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I.

Introduction
a. Nature and challenges of personnel management
Personnel management is concerned with the effective use of the skills of people. They may be salespeople in a store, clerks in an office, operators in a factory, or technicians in a research laboratory. In a business, personnel management starts with the recruiting and hiring of qualified people and continues with directing and encouraging their growth as they encounter problems and tensions that arise in working toward established goals. In addition to recruiting and hiring, some of the responsibilities of a personnel manager are:            To classify jobs and prepare wage and salary scales. To counsel employees. To deal with disciplinary problems. To negotiate with labor unions and service union contracts. To develop safety standards and practices. To manage benefit programs, such as group insurance, health, and retirement plans. To provide for periodic reviews of the performance of each individual employee, and for recognition of his or her strengths and needs for further development. To assist individuals in their efforts to develop and qualify for more advanced jobs. To plan and supervise training programs. To keep abreast of developments in personnel management. To understand the personnel manager's job think of how you would deal with the following examples of challenging employee situations:

The firm's employees - especially the most qualified ones - can get comparable, if not better jobs with other employers. When a firm faces a scarcity of supervisory and specialized personnel with adequate experience and job capabilities, it has to train and develop its own people. This can be time consuming and expensive. The cost of hiring and training employees at all levels is increasing, for instance, several thousand dollars for a salesperson. A mistake in hiring or in slow and inefficient methods of training can be costly.

Personnel managers must comply with the law by employing, training and promoting women and persons from minority groups. The problem in doing so is that many of these employees have not had appropriate experience and education in the past. Most employees, whether or not represented by labor unions, continue to seek improvements in direct compensation, employee benefits, and working conditions. All commitments must be based upon what the firm can afford, comply with current practices of other employers, and be understood and accepted by the employee. To do this, all employee policies and operating procedures should be developed and negotiated with great care. Some employees may not perform satisfactorily simply because their firm offers competitive compensation, benefits, and working conditions. In addition to these financial or physical compensations, they want responsibility, the opportunity to develop, and recognition of accomplishment in their jobs. The law have established requirements for pension and other benefit plans, and also bar mandatory retirement at age 65. Complying with such changes presents real challenges. Personnel management works to achieve practical solutions to such problems. In large firms, it generally provides support to line management. In this staff capacity, the personnel department has the responsibility to develop and implement policies, procedures, and programs for recruitment, selection, training, placement, safety, employee benefits and services, compensation, labor relations, organization planning, and employee development. Often, the owner-manager of a firm also has to be the personnel manager. In such a case it is necessary to have an overview of current trends and practices in personnel management. All small businesses must staff their operations. This involves bringing new people into the business and making sure they are productive additions to the enterprise. Effective human resource management matches and develops the abilities of job candidates and employees with the needs of the firm. A responsive personnel system will assist you in this process and is a key ingredient for growth. Human resource management is a balancing act. At one extreme, you hire only qualified people who are well suited to the firm's needs. At the other extreme, you train and develop employees to meet the firm's needs. Most expanding small businesses fall between the two extremes i.e., they hire the best people they can find and afford, and

they also recognize the need to train and develop both current and new employees as the firm grows. One function of personnel management deals with how to hire and train the right people and addresses the characteristics of an effective personnel system, such as: y y y y y y Assessing personnel needs. Recruiting personnel. Screening personnel. Selecting and hiring personnel. Orienting new employees to the business. Deciding compensation issues.

Another function addresses the training and development side of human resource management. A third function deals with how the personnel system and the training and development functions come together to build employee trust and productivity. These three functions stress the importance of a good human resource management climate and provide specific guidelines for creating such a climate. http://www.zeromillion.com/business/personnel/personnel-mangement.html

Many problems are caused by constant changes that occur both within and without the firm. Among the many major changes that are occurring, the following five will illustrate the nature of the personnel challenges. Changing mix of the work force Changing personal of the work force Changing expectations of citizen-employees Changing levels of productivity Changing demands of government CH ANG IN G M IX O F TH E WO RK F O RCE Tough each person of unique and consequently present a challenge to our general understanding, one can also appreciate broader problems by categorizing personnel to delineate and highlight trends. Among the major changes in the mix of personnel entering requiring greater skills, (1) increased number of minority members entering occupations requiring greater skills, (2) increasing levels of format education the entire work force, (3) more female employees, (4) more married female employees. (5) more working mothers, and (6) a steadily increasing majority of white-collar employees in place of the blue-collar.

CH ANG IN G P ERSO N AL OF TH E WORK FO RCE The changing mix of the work force inevitably leads to introduction of new values to organizations. In the past and continuing in the present, the work force of America has been heavily imbued with a set of values generally characterized by the term work ethic, work is regarded has having spiritual meaning, buttressed by such behavioral norms as punctuality, honestly , diligence, and frugality. One s job is a central life interest and provides the dominant clue in interpersonal assessment. A work force with this set of productivity, efficiency, and effectiveness. Though flextime fix quite well with the new values of the modern work force, such plans has also been found to have a number of advantages to the employer. Among those suggested are the following; Enhanced productivity: Though there is little hard evidence, surveys indicate chances of improving productivity vary from one-third, with the probable size of the gain in the range of 5 percent to 14 percent. Explanations for this include better morale, better fit of work time to the employee s body clock, improved handling of fluctuating workloads, increased customer service because the establishment is open longer, and less killing time until quitting time because of reluctance to begin a new task. Reduced employee tardiness and absenteeism: When contemplating a late arrival under a fixed schedule, the employee is often tempted to skip work altogether. If the approved arrival time is within a two-hour flexible band, both tardiness and absenteeism from this source are eliminated. Personal errands can be taken care of without the necessity of being officially absent for all or a portion of the day. Improved morale and reduced turnover. Flextime provides the employee with some control over the workday, thereby constituting a type of job enrichment. Employees are treated substantially in the same fashion as managers and professional personnel. CHANGING EXPECTATIONS OF CITIZEN-EMPLOYEE These are increasing signs that external rights of citizenship are penetrating the boundaries of business enterprises in the interest of improving the quality of work life. Two prominent illustrations are: (1) freedom of speech, and (2) the right to privacy. Should employees be allowed to speak up and criticize the organization s management and its product without jeopardizating their job security? In public organizations, this right of whistle blowing is fairly well protected. Tough some private firms have voluntarily adopted policies favorable to employee freedom of speech; others have been forced to such practices through court cases. Employees are also becoming more concerned with the information they must provide in order to obtain and hold jobs. They feel that many questions are an invasion of privacy, such as whether one is pregnant or not,

drinking habits, kinds of friends, type of neighborhood in which one lives, records or arrests, ability to pay bills, and whether the job applicant has ever received psychiatric counseling. CHANGING LEVELS OF PRODUCTIVITY Perhaps the most serious current problem facing all managers, not just personal managers, is the declining productivity of the economy. There have been many reasons proposed for the recent declines in productivity: 1. Numerous federal regulations and laws have added to the cost of doing business without enhancing productivity in the short run, such as environmental protection, health and safety, affirmative action, and so on. 2. Such laws have led to increased numbers of employees new to the business environment. The influx and minorities may have resulted in less productivity during the introductory period. 3 . American managers typically have a short-term profit orientation in making business decisions. With pressures from stockholders, stock markets, and financial institutions, they tend to postpone vital research, development, and new plant investments in the interest of short-term showings. The leads to declining productivity over time. It is also contended that various tax laws have discouraged innovations and new plant investment. 4 . With maturity, our economy has increasing become more of a service, rather than manufacturing, type of system. Achieving gains in productivity when providing services is considerably more difficult than becoming more efficient in production processes. 5. Adversarial relationship with labor unions reduce cooperative effort that would enhanced productivity. Numerous union-negotiated work rules designed to protect job and income in the short run have disastrous results when employers must compete on the world market. 6. Employee alienation leads to refused to refusal to collaborate in the interest of improving productivity. It has been suggested that poor employee attitude have been caused y such factors as high job insecurity, narrow and meaningless jobs, and autocratic, managers who deny significant employee participation in decision affecting the work and the quality of work life. http://www.scribd.com/doc/39221734/Challenges-of-Modern-Personnel-Management In all organizations, there should be someone concerned with the welfare and performance of persons who are a part of the operation. When an individual or a team of individuals takes on this task of seeing to programs and setting policies that impact everyone associated with the company, they are

engaged in the process of personnel management, sometimes referred to as human resources (HR) management. The function of a personnel manager usually begins with the staffing process. The manager may be focused on screening and interviewing applicants, with an eye to placing individuals with the right skill sets in the right position within the company. Along with placement, the HR manager may also oversee, or at least be involved in, the creation of entry level training programs, as well as continuing education opportunities for existing employees. Determining company policies and procedures as they relate to personnel is another important aspect of the personnel management process. HR functions often include drafting vacation, sick leave, and bereavement policies that apply to all employees. The personnelmanagement team is also often responsible for managing any healthcare program provided to the employees as well. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-personnel-management.htm

B. Current Perspectives Knowledge is becoming a critically importance resource in contemporary business organizations, a development posing significant issues for HRM. Draws together various strands of theory, research and practice to develop a better understanding of these issues, with special emphasis on HRM practice in knowledgeintensive organizations. Discusses the difficulties of making a transition from traditional forms of HRM to post-industrial approaches. A review of traditional compensation systems serves as the basis for a series of propositions concerning preferred practice in this critically important area. The major contention is that the managers of knowledgeintensive organizations are confronting major new issues in coordinating and directing the effort of knowledge workers. The major conclusion is that existing compensation structures and routines must be re-thought and makes several suggestions in this regard. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=879563&show=abstract

II. The Operative Functions of Personnel Management A. Procurement The process of obtaining goods and services from preparation and processing of a requisition through to receipt and approval of the invoice for payment. It commonly involves (1) purchase planning, (2) standards determination, (3) specifications development, (4) supplier research and selection, (5) value analysis, (6) financing, (7)price negotiation, (8) making the purchase, (9) supply contract, (10) inventory control and stores, and (11) disposals and other related functions. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/procurement.html

It is the acquisition of goods and/or services. It is favorable that the goods/services are appropriate and that they are procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs of the purchaser in terms of quality and quantity, time, and location. Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing exposure to fraud and collusion. http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&sqi=2&ved=0CB8QFjAA&url= http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FProcurement&ei=plL4TY2RB83orQea6ayv CA&usg=AFQjCNEoV9uytLTyE7IbgP7rhvreFvr7dQ&sig2=VYNgJQNXDPsapTaKVWafmQ

1. Job Analysis and human resource planning The information produced by job analysis is used extensively in HRM. It is difficult to imagine how an organization could effectively hire, train, appraises, compensate or utilize its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis Descriptions job descriptions define what a job is by identifying its content, requirements and context. Because job descriptions provide a written summary of the duties and responsibilities of the job, they help managers and current and prospective employees understand what the job is and how it is to be performed. Job Specification job specifications focus on the personal characteristics and qualifications that an employee must possess to perform the job successfully. Job Design job design identifies what work must be performed, how it will be performed, where it is to be performed and who will perform it. Job analysis information is invaluable in determining which tasks should be grouped together to form a job and structuring jobs so that employee satisfaction and performance can be enhanced. Organizational Structure and Design job analysis by clarifying job requirements and the inter relationships among jobs means content and tasks duties and responsibilities at all levels can be specified, thus promoting efficiency by minimizing overlap or duplication. Job analysis information is invaluable in determining which tasks should be grouped together to form a job and structuring jobs so that employee satisfaction and performance can be enhanced. HR Planning HR or personnel planning involves getting the right number of qualified people into the right job at the right time . Job analysis information is essential for this if the number and types of employees to be recruited or exited from the organization are to be accurately determined.

Recruitment job analysis information helps the HR Manager attract better qualified candidates by identifying who to recruit and how and where to recruit them by establishing the job requirements that must meet. In addition, job analysis permits the HR Manager to provide realistic job previews by highlighting irrelevant and or distorted job information. Selection job analysis information identifies what the job is by defining what duties and responsibilities must be performed. This facilitates the development of job related selection techniques, helps ensure that EEO requirements are met, and increases the likelihood of a proper matching of an applicant with a job. Finally, job analysis information can be used to validate the selection techniques. Orientation Effective job orientation requires a clear understanding of the work to be performed. A new employee cannot be properly taught how to do a job if job duties and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Performance Appraisal Job analysis information is essential to the establishment of performance standards. Through job analysis a thorough understanding of what the employee is supposed to do is obtained. Without this, acceptable levels of performance cannot be determined or an accurate measure of actual performance obtained. Training and Development Job analysis information is used to design and implement training and development programs. The job specification defines the knowledge, skills and abilities required for successful job performance. This allows the HR Manager to establish training and development objectives, design programs and determine whether or not a current or potential employee requires training. Career planning and Development HR Managers are better placed to offer career guidance when they have a good understanding of the types of jobs existing in an organization. Similarly, by identifying jobs and job requirements, employees become aware of their career options and what constitutes a realistic career objective for them in the organization. Compensation and Benefits the job description is the foundation of job evaluation. It summarizes the nature and requirements of the job and permits its evaluation relative to other jobs. Once the relative worth of a job has been determined an equitable level of compensation and benefits can be assigned. Health & Safety job analysis information helps create a healthy and safe working environment. Jobs with hazardous conditions methods or procedures can be identified and redesigned to eliminate or reduce exposure to health and safety hazards.

Industrial Relations Misunderstandings and disagreement among managers, employees and unions over job content is a major source of grievance and demarcation disputes. Job analysis information can help avoid such disputes by providing a clear description of tasks and responsibilities and identifying the formal qualifications, skills, abilities, knowledge and experience required to successfully perform the work http://www.mbaknol.com/human-resource-management/uses-of-job-analysis-inhuman-resource-management-hrm/

Strategic HR planning is an important component of strategic HR management. It links HR management directly to the strategic plan of your organization. Most mid- to large sized organizations have a strategic plan that guides it in successfully meeting its mission. Organizations routinely complete financial plans to ensure they achieve organizational goals and while workforce plans are not as common, they are just as important. Even a small organization with as few as 10 staff can develop a strategic plan to guide decisions about the future. Based on the strategic plan, your organization can develop a strategic HR plan that will allow you to make HR management decisions now to support the future direction of the organization. Strategic HR planning is also important from a budgetary point of view so that you can factor the costs of recruitment, training, etc. into your organization's operating budget. In the other side, the Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job. The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'Job Relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. Different Aspects of a Job will be analyzed: - What is Job Analysis and the major purposes of Job Analysis - Duties and Tasks the basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. - Environment this may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. - Tools and Equipment some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. - Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people. - Requirements the knowledge's, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. The session on "Strategic HR Planning" will emphasize on the following key areas:

- Importance of Strategic HR Planning - Organizational strategy and HR Strategy A strategic human resource planning model Recruitment/turnover Planning Employee Skills/Competency Development Planning Succession Planning - HR Audits http://www.prothom-alojobs.com/training_pages/training_page.php?training_id=68 Current job descriptions provide the basic details necessary for this internal assessment, including such items as the jobs available, current number of jobs and positions, and reporting relationships of the jobs. By identifying the functions currently being performed and calculating the time being spent to perform them, managers and HR specialists can redesign jobs to eliminate unnecessary tasks and combine responsibilities where desirable. When reviewing the information provided by both employees and supervisors, a team composed of the HR Manager, the Director of Administration, and an outside consultant noted that several duties associated with maintaining customer service records were divided among three employees. This often led to delays in recording customer payments and scheduling repair services. The team regrouped the various customer service duties so that two of the employees performed complete but different functions. Filing activities were concentrated with the third employee, who also served as backup for the other two. http://bloghresources.blogspot.com/2010/02/job-analysis-and-hr-activities.html Human Resource Planning Human Resource Planning is the planning of Human Resources. It is also called manpower planning/ personnel planning/ employment planning. It is only after Human Resource Planning that the Human Resource department can initiate the recruitment and selection process. Therefore Human Resource Planning is a sub-system of organizational planning. Features of Human Resource Planning It is future oriented: Human Resource Planning is forward-looking. It involves forecasting the manpower needs for a future period so that adequate and timely provisions may be made to meet the needs. It is a continuous process: Human Resource Planning is a continuous process because the demand and supply of Human Resource keeps fluctuating throughout the year. Human Resource Planning has to be reviewed according to the needs of the organization and changing environment.

Integral part of Corporate Planning: Manpower planning is an integral part of corporate planning because without a corporate plan there can be no manpower planning. Optimum utilization of resources: The basic purpose of Human Resource Planning is to make optimum utilization of organization s current and future human resources. Both Qualitative and Quantitative aspect: Human Resource Planning considers both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of Human Resource Management, Quantitative meaning the right number of people and Qualitative implying the right quality of manpower required in the organization. Long term and Short term: Human Resource Planning is both Long-term and shortterm in nature. Just like planning which is long-term and short-term depending on the need of the hour, Human Resource Planning keeps long-term goals and short-term goals in view while predicting and forecasting the demand and supply of Human Resource. Involves study of manpower requirement: Human Resource Planning involves the study of manpower availability and the manpower requirement in the organization.

Objectives of Human Resource Planning Optimum utilization of human resources currently employed in the organization. To reduce imbalance in distribution and allocation of manpower in organization for various activities. To ensure that the organization is well-equipped with the required Quantity and Quality of manpower on a sustained basis. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and resources. To control cost of Human Resources employed, used and maintained in the organization. To provide a basis for management development programs. To ensure optimum contribution and satisfaction of the personnel with reasonable expenditure. To recruit and retain human resource of required Quantity and Quality. http://www.mbaknol.com/human-resource-management/human-resource-planning/

b. Recruitment and Hiring Recruitment and hiring are two of the more critical management functions of the organization, and as such, should be fully addressed. Restrictions placed on Public Sector Organizations by Government Civil Service Codes and also restrictions on both government organizations and NGOs through Union agreements need to be taken into account. In addition, it is important for the organization to have a clear commitment to recruitment and hiring practices which are equitable to all people and free of bias

against individuals because of their gender, race, color, religious creed, sexual orientation, age, disability, or HIV/AIDS status. Every member of the management team must be encouraged to maintain a non-discriminatory process of recruitment and hiring. Recruitment: Recruitment activities begin with an analysis of the jobs required by the organization to fulfill its mission and also an analysis of the employment environment in which it operates. An understanding of the level and number of qualified people available to fill positions will help focus and direct the recruitment activities. This is true for recruiting from within as well as from outside of the organization. It is also important that the organization fully support its recruitment staff and their activities as a critically important management function. Both the way the recruitment process is conducted and the resulting hiring decision have a lasting and direct effect on the success and performance of the organization. The organizational policy should be, at all times, to engage in ethical and responsible business practices and to make employment decisions based on acquiring the most qualified staff available to fulfill its mission. Because much of the work in health organizations is funded either directly or indirectly by outside funds, the organization is generally obligated to comply with established regulations regarding the hiring of staff and consultants. These should be fully understood and strictly adhered to by all members of the organization. It is the responsibility of the Office of Human Resource Development to promulgate procedures and monitor the recruitment and hiring process.

STEPS IN THE STAFF RECRUITMENT/HIRING PROCESS The chart below illustrates a series of steps typical to staff recruitment and hiring process and designates the office/individual responsible. These are designed to provide a coordinated and logical sequence of events, since an unsystematic approach may cause confusion or legal difficulties for the organization. Steps in the recruitment/hiring process: Steps 1. Identify need for position Office Responsible Program Office Program Office Organization Management HRD Office HRD Office Program Office Program Office Program Mgr. Program Mgr. Program Office HRD Office HRD Office HRD Office Program Mgr./Supervisor Mgr./HRD Mgr./HRD Mgr./HRD

2. Develop/Classify Job Description

Mgr./HRD

3. Approve Position to be filled 4. Internal Posting if appropriate 5. Develop/Implement Recruitment Plan 6. Screen Candidates resume

7. Make initial Contact with Candidates 8. Conduct Interviews* 9. Conduct Reference Checks 10. Make Hiring Decision 11. Make Employment Offer, Negotiate Salary 12. Document the Hiring Process 13. Conduct Orientation for New Employee 14. Conduct Performance Planning with New Employee

Mgr./HRD

15. Review Probationary Period 16. Confirm Employment Status

Supervisor Supervisor

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Equal employment opportunity guidelines clearly require a sound and comprehensive job analysis to validate recruiting and selection criteria. Without a systematic investigation of a job, an employer may be using requirements that are not specifically job related. For example, if a medical clinic requires a high school diploma for a medical records clerk job, the firm must be able to justify how such an educational requirement matches up to the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of that job. It must be able to show that the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by the medical records clerk could be obtained only through formal education. Organizations use job analysis to identify job specifications in order to plan how and where to obtain employees for anticipated job openings, whether recruited internally or externally. For example, a job analysis for a small manufacturer of electric equipment showed that the Accountant II job, which traditionally had required a college-trained person, really could be handled by someone with high school training in bookkeeping and several years of experience. As a result, the company could select from within and promote a current accounting clerk. In addition to saving on recruiting costs, promotion can have a positive impact on employee commitment and career-planning efforts. http://bloghresources.blogspot.com/2010/02/job-analysis-and-hr-activities.html

B. Training and Development It is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Training_and_development By defining what activities comprise a job, a job analysis helps the supervisor explain that job to a new employee. Information from job descriptions and job specifications can also

help in career planning by showing employees what is expected in jobs that they may choose in the future. Job specification information can point out areas in which employees might need to develop in order to further their careers. Employee development efforts by organizations depend on the job descriptions and job specifications generated from job analyses. http://bloghresources.blogspot.com/2010/02/job-analysis-and-hr-activities.html

1. Operative Training Approaches The industrial society of the 21st century is characterized by rapid technological advances which, if companies and economies are to remain competitive, mean that human knowledge and skills have to be constantly updated and expanded. Catchwords such as lifetime learning and learning-ondemand are proof of a trend towards change in training forms and the associated media and communication forms. Viewing the process of globalization economic structures and the world of work has changed sometimes dramatically. Internationally, a radical change from industrial societies to so called information societies or knowledge societies is to be observed. Ever more workplaces are equipped with information technology. Knowledge sharing and related project cooperation in this area is of great significance, because major areas of industry will be Internet-based due to the growth rates in internet technology in a few years. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offer a fundamental opportunity to allow access to education and knowledge anywhere on our planet, without place and time restrictions. The internet will develop into a global library with overpowering influence as an information and knowledge database for all fields. Access to this database, i.e. provision of the technological prerequisites, the availability of the necessary infrastructure, and the training of personnel qualified to implement and control specific knowledge management systems will become strategic resources or, in other words, factors contributing to added value in all national economies. New software offers, ever more complex hardware, modern means of communication and an ever greater supply of information demand a continual adaptation of practiced labor processes. Purchasing, production organization, marketing and sales, in short, the whole of business logistics is changing visibly and at shorter and shorter intervals. ICT is one of the most powerful motors of these transformations and has become an almost natural part of modern economic and production processes in the meantime. In the end of the day the competitiveness of enterprises (and national economies) in a globalized world is strongly depended on a highly skilled workforce which is able to act in flexible work processes changing from day to day. Vocational education and training has to

realize this changing demand an offer solutions for modern and updated training concepts in this respect. Taking this development into account, the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) is active in various research and development projects in close cooperation with the corporate sector. Such Public Private Partnerships (PPP) is able to find solutions to face the most challenging problems of work embedded learning processes: The permanent transfer of information and knowledge into practice. Within this the car industry - one of the backbones of Germany`s economy plays an important role in jointly finding innovative approaches for target oriented modern training concepts which use all devices of ICT as a tool for explorative learning which is integrated in the manufacturing process. The challenge here is to provide information systems offering ease of navigation and use, allowing content to be accessed easily, and featuring learning elements that also contain qualifications components. The searchable information, moreover, needs to be presented in the form of the smallest viable learning units possible ( granulated units ). In the interests of achieving the highest level of flexibility possible in terms of the reuse of content, it is vital to think in terms of a sub-categorization in small learning modules which can be dynamically combined to form learning pages or exercises. The granular format and the structured clarity of availability of learning content represent one of the key prerequisites for the convenient preparation of content for the purposes of media-based training that allows use in a variety of work process related target formats and application scenarios. The ever increasing pace of technological change within production processes could ultimately lead to the decentralization of training, bringing with it new demands with regard to individual learning process support activities, both for trainers and skilled employees providing training. Within this specific con text, the promotion of self-directed qualification by means of information and knowledge management represents a further strategic challenge for trainees.

2. Executive needs and developmental techniques

3. Performance appraisal system Performance appraisal systems are designed to serve the company's and employee's interests. They are used to inventory the abilities and resources of employees and to let an employee know where he stands so that he will be stimulated to improve his performance. Employee motivation can be enhanced and performance improved with the monitoring of employees' performance level and the use of feedback to advise those employees about their

effectiveness. Performance feedback exchanges can be ongoing and informal, on a day-to-day coaching basis or on a formal basis, annually or biannually. "The ultimate--purpose of performance evaluation is to help create an atmosphere in the organization that is characterized, in the words of David McCord Wright, by 'adventurism, in which people are energetic, creative-minded, enjoy the activities of the organization for their own sakes, and is characterized also by high ethical standards, by high morale and pride in the organization" Many believe that the primary purpose of employee performance evaluation is motivating the employee to high standards of job performance. The key to this is the integration of organizational and individual goals. This necessitates bottom-up planning and top-down planning. Communication is the basis for the downward process. The upward process involves the employee informing management of his needs, aspirations and goals. For management, performance evaluation is a tool to determine. http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1682396.html

The agency appraisal system, in this case the DOI Performance Appraisal System, establishes agency wide policy for the application and operation of all performance appraisal within the agency, including: 1. Establishing employee performance plans, including, but not limited to, critical and performance indicators; 2. Communicating performance plans to employees at the beginning of the appraisal period; 3. Evaluating each employee during the appraisal period on the employee's performance plan; 4. Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so warrants; 5. Assisting employees in improving unacceptable performance; 6. Reassigning, reducing in grade, or removing employees who continue to have unacceptable performance, but only after an opportunity to demonstrate acceptable performance; and, 7. Identifying the employees covered by the system. http://www.doi.gov/hrm/pmanager/er2.html

With performance standards to compare what an employee is supposed to be doing with what the person actually has done, a supervisor can determine the employee s performance level. The performance appraisal process should then tie to the job description and performance standards. Developing clear, realistic performance standards can also reduce

communication problems in performance appraisal feedback among managers, supervisors, and employees. Safety and Health Job analysis information is useful in identifying possible job hazards and working conditions associated with jobs. From the information gathered, managers and HR specialists can work together to identify the health and safety equipment needed, specify work methods, and train workers. http://bloghresources.blogspot.com/2010/02/job-analysis-and-hr-activities.html 4. Career development Career development is an organized approach used to match employee goals with the business needs of the agency in support of workforce development initiatives. In this process: The purpose of career development is to: Enhance each employee's current job performance. Enable individuals to take advantage of future job opportunities. Fulfill agencies' goals for a dynamic and effective workforce. Who's Responsible For It? Managers are responsible for linking the organization's needs to employee career goals, and can assist employees in the career planning process. Human Resources is responsible for designing career paths and employee development programs that help employees reach their goals. Each employee is responsible for planning and managing his/her career. http://jobs.virginia.gov/cd_what.html

C. Compensation Compensation is a systematic approach to providing monetary value to employees in exchange for work performed. Compensation may achieve several purposes assisting in recruitment, job performance, and job satisfaction. http://www.hr-guide.com/data/G400.htm Compensation is a tool used by management for a variety of purposes to further the existance of the company. Compensation may be adjusted according the the business needs, goals, and available resources. Compensation may be used to:   recruit and retain qualified employees. increase or maintain morale/satisfaction.

   

reward and encourage peak performance. achieve internal and external equity. reduce turnover and encourage company loyalty. modify (through negotiations) practices of unions.

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Job analysis information is essential when determining compensation. As part of identifying appropriate compensation, job analysis information is used to determine job content for internal comparisons of responsibilities and external comparisons with the compensation paid by competing employers. Information from job analysis can be used to give more weight, and therefore more pay, to jobs involving more difficult tasks, duties, and responsibilities. Employees perceptions of fairness and equity are linked not only to how the extrinsic rewards they receive compare with those given to others both inside and outside the organization but also to those rewards they expect for themselves. Job analysis also can aid in the management of various employee benefits programs. For instance, a job analysis can be used to determine what functions can be performed by workers who have been on workers compensation disability leave. http://bloghresources.blogspot.com/2010/02/job-analysis-and-hr-activities.html

1. Basic compensation Salary Salary increases Start Date Commission/Planned Bonus Vacation Work schedule http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&source=web&cd =2&sqi=2&ved=0CB4QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.yale.edu%2Fwisay%2Fdocs%2Fcompens ation_issues.doc&ei=MbT2Tez4Luf40gGXv4WKCw&usg=AFQjCNHqLKA_tlomFIUc5ZjcxhYl3pXiO A 2. Variable compensation

Modern organizations are making variable compensation a significant percentage of employee compensation in the form of profit sharing, bonuses, and stock options. This ensures that employees prosper when the company prospers. The higher the position level within the organization, the more likely the employee will receive significant portions of his or her salary in variable compensation. http://humanresources.about.com/od/variablecompensation/Variable_Compensation_Profit_S haring_Bonuses_Stock_Options.htm Variable pay is employee compensation that changes as compared to salary which is paid in equal proportions throughout the year. Variable pay is used generally to recognize and reward employee contribution toward company productivity, profitability, team work, safety, quality, or some other metric deemed important. The employee who is awarded variable compensation has gone above and beyond his or her job description to contribute to organization success. Variable pay is awarded in a variety of formats including profit sharing, bonuses, holiday bonus, deferred compensation, cash, and goods and services such as a company-paid trip or a Thanksgiving turkey. http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryv/g/variable_pay.htm Merit pay is an approach to compensation that rewards the higher performing employees with additional pay or incentive pay. Merit pay has advantages and disadvantages for the employees and the employer. But, all-in-all, merit pay is the best way to reward the employees that you most want to keep. Here's more about why you might want to consider merit pay. http://humanresources.about.com/od/salaryandbenefits/g/merit-pay.htm

3. Supplementary compensation/fringe benefits Generally, fringe benefits are some type of non-cash or extra remuneration that an employer offers an employee over and above the cash payment earmarked as salary for the job. Fringe benefits, perquisites or benefits (as these are commonly known) could be anything that would make the life of the employee a little easier. Contrary to common belief, fringe benefits are not offered only to those who have low remunerative packages. Sometimes this is the case; however, most often it is a ruse to attract the best talent and to hold on to this best talent in an industry. Fringe benefits are hence, offered to employees who have low remuneration (as extra compensation) as well as those are highly paid but in demand for their qualities and capabilities.

Some of these are briefly described below:

 

Free education for children - considering the rising expenses of education, some companies offer free education where the same is required. This could be in the form of cash, free books, tuition fees, allowance, etc. Free transport to-and-fro the office - Commuting has been a great inconvenience in terms of both expenses and time. Some companies run their own buses so their employees do not have to worry about traveling to-n-fro the office. Others, offer passes for metros, busses or any other mass/ public transport to ease the financial burden of the employee. Reimbursement of fuel charges - For executives who use their own vehicle many companies offer to reimburse the fuel expenses for commuting to-n-fro office. Company car - A company car is normally offered to the elite group of employees in a company. Sometimes this would include driver (chauffeur driven) who would also be paid by the company, and sometimes this would be left as per the choice of the employee. When the company car is offered, its maintenance, fuel cost and insurance would be taken care of by the company as well. Accommodation or reimbursement of rental charges - this is one of the most commonly available fringe benefits. Sometimes this accommodation is rented on behalf of the company in posh areas; sometimes these are company-constructed townships where other facilities are part of the deal such as parks for the children, schools, medical facilities, crche, gym, jogging grounds, swimming pool, etc. Medical bills reimbursement or free medical care for employee (sometimes extending for the family as well and/ or children) - keeping in view that medical expenses have been escalating at an alarming rate, this particular fringe benefit is a favorite of all employees. Some companies extend the benefit (within a fixed lumpsum amount) to the spouse and children of the employee as well. Medical insurance cover - Many companies pay part of full of the medical insurance of the employee saving them a neat amount every year. This provides a great deal of relief for those who have a low remuneration. Lower interest or interest free loans - one among the more beneficial perquisites are interest free loans (or lower than the market loans) for employees for different needs such as consumer items, car, house, college expenses for children, wedding of children, etc. Discounted meals - this fringe benefit is another very common offer, almost taken for granted in some places. Employees are usually given discounted meal coupons at the office cafeteria or given a fixed allowance for meals of their choice Free meals - it is often that the company offers meals to all its employees (sometimes in different grades according to the designation of the employee) in the office mess.

 

 

All expenses paid vacations - this is one of the most sought after and rare fringe benefits. Some companies especially in the hospitality industry offer all expenses paid vacations to their employees. The vacation includes the family of the employee. Vacation travel reimbursement (free airline tickets/ discounted airline tickets; same for railways and busses) - sometimes the fringe benefit covers the to-n-from travel cost, while in some other cases there is a fixed amount calculated as a percentage of the remuneration (salary) offered to the employee annually. Cell phones - the majority of companies that need to be in constant contact with their employees - particularly marketing, sales, promotions - offer this perquisite. Reimbursement of cell phone expenses - those companies, which do not offer cell phones, usually reimburse the bills of employees cell phones if and when they have to interact with clients on behalf of the company over the mobile phone. Clubs memberships/ gym facilities - many companies require that their executives are part of the exclusive clubs of locality they belong to since the who-is-who of the society would frequent these places and the social mingling would benefit the company's image. In-house gym facilities - very often companies establish their own gym facilities, which are made available to all the employees, or a particular group of employees. Child care - it has been found that often people find it difficult to leave young children at home in the care of baby sitters, who are in the first place very expensive and secondly unreliable. Hence, many employers either pay for child care or have a crche on the premises, which takes care of this problem. Transfer allowance when transferred from one city to another - most often the costs incurred for a shift of residence is borne by the company. However, there are cases where it is the employee's responsibility to join the new place of work and the company has nothing to do with it. Hence, this is counted as a fringe benefit. Gifts in cash or kind during festivals - in order to bond with the employees and win their goodwill, many large companies offer gifts during Christmas, Easter and other nonChristian festivals (as the cases may be). These gifts are personal and either in the form of cash or kind. Concert/ events passes/ tickets/ hampers - depending on what type of company it is, many share with their employee entertainment perquisites. Suppose it is a chocolate factory, it offers chocolate gift hampers occasionally, suppose it is an airline, it offers all year discounts, etc. Higher study leave with pay - there is a lot of stress on adequate educational qualifications and many companies encourage their employees to pursue higher studies and specialization training courses whenever possible. For this purpose, they permit the

employee to take leave with pay so they could pursue their studies without any financial constraint. Higher studies/ training tuition fee payment - some companies even offer to pay the tuition fee for such studies, provided these are beneficial to the position the employee occupies and/ or the company would benefit out of a thus-qualified employee. Life insurance - just as the medical benefit, this too is a fringe benefit that would assure the employee that his/her family would be taken care of in case of any unforeseen accident. This may also includes accidental death and death insurance. Flexi hours - this is a great boon for working mothers who have small babies to take care of and need to nurse the infants. It is also great for people who live far away from the office premises. Special leave with pay (maternal, paternal, medical, bereavement, etc) - this is a benefit that can be availed only under certain circumstances. Nonetheless, the employee feels gratified that the option is available if the need ever arises.

This is by no means an exhaustive list. In fact, the beauty with the fringe benefits is that often these are at the discretion of the employers. They could come up with anything under the sky if they wanted to. The law usually imposes the minimum wages - anything extra is up to the negotiation power of the candidate and the disbursal will of the employer. http://www.cvtips.com/interview/fringe-benefits.html Many businesses offer their employees fringe benefits. According to Businessdictionary.com (n.d.), Compensation in addition to direct wages or salaries, such as company car, house allowance, medical insurance, paid holidays, pension schemes, and subsidized meals. Some fringe benefits are regarded part of a taxable income. There are different types of fringe benefits. Every benefit offered falls under one of four different classifications. The first classification is employment security. Maternity leave, sick time, bereavement, and cost of living adjustments are just of few of the fringe benefits that fall under this area. The next classification is health protection. Under this heading short-term and longterm disability are offered as well as workman s compensation insurance and life insurance. Another classification is old age and retirement. Just as it sounds this area provides aging individual with deferred income options, old age assistance, and pension plans. The final classification is personnel identification, participation, and stimulation. Different types of incentive pay are covered under this heading along with many different free or discounted services. Some of the most common fringe benefits that are offered are employment security, retrenchment compensation, layoff compensation, and safety and health. Employee security provides every employee a sense of peace for not only their physical safety but also his or her

financial and mental well-being. Retrenchment and layoff compensation are supported by the industrial disputes act of 1947.In summary, the law states that any employer who employs 50 or more people has to either give employees a full months notice of their job loss or up to 45 days of pay in the case of retrenchment. Layoff compensation is only required at 50 % of their wage up to 45 days. Most safety and health benefits are required and monitored by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration. http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Fringe-Benefits/329872 Fringe benefits are compensations made to an employee beyond the regular benefit of being paid for their work. Some fringe benefits are fairly standard, such as offering a few days of sick time or paid vacation time. Others can be significantly greater, and more rare. Key executives in large companies might also enjoy fringe benefits like use of time-share condominiums, paid continuing education, use of a company jet, use of a company credit card, discounted or free health club memberships, and a significant amount of paid vacation. Most people who work full time in the US could probably not get along without fringe benefits. For example, offering health insurance to employees, where the employer pays part of the insurance is a typical example of fringe benefits. According to the laws in some states, companies of a certain size must offer health insurance with some sharing of payment at least to a full-time employee. Some companies avoid this by employing more part-time workers. Most companies, however, realize that fringe benefits like health insurance contribute to the well being of their employees. Whenever possible, they try to offer at least partially discounted insurance to an employee, even if they are not legally required to do so. Fringe benefits like sick or vacation time tend to be fairly standard as well, even if an employee does not work full time. These paid days off do tend to have a cap on them. For example, a new employee might get a week s vacation time to start, and eight to ten days of sick time for year. Employees entering higher-level positions may be offered greater fringe benefits as incentive to join a company. In fact, in fields where there is a high demand for workers, such as nursing and teaching, some unusual fringe benefits may be offered to attract employees. Small school districts have gotten quite creative in this respect, since teacher salaries are still relatively low. A few unusual fringe benefits offered by school districts have been paid housing, or use of private lakes for fishing. More likely are paid incentives for joining a teaching staff such as hiring bonuses, offers to fund continuing education so teachers get higher degrees and thus higher pay, or offering mentor programs for new teachers.

Sometimes the fringe benefits turn out to be greatly needed. For example, the rising cost of private health insurance often makes obtaining a job with a good health plan highly desirable. Programs like 401ks can help employees save money for the future. Where job compensation is not commensurate with money needed to live comfortably, housing allowances, or company housing can often make the difference between being able to take a job and looking elsewhere. Some companies also pay fringe benefits for those who work night or swing shifts. These fringe benefits may be in the nature of a 10 30% increase of base pay for working a non-standard shift. This is called a shift differential and is quite common in the medical field and in manufacturing. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-fringe-benefits.htm

D. Integration Integration (from the Latin integer, meaning whole or entire) generally means combining parts so that they work together or form a whole. In information technology, there are several common usages: 1) Integration during product development is a process in which separately produced components or subsystems are combined and problems in their interactions are addressed. 2) Integration is an activity by companies that specialize in bringing different manufacturers' products together into a smoothly working system. 3) In marketing usage, products or components said to be integrated appear to meet one or more of the following conditions: A) They share a common purpose or set of objectives. (This is the loosest form of integration.) B) They all observe the same standard or set of standard protocol or they share a mediating capability, such the Object Request Broker (ORB) in the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). C) They were all designed together at the same time with a unifying purpose and/or architecture. (They may be sold as piece-parts but they were designed with the same larger objectives and/or architecture.) D) They share some of the same programming code.

E) They share some special knowledge of code (such as a lower-level program interface) that may or may not be publicly available. (If not publicly available, companies have been known to sue to make it available in order to make competition fair.) http://searchcrm.techtarget.com/definition/integration

1. Importance of human relations Owners and managers of profit and nonprofit organizations define human relations as fitting people into work situations so as to motivate them to work together harmoniously. The process of fitting together should achieve higher levels of productivity for the organization, while also bringing employees economic, psychological, and social satisfaction. Human relations covers all types of interactions among people their conflicts, cooperative efforts, and group relationships. It is the study of why our beliefs, attitudes and behaviors sometimes cause interpersonal conflict in our personal lives and in work-related situations. One of the most significant developments in recent years has been the increased importance of interpersonal skills in almost every type of work setting. For many employers, interpersonal skills represent an important category of transferable skills a worker is expected to bring to the job. Technical ability only is usually not enough to achieve career success. Studies indicate that many people who have difficulty in obtaining or holding a job possess the needed technical competence but lack interpersonal competence. HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT Problems in human relations are not new cooperative efforts carry the potential for conflicts among people. It is only within the past few decades that management has recognized that human relations can have considerable impact on organizational productivity. During this period, the human relations movement has matured into a distinct and important field of study. Although it is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the human relations movement began, most researchers agree that the earliest developments emerged in the mid-1800s. In the beginning, the focus was mainly on improving efficiency, motivation, and productivity. But over time, this research became more involved with redefining the nature of work and perceiving workers as complex human beings. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, most work was performed by individual craftworkers. Generally, each worker saw a project through from start to finish. Skills such as tailoring,

carpentry, or shoemaking took a long time to perfect and were often a source of pride to an individual. Under this system, however, output was limited. The Industrial Revolution had a profound impact on the nature of work and the role of the worker. Previously, an individual tailor could make only a few items of clothing in a certain time period; factories could make hundreds. Employers began to think of labor as another item in the manufacturing equation, along with raw materials and capital. Employers at that time did not realize how workers' needs affected productivity. As a result, few owners or managers gave much thought to working conditions, safety precautions, or worker motivation. Hours were long and pay was low. Around the turn of the century, Frederick Taylor and other researchers interested in industrial problems introduced the concept of scientific management. They believed that productivity could be improved by breaking down a job into isolated, specialized tasks and assigning each of those tasks to specific workers. The development of scientific management coincided with the revolutionary concept of mass production. Eventually it paved the way for the assembly line. Taylor's work was sharply criticized by those who believed it exploited workers. Employees were treated as a commodity, as interchangeable as the parts they produced. Taylor thought that by increasing production, the company would end up with a larger financial pie for everyone to share. Management would earn higher bonuses; workers would take home more pay. He did not foresee that his theories would be applied in ways that dehumanized the workplace. In the late 1920s, Elton Mayo and other researchers from Harvard University initiated what have become known as the Hawthorne Studies at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company near Chicago. The purpose of the investigation was to explore the relationship between changes in physical working conditions and employee productivity. Specifically, Mayo was interested in the effect of different intensities of light on employee output. In one experiment, ample light was provided to a group of six female workers. Later, the amount of light was significantly reduced; but instead of productivity decreasing, as was expected, it actually increased. The researchers attributed the phenomenon to what has since become known as the Hawthorne effect employees who participate in scientific studies may become more productive because of the attention they receive from the researchers. This discovery became important in the human relations movement because it has been interpreted to mean that when employees feel important and recognized, they exhibit greater motivation to excel in their work activities.

HUMAN RELATIONS AS A FIELD OF STUDY Human relations is an interdisciplinary field because the study of human behavior in organizational settings draws on the fields of communications, management, psychology, and sociology. It is an important field of study because all workers engage in human relations activities. Several trends have given new importance to human relations due to the changing workplace. The labor market has become a place of constant change due to the heavy volume of mergers, buyouts, a labor shortage, closings, and changing markets. These changes have been accompanied by layoffs and the elimination of product lines. Even those industries noted for job security have recently engaged in layoffs. As the United States attempts to cope with rapid technological change and new competition from international companies, there is every reason to believe that we will see more volatility in the labor force. Interpersonal skills will be even more critical in the future. Organizations are developing an increasing orientation toward service to clients. Relationships are becoming more important than physical products. Restaurants, hospitals, banks, public utilities, colleges, airlines, and retail stores all must now gain and retain patronage. In any service firm, there are thousands of critical incidents in which customers come into contact with the organization and form their impressions of its quality and service. Employees must not only be able to get along with customers; they must also project a favorable image of the organization they represent. Most organizations recognize improved quality is the key to survival. The notion of quality as a competitive tool has been around for many years, but today it is receiving much more attention. In a period of fierce competition, a consumer may not tolerate poor quality. Human beings are at the heart of the quality movement because workers are given the power and responsibility to improve quality. Companies are organizing their workers into teams in which each employee plays an important role. If team members cannot work together, the goals of the organization will suffer. In some cases, workers are cross-trained so they can do the work of others, if necessary. The demographics of the workplace are also changing. Diversity is more and more typical. In the years ahead, a large majority of those entering the work force will be women and minorities. Passage of the American with Disabilities Act in 1990 opened the employment door to more people with physical or mental impairments. And in the future, we will see increased employment of the population over age sixty-five. Within this heterogeneous work force, we

will find a variety of values and work habits. Supervisors will need to become skilled at managing diversity. The leaders in today's work force need different skills to be successful. The current generation of workers is better educated and better informed, and it also has higher expectations. They seek jobs that give not only a sense of accomplishment but also a sense of purpose. They want jobs that provide meaningful work. Today's managers must therefore shift from manager as order-giver to manager as facilitator. They must also learn how to assume the roles of teacher, mentor, and resource person. Few lines of work will be immune from these trends. Today's employee must be flexible and adaptable in order to achieve success within a climate of change. It is important for everyone to develop those interpersonal skills that are valued by all employers.

UNDERSTANDING HUMAN BEHAVIOR Mental perceptions are influenced by everything that has passed through an individual's mind. That includes all of a person's experiences, knowledge, biases, emotions, values, and attitudes. No two people have identical perceptions because no two people have precisely the same experiences. Mental perceptions may sometimes lead to conflict. Each person has formed mental perceptions relating to a number of controversial issues. For example, most workers have an opinion on abortion and capital punishment, among other issues. When proponents and opponents clash in voicing mental perceptions of controversial issues, conflict occurs. If the issue is one pertinent to the workplace, such as affirmative action, human values have the potential to lead to problems. Ethics also play a role in interpersonal conflict. Ethics refer to moral rules or values governing the conduct of a person or group. Perhaps more than anything else, an individual's adherence to values related to what is morally right determines the respect that others hold for that person. Lack of respect for one individual by another is likely to lead to poor human relations between the two. The social dimension of behavior is determined by a person's personality, attitudes, needs, and wants. An individual's personality is the totality of complex characteristics, including

behavior and emotional tendencies, personal and social traits, self-concept, and social skills. The objective of many training sessions for employees and supervisors is to improve a person's ability to get along with others. A person's personality has a major impact on human relations skills. People reveal their attitudes through their personality. An attitude is a mental position one possesses with regard to a fact, issue, or belief. Attitudes that often present problems in the workplace are those that concern biased and prejudiced viewpoints. Generally, employees who possess positive attitudes and who are open-minded are judged to have more desirable personalities than those with negative attitudes who hold biased viewpoints. COMMUNICATION Perhaps the single most important aspect of designing any work environment is the plan that links all workers and supervisors with multiple channels of communication. Good communication may be cited as the most important component of sound human relations. Despite the recognition of the importance of communication, it presents one of the most difficult and perplexing problems faced in modern organizations. Even in small organizations, where only a few people are involved, sound communication is difficult to establish. When an organization expands in numbers, as well as in diversity among its members, the establishment of communication channels becomes even more difficult. Good communication is essential for the smooth functioning of any organization. Managers need clear lines of communication to transmit orders and policies, build cooperation, and unify groups. Employees must be able to convey their concerns or suggestions and feel that management has heard them. Clear communication among coworkers is vital to good teamwork, problem solving, and conflict management. In short, effective human relations is founded on good communication. When people in organizations want to send messages, conduct meetings, or communicate person to person, they have many options. With increased use of voice mail, email, fax machines, and videoconferencing, it is a wonder people have time to read all the incoming information, let alone interpret and respond to it. Costly communication breakdowns are a prime factor in organizational problems ranging from high employee turnover to low productivity. Poor communication also takes a toll in employee injuries and deaths, particularly in industries where workers operate heavy equipment or handle hazardous materials. Although some communication breakdowns are inevitable, many can be avoided. Employees who are treated with respect, are empowered to think for themselves, and feel a

sense of loyalty are more apt to communicate openly with other workers and leaders throughout the organization. TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS Human relations occurs on several levels. Individuals interact in a variety of settings as peers, subordinates, and supervisors. No matter what the setting, relationships are built. All types of groups exist in an organization. Formal groups are officially designated, while informal groups are formed unofficially by the members them-selves. Some would argue the informal groups have more power. In either situation, important human relationships are taking place. Employees relate to their work group, other formal groups, and informal groups. The norms set by a group can greatly influence a person's behavior. Dress and language are two examples. Considering the number of groups in today's complex organizations, the influence is unlimited. The organization provides an opportunity for individual satisfaction. To achieve such satisfaction, and to continue as a successful member in the organization, the individual must comply with organizational policies, procedures, and rules. The organization requires certain behaviors from its employees. The rewards for such behaviors are demonstrated in the form of raises, promotions, and continued employment. When the organization promotes an employee, it is relating to the individual. Today's complex organizations depend on dividing the work among many formalized groups. Informal groups will also emerge, either positively or negatively affecting organizational outcomes. The relationship between organizations and groups must also be considered when quotas or standards are established. The acceptance or rejection of such standards illustrates the interaction between the organization and the group. One also has a relationship to one's self. Are you happy with yourself? Are you happy with your relationships with others? With the organization? With your future? If not, perhaps you should analyze your relationship with yourself. Managers and supervisors achieve results through people. Therefore, today's complex organizations require managers and supervisors to display a concern for people. The successful leader creates an effective balance between people and productivity, and recognizes human relations as the key ingredient transforming organizational plans into organizational results. Although it is often misunderstood, effective human relations will lead to success.

Human relations is not limited to supervisors it applies to every employee in an organization. Statistics indicate that successful people competently practice interpersonal skills, while the incompetent are left behind. Fortunately, these skills can be developed. Good relationships must be built among individuals and within groups of an organization. Although this is not an easy task, success without good human relations in not possible. Every individual must be prepared to meet the challenge. http://www.enotes.com/business-finance-encyclopedia/human-relations Human relationships always help us to carry on because they always presuppose further developments, a future and also because we live as if our only task was precisely to have relationships with other people. Albert Camus. By virtue of being a human being, we have to play various role at different point of time, and this role is popularly called as 'Human Relationship'. The reason behind to name it as a role is at different point of time a person has to play a different role with different people, and it is named as different name such as the relationship of - mother and her offspring, father and his offspring, siblings, husband and wife, friends etc. The same person act differently with different person, depends upon the relationship. The human relationship keeps too much importance in human being's life. It not only teaches the manners and etiquettes but also civilizes the person adequately in order to protect himself and his society as well. In general, the person who deprived of these relationships is found malnourished. Most of his/her behaviors are not acceptable by society. I mean to say, all sorts of delinquencies and other petty crimes are only due to frustration of relationship. The frustrated relationship restrains total development of respective person; subsequently, he/she is unable to understand his/her role in the society and takes wrong path. The most wonderful of all things in life, I believe, is the discovery of another human being with whom one's relationship has a growing depth, beauty, and joy as the years increase. This inner progressiveness of love between two human beings is a most marvelous thing; it cannot be found by looking for it or by passionately wishing for it. It is a sort of divine accident, and the most wonderful of all things in life. http://www.articlesbase.com/relationships-articles/the-essence-of-human-relationship701792.html#axzz1PEX61Hkk

Human relations rely heavily on effective communications skills. When met with a friendly greeting and empathetic response, customers are put at ease, feel more positive about the organization and are more likely to follow any instructions from the security officer. Security officers must also deal with a variety of people and situations during everyday activities. Without knowledge of human relations skills, everyday dealings can be difficult and

strained, leading to bad customer relations within the organization and an overall bad image. If an emergency incident were to arise, the security officer's human relations skills could determine the outcome of the incident, as they are often first on the scene. Resolving the whole incident may depend on whether the officers can manage the people involved in the emergency. BASIC HUMAN RELATIONS SKILLS There are a couple of basic human relations skills that every security officer should possess: Effective listening By actively listening, officers can show interest in what a person is saying and concern for his/her problems. The officers should allow the person to vent reasonably and express an opinion, and they should nod to indicate that they are listening. Jumping to conclusions, prejudging and placing blame should be avoided as they demonstrate the officer is not listening completely. Officers must also be able to communicate effectively back to the customer in a clear, concise and nonthreatening manner. Officers can build trust with the customer by showing sincerity, credibility and a willingness to help solve problems. Empathy By being empathetic, an officer can acknowledge how a customer is feeling. An officer should not sympathize with or over-identify with, but merely try to understand the person's point of view. Apologies are acceptable when appropriate, but officers should never apologize for doing their job. USING HUMAN RELATIONS TO MAINTAIN IMAGE An important outcome of effective human relations is to maintain a positive image for the officer, security department and the organization as a whole. Image is valuable; organizations work hard to attain and maintain a favorable image. Image can make or break the success of an organization or individual officer. Poor human relations skills and unprofessionalism can destroy a positive image. Security officers represent the organization that employs them and should project a positive image in accordance to the image the organization wants to maintain. Dependability, politeness, tact, discreetness, impartiality and patience will help to deliver a positive image of a security officer. IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING

Human relations training is the most efficient way to ensure that security officers have effective human relations skills. Training exposes officers to situations they may encounter on the job, thus preparing them to deal with any real incidents that occur. An effective training process on human relations consists of six steps: objective, lectures, scenarios, test exercises, individual tests and reviews or refreshers. Before training begins, goals should be set and objectives should be outlined and clearly defined. Two effective training strategies are role-playing and penetration testing. The basis for role playing is scenarios they are a sort of dress rehearsal in which officers respond appropriately to real life situations. Role playing is most effective when the trainee is aware of the general situation in advance, but does not know exactly how the situation will be played out by the other participants. The other participants could consist of other members of the security department or outsiders. Role-playing is effective because it directly mirrors real-life situations. There may be more than one right way to deal with a situation. It is useful to engage trainees in discussion after role playing about what happened in the exercise and what other actions could have been taken. Penetration testing involves having an outside person enter a building or organization to test an officer's ability. It is most often used to test access control, but it can also be modified to test human relations skills. Evaluators can be chosen who are unknown to the security officers. They can test an officer's human relations skills in a variety of ways from simply asking for directions to causing a major disturbance. http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_role_human_relations/ As human motives and behavior constitute the central theme of thee human relations that are complex and difficult to predict, one should not expect it to offer a complete basis of organization. In fact, human relations approach to organization is more an attitude than a set of principles of organization. It is largely intended to point out the factors and variables that are not adequately covered by the classical theory. Thus the important contribution of the human relations theory of organization has been to warn the classicists not to treat organizational participants as machines, and to give due respect to the values and needs of the people. In fact, the difference between the classical approach and the human relations approach is largely that of emphasis and not so much of complete disagreement, whereas the classicists consider organization to be a science, the behaviorists tend to view sociology and psychology as the underlying science. But it is not opposed that the classical model cannot be modified. Urwick and others have realized the need for modifications in organizational principles particularly in view of the new discoveries. Fayol

even went to the extent of saying that principles of organization should be used as general guides and not as immutable laws. It is further evidenced by increasing emphasis on motivation and human behaviorists tend to recognize that happiness and job satisfaction do not eliminate the needs for organizational hierarchy. http://www.wkjournal.com/2010/10/importance-of-human-relations.html

Human relations is more important at work than people realize The importance of getting along with and working with people of all different backgrounds is essential if a person wants to thrive and survive in today s workplace. In a day and age where jobs are no longer stable and layoffs at organizations are very common, it is important to know how to work with and get along with different types of people. Human relations are more important now than they were years ago because companies are now spending more time to train employees. When a company trains their employees, it is expected that the employees will understand what is expected of them during the day at work. There are two major responsibilities that employees have when they are hired by a company. 1. First, employees are expected to perform the duties and responsibilities the best that they can. This first step makes a lot of sense because if you were in charge of a company and you were the hiring manager, what type of employee would you want? You would obviously want to have employees that take their work very seriously and that take the time to do the best job that they can. I can speak from experience because I used to work for the biggest mortgage company in the United States before it was bought by another company. 2. Second, employees are expected to get along with all of their co-workers and their manager or supervisor. Otherwise, there will be tension in the office and the productivity of the company will fall. Another major reason that human relations in the workplace are more important now compared to years ago is because companies are larger than they used to be. There are many large organizations that have chief executive officers and chief financial officers. Then they may have regional managers, regional vice presidents, or even branch managers depending on the company. If we go further, there can also be team or sales mangers and operations managers. I also believe that human relations in the workplace are especially important because when you are hired by a company getting along with people of different backgrounds is very important because you need to understand that we are all unique in that we have different

talents and abilities. All of us humans make mistakes and we have our faults. And based on these realities, we will make mistakes, and there will be disagreements in the workplace. I have witnessed both of these situations before and it is essential that when situations such as this occur that attempts should be made to rectify the situation as soon as possible. If workplace disagreements and conflicts are left unresolved, there will be more tension, decreased productivity, unhappy employees and possibly the financial failure of the company. We also need to become familiar with the fact that there will be people of different religious, ethnic and racial backgrounds in today s workplace. We need to accept these people for who they are. We cannot attempt to change them. It is difficult to change yourself so why should you attempt to change other people? We need to also treat everyone as a human being rather than judging them based on their race, ethnic group or nationality. Being a person who accepts people of all backgrounds is very important because then you will always be an employee who is valued by an organization as a person who is an asset rather than a liability. I strongly believe that treating others well and looking at them as a human being is essential even in the workplace. http://hubpages.com/hub/The-importance-of-human-relations-in-the-workplace 2. Nature of human beings models Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics, of thinking, feeling and acting, that humans tend to have naturally. including ways

The questions of what these characteristics are, what causes them and how this causation works, and how fixed human nature is, are amongst the oldest and most important questions in western philosophy. These questions have particularly important implications in ethics, politics and theology. This is partly because human nature can be regarded as both a source of norms of conduct or ways of life, as well as presenting obstacles or constraints on living a good life. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_nature After considerable consideration, here are some of the basics of how I think we operate. It may give you some ideas for how to think of yourself. If you re interested it will give you insight into my attitude in working with people, which is both systematic and unlimited. 1. Fundamental nature. We have a fundamental nature which does not change. It is balanced, whole, healthy, creative and growth-oriented. This is who we naturally and really are. Anything other than this is a modification or distortion we have adopted for one of various reasons. As those are released we return to this fundamental nature. With this view we can trust what may emerge from what we do not currently see rather than being frightened of it.

2. Adaptive nature. As human beings we also have an adaptive nature. We are social creatures who are born into a wide variety of situations, so we are wired to take on the local language, beliefs, behaviors, ways of relating, and so on. We do this in order to be accepted (which creates safety), and to embody and pass along our culture to further generations (which creates continuity). In healthy cultures this is a great system, but it works the same whether the culture is healthy or not. I call these adaptations settings in the sense that a thermostat has settings. All complex mechanisms (which we are, among other things) require settings to keep them in a good operating range. Settings create limits on behavior and define acceptable ranges of conditions, from hunger and thirst to what is socially acceptable. There are various ways we acquire settings. 3. Settings by physiology and by habit. Our modern culture carries a huge burden of trauma, fear, misunderstanding and so on, in which we marinate as young ones and cannot help absorbing. Settings include triggers at their limits. When activated various powerful means (hunger, thirst, sleepiness, fear, anxiety, dread, shame, desire, a sense of need, etc.) work to return us to the acceptable range of conditions if possible. If we are thirsty, we drink. If we are too hot or cold, we move to a more comfortable range. These are physiological settings, perhaps shifted by early exposure but with material basis. We learn the local language and learn to like the local foods. We learn how close or far to be from each other, who to treat in what ways, and how to expect to be treated. If we are repeatedly told (one way or another) that we are worthless, creative, stupid, smart, or whatever, we adopt those as beliefs about ourselves which we seldom question. These are settings acquired by habit. 3. Settings by trauma. In hostile circumstances (less-than-functional families or intensely negative experiences, for instance) we do whatever it takes to survive. Our built in, programmable alarm system learns to detect and motivate us to avoid exposure to situations it deems similar. This may work to our advantage when young, but can be a real problem as we grow up and move into wider society. Our reactions in these circumstances become settings acquired by trauma, and are often the root of phobias and other powerful limits on what we can do. 4. Limiting settings. Settings by habit (often) and by trauma (definitely) limit expression of our fundamental nature. Settings act for life, unless and until changed, shaping our lives whether we want them to or not. Their function is to keep us in a safe operating range, which is at least familiar. It need not be optimal for our well-being or life satisfaction. 5. Inner contradiction as a source of pain. The contradiction between our fundamental nature and limiting settings is the source of much of the pain, frustration and dissatisfaction in life.

6. A way out. There are ways to reduce or remove the power of limiting settings. Understanding and using these ways makes life at first more tolerable and then increasingly positive and satisfying. 7. Becoming our real selves. As limiting settings lose power we naturally and increasingly move to experiencing and acting from our fundamental, intrinsically whole being. We become increasingly self-aware and less controlled by habit or conditioning. We become more responsive and resilient, less fragile and less subject to overwhelm. We become more creative and free of programmed defensive reactions. Stress goes down and overall physical, mental and emotional well-being increase. Life options open up. http://eftsettings.com/articles/model-of-human-nature 3. Motivation theories Incentive Theory A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect would be greater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behavior differ from the hypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency or magnitude of that response. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of an appetitive stimulus following a response. From this perspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerr notes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals. Drive-reduction theories There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a drive the drive's strength is reduced. Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The first problem

is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through secondorder conditioning. Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as having a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular being a feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires. In addition, it is clear that drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for "food" in order to explain cooking render it hard to test. Cognitive dissonance theory This occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an incompatibility between two cognitions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure himself regarding a purchase, feeling, in retrospect, that another decision may have been preferable. While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. Need theories Content theory The content theory includes the hierarchy of needs from Maslow and the two- factor theory from Herzberg. Maslow says that first of all the basic requirements have to be settled, before higher requirements show to advantage in stages. The basic requirements build the first step in his pyramid. They decide about to be or not to be. If there is any deficit on this level, so the whole behavior of a human will be oriented to this to satisfy it. Subsequently we do have the second level, which awake a need for security. This is based on the needs that are to remain satisfied in the future. Only after securing the means of existence, the motives shift in the social sphere, which form the third stage. Psychological requirements consist to the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy comprise the self- realization.

So theory can be summarized as follows: Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not. Since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.

The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows: Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) Safety/Security/Shelter/Health Belongingness/Love/Friendship Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement Self actualization Self-determination theory Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslow's hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of "autopilot" for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness. Broad theories The latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation Theory, developed by Piers Steel and Cornelius Konig. Introduced in their 2007 Academy of Management Review article, it synthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects of all other major motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, Drive Theory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. Notably, it simplifies the field of motivation considerably and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another. Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation 4. Human organizational conflicts

Organizational conflict is a state of discord caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between people working together. Conflict takes many forms in organizations. There is the inevitable clash between formal authority and power and those individuals and groups affected. There are disputes over how revenues should be divided, how the work should be done, and how long and hard people should work. There are jurisdictional disagreements among individuals, departments, and between unions and management. There are subtler forms of conflict involving rivalries, jealousies, personality clashes, role definitions, and struggles for power and favor. There is also conflict within individuals between competing needs and demands to which individuals respond in different ways. Traditional view of conflict is the belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_conflict Organizational conflict can simply be defined as problems or misunderstandings that arise between members of a group or team. To best understand this term, one must first understand what these words mean separately. For example, an organization does not always necessarily mean a work environment; it can also mean a social group or a team of people working together toward the same goal. Conflict does not always necessarily mean an argument, it can also be a misunderstanding or a simple problem that arises during a task. When dealing with organizational conflict, it is best for the organization to be prepared with a conflict resolution plan. This often is put into place during the formation or transformation of the organization. A conflict resolution plan can aid in resolving organizational conflict within a group by merely laying down a set of guidelines and rules for each group member to follow when he or she experiences conflict within the organization. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-organizational-conflict.htm

Conflict

Resolution

A group can only be called a team if the members are actively working together toward a common goal. A team must have the capability to set goals, make decisions, solve problems, and share responsibilities. For a team to be successful, trust must be earned between its members by being consistent and reliable (Temme & Katzel, 1995). When more than one person is working on a particular task, inconsistent views or opinions commonly arise. People come from different backgrounds and live through different life experiences therefore, even when working towards a common goal, they will not always see eye to eye. Major conflict that is not dealt with can devastate a team or organization (Make Conflict Work, 2008). In some situations, conflict can be more constructive than destructive. Recognizing the difference between conflict that is constructive to the team and conflict that is destructive to the team is important.

Trying to prevent the conflict is not always the best way to manage conflict when working within a team setting. Understanding conflict, what causes it, and how to resolve conflict effectively, should consume full concentration.

Understanding Conflict Before understanding how to deal with conflict, one must understand what conflict is. Conflict can be defined as, any situation in which incompatible goals, cognitions, or emotions within or between individuals or groups lead to opposition or antagonistic interaction (Learning Team Toolkit, 2004, pp 242-243). Does the idea of conflict always have to carry a negative connotation? The growth and development of society would be a great deal slower if people never challenged each other s ideas. The Learning Team Toolkit discusses three different views of conflict: traditional, human relations, and interactionist (2004, p. 243). A traditional view suggests that any and all conflict is negative. The idea of conflict under this view brings... http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Conflict-Resolution/164950

- Labor union Labor unions are the major organizations pursuing the collective interests of workers in the areas of health and safety, especially in the mining, manufacturing, construction, health care, and transportation sectors. Beyond assisting members with their day-to-day needs through contract negotiation and administration, unions actively work for legislative and regulatory remedies for health and safety problems. Union influence extends far beyond the workplaces of the 14 percent of workers in the United States who are unionized. Unions bargain for specific improvements in working conditions; representation and systems for improving conditions, such as health and safety committees; and procedures for members to submit specific complaints to abate hazards. They also provide technical assistance, information, and training to members facing chemical or safety dangers. Additionally, traditional bargaining for hours of work, medical benefits, disability insurance, and job security positively impact the health status of workers. Unions work politically for the passage and implementation of laws, standards, and regulations designed to improve working conditions and worker health. Early twentieth-century legislation included wage and hour laws, limitations on child labor and industrial home work, workers' compensation, and state labor departments to inspect workplaces for hazards. The labor

movement united with public health and public interest groups to pass the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, greatly expanding the federal presence in these areas. Unions have been the critical force behind most major Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards, providing evidence in the rulemaking record and initiating litigation to force rulemaking and to defend rules against industry opposition. http://www.answers.com/topic/labor-union

An association, combination, or organization of employees who band together to secure favorable wages, improved working conditions, and better work hours, and to resolve grievances against employers. The history of labor unions in the United States has much to do with changes in technology and the development of capitalism. Although labor unions can be compared to European merchant and craft guilds of the Middle Ages, they arose with the factory system and the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century. The first efforts to organize employees were met with fierce resistance by employers. The U.S. legal system played a part in this resistance. In Commonwealth v. Pullis (Phila. Mayor's Ct. 1806), generally known as the Philadelphia Cordwainers' case, boot makers and shoemakers of Philadelphia were indicted as a combination for conspiring to raise their wages. The prosecution argued that the common-law doctrine of criminal conspiracy applied. The jury agreed that the union was illegal, and the defendants were fined. From that case came the labor conspiracy doctrine, which held that collective (as distinguished from individual) bargaining would interfere with the natural operation of the marketplace, raise wages to artificially high levels, and destroy competition. This early resistance to unions led to an adversarial relationship between unions and employers. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Labor+Union

Collective bargaining

Collective bargaining is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions. Collective agreements usually set out wage scales, working hours, training, health and safety,overtime, grievance mechanisms and rights to participate in workplace or company affairs.[1]

The union may negotiate with a single employer (who is typically representing a company's shareholders) or may negotiate with a group of businesses, depending on the country, to reach an industry wide agreement. A collective agreement functions as a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. Collective bargaining consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (generally represented by management, in some countries[which?] by an employers' organization) in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a collective bargaining agreement (CBA) or as a collective employment agreement (CEA). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collective_bargaining

Collective bargaining is a type of negotiation used by employees to work with their employers. During a collective bargaining period, workers' representatives approach the employer and attempt to negotiate a contract which both sides can agree with. Typical issues covered in a labor contract are hours, wages, benefits, working conditions, and the rules of the workplace. Once both sides have reached a contract that they find agreeable, it is signed and kept in place for a set period of time, most commonly three years. The final contract is called a collective bargaining agreement, to reflect the fact that it is the result of a collective bargaining effort. Many skilled trades started using their skills as bargaining tools to force their employers to meet their workplace needs. Other workers relied on sheer numbers, creating general strikes to protest poor working conditions. Several labor pioneers started to establish a collective bargaining system so that labor negotiations could run more smoothly. Typically, the employees are represented by a union. Collective bargaining actually begins with joining a union, agreeing to abide by the rules of the union, and electing union representatives. In general, experienced people from the union will assist the employees with putting together a draft of a contract, and will help them present their desires to the company. Numerous meetings between representatives of employer and employees will be held until the two can agree on a contract. As the contract is being negotiated, general employees also have input on it, through their union officers. Thus, the agreement reflects the combined desires of all the employees, along with limitations that the employer wishes to see put in place. The result is a powerful document which usually reflects cooperative effort. In some cases, however, the union or the employer may resort to antagonistic tactics such as striking or creating a lockout, in order to push the agreement through. For workers, collective bargaining is an excellent tool. Many workplaces benefit from unionization, which allows workers to speak together as a body to assert their rights. Employers also benefit from collective bargaining agreements, which set out clear expectations for both sides. The experience of collective bargaining can also be a learning experience for both sides of

the discussion, as it encourages employers and employees alike to consider each other's positions. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-collective-bargaining.htm Collective bargaining is the process of negotiation between unions and employers regarding the terms and conditions of employment of employees, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. It is a process of rule making, leading to joint regulation. The central role of collective bargaining between workers and employers and their organizations in industrial relations in the Member States is recognized by the EU in Article 28 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union of December 2000 ( Right of Collective Bargaining and Action ) and in Article 12 of the Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers of 1989. The Right to Bargain Collectively was also declared a fundamental right in the 1961 European Social Charter of the Council of Europe (Article 6). The interpretation by the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg of the right to freedom of association in Article 11 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms has extended some protection also to collective bargaining (Wilson and the National Union of Journalists; Palmer, Wyeth and the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers; Doolan and others v. United Kingdom, decided 2 July 2002). Just as collective bargaining receives legal support in the Member States, this array of European legal guarantees provides the background for the EU s recognition of the centrality of collective bargaining. The operation of collective bargaining in EU industrial relations is multifaceted, as evident in the various functions attributed to collective agreements by EU Directives and the growing role of European collective agreements. At EU level, collective bargaining takes place at inter-confederal/inter-sectoral, multi-sectoral, industry/sectoral, enterprise and inter-regional level. Collective bargaining is a means of implementing EU directives in the field of employment and industrial relations. Therefore, one specific process of collective bargaining takes place when negotiations develop in the shadow of the law. This is exemplified by Council Directive 94/45/EC of 22 September 1994 on the establishment of a European Works Council, or a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of undertakings, for the purposes of informing employees and consulting with them the European Works Councils (EWC) Directive. The directive is characterised by a strategy, which is apparently assuming greater prominence in the EU system: the delegation to the social partners, management and labour, of the competence to negotiate the relevant European labour standards . The EWC is to be negotiated by the central management of the

multinational enterprise and the representatives of the workforce; they must negotiate in a spirit of cooperation with a view to reaching an agreement on the detailed arrangements for implementing the information and consultation of employees (Article 6). However, the Directive shapes the negotiating process by explicitly providing that, if agreement is not reached, minimum (subsidiary) requirements laid down in an Annex to the Directive will apply (Article 7(1)). In practice, therefore, the structure of negotiations between the parties is influenced by the subsidiary requirements. Also in the case of the establishment of a European company or a European Cooperative Society , management has to negotiate at European level with a special negotiating body composed of representatives from various Member States. The increasing number of transnational enterprise undergoing restructuring represents another driver for collective bargaining at European level. There are already cases in which European industry federations and/or European Works Councils have signed framework agreements concerning the social regulation of restructuring processes. Other framework agreements that were negotiated at European level deal with labor policies and labor standards. As part of its Social Agenda for the period 2005-2010, the European Commission initiated a discussion on setting up an optional legal framework for transnational collective bargaining. With the growth of transnational enterprises, the continuing pressure of takeovers and mergers and the extension and development of European Works Councils, transnational collective bargaining is expected to become more common. Therefore, the European Commission believes that a legal framework might become necessary to regulate such issues as defining the actors entitled to negotiate, the form and content of agreements, the legal effect of agreements, links to national and sectoral agreements as well as the right to collective action. Such an approach is anchored in the partnership for change priority advocated by the Lisbon Strategy . http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/areas/industrialrelations/dictionary/definitions/COLLECTIVE BARGAINING.htm A collective bargaining agreement is the ultimate goal of the collective bargaining process. Typically, the agreement establishes wages, hours, promotions, benefits, and other employment terms as well as procedures for handling disputes arising under it. Because the collective bargaining agreement cannot address every workplace issue that might arise in the future, unwritten customs and past practices, external law, and informal agreements are as important to the collective bargaining agreement as the written instrument itself. Collective bargaining allows workers and employers to reach voluntary agreement on a wide range of topics. Even so, it is limited to some extent by federal and state laws. A collective

bargaining agreement cannot accomplish by contract what the law prohibits. For example, a union and an employer cannot use collective bargaining to deprive employees of rights they would otherwise enjoy under laws such as the Civil Rights statutes. Collective bargaining also cannot be used to waive rights or obligations that laws impose on either party. For example, an employer may not use collective bargaining to reduce the level of safety standards it must follow under the OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (29 U.S.C.A. 651 et seq.). Furthermore, the collective bargaining agreement is not purely voluntary. One party's failure to reach agreement entitles the other to resort to certain legal tactics, such as strikes and lockouts, to apply economic pressure and force agreement. Moreover, unlike commercial contracts governed by state law, the collective bargaining agreement is governed almost exclusively by federal Labor Law, which determines the issues that require collective bargaining, the timing and method of bargaining, and the consequences of a failure to bargain properly or to adhere to a collective bargaining agreement. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/collective+bargaining

E. Maintenance 1. Communication and Counseling Counseling incorporates a wide variety of areas that apply to many different environments and situations. Understanding human behavior and enabling (or improving) communication are essential in interacting positively with others. This view has been increasingly accepted by businesses and organizations, especially in terms of its contribution in improving productivity. There are many benefits of applying counseling-based communication skills and tools in the workplace. These include: 1. Enabling a better understanding of why employees behave as they do. This allows identification of those factors that both motivate and inhibit employee behavior and interaction. 2. Allowing the development and implementation of strategies that align employee work behaviors with organizational goals including effective motivational strategies, cross-training programs, a greater emphasis on teambuilding, and developing trusting and predictable relationships with employees. 3. Improving communication and essential feedback mechanisms that allow employees to communicate with Managers. 4. Earlier identification and addressing of behaviors that is not conducive to workplace productivity and performance such as Stress, poor work priority and organization, and job dissatisfaction. 5. Increase in employee loyalty and job satisfaction as staff perceives they are working within a

caring and supportive environment. 6. Higher employee commitment to organizational goals and job performance with less focus upon wages and pay increases. 7. Improved productivity from higher levels of employee job satisfaction, self-esteem and motivation. 8. Earlier identification and resolution of employee grievances. 9. Reduced levels of workplace conflict, downtime, industrial disputes and workplace Stress. 10. Increased staff retention and workplace communication. http://www.enhancedhealing.com/health_wellness_articles/article/687

2. Safety and health of employee Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthful workplace for their employees. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Labor, has the responsibility of assuring the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing standards; providing training, outreach and education; establishing partnerships; and encouraging continual improvement in workplace safety and health.

Safety and Health Add Value Addressing safety and health issues in the workplace saves the employer money and adds value to the business. When workers stay whole and healthy, the direct cost-savings to businesses include:       lower workers' compensation insurance costs; reduced medical expenditures; smaller expenditures for return-to-work programs; fewer faulty products; lower costs for job accommodations for injured workers; less money spent for overtime benefits.

Safety and health also make big reductions in indirect costs, due to:      increased productivity; higher quality products; increased morale; better labor/management relations; reduced turnover;

better use of human resources.

Employees and their families benefit from safety and health because:    their incomes are protected; their family lives are not hampered by injury; they have less stress.

Simply put, protecting people on the job is in everyone's best interest - our economy, our communities, our fellow workers and our families. Safety and health add value to businesses, workplaces and lives. http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/managing-your-business/employee-health-andsafety.html

F. Separation

1. Retirement decision Most workers look forward to the day of retirement, but we always assume that WE will decide when that day will come. Sometimes, however, it's the employer who offers the suggestion that now would be a good time for retirement. An early retirement incentive offer may be optional; in that case, you need to carefully consider whether to accept. If it is not optional, there is no decision to make, but there are certainly plans to work through and preparations to make. A decision about whether to accept the early retirement offer is generally a very complex one. As you evaluate the decision, keep in mind what your retirement goals were before this offer came along. Is this offer compatible with those plans? http://www.extension.iastate.edu/finances/personal/retirement/early_retirement.htm Factors affecting retirement decisions Many factors affect people's retirement decisions. Social Security clearly plays an important role. In countries around the world, people are much more likely to retire at the early and normal retirement ages of the public pension system. This pattern cannot be explained by different financial incentives to retire at these ages since typically retirement

benefits at these ages are approximately actuarially fair; that is, the present value of lifetime pension benefits (pension wealth) conditional on retiring at age a is approximately the same as pension wealth conditional on retiring one year later at age a+1. Nevertheless a large literature has found that individuals respond significantly to financial incentives relating to retirement. Greater wealth tends to lead to earlier retirement, since wealthier individuals can essentially "purchase" additional leisure. Generally the effect of wealth on retirement is difficult to estimate empirically since observing greater wealth at older ages may be the result of increased saving over the working life in anticipation of earlier retirement. However, a number of economists have found creative ways to estimate wealth effects on retirement and typically find that they are small. A great deal of attention has surrounded how the financial crisis is affecting retirement decisions, with the conventional wisdom saying that fewer people will retire since their savings have been depleted; however recent research suggests that the opposite may happen. Using data from the HRS, researchers examined trends in defined benefit (DB) vs. defined contribution (DC) pension plans and found that those nearing retirement had only limited exposure to the recent stock market decline and thus are not likely to substantially delay their retirement. At the same time, using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), another study estimates that mass layoffs are likely to lead to an increase in retirement almost 50% larger than the decrease brought about by the stock market crash, so that on net retirements are likely to increase in response to the crisis. A great deal of research has examined the effects of health status and health shocks on retirement. It is widely found that individuals in poor health generally retire earlier than those in better health. This does not necessarily imply that poor health status leads people to retire earlier, since in surveys retirees may be more likely to exaggerate their poor health status to justify their earlier decision to retire. This justification bias, however, is likely to be small. In general, declining healths over time, as well as the onset of new health conditions, have been found to be positively related to earlier retirement. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retiring

2. Layoff decision Important Considerations When Making Layoff Decisions 1. Consider the alternatives. A knee-jerk reaction may result in a quick layoff and a quick buck, but it may not be the best solution long-term. Before making a layoff decision, always consider the alternatives. Layoffs should typically be a last resort, after other cost-cutting measures don't pay off. Work sharing, for example, is one option that may help the company save some

money and still allow employees to retain their jobs. Work sharing allows two employees to share the responsibilities of a full-time employee. Company-wide pay cuts may be another feasible alternative to a layoff. Although not appealing to most employees, for some, it's better than having no job at all. A reduction in pay works best if it is shared by all employees, including management. Another option is to offer those nearing retirement exit incentives if they choose to resign early. Employers want to be cautious with this approach, however, to avoid claims of age discrimination. 2. Layoff criteria. It is recommended that prior to layoff employers develop objective and justifiable criteria for selecting employees to let go. Some factors you may want to consider in making a layoff decision include seniority, job performance, leadership potential, and one's overall value to the company. Just remember, any decision you make must be supported by a legitimate business need. 3. Seniority. When seniority is considered to be the criteria for making layoff decisions, an employee's tenure will determine his or her susceptibility to a layoff. Although length of service is recommended to be part of the layoff decision, it should be coupled with other factors such as an employee's performance history. 4. Performance and skills. The knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA's) needed for a company to survive after downsizing and to ultimately remain competitive in the marketplace may also help guide a layoff decision. Competencies such as resiliency, leadership and organizational commitment, for example, may all be particularly valuable to the company. It may be wise to retain employees possessing the skill sets that are desired company-wide. In addition to specialized skills, job performance is often used to make layoff decisions. When performance is used during the decision making process, be sure to review past performance appraisals and other records of performance history before making a layoff decision. 5. Voluntary layoffs. To avoid making the difficult decision themselves, some employers offer "voluntary layoffs" by informing employees of their options. For example, an employer may approach their employees and offer them to either remain with the company and take a pay cut or allow them to resign and take a severance package. Offering attractive exit incentives, such as severance pay, continued health insurance, and pay for unused paid time off, may encourage employees to make the decision to leave the company voluntarily. However, this approach may also have some drawbacks; most notably the potential for star employees to take you up on your offer. 6. Severance packages. Although employers typically have no obligation to offer severance packages to exiting employees, some employers may decide to. Severance pay usually equates to a week or two of pay for each year of service and can be provided in a lump sum or paid over

a period of time. In some instances, a severance package may also include other extended benefits such as continued health insurance or outplacement assistance. 7. Outplacement services. Employers may want to consider providing affected employees with outplacement services. These services are designed to help terminated employees prepare for a new job and typically provide assistance in resume writing, interview skills, job placement, and career counseling. 8. Ensure employees are informed. Employers can help make the transition between jobs a bit easier by providing employees with helpful information on income support assistance programs such as unemployment compensation, and health insurance continuation options, such as COBRA. 9. Paychecks. Each state may have their own requirements relating to issuing an employee's final paycheck. In some states, employers may be required to provide employees their final paycheck at the time of layoff; other states may allow employers to provide the final paycheck at the next scheduled payday. Check your state requirements in the Layoffs section of our State & Federal Laws database. 10. Legal considerations. As with any employment decision, employers want to tread carefully before following through with a layoff. To avoid discrimination claims, all decisions should be made based on objective criteria and supported with documentation. It's recommended that equal employment opportunity (EEO) implications are considered in order to ensure that employees of a protected class (i.e., minorities, those over the age of 40, the disabled, or veterans) are not disproportionately impacted by a layoff decision. Further, when large number of workers are laid off at once, state law may require that employers notify their state Department of Labor. Check your state requirements in the Layoffs section of our State & Federal Laws database. If downsizing is the best option for ensuring the company stays afloat during tough economic times, there are a variety of considerations employers should make in order to protect themselves. Establishing criteria that will be used when making layoff decisions should always be your first course of action, followed by considerations relating to whether or not to offer severance packages, outplacement assistance, or exit incentives. http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/important-considerations-whenmaking-layoff-decisions--799001.html#axzz1PEX61Hkk

3. Discharge decision

Steps Employers Can Take to Reduce the Risk of Claims and, Liability Due to Terminations Employers should recognize that an employee termination may someday be judged by a third party (e.g., a jury) who may base its decision on the perceived fairness of the employer s actions. Although legal challenges are sometimes unavoidable, there are steps employers can take to reduce their risks and to ensure that the termination process itself does not lead to additional employee claims. 1. Determine/clarify the precise reason(s) why the employee is being discharged. When a termination decision is challenged as discriminatory or retaliatory the claim usually turns on the employee s ability to show that the reason given by the employer is untrue. When an employer says one thing at the time of termination (sometimes to spare the employee s feelings) and something else later to the court or investigating agency, the employer s ability to defend the case may be severely impaired. 2. If discharging for misconduct, be certain that there was a thorough and objective investigation of the employee s conduct. Was the employee given an opportunity to explain his or her side of the story? Have any admissions by the employee been documented? If discharging for poor performance, determine whether the performance problem is welldocumented and demonstrable. 3. Avoid surprise. Determine whether the employee was given prior notice that his or her misconduct or continuing poor performance would result in discharge. While not legally required, notice generally is expected by courts and investigating agencies and the failure to provide notice is viewed with great suspicion (except in those situations involving egregious employee misconduct). 4. Consider the appearance of unfairness, given the potential that the employer s actions will be judged by a third party. Is discharge clearly warranted for the employee s misconduct or poor performance? Are there any mitigating circumstances? How have other employees been treated in similar situations? These considerations are of particular importance when a potential discrimination or retaliation claim exists. 5. Review the employee s personnel records and any documentation relating to the discharge: (i) to get an accurate picture of his or her work record; (ii) to make certain the documentation is complete; and (iii) to remove any materials that do not belong in the file. 6. Review any employment agreements, offer letters, and pertinent personnel policies to determine whether the employer has complied with all requirements, including any notice prerequisites.

7. Assess whether there is any particular vulnerability to legal challenge. Is the employee a member of a protected group (e.g., age 40 or older)? Has he or she exercised a legally protected right recently (e.g., taken Family and Medical Act leave, requested reasonable accommodation of a disability, filed a complaint of discrimination or harassment)? Are there any contractual restrictions to discharge? Are any public policy issues involved (e.g., the employee objected to doing something because of legal or ethical concerns)? Will the employer arguably be in any way unjustly enriched by the discharge (e.g., the employee loses a bonus or commission due to the timing of the discharge)? 8. Plan the termination meeting carefully, taking into consideration the dynamics of the situation. Who will be present? (More than one employer representative should attend.) Where and when will it be conducted? Be discreet. Avoid a termination march past coworkers. Avoid causing unnecessary embarrassment or emotional distress to the employee. 9. Be truthful and accurate in telling the employee the reason(s) for the discharge, in a direct but respectful manner. Present the decision as definite and final (assuming it is). Offer support, but not in terms of reversing the discharge decision. Be knowledgeable and prepared to discuss the employee s termination benefits, including any severance pay, any accrued vacation pay, group insurance continuation, the form of reference the employee will receive, and the employer s position on unemployment benefits. Also be prepared to discuss any transition matters and any continuing employee obligations (e.g., non-disclosure and/or non-competition restrictions). Prepare a memorandum documenting what was said in the meeting. 10. Provide the employee with a final paycheck. The Massachusetts Payment of Wages Act, M.G.L. c.149, 148, requires that discharged employees be paid their full and final wages on the date of discharge, and the Act provides substantial remedies to employees for violations. Final wages include pay for all accrued and unused vacation time as well as commissions or potentially bonuses earned but not yet paid. Employers should not make any irregular deductions (e.g., for equipment not returned, property damage or outstanding loans) without careful consideration of the potential legal ramifications. 11. Provide notice of the employee s (and other beneficiaries ) rights regarding health insurance continuation under federal law (COBRA) or state law. 12. Massachusetts law requires that employers provide terminated employees with a notice from the Division of Unemployment Assistance ( DUA ) concerning how to file for unemployment benefits. 13. Take all appropriate security measures to protect co-workers (if there are safety concerns) and to protect the employer s business interests (e.g., obtain employee s laptop, cell phone,

keys, pass cards, employer credit cards, terminate access to computer system, prevent the removal of confidential documents and materials). 14. Take appropriate steps to keep confidential matters surrounding the discharge (including any investigation leading up to it). Generally, when the discharge is for misconduct, a strict need-to-know rule should be followed to reduce the risk of a defamation claim. 15. As discussed below, in appropriate circumstances, consider presenting the employee with the option of receiving additional termination benefits in exchange for a legal release of all claims the employee may have against the employer. Our experience in defending hundreds of claims by discharged employees tells us that what is said at the time of termination, and how the termination process is handled by the employer, often determines whether an employee will subsequently file a legal claim. When an employee does file a claim, an employer s contradictory statements, insensitive conduct or other missteps at the time of termination almost always adversely impact the employer s defense of the claim and increase its exposure to damages. We believe that taking the steps outlined above will help employers manage employee terminations more effectively and avoid the mistakes that so often lead to employee claims. http://www.mbbp.com/resources/employment/layoffs.html