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LEADERSHIP PROJECT

JOHN STITH PEMBERTON

Picture: John Stith Pemberton (The Founder of Coca-Cola)

Student Name: Januar Sam Amberto Hutabarat Student ID: 015200800007 Major: Business Administration (FBI) Subject: Leadership

JOHN STITH PEMBERTON

The Founder of Coca-Cola

Background
John Stith Pemberton (July 8, 1831 August 16, 1888) was a Confederate veteran and an American druggist, and is best known for being the inventor of Coca-Cola. He was born in July 8, 1831 exactly in Knoxville, Georgia. His Nationality is United States. His Occupation was as a Druggist. His parents names are James Clifford Pemberton (father), and Martha L. Gant (mother). His Spouse name is Ann Eliza Clifford Lewis and he had one child named Charles Ney Pemberton. He died on August 16 in Atlanta, Georgia, 1888 (aged 57), and his resting place is in Linwood Cemetery in Columbus, Georgia. Though born in nearby Knoxville, Georgia, Pemberton, as a young child, moved with his family to the larger city of Columbus, Georgia. His uncle, John C. Pemberton, was a Confederate lieutenant general during the U.S. Civil War.

Invention of Coca-Cola
In April 1865, Pemberton was wounded in the Battle of Columbus, Georgia, and like many wounded veterans, he became addicted to morphine. Searching for a cure for this addiction, he began experimenting with coca and coca wines, eventually creating his own version of Vin Mariani, containing kola nut and damiana, which he called Pemberton's French Wine Coca. With public concern about drug addiction, depression and alcoholism among veterans, and "neurasthenia" among "highly-strung" Southern women,[4] his medicinal concoction was advertised as being particularly beneficial for "ladies, and all those whose sedentary employment causes nervous prostration, irregularities of the stomach, bowels and kidneys, who require a nerve tonic and a pure, delightful diffusible stimulant." In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County enacted temperance legislation, Pemberton found himself forced to produce a non-alcoholic alternative to his French Wine Coca. Pemberton relied on Atlanta druggist Willis Venable to test, and help him perfect, the recipe for the beverage, which recipe he formulated by trial and error. With Venable's assistance, Pemberton worked out a set of directions for its preparation that eventually included blending the base syrup with carbonated water, and Frank Mason Robinson came up with the name "Coca-Cola" for the alliterative sound, which was popular among other wine medicines of the time. Although the name quite clearly refers to the two main ingredients, the controversy over its cocaine content would later prompt The Coca-Cola Company to state that the name was "meaningless but fanciful." Robinson also hand wrote the Spencerian script on the bottles and ads. Pemberton also made many health claims for his product and marketed it as "delicious, refreshing, exhilarating, and invigorating" and touted it as a "valuable brain tonic" that would cure headaches, relieve exhaustion and calm nerves.

Asa Candler bought the business in 1887.[6] In 1894, Coke was sold in bottles for the first time. During World War II, bottling plants were set up in Europe, Africa, and the Pacific islands.

John Stith Pemberton and the History of Coca-Cola


Today, the Coca-Cola Company produces the most popular soft drink in the world. Coca-Cola Classic is enjoyed by millions of people every day in virtually every country in the world. Despite the wild popularity of the drink today, it came from humble beginnings. Its inventory, John Stith Pemberton, never dreamed this it would prove as popular as it has become and never received much reward for his efforts during his lifetime. John Stith Pemberton was born in 1831 in Georgia. He earned his medical degree at the age of nineteen and, after practicing medicine for a brief period, opened a drug store in Columbus, Georgia. He fought for the Confederacy as a lieutenant colonel during the Civil War. After the war, he opened a laboratory in Atlanta, Georgia called the Pemberton Chemical Company which was an early pharmaceutical company. He soon began selling a product he called "Pemberton's French Wine Coca." This drink was made with wine and coca extracts, something first done by a Frenchmen named Angelo Mariani in 1863. It was sold as a tonic in pharmacies in Atlanta and had some moderate success. It became much more popular in 1885 when Atlanta enacted Prohibition legislation. In response, Pemberton changed his recipe to remove the alcohol and add extracts of cocaine, kola nuts, and sugar. The resulting syrup was carbonated and sold as a temperance drink and brain tonic at local pharmacies for five cents. It was said to cure morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and other ailments. One of Pemberton's employees came up with the name "Coca-Cola" (which was trademarked in 1886) and the font which continues to be the companys logo today. Despite attracting some interested investors and making some attempts to promote his invention, Pemberton was not satisfied with the product as a temperance beverage. When Atlanta repelled its Prohibition laws in 1887, he switched back to making Coca-Cola with wine, instead of sugar as a sweetener. By that time, there were several different companies manufacturing Coca-Cola since Pemberton had licensed the formula to them. Those companies eventually went bankrupt, however, because they were not allowed to use the Coca-Cola name in their marketing. The next year, Pemberton died. Before doing that, however, he sold his rights to the rights to the drink to a partner, Asa Griggs Chandler, who had bought a share in Pemberton's Coca-Cola Company. Pemberton, who was probably under the influence of a morphine addiction at the time, received $1,750 for the invention. Under Chandler's leadership the Coca-Cola Company was made a national company within ten years and became a multi-national company not too long after that. Pemberton, however, went to his grave never dreaming of the runaway success that his invention would have after his death.

How John Pemberton Led the Coca-Cola Company?


It was a prohibition law, enacted in Atlanta in 1886, that persuaded physician and chemist Dr. John Stith Pemberton to rename and rewrite the formula for his popular nerve tonic, stimulant and headache remedy, "Pemberton's French Wine Coca," sold at that time by most, if not all, of the city's druggists.

So when the new Coca-Cola debuted later that year--still possessing "the valuable tonic and nerve stimulant properties of the coca plant and cola nuts," yet sweetened with sugar instead of wine-Pemberton advertised it not only as a "delicious, exhilarating, refreshing and invigorating" soda-fountain beverage but also as the ideal "temperance drink." Dr. John Stith Pemberton, a local pharmacist, produced the syrup for Coca-Cola, and carried a jug of the new product down the street to Jacobs' Pharmacy, where it was sampled, pronounced "excellent" and placed on sale for five cents a glass as a soda fountain drink. Carbonated water was teamed with the new syrup to produce a drink that was at once "Delicious and Refreshing," .Dr. Pemberton's partner and bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson, suggested the name and penned the now famous trademark "Coca-Cola" in his unique script. The first newspaper ad for Coca-Cola soon appeared in The Atlanta Journal, inviting thirsty citizens to try "the new and popular soda fountain drink." Hand-painted oilcloth signs reading "Coca-Cola" appeared on store awnings, with the suggestion "Drink" added to inform passersby that the new beverage was for soda fountain refreshment. Dr. Pemberton never realized the potential of the beverage he created. He gradually sold portions of his business to various partners and, just prior to his death in 1888, sold his remaining interest in Coca-Cola to Asa G. Candler. An Atlantan with great business acumen, Mr. Candler proceeded to buy additional rights and acquire complete control. On May 1, 1889, Asa Candler published a full-page advertisement in The Atlanta Journal, proclaiming his wholesale and retail drug business as "sole proprietors of Coca-Cola ... Delicious. Refreshing. Exhilarating. Invigorating." Sole ownership, which Mr. Candler did not actually achieve until 1891, cost a total of $2,300. By 1892, Mr. Candler's flair for merchandising had boosted sales of Coca-Cola syrup nearly tenfold. He soon liquidated his pharmaceutical business and focused his full attention on the soft drink. With his brother, John S. Candler, John Pemberton's former partner Frank Robinson and two other associates, Mr. Candler formed a Georgia corporation named The Coca-Cola Company. Initial capitalization was $100,000. The trademark "Coca-Cola," used in the marketplace since 1886, was registered in the United States Patent Office on January 31, 1893. (Registration has been renewed periodically.) That same year the first dividend was paid; at $20 per share, it amounted to 20 percent of the book value of a share of stock. A firm believer in advertising, Mr. Candler expanded on Dr. Pemberton's marketing efforts, distributing thousands of coupons for a complimentary glass of Coca-Cola. He promoted the product incessantly, distributing souvenir fans, calendars, clocks, urns and countless novelties, all depicting the trademark. The business continued to grow, and in 1894, the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta was opened in Dallas, Texas. Others were opened in Chicago, Illinois, and Los Angeles, California, the following year. While Mr. Candler's efforts focused on boosting soda fountain sales, another concept were being developed that would spread the enjoyment of Coca-Cola worldwide. In 1894, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, Joseph A. Biedenharn was so impressed by the growing demand for Coca-Cola at his soda fountain that

he installed bottling machinery in the rear of his store and began to sell cases of Coca-Cola to farms and lumber camps up and down the Mississippi River. He was the first bottler of Coca-Cola. Large-scale bottling was made possible in 1899, when Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead of Chattanooga, Tennessee, secured from Mr. Candler the exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca-Cola in practically the entire United States. With contract in hand, they joined another Chattanoogan, John T. Lupton, and began to develop what is today the worldwide Coca-Cola bottling system. A variety of straight-sided containers was used through 1915, but as soft-drink competition intensified, so did imitation. Coca-Cola deserved a distinctive package, and in 1916, the bottlers approved the unique contour bottle designed by the Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, Indiana. The now-familiar shape was granted registration as a trademark by the U.S. Patent Office in 1977, an honor accorded only a handful of other packages. The bottle thus joined the trademarks "Coca-Cola," registered in 1893, and "Coke," registered in 1945. In 1919, the Candler interests sold The Coca-Cola Company to Atlanta banker Ernest Woodruff and an investor group for $25 million. The business was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation, and 500,000 shares of its common stock were sold publicly for $40 per share. The Company pioneered the innovative six-bottle carton in the early 1920s, for example, making it easier for the consumer to take Coca-Cola home. The simple cardboard carton, described as "a home package with a handle of invitation," became one of the industry's most powerful merchandising tools. By the end of 1928, Coca-Cola sales in bottles had for the first time exceeded fountain sales. During 1886, Coca Cola's first year, sales averaged a modest nine drinks per day. In 2004, over 1.3 billion beverage servings are sold each day. Although Coca-Cola was first created in the United States, it quickly became popular wherever it went. Today, they produce nearly 400 brands in over 200 countries. More than 70 percent of their income comes from outside the U.S., making The Coca-Cola Company a truly global company.

John Pemberton Achievements


Milestones: 1863 physician and chemist Dr. Pemberton develops "Pemberton's French Wine Coca," 1886 a new formula and a new name is given to Pemberton's beverage that sells for a nickel a glass 1986 Frank M. Robinson, suggested the name and penned the now famous trademark "Coca-Cola" 1888 gradually sold portions of his business to various partners and to businessman Asa G. Candler 1891 Asa Candler achieves sole ownership of the company, at a total cost $2,300. 1892 Mr. Candler formed a Georgia corporation named The Coca-Cola Company. 1893 The trademark "Coca-Cola," used since 1886, was registered in the USPTO on January 31

1894 the first syrup manufacturing plant outside Atlanta was opened in Dallas, Texas. 1894 in Vicksburg, Mississippi, Joe Biedenharn installed bottling machines and sold Coke by the case 1895 Coca-Cola is now drunk in every state and territory in the United States 1899 two Tennessee men secure the exclusive rights to bottle and sell Coca-Cola in the entire U.S. 1916 Coca-Cola deserved a distinctive package; the unique contour bottle design is introduced 1919 Candler sells The Coca-Cola Company to Ernest Woodruff and an investor group for $25 million. 1922 the Company pioneered the innovative six-bottle carton 1928 Coca-Cola sales in bottles had for the first time exceeded fountain sales. 1945 "Coke," is registered as a trademark by the USPTO 1971 "I want to buy the world a Coke" marketing campaign begins 1977 the now-familiar contour bottle shape was granted registration as a trademark 1985 a new formula for coke is introduced. Citizens of the world say no thanks! coca-cola, coke, coca cola,John Pemberton, Asa Chandler, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts.

John Pemberton in popular culture


In 2010 the Coca-Cola Company paid tribute to Pemberton as a key character within an advertising campaign called "Secret Formula". Centered on the secret ingredients of Coca-Cola, imagery related to Pemberton was used to make people more aware of Cokes history and mythology. John Pemberton was also referenced in an installment of Futurama titled "The Deep Deep South." In May 2010, a Twitter account was created for John Pemberton, which was subsequently "verified" by the website. It is currently active and has more than 45,000 followers as of April 2011.