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Analytic Geometry Formulas


1. Lines in two dimensions
Line forms
Slope - intercept form:

Line segment
A line segment P P2 can be represented in parametric 1 form by

y = mx + b
Two point form:

x = x1 + ( x2 x1 ) t y = y1 + ( y2 y1 ) t 0 t 1
Two line segments PP2 and P P4 intersect if any only if 1 3 the numbers

y y1 =

y2 y1 ( x x1 ) x2 x1

Point slope form:

y y1 = m ( x x1 )
Intercept form

x2 x1 s= x3 x1 x2 x1 x3 x4

y2 y1 y3 y1 y2 y1 y3 y4 and t=

x3 x1 x3 x4 x2 x1 x3 x4

y3 y1 y3 y4 y2 y1 y3 y4

x y + = 1 ( a, b 0 ) a b
Normal form:

x cos + y sin = p
Parametric form:

satisfy 0 s 1 and 0 t 1

x = x1 + t cos y = y1 + t sin
Point direction form:

2. Triangles in two dimensions


Area
The area of the triangle formed by the three lines:

x x1 y y1 = A B
where (A,B) is the direction of the line and P ( x1 , y1 ) lies 1 on the line. General form:

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 A3 x + B3 y + C3 = 0
is given by

A x + B y + C = 0 A 0 or B 0

Distance
The distance from Ax + By + C = 0 to P ( x1 , y1 ) is 1

A1

B1

C1

d=

A x1 + B y1 + C A +B
2 2

K= 2

A1 A2

A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 B1 A2 B2 A3 B2 A3 B3 A1

B3 B1

The area of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

Concurrent lines
Three lines

P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) :
x1 1 K = x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 A3 x + B3 y + C3 = 0
are concurrent if and only if:

K=

A1 A2 A3

B1 B2 B3

C1 C2 = 0 C3

1 x2 x1 2 x3 x1

y2 y1 y3 y1

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Centroid
The centroid of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

3. Circle
Equation of a circle
In an x-y coordinate system, the circle with centre (a, b) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such that:

P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) :

x + x + x y + y + y3 ( x, y ) = 1 2 3 , 1 2 3 3

( x a )2 + ( y b ) 2 = r 2
Circle is centred at the origin

Incenter
The incenter of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

x2 + y 2 = r 2
Parametric equations

P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : ax + bx2 + cx3 ay1 + by2 + cy3 ( x, y ) = 1 , a+b+c a+b+c

x = a + r cos t y = b + r sin t
where t is a parametric variable. In polar coordinates the equation of a circle is:

where a is the length of P2 P3 , b is the length of PP3 , 1 and c is the length of PP2 . 1

r 2 2rro cos ( ) + ro2 = a 2

Area
A = r 2

Circumcenter
The circumcenter of a triangle whose vertices are

Circumference
c = d = 2 r

P ( x1 , y1 ) , P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : 1
x12 + y12 y1 1 x1 x12 + y12 1 2 2 2 2 x2 + y2 y2 1 x2 x2 + y2 1 x2+y2 y 1 x x2+y2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 ( x, y ) = , x1 y1 1 x1 y1 1 2 x2 y2 1 2 x2 y2 1 x3 y3 1 x3 y3 1

Theoremes:
(Chord theorem) The chord theorem states that if two chords, CD and EF, intersect at G, then:

CD DG = EG FG
(Tangent-secant theorem) If a tangent from an external point D meets the circle at C and a secant from the external point D meets the circle at G and E respectively, then 2

DC = DG DE

Orthocenter
The orthocenter of a triangle whose vertices are

P ( x1 , y1 ) , P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : 1
y1 x2 x3 + y12 1 x12 + y2 y3 2 2 y2 x3 x1 + y2 1 x2 + y3 y1 y xx +y2 1 x2+y y 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 ( x, y ) = , x1 y1 1 x1 y1 2 x2 y2 2 x2 y2 1 x3 y3 1 x3 y3 x1 1 x2 1 x3 1 1 1 1

(Secant - secant theorem) If two secants, DG and DE, also cut the circle at H and F respectively, then:

DH DG = DF DE
(Tangent chord property) The angle between a tangent and chord is equal to the subtended angle on the opposite side of the chord.

www.mathportal.org 4. Conic Sections


The Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from a fixed point, called the focus, and a fixed line, called the directrix, are always equal.

Eccentricity:

e=
Foci:

a 2 b2 a

The standard formula of a parabola:


y 2 = 2 px

if a > b => F1 ( a 2 b 2 , 0) F2 ( a 2 b 2 ,0) if a < b => F1 (0, b 2 a 2 ) F2 (0, b 2 a 2 )

Parametric equations of the parabola:

Area:
K = a b

x = 2 pt y = 2 pt

Tangent line
Tangent line in a point D( x0 , y0 ) of a parabola y = 2 px
2

The Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane, the difference of whose distances from two fixed points, called the foci, remains constant.

y0 y = p ( x + x0 )
Tangent line with a given slope (m)

The standard formula of a hyperbola:

p y = mx + 2m

x2 y 2 =1 a 2 b2
Parametric equations of the Hyperbola

Tangent lines from a given point


Take a fixed point P ( x0 , y0 ) .The equations of the tangent lines are

x=

y y0 = m1 ( x x0 ) and y y0 = m2 ( x x0 ) where m1 = m1 = y0 + y0 2 2 px0 2 x0 y0 y0 2 2 px0 2 x0 and

a sin t b sin t y= cos t


x0 x y0 y 2 =1 a2 b

Tangent line in a point D ( x0 , y0 ) of a hyperbola:

Foci:
if a > b => F1 ( a 2 + b 2 , 0) F2 ( a 2 + b 2 , 0) if a < b => F1 (0, b 2 + a 2 ) F2 (0, b 2 + a 2 )

The Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane, the sum of whose distances from two fixed points, called the foci, is a constant.

Asymptotes:

The standard formula of a ellipse

x2 y 2 + =1 a 2 b2
Parametric equations of the ellipse x = a cos t
y = b sin t
Tangent line in a point D ( x0 , y0 ) of a ellipse:

b b x and y = x a a a a if a < b => y = x and y = x b b if a > b => y =

x0 x y0 y + 2 =1 a2 b

www.mathportal.org 5. Planes in three dimensions


Plane forms Point direction form:
x x1 y y1 z z1 = = a b c
where P1(x1,y1,z1) lies in the plane, and the direction (a,b,c) is normal to the plane.

Equation of a plane
The equation of a plane through P1(x1,y1,z1) and parallel to directions (a1,b1,c1) and (a2,b2,c2) has equation

x x1 a1 a2

y y1 b1 b2

z z1 c1 c2 =0

General form:

The equation of a plane through P1(x1,y1,z1) and P2(x2,y2,z2), and parallel to direction (a,b,c), has equation

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
where direction (A,B,C) is normal to the plane.

x x1 x2 x1 a

y y1 y2 y1 b

z z1 z2 z1 = 0 c

Intercept form:
x y z + + =1 a b c
this plane passes through the points (a,0,0), (0,b,0), and (0,0,c).

Distance
The distance of P1(x1,y1,z1) from the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 is

Three point form


x x3 x1 x3 x2 x3 y y3 y1 y3 y2 y3 z z3 z1 z3 = 0 z2 z3

d=

Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 A2 + B 2 + C 2

Intersection
The intersection of two planes

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0, A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0,
is the line

Normal form:

x cos + y cos + z cos = p


Parametric form:

x x1 y y1 z z1 = = , a b c
where

x = x1 + a1 s + a2 t y = y1 + b1 s + b2 t z = z1 + c1 s + c2 t
where the directions (a1,b1,c1) and (a2,b2,c2) are parallel to the plane.

a= b=

B1 B2 C1 C2

C1 C2 A1 A2

Angle between two planes:


The angle between two planes:

c=

A1 A2 b

B1 B2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 C1 C2
2

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0
is

c
2

D1 D2
2

B1 B2 C1 C2 A1 A2

x1 =
2 2 2

a +b +c c A1 A2
2

arccos

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 A + B +C
2 1 2 1 2 1

A2 + B2 + C2

c
2

D1 D2
2

The planes are parallel if and only if

y1 = a z1 =

a +b +c B1 B2
2

A1 B1 C1 = = A2 B2 C2
The planes are perpendicular if and only if

b
2

D1 D2
2

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 = 0

a +b +c

If a = b = c = 0, then the planes are parallel.