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# www.mathportal.

org

## Analytic Geometry Formulas

1. Lines in two dimensions
Line forms
Slope - intercept form:

Line segment
A line segment P P2 can be represented in parametric 1 form by

y = mx + b
Two point form:

x = x1 + ( x2 x1 ) t y = y1 + ( y2 y1 ) t 0 t 1
Two line segments PP2 and P P4 intersect if any only if 1 3 the numbers

y y1 =

y2 y1 ( x x1 ) x2 x1

## Point slope form:

y y1 = m ( x x1 )
Intercept form

x2 x1 s= x3 x1 x2 x1 x3 x4

y2 y1 y3 y1 y2 y1 y3 y4 and t=

x3 x1 x3 x4 x2 x1 x3 x4

y3 y1 y3 y4 y2 y1 y3 y4

x y + = 1 ( a, b 0 ) a b
Normal form:

x cos + y sin = p
Parametric form:

satisfy 0 s 1 and 0 t 1

x = x1 + t cos y = y1 + t sin
Point direction form:

## 2. Triangles in two dimensions

Area
The area of the triangle formed by the three lines:

x x1 y y1 = A B
where (A,B) is the direction of the line and P ( x1 , y1 ) lies 1 on the line. General form:

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 A3 x + B3 y + C3 = 0
is given by

A x + B y + C = 0 A 0 or B 0

Distance
The distance from Ax + By + C = 0 to P ( x1 , y1 ) is 1

A1

B1

C1

d=

A x1 + B y1 + C A +B
2 2

K= 2

A1 A2

A2 B2 C2 A3 B3 C3 B1 A2 B2 A3 B2 A3 B3 A1

B3 B1

## The area of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

Concurrent lines
Three lines

P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) :
x1 1 K = x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1

A1 x + B1 y + C1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 = 0 A3 x + B3 y + C3 = 0
are concurrent if and only if:

K=

A1 A2 A3

B1 B2 B3

C1 C2 = 0 C3

1 x2 x1 2 x3 x1

y2 y1 y3 y1

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Centroid
The centroid of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

3. Circle
Equation of a circle
In an x-y coordinate system, the circle with centre (a, b) and radius r is the set of all points (x, y) such that:

P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) :

x + x + x y + y + y3 ( x, y ) = 1 2 3 , 1 2 3 3

( x a )2 + ( y b ) 2 = r 2
Circle is centred at the origin

Incenter
The incenter of a triangle whose vertices are P ( x1 , y1 ) , 1

x2 + y 2 = r 2
Parametric equations

## P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : ax + bx2 + cx3 ay1 + by2 + cy3 ( x, y ) = 1 , a+b+c a+b+c

x = a + r cos t y = b + r sin t
where t is a parametric variable. In polar coordinates the equation of a circle is:

where a is the length of P2 P3 , b is the length of PP3 , 1 and c is the length of PP2 . 1

## r 2 2rro cos ( ) + ro2 = a 2

Area
A = r 2

Circumcenter
The circumcenter of a triangle whose vertices are

Circumference
c = d = 2 r

P ( x1 , y1 ) , P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : 1
x12 + y12 y1 1 x1 x12 + y12 1 2 2 2 2 x2 + y2 y2 1 x2 x2 + y2 1 x2+y2 y 1 x x2+y2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 ( x, y ) = , x1 y1 1 x1 y1 1 2 x2 y2 1 2 x2 y2 1 x3 y3 1 x3 y3 1

Theoremes:
(Chord theorem) The chord theorem states that if two chords, CD and EF, intersect at G, then:

CD DG = EG FG
(Tangent-secant theorem) If a tangent from an external point D meets the circle at C and a secant from the external point D meets the circle at G and E respectively, then 2

DC = DG DE

Orthocenter
The orthocenter of a triangle whose vertices are

P ( x1 , y1 ) , P2 ( x2 , y2 ) and P3 ( x3 , y3 ) : 1
y1 x2 x3 + y12 1 x12 + y2 y3 2 2 y2 x3 x1 + y2 1 x2 + y3 y1 y xx +y2 1 x2+y y 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 ( x, y ) = , x1 y1 1 x1 y1 2 x2 y2 2 x2 y2 1 x3 y3 1 x3 y3 x1 1 x2 1 x3 1 1 1 1

(Secant - secant theorem) If two secants, DG and DE, also cut the circle at H and F respectively, then:

DH DG = DF DE
(Tangent chord property) The angle between a tangent and chord is equal to the subtended angle on the opposite side of the chord.

## www.mathportal.org 4. Conic Sections

The Parabola
The set of all points in the plane whose distances from a fixed point, called the focus, and a fixed line, called the directrix, are always equal.

Eccentricity:

e=
Foci:

a 2 b2 a

y 2 = 2 px

## Parametric equations of the parabola:

Area:
K = a b

x = 2 pt y = 2 pt

Tangent line
Tangent line in a point D( x0 , y0 ) of a parabola y = 2 px
2

The Hyperbola
The set of all points in the plane, the difference of whose distances from two fixed points, called the foci, remains constant.

y0 y = p ( x + x0 )
Tangent line with a given slope (m)

## The standard formula of a hyperbola:

p y = mx + 2m

x2 y 2 =1 a 2 b2
Parametric equations of the Hyperbola

## Tangent lines from a given point

Take a fixed point P ( x0 , y0 ) .The equations of the tangent lines are

x=

## a sin t b sin t y= cos t

x0 x y0 y 2 =1 a2 b

## Tangent line in a point D ( x0 , y0 ) of a hyperbola:

Foci:
if a > b => F1 ( a 2 + b 2 , 0) F2 ( a 2 + b 2 , 0) if a < b => F1 (0, b 2 + a 2 ) F2 (0, b 2 + a 2 )

The Ellipse
The set of all points in the plane, the sum of whose distances from two fixed points, called the foci, is a constant.

Asymptotes:

## The standard formula of a ellipse

x2 y 2 + =1 a 2 b2
Parametric equations of the ellipse x = a cos t
y = b sin t
Tangent line in a point D ( x0 , y0 ) of a ellipse:

## b b x and y = x a a a a if a < b => y = x and y = x b b if a > b => y =

x0 x y0 y + 2 =1 a2 b

## www.mathportal.org 5. Planes in three dimensions

Plane forms Point direction form:
x x1 y y1 z z1 = = a b c
where P1(x1,y1,z1) lies in the plane, and the direction (a,b,c) is normal to the plane.

Equation of a plane
The equation of a plane through P1(x1,y1,z1) and parallel to directions (a1,b1,c1) and (a2,b2,c2) has equation

x x1 a1 a2

y y1 b1 b2

z z1 c1 c2 =0

General form:

The equation of a plane through P1(x1,y1,z1) and P2(x2,y2,z2), and parallel to direction (a,b,c), has equation

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
where direction (A,B,C) is normal to the plane.

x x1 x2 x1 a

y y1 y2 y1 b

z z1 z2 z1 = 0 c

Intercept form:
x y z + + =1 a b c
this plane passes through the points (a,0,0), (0,b,0), and (0,0,c).

Distance
The distance of P1(x1,y1,z1) from the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 is

## Three point form

x x3 x1 x3 x2 x3 y y3 y1 y3 y2 y3 z z3 z1 z3 = 0 z2 z3

d=

## Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 A2 + B 2 + C 2

Intersection
The intersection of two planes

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0, A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0,
is the line

Normal form:

## x cos + y cos + z cos = p

Parametric form:

x x1 y y1 z z1 = = , a b c
where

x = x1 + a1 s + a2 t y = y1 + b1 s + b2 t z = z1 + c1 s + c2 t
where the directions (a1,b1,c1) and (a2,b2,c2) are parallel to the plane.

a= b=

B1 B2 C1 C2

C1 C2 A1 A2

## Angle between two planes:

The angle between two planes:

c=

A1 A2 b

B1 B2 D1 D2 D1 D2 D1 D2 C1 C2
2

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0 A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0
is

c
2

D1 D2
2

B1 B2 C1 C2 A1 A2

x1 =
2 2 2

a +b +c c A1 A2
2

arccos

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 A + B +C
2 1 2 1 2 1

A2 + B2 + C2

c
2

D1 D2
2

## The planes are parallel if and only if

y1 = a z1 =

a +b +c B1 B2
2

A1 B1 C1 = = A2 B2 C2
The planes are perpendicular if and only if

b
2

D1 D2
2

A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 = 0

a +b +c