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Administrative aspect of the class Information and Quantum Physics Why Quantum Information Science? Practicality of Quantum Information Science Structure of the course

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Instructor: Jungsang Kim


CIEMAS 2519 jungsang@ee.duke.edu, 660-5258

Class Hours: Mon & Wed at 10:05 am-11:20 am, Hudson 201 Make-up class on Fridays possible? Office Hours: CIEMAS 2519
Monday 11:30 am-12:30 pm Tuesday 1-2 pm Wednesday 3-4 pm

Textbook: Nielsen and Chuang, Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Lecture Notes will be available on the course website
http://www.ee.duke.edu/~jungsang/ECE227

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Workload for the course


Class Participation (Active exercises in class) Reading Assignments Homework Assignments
New formalisms you need to get familiar with by working through them on our own Generally not difficult problems, but necessary for understanding the course material that follow

Grades
Homework Assignments 20% Mid-term Exams 40% (20% each) Final Project 40% Extra Credit for Good Questions in class
Broad questions that the instructor cannot answer in the same class generally qualifies!!
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Quantum Information Science is a vast field of Research!!


Too much new information coming out every year to cover it in its entirety!!
6000

Papers Papers in Quant-ph Preprint Archive (Through 2010) Quant-ph Preprint Archive (Through 2008)

4000

3500 5000

Number Papers Number ofof Papers

4000

3000 2500

3000 2000

1500 2000 1000


1000

500
0 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year

Year

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Overview of Quantum Information


What is quantum information?

Key Elements of Quantum Information


What makes quantum information unique and powerful?

Broad Context of Quantum Information


Why is quantum information interesting? What are some real-world applications?

Practicality of Quantum Information


What are the challenges in making it practical? You should be ready to pursue serious research topics in Quantum Information
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

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Administrative aspect of the class Information and Quantum Physics Why Quantum Information Science? Practicality of Quantum Information Science Structure of the course

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

2 2 + =1 Where , are complex and

= 0 + 1

A single qubit state lies on a sphere (called Bloch Sphere) 1 = 0 + 1 ) ( 2

If there are 3 qubits, each in linear superposition state 1 1 1 = 0 1 + 1 1) 0 2 1 2 ) + ( ( ( 0 3 + 1 3) 2 2 2

= 1

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

8 ( 000 + 001 + 010 + 011 + 100 + 101 + 110 + 111 )

Quantum parallelism cannot be simply utilized to provide computation results to all input states simultaneously Quantum error correction: Quantum measurement turns small state corruption into large errors with small probability Statistical nature provides grounds for unconditional security in quantum key distribution protocols

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

00 =

1 (H 1 H 2+ V 1V 2 1 = ( HH + VV ) 2

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The measurement on either photon can result or with 50% probability each: the polarization state of either photon is undefined When the first photon is measured to yield either or , then the state of the second photon is determined with no uncertainty This correlation has no preference in the basis. 1 1 Define +45 i = H i + V i ) and 45 i = ( ( H i V i ) , then
00
2 1 = ( HH + VV 2 2 1 ) = 2 ( +45 + 45 + 45 45

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

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Administrative aspect of the class Information and Quantum Physics Why Quantum Information Science? Practicality of Quantum Information Science Structure of the course

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Easy and Hard problems


137 x 59 1233 685 8083 5141 = a x b a=?, b=? Which divides 5141? 47, 53, 67 97 53 5141 477 371 371 0 Efficient algorithm known to verify the answer

Efficient algorithm known to solve the problem

classical No efficient algorithm known to solve the problem

Easy, Efficient: an algorithm exists where the total number of steps is polynomial in the number of digits (or bits) in the problem size
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Given a problem of input size N = 2n PSPACE


Problems that could be solved on a small computer Computer size is polynomial in n Time to run the algorithm is not bound

P
Problems that could be solved in polynomial time

NP
Problems whose answer could be verified in polynomial time Subset NP-Complete: Hardest problems in NP, in a sense that solving these could solve all problems in NP

BPP
Problems that could be solved in polynomial time using randomized algorithm, with bounded probability of error
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Open Problems:
P = NP? NP = PSPACE?

PSPACE NP NPC? P

Factoring Problem
Definitely in NP, but widely believed not to be in P In fact, the number theorists strong belief lead to cryptosystems based on this problem!!
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

BQP
Problems efficiently solved on a quantum computer with bounded error probability

If P = BQP, then P = PSPACE If factoring is not in P, then P = BQP Are there other problems where quantum computers prove to be more powerful?
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Private Key Cryptography:


Sender and receiver shares a random string of bits (key) known only to them, and then communicates encoded message Practical challenge is to distribute the key safely!!

Public Key Cryptography (Rivest, Shamir & Adleman):


Use non-invertible problems and publicly distribute key Receiver publishes the key, and sender encodes the message using this key Only receiver can decode, since the problem is hard to invert They are not fundamentally safe, only computationally safe Quantum computers can effectively break this cryptosystem!
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

What Quantum taketh, Quantum Giveth back (Quote unknown to instructor) Quantum uncertainty inherent in quantum measurement could be utilized to devise a scheme to share random bit string between two parties in a fundamentally secure manner, if a quantum channel of communication is provided! Quantum Key Distribution technology is quite real
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

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Administrative aspect of the class Information and Quantum Physics Why Quantum Information Science? Practicality of Quantum Information Science Structure of the course

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Input 1

Input 2 Target

Output 1

Output 2

a b

a b a

Control

1 1 ( 0 1 + 1 1) 0 2 2 ( 0 1 0 2 + 1 1 1 2 ) 2
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Looks pretty hopeless BUT


Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

CMOS Output

QEC
Qubits

Input

Threshold Theorem (Aharonov and Ben-Or, 1997) Provided the noise in individual quantum gates is below a certin constant threshold, it is possible to efficiently perform an arbitrarily large quantum computation
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Trapped Ions Atoms in Optical Lattices Josephson superconducting circuits Nuclear spins/SET in Silicon Electron spins in semiconductors Quantum dot optical levels Solid state NMR high field gradients Linear optics Final Presentation Topics

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Single Qubits CNOT Logic Gate Quantum Teleportation Factoring 15 1 2 3 7

Large Database Search

??
102 Complexity (# Qubits) 103

Factoring Large Integers Fault Tolerant Gate 105 107

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

Computer Architecture
User Interface User Source Code Quantum Complier Assembler Code Control Sequences Software Architecture

Hardware Architecture Quantum Meas. Classical Control

Qubits
Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

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Administrative aspect of the class Information and Quantum Physics Why Quantum Information Science? Practicality of Quantum Information Science Structure of the course

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011

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Review of Quantum Mechanics Review of Computer Science Quantum Circuits Quantum Fourier Transform Algorithms Quantum Search Algorithms Quantum Noise and Quantum Operations Quantum Error Correction Fault Tolerant Quantum Computation System/Architectural Issues in Quantum Computation Classical and Quantum Information Theory Quantum Cryptography Quantum Communication Networks Physical Systems /Advanced Topics in QI (Final)

Jungsang Kim Spring 2011