO3 Sulphate SO4 Hydrogen Carbonate HCO3 Hydrogen Sulphate HSO4 Phosphate PO4 Cyanide CN Chlorate ClO Frequently Used Molecules: Water H2O Ozone O3 Ammonia NH3 Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 Methane CH4 PH: A measure of the strength of how acidic or basic a solution is When acid dissolved in water, H ions are produced More H+ = more acidic More OH- = more basic/alkaline PH scale: - 0-14 range - 0-6 acids - 7 neutral - 8-14 bases PH scale is logarithmic - One unit on the PH scale is a difference of 10 times - A PH of 3 is 10 times more acidic than PH 4 Ants & bees inject acidic solution basic solutions to reduce pain Wasps inject basic solution acidic solutions to reduce pain When to Use Each Naming Technique: How to find the formula: 1. Ionic Compounds find ions, do crossover 2. Polyatomic Ions find ions, do crossover 3. Transition Metals find ions, do cross over How to find the name: 1. Ionic Compounds metal, non-metal, -IDE 2. Polyatomic Ions metal, polyatomic ion 3. Transition Metals metal, charge, non-metal, -IDE Which compound do I have?

1. Ionic Compound

Name: ends in ide, metal/non-metal, no charge in roman numerals Formula: one metal + non-metal, no transition metals 2. Polyatomic Ions Name: usually end in ate Formula: more than one non-metal (polyatomic ion) 3. Transition Metals Name: charge in roman numerals Formula: transition metal Writing Names for Covalent Compounds: Use Latin prefixes to indicate the number of atoms for each element in the molecule Mono is not used for the first element If hydrogen is first element, no prefix is used Number Latin Prefix 1 Mon(o) 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 Penta 6 Hexa Acids & Bases: Properties of Acids: Taste sour Conduct electricity Corrosive React with metals (produce H2) Preserve food (ex. Ketchup and BBQ sauce have vinegar) Formulas: all acids release one H+ ion when dissolved HF (aq) aq-aqueous = dissolved in water HCl (aq) all acids must be aqueous! Naming: 1. Binary Acids HF (aq) hydrofluoric acid HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid 2. Oxyacids H + polyatomic ion HNO3 (aq) nitric acid H2PO4(aq) phosphoric acid Properties of Bases: Taste bitter Feels slippery Corrosive Conduct electricity Most soaps are bases Breaks down protein Formulas: bases release a hydroxide ion (OH), sometimes carbonate (CO3) KOH (aq) all bases must be aqueous! NaOH (aq) Naming:

KOH (aq) potassium hydroxide NaOH (aq) sodium hydroxide What Makes an Acid/Base Strong? 1. Concentration- the amount of acid/base dissolved in a litre of water 2. Percent Ionization- how much of a compound dissolved in water breaks apart into ions Strong acids/bases ionize 100% How Can We Tell How Strong an Acid/Base is? Indicators chemicals that change colour to indicate how acidic or basic something is Indicator Red Litmus Paper Blue Litmus Paper Phenolphthalein PH paper Acid Base Red Blue Red Blue Clear Magenta Tells you how strong an acid/base is Neutral Red Blue clear

Characteristics of life: 1. Order All living things show order in their structure They are able to organize materials around them 2. Reproduction Living things are able to reproduce to form offspring Life comes from life 3. Growth and Development Living things grow in size and develop as they become adults 4. Energy Use Energy is required to function Functions make up metabolism of an organism 5. Response to the Environment Living things usually respond appropriately to the environment 6. Homeostasis Maintenance of a steady, internal state 7. Evolutionary Adaptations Life forms change over periods of time Cell Cycle:

Mitosis- Cell Division:

What is Cancer? Cell division goes wrong Mutated, defective DNA Due to radiation, smoking or genetics Damaged cells undergo mitosis and create a cancerous tumour What is Metastatic Cancer? Cancer that moves Cells of cancer fall off and develop somewhere else Treatments for Cancer: Chemotherapy injection or ingestion of drugs/chemicals Radiation Therapy direction radiation on tumour Immunotherapy stimulating ability of immune system to fight infection/disease Hormone Therapy increasing/decreasing level of hormones Alternative Therapies natural cancer treatments Future Treatments: Nanobots- targeted treatment towards cancer cells only Plant & Animal Cells: Plant cells have a cell wall

Plants have a much larger vacuole Cell Organelles: Organelle Cytoplasm (thick jelly) Lysosome Vacuole Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosome Golgi body Mitochondrion Nuclear membrane Nucleus Chromatin Centriole Nucleolus Cell Wall Chloroplast Function Supports the organelles in the cell Sack of digestive enzymes Storage sack for food and water Protective cell envelope controlling what comes in and out of the cell Transport highway Protein making machinery Modifies, sorts, packs and exports proteins powerhouse of the cell (provides cell with energy) Porous envelope surrounding the nucleus directing materials in and out Control centre of the cell containing DNA (acts like the brain) Genetic material (DNA all coiled up) Involved in cell division Produces ribosomes Thick, fibrous outer wall of cell Site of photosynthesis

Specialized Tissues in Animals: Epithelial Tissue a think sheet of tightly packed cells that covers body surfaces and lines internal organs and body cavities Connective Tissue a specialized tissue that provides support and protection for various parts of the body Muscle Tissue a group of specialized tissues containing proteins that can contract and enable the body to move Nerve Tissue specialized tissue that conducts electrical signals from one part of the body to another Specialized Cells in Animals: Stem Cells: A cell whose job in the body is not yet determined Stem cells differentiate: gradually change into destined cell type A stem cell differentiates by making new protein Totipotent- can become any cell Pluripotent- can become almost any cell Multipotent- can become only a limited range of cells There are over 200+ specialized cells in humans and animals Specialized Tissues in Plants: Dermal Tissue protects the plant, outer layer (like skin) Vascular Tissue Transports water and nutrients Ground Tissue Protection, reproduction, photosynthesis Specialized Cells in Plants: Root Hair Cell aids the uptake of water and dissolved minerals from soil

Xylem Cells transport water and dissolved minerals Pollen Cells reach the female reproductive part through wind, insects, etc. It makes seeds which eventually mature and become new plants Stomata Cells allow exchange of gases between the inside of the lead and its surroundings Animal Organ Systems: Circulatory system: pumping and channelling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus. Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails Immune system: the system that fights off disease; composed of leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen Musculoskeletal system: muscles provide movement and a skeleton provides structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and nerves Reproductive system: the sex organs Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine Plant Organ Systems: Shoot System specialized to conduct photosynthesis and reproduce sexually; it consists of the leaf, flower and the stem Root System anchors the plant, absorbs water and minerals and stores food Dutch Elm Disease: A fungal disease of elm trees which is spread by the elm bark beetle The tree reacts by creating a blockage in the xylem so the fungus that carries the disease does not spread, but it ends up blocking water and nutrients The leave whether and become yellow not during the fall season There are colourful streaks on the wood The tree eventually dies due to lack of nutrients One of the treatments is intecides to kill the beetles that carry the fungus/disease Digestion: Ingestion heterotrophs must obtain and enter food into the body Digestion food is broken down into a simpler form through cellular process or organs Egestion waste products are expelled from the body Atrial Septal Defect: Hole in one of the walls of the heart It is a problem because blood containing oxygen may mix with blood without oxygen Heart may pump harder than normal Blood pressure in lungs may increase drastically Diagnosis: chest x-ray, electrocardiogram or ultrasound Treatment: surgery

Ultra Sound: Ultrasound is extremely high frequency sounds Sends sound waves at the body Computers generate a picture It is inexpensive, quick and does not threat patients

Climate Change
What is Climate? Weather atmosphere conditions over short-term Climate average weather over long-term (30+ years), determines which organisms live in an area Short Term Factors Affecting Climate Change 1. Volcanoes Eruptions spew particles into the atmosphere React to create gases like SO2 which reflect UV radiation Cooling effect (lasts up to a few years) 2. Air/Ocean Current El Nio- change in direction of prevailing wind currents (every 3-7 years) 3. Variation in the Suns Radiation Output Variations due to unknown reasons Positive Feedback Loop:
High CO2 in atmosphere

Oceans lose some ability to store CO2

Increase in Earth's temperature

Greenhouse Effect: UV radiation travels to earth (particles in atmosphere absorb short wave UV radiation) Earth emits infrared radiation Greenhouse gas particles absorb infrared radiation Vibrate faster Emit infrared radiation in all directions (including towards earth) With greenhouse effect, the average global temperature is Without greenhouse effect, the average global temperature is Greenhouse gases: methane, carbon dioxide and water Other Information: Ice ages occur approximately every 100,000 years Between ice ages, there are warm periods that are called interglacial periods Long term factors of climate change: position of earth relative to the sun (orbit, tilt, wobble), continental drift and plate tectonics

Past Data: Ice cores- new growth is added each year, trapped air bubbles, temperature can be determined, measure concentration of gases Tree rings- new growth is added each year, affected by weather (temperature and humidity) Coral reefs Sediments/rocks Modern Data: Weather stations Satellites Reliable to mid 1800s

Dana Sadovsky