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1. Does switch has the IP Address. If YES? How to find it?

Yes show interface vlan 1

2. what is routing information routing information means content of routing table it has the best roots to reach the destinations if there is any changes in network then dynamic protocals like rip ,ospf,eigrp will exchange this routing information 3. Write the procedure for Router for configuring DHCP? dhcp server configuring:router(config)# ip dhcp pool<pool name> router(dhcp-config)#network<network address> router(dhcp-config)#dns-server<dns server ip address> router(dhcp-config)#default-router<router ip address> router(config)#ip dhcp excluded<reserved ip address> verification:router#sh ip dhcp binding 4. How to find Router Serial interface MAC address? Serial interfaces don't use MAC addresses because MAC addresses are only used with Ethernet. Serial uses PPP, HDLC, Frame Relay, etc for its layer 2, none of which use MAC addresses. 5. What is vlan VLan is basically a logical grouping or segmentation of a network connected to administratively defined ports on a SW. VLan also helps in creating separate Broadcast Domains,provides the secutiy and flexibility. 6. what is eigrp and what is the benfit of eigrp over igrp .Eigrp support vlsm where igrp donot 7. what is route summryization this is also called suppenating 8. if one the router route is not showing the what should be problem how to resolve these problem routing is not enabled command is

Router(config)#routeig enable or enable routing(need to check) 9. what is fessible suceer. it is the fessible node that is shortest node in the eigrp table 10. Is the load balncing is one of the property of eigrp yes 11. what is the metihod of authantication PAP and chaP AAA 12. what is the diffrnec betwee pap and chap PAP password is send in the txt format chap-password is send as encrypted format 13. what is stp spanning tree protocol used for stop switching loop 14. command for enabling stp and rstp switc(config)#stp mode rstp 15. why switching loop occur what is the main factor of occurring switch loop Due to Redundancy 16. what is the mechanism for stopping the routing loop split horizon 17. what is best difference between ospf v1 and ospf v2 v1 for ipv4 v2 for ipv6 18. what is vtp virtual trunking protocol 19. what is the diffrence between vtp version 1 and veron 3 both are the vtp version and v3 work on transparent mode 20. what is the ip address. used for identification of network 21. what is the diffrence betwwen ip address mac address mac used for identification of node 22. what is dhcp and how it work

work on DORA 23. what is 3 way hand shake refre tennon bom big theroy 24. what is the difrence betwwen network id and brodcast id plz refre the privous post 25. what is the network id for 111.111.111.10/29 sunating do ur self very easy 26. what is the command for enabling vlan on 3650 cisco switch switch(config)#vlan database #vlan name XY 27. Completely describe the steps based on OSI Model, what happens when you enter the address http://google.com in browser?? Summarize the complete steps based on layered OSI approach Physical, Layer 1 : This layer conveys the bit stream electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.

Data Link, Layer 2 : At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sublayers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking. . Network, Layer 3 : This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well

as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing. . Transport, Layer 4 : This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.

Session, Layer 5 : This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. Presentation, Layer 6 : This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.

Application, Layer 7 : This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is applicationspecific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. If all of the other layers are working and have been tested, then this is usually just a matter of applying patches to software or reinstalling. Everyone probably has experience troubleshooting problems in windows. Telnet is an excellent tool for connecting to virtually any port to check to see if the above layers are functioning properly.

28. Difference between subnetting & Vlan? subnetting is breaking of a network ... vlan is breaking a broadcast domain. moreover subnetting is a layer 3 concept and vlan is a layer 2 concept

29. What is subnetting?? Used in networks to break up large networks into smaller subnetworks,it is reduces the network trafic,ptimized network performance,and management ,i.e to identify and isolate network problems. 30. what is full form of rst,smtps & http? reliability,strength,Tone Simple Message Transfer Protocol Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol 31. what is the network address? Network address is a IP address, used to identify on which network the given IP belongs to. It uniquely identifies each network. To find out correct network address we should know the range of different classes of IP address. 32. What is a PDU? Protocol data unit (PDU) is an OSI term that refers generically to a group of information added or removed by a particular layer of the OSI model The PDU information is only read by the peer layer on the receiving device and then stripped off, and data is handed over to the next upper layer. 33. What is ICMP? It is a Network Layer Internet protocol, which can report errors and status information. We can use the ping command to send ICMP echo request messages and record the receipt of ICMP echo reply messages. With these messages, we can detect network or host communication failures and troubleshoot common TCP/IP connectivity problems. 34. What is passive topology in ccna? When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they dont amplify the signal in any way.

35. what is 5-4-3 rule? In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated. 36. What are two types of transmission available in CCNA? Point to Point & Broadcast are 2 types of Transmission Technology in CCNA 37. What is the defference between switch and hub? Switch: Switches operate at Layer 2 Data Link Layer Address Learning Forward / Filter decision using MAC address Loop Avoidance Breakup collision domains Switches create separate collision domains but a single broadcast domain Hub: Hub operates at Layer 1 Physical Layer No Filtering No Addressing Hub creates single collision domain and single broadcast domain Make forwarding to all the ports when signal is arrived 38. Why do we need static IP addresses? With 24/7 broadband access and a static IP address, one can create a website and act as the server, hosting it on the Internet like any other website. A static IP address also allows the owner to host an email server and run other services like webcasts or forums A static IP address best supports name resolution, so that a computer can be most reliably reached over the network by its host / domain name. Web and FTP servers in particular benefit from fixed addressing for this reason. Using static IP addresses on home networks gives somewhat better protection against network security problems than does DHCP address assignment. Some network devices do not support DHCP. Using static IP address assignment for all devices on the home network guarantees to avoid potential address conflicts where DHCP may supply an address already assigned statically elsewhere.

39. Which encapsulation types are configurable on a Cisco switch for a trunk? (Select two answer choices) A. VTP B. ISL C. CDP D. 802.1Q E. 802.1p F. LLC G. IETF 40. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission? In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. Baseband signalling are those signaling in which no sharing is allowyed,multiple signals cannot be pass through at the same time through a single linear transmission media. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. Broadband signalling are those in which sharing is allwoyed,multiple signals can be pass through at the same time. 41. What type of routing protocol maintains neighbors? Answer- Link State 42. what is the range of values for administrative distance? Answer: 0-255 43. Describe the difference between unicast, multicast, and broadcast traffic? Answer: Unicast traffic flows from a single source to a single destination MAC address. Multicast traffic flows from a single source MAC address to many destinations and uses a functional MAC address. Broadcast traffic is from a single source to all devices on the Ethernet segment. This is specified by a destination MAC address of all ones. 44. What are the four different Ethernet encapsulation types? Answer: From the Cisco IPX encapsulation command they are ARPA, NOVELL-ETHER, SAP and SNAP 45. What are the three main tasks of a transparent bridge? Answer: Learning, Forwarding, Filtering

46. What type of routing protocol is EIGRP? Answer: Hybrid 47. While troubleshooting a connectivity problem on the network, you issue the ping command from your PC command prompt, but the output shows "request times out." At which OSI layer is this problem associated with? Answer: The Network Layer 48. What algorithm does OSPF use to compute its route table? Answer: OSPF uses the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm, which is also known as the Dijkstra algorithm. 49. What is a stub area? Answer: A stub area is an area that does not accept routing updates from outside its autonomous system. 50. What does the TTL field of an IP packet header do? Answer: The TTL field indicates the maximum time that a packet can be on the network. Each router that processes this packet decrements the TTL value by 1. If the value reaches zero, the packet is discarded from the network. The purpose of this field is to eliminate the possibility of a packet endlessly traversing the network. Public IP Add Class A- 1 127 Class B 128-191 Class C 192-223 Private IP Add 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255 172.16.0.0-172.31.255.255 192.168.0.0-192.168.255.255 No Of Addresses 16 777 216 1 048 576 65 536

51.Difference between bridges and switches? Generally, a bridge has only two ports and divides a collision domain into two parts. All decisions made by a bridge are based on MAC or Layer 2 addressing and do not affect the logical or Layer 3 addressing. Thus, a bridge will divide a collision domain but has no effect on a logical or broadcast domain. No matter how many bridges are in a network, unless there is a device such as a router that works on Layer 3 addressing, the entire network will share the same logical broadcast address space. A bridge will create more collision domains but will not add broadcast domains

A switch is essentially a fast, multi-port bridge, which can contain dozens of ports. Rather than creating two collision domains, each port creates its own collision domain. In a network of twenty nodes, twenty collision domains exist if each node is plugged into its own switch port. If an uplink port is included, one switch creates twenty-one single-node collision domains. A switch dynamically builds and maintains a Content-Addressable Memory (CAM) table, holding all of the necessary MAC information for each port
Router: A device that determine the optimal path along which network traffic should be forwarded. Routers allow different networks to communicate with each other. They forward packets from one network to another based on network layer information. A gateway can interpret and translate the different protocols that are used on two distinct networks. Unlike routers that successfully connect networks with protocols that are similar, a gateway perform an application layer conversion of information from one protocol stack to another.

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