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EDUCATION FOR ALL SECONDARY EDUCATION SUPPORT PROGRAM COMMUNITY SCHOOL SUPPORT PROGRAM SECOND HIGHER EDUCATION PROJECT

Government of Nepal Ministry of Education Department of Education Monitoring and Supervision Section Sanothimi, Bhaktapur Nepal

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Executive Summary
The Department of Education (DOE) is the central level agency that leads the implementation of the Education for All (EFA) program through two different financing modalities, namely pooled and paralleled funding. During the FY 2007-08 periods Asian Development Bank (ADB), Australian Aid (AusAid), European Commission (EC), Denmark, Finland, Norway, and the United Kingdom (UK), United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), World Bank (WB) have supported the pooled funding as guided by the Joint Financial Arrangement (JFA). The parallel funding donors are Government of Japan, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and World Food Programme (WFP). DOE is also the main implementing agency for the Secondary Education Support Program (SESP) for which ADB and Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) have provided financial support. Likewise, the Community School Support Program (CSSP) is supported by World Bank. Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has provided support for Improvement of Primary School Management (SISM) and Community Alternative Schooling Project (CASP) in selected districts. The World Bank has also supported the Second Higher Secondary Education Project (SHP). UNICEF has provided financial assistance to DOE for various field level activities in 22 districts and UNESCO has supported areas like the Education Management Information System (EMIS). The DOE has also been implementing the Higher Secondary Education Component of II Higher Education Project (IIHEP) in collaboration with Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB). DOE is also responsible for coordinating with National Centre for Educational Development (NCED), Curriculum Development Center (CDC), Office of the Controller of Examination (OCE) and Non-Formal Education Centre (NFEC) for the preparation, implementation and monitoring of EFA and SESP programmes. Overall Progress of EFA 2007-08 The overall physical progress rate (central and district level combined) for the FY 200708 was 97% for total recurrent expenditures, as compared to 95% of last year. Similarly, the overall physical implementation rate for the component under capital expenditure was 95% of this fiscal year as compared to 100% of last year. The overall financial progress rate for total recurrent expenditures (central and district combined) was 91% of in this fiscal year as compared to 85% of last year. Similarly, the financial implementation rate for the component under capital expenditure was 80% as compared to 100% of last year. With respect to district-level distribution of physical implementation rates for district level activities two districts (Arghakhachi and Kapilbastu) achieved a highly encouraging progress rate of 100%. Other 68 districts achieved a satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100%, while 2 districts achieved moderate satisfactory, i.e. between 80% and 90%. Three districts (Taplejung, Bara, and Parsa) achieved a less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80% as they had below 68% progress rates.

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1: Early Childhood Development (ECD) The overall physical and financial progress of the ECDs/PPCs component for district level was 99% and 95% respectively. It was 98% with physical and 89% with financial implementation rates in the previous FY 2006-07. But for central level activities the overall physical and financial progress could not be achieved as it was expected. The Flash I Report 2008-09 demonstrates that there are altogether 20,023 school based and community-based ECDs/PPCs supported by the government and 3,636 institutional school-based PPCs running across the country. In terms of EFA indicators, the Flash I Report 2008-09 shows that the country has achieved a 63.4% GER with 61.3% girls and 65.5% boys, which is above the EFA 2009 target of 51%. It represents a 22 percentage point increase if compared with 2006-07 (41.4% GER with 40.9% girls and 41.9% for boys). It also reveals that still there is only 36.2% (35.9% girls and 36.5% boys) of children enrolled in grade one with ECD experience in the school year 2008-09. It is a significant achievement as compared with the 2003 and 2006 but still more efforts are needed to meet the EFA 2009 target of 60%. Component 2: Ensuring Equitable Access to Primary Education The overall progress for the district level in the recurrent budget head (65-3-804) had a physical implementation rate 99% and a financial implementation rate 93% as compared to last year 97% and 94% respectively. For central level, the overall physical and financial progress of this component were 94% and 75% respectively. Since 1990, the enrolment has increased with an average by 3% every year. In 2007-08, the total number of children enrolled in primary level was 4.78 million where it was 4.41 million in the previous year. The gender parity index (GPI) in percentage of enrolment at primary level was 0.98. In terms of EFA indicators, it seems unlikely that the EFA 2009 target of having a gross intake rate (GIR) for grade one of 110 in 2009 will be achieved as it is 147.7 in 2008-09. Likewise, there is only little progress achieved towards the EFA 2009 target of having a GER of 104 in 2009 despite that it was slightly reduced from 139 in 2006 to 138.5 in 2007. Again in 2008-09 the GER was slightly increased and it reached 142.8. Regarding the goal of having a net enrolment rate (NER) of 96 in 2009, steady progress is being made as the net enrolment rate increased from 86.8% in 2005 to 91.9% in 2008-09. Component 3: Meeting the Learning Needs of All The overall implementation rates for district level activities had a satisfactory implementation rate as compared to the previous year with a physical progress rate of 92% and a financial progress rate of 85%. Last year, the implementation rates were 56% and 50% respectively. For the central level the overall physical and financial progress of the component were 98% and 95% respectively. The availability of free textbooks, in time, provides an enabling environment that contributes to enhance teaching and learning processes in the classroom. In 2008, 45.2% of the students received a full set of textbooks and additional 9.4% received a partial set of textbooks within the second week of the session, i.e. 14 Baisakh 2065 (or April 26,

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2007). The availability of free textbooks has slightly declined as compared to the academic session in 2007 when only 58.4% of the students had received free textbooks within the first week. Component 4: Reducing Adult Illiteracy In terms of the district level implementation the physical progress for this component was 97% and the financial progress was 93%. Similarly, for the central level, the physical and financial progress of the component were 100% and 95% respectively. Out of the target of 54,000 and 32,000 women taking literacy course I and II, a total of 53,920 and 31,520 women completed the courses respectively. Similarly, out of the target of 965 women's group taking the skill development and income-generating course, a total of 965 women's group benefited from these courses on different subjects according to local needs. In addition, the MOE established 205 community learning centres in FY 2007-08, which was a 100% physical implementation rate. Component 5: Eliminating Gender Disparity For the district level, the overall physical implementation rate for this component was 100% and the financial implementation rate was 89% this year as compared with 97% and 92% respectively last year. Similarly in terms of central level implementation, the overall physical progress was 100% and the financial progress was 85%. Two major activities in terms of number of students and budget allocated were the dalit and girl-children scholarship programmes. Out of the target of 772,923 dalits and 612,867 girls for 50% girl scholarship, a total of 741,451 and 615,653 children received the scholarship, i.e. 99% and 100% physical implementation rates and 90% and 88% in financial implementation rates respectively. In terms of EFA indicators, the Flash I Report, 2008-09 shows that gender disparity in terms of GPI in NER has declined from 0.87 in 2002 to 0.98 in 2008-09. Similarly, the female teacher school ratio at primary level was 1.8 in 2008-09. Component 6: Improving All Aspects of Quality Education For the district level activities, the overall physical implementation rate was 97% and the financial implementation of 94% as compared to 96% and 95% respectively last year. At the central level implementation, the overall physical and financial implementation rates were 99% and 100% respectively. Improving all aspects of quality dynamics of the school education is challenging. In terms of EFA indicators, there has been good progress towards having 90% of all teachers with the required qualification and training by 2009 as it has increased from 30.5% in 2004 to 45% in 2005, 60% in 2006 and it is now 71.3% in 2008-09. In terms of student teacher ratio (STR), there was a 1:33.3 ratio on average in 2008-09 (primary level in all types of schools) while a ratio of 1:37 is targeted for 2009. The STR in the community schools is high such as 1:44 in primary, 1:58 in lower secondary and 1:39 in secondary level (Flash 2008-09). The repetition rate, another EFA indicator, indicates the quality and efficiency of the educational system. The repetition rates in both grade 1 and grade 5 have decreased

steadily in recent years. The Flash I Report 2008-09 shows that the repetition rate for grade one and five are 28.3% and 7.3% respectively. Hence, achieving the goals of 10% and 3% in grade 1 and grade 5 in 2009 will demand concerted efforts in the next years. Overall Progress of SESP 2007-08 In order to speed up the implementation process of the SESP, the budget allocation modality from past year was changed in favour of the district level activities. The allocation of the budgets for the districts and the centre level activities were 84% and 16% respectively in this fiscal year. This is a movement of overall decentralisation strategy of MOES for the school sector development In 2007-08, the overall physical and financial progress for district level activities for both budget heads (re-current and capital) were 91% and 87% respectively, while they were 90% and 84% respectively last year. Similarly, the physical and financial progress of the recurrent budget heads were 89% and 86% respectively. Likewise the physical and financial implementation rates for the capital budget heads were 92% and 87% as compared to 83% and 70% respectively last year. The overall physical implementation rate for the central level activities was 87%, whereas it was only 42% last year. The financial implementation rate was 79%. The reason for the high physical and financial implementation rates was the completion of the national security press activity (capital budget head) as this activity carries a high weightage (43.7) in the total budget. In terms of major activities in the learning environment component, for the district level, the overall physical and financial progress under the recurrent budget head were 97% and 97% respectively. In case of capital budget head, the financial and physical implementation rates were 89% and 92% respectively. The scholarships for secondary education and dalit students were fully utilized when considering the numbers of beneficiaries. At the central level, the overall physical and financial progress under recurrent budget head was 46% and 44% respectively, whereas the overall physical and financial progress for the capital cost were 89% and 83%. In terms of the curriculum and assessment component, for district level, the overall physical and financial progress was 72% and 85% respectively. For central level, the physical and financial implementation rates were 93% and 92% respectively. The overall physical and financial progress of recurrent budget head against the targets in AWPB were 96% and 95% respectively for district level activities under the teacher education, development and management component, whereas they were 96% and 74% respectively for capital cost. Similarly, at central level, the overall physical and financial progress was 83% and 78% respectively. For the institutional management and capacity building component, the overall physical and financial implementation rates under the recurrent budget head were 85% and 75% respectively. The Flash report 2008-09 shows that the student's enrolment has increased for both lower secondary and secondary levels over the past two years. The GER at lower secondary has

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reached 80.1% while at secondary level it is now 59.5%. Likewise, the NER at lower secondary and secondary level is 57.3% and 36.4% respectively in 2008-09. The gender parity index (GPI) for enrolment in lower secondary and secondary levels also showed improvement. Among them, the GPI for the enrolment at lower secondary had the biggest improvement with a share of girls in lower secondary and secondary level are 48.2% and 47.2% respectively. The Flash I Report 2008-09 also shows that GPI is also improving for different social groups indicating a better representation from dalit and janajati girls. However, the overall enrolment of dalit student in lower secondary and secondary level had lower than expected (i.e 11.4 % of dalit students of total enrolment in lower secondary and 7.8% in secondary education in 2008-09). Overall Progress of Community School Support Project (CSSP) 2007-08 The CSSP has continued its program activities that was started in 2003. The project has divided into four main components. By the end of fiscal year 2007-08, a total 7,015 levels of public schools' management has been transferred to community. Among 7,015 levels, 4,991 are primary levels, 1,374 lower secondary levels and 650 secondary levels. The rate of progress was highly satisfactory as compared with previous year but some policy debate on school management still remains. Overall Progress of Higher Secondary Education Component of Second Higher Education Project 2007-08 The SHEP has continued its program activities that were started in 2007-08 and which has four main components. There were 16 activities under the recurrent budget head (653-411) and 7 activities under the capital budget head (65-4-411) targeted in the AWPB. The overall physical and financial implementation rates were 92% and 90% respectively.

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Chapter I
1.1 General Introduction Education is considered as one means of poverty reduction by empowering people with knowledge and skills to voice their concerns and secure their rights to live a dignified life. The government recently shifted its priorities towards the socially deprived community by working intensively for a wider inclusive environment. As a result, the existing socio-cultural equation of the country has changed drastically resulting in increasing demands and expectations from all walks of life particularly from traditionally disadvantaged and underserved groups. The Ministry of Education (MOE) is implementing an educational reform process that is emphasizing equitable access to education resources. This should help marginalized sections of the population i.e. women, dalits, children with disabilities and ethnic and linguistic minorities to improve their educational status in the coming years. Over the years, MOE has initiated a number of programmes to achieve national and international commitments. In this regard, Education for All (EFA) 2004-2009, the Secondary Education Support Program (SESP) 2003-2008 as well as the Community School Support Programme (CSSP), the Teacher Education Project (TEP) and the Second Higher Secondary Education Project (HSEP) has been implemented in the education sector. The Department of Education (DOE) is responsible for implementing policies and programmes formulated and set by MOE, and also for developing the norms and standards to ensure a working framework for regions, districts and schools. DOE is also accountable for implementing and monitoring educational programmes and project activities against established outcomes and benchmarks. Thus, the DOE is the agency that leads the implementation of EFA which has two financing modalities, namely, pooled and paralleled that are running simultaneously. The pooled funding is guided by the Joint Financial Arrangement (JFA), which is agreed upon by the pooled financing donors; GON, ADB, AusAid, EC, Denmark, Finland, Norway, UK, UNICEF, WB. The parallel funding donors are Government of Japan, UNESCO, UNICEF and WFP. The DOE is also the leading implementing agency for the Secondary Education Support Program (SESP) supported by ADB and Denmark. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has also supported the Teacher Education Project (TEP). Similarly, the Community School Support Program (CSSP) is being implemented with the support of World Bank. In order to provide better access to children of poor and disadvantaged communities focusing on the girls' education, the Supporting Improvement of School Management (SISM) and the Community Alternative Schooling Project (CASP) in selected districts are being implemented with the assistance of Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). UNICEF is assisting DOE with various field level activities in 22 districts while UNESCO supports administrative aspects of the EFA like EMIS development.

The DOE is coordinating with the National Centre for Educational Development (NCED), Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), Office of the Controller of Examination (OCE) and Non-formal Education Centre (NFEC), Higher Secondary Education Board (HSEB) for the preparation, implementation, monitoring and reporting of these programmes. Other non-pooling partners also support the EFA programme, especially on capacity building (UNESCO), quality and girls education (UNICEF), Food for Education (WFP), while Save the Children Alliance, World Education and other I/NGOs have provided complementary support to MOEs regular programmes. In addition, DOE collaborates with various organizations and research institutions such as the Centre for Educational Research Innovation and Development (CERID) on various formative research activities. The government has been working with I/NGOs, and UN agencies collaboratively for achieving the EFA targets and millennium development goals in the education sector. In this regard, consultations and collaborations with professional organizations such as Community School National Network (CSNN), Teachers Union, Private and Boarding Schools Organization Nepal (PABSON), N/PABSON, Parents Organization, Journalists, have continued in 2007-08. 1.2 Objectives of the Report The objectives of this report are to: Analyze the overall status of the implemented programs by outlining the potential strengths and weaknesses of the activities, Analyze the underlying problems, issues and constraints that contribute to unsatisfactory results, and Share the status of the programmes and the best practices among the central level agencies (CLAs) and the development partners

1.3 Report Preparation Process The report uses information from multiple sources like the first-hand information from the field and the second-hand information from districts and central level agencies and uses both qualitative and quantitative data. 1.4 Remarks on Data Sources This report has a financial analysis in Part Two using financial data available from Financial Comptroller Generals Office (FCGO) while data used in the physical progress report (PPR) uses un-audited financial data directly obtained from DEOs. Financial data from DEOs is used in the analysis of PPR part for EFA reporting because FCGO financial data is not disaggregated according to EFA components and activities. The two sets of financial information are different in nature and source and as such are not practicable to compare. The analysis is based upon financial and physical data received from all 75 districts and central level agencies. All districts, across the country, submitted their reports, a larger number of districts have also submitted a District Status Report.

The data quality of the district level status reporting has continued to improve as compared to the previous years. Calculations of financial and physical progress on both district and central level budget heads were done using the NPC guidelines. One reason why most DEOs managed to submit their status reports in time was the increased assistance and dialogue between DOE and DEOs (i.e. a number of field visits to DEOs and schools, workshops like the ASIP workshop and the regional data verification workshop between DOE and DEOs where reasons and the importance of monitoring and reporting of EFA activities were discussed. A second reason could be the DOEs FMR committee members have used every opportunity to discuss and highlight to DEOs the importance of financial and physical monitoring of the EFA programme. A third reason could be the increased flexibility from DOEs side in terms of communication channels. In this regard, it is interesting to note that a number of remote DEOs (like Humla and Bajura) has been continuously using email to submit their data and reports on a timely manner. 1.5 Structure of the Report This report consists of five chapters in all. General information related to various project activities are outlined in chapter one. Chapter two gives the status of the EFA programme including activities supported by non-pooling donors. In addition, this chapter contains a brief account of social and financial audits. The status of SESP is analyzed in chapter three. Chapter four analyses the physical and financial progress of CSSP activities. Chapter five analyses physical and financial progress of Higher Secondary Education Component (HSEC) of IIHEP. The annexes contain various detailed information for explanatory purposes.

CHAPTER - II

EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA)

Chapter Coverage:
Part One EFA Components (ASIP and AWPB, 2007-08)

Part Two Contribution of Other Nonpooled Donors on EFA

Part One
This part contains an analysis of the EFA programme interventions and achievements in the FY 2007-08. It also provides a comparative analysis of allocated budgets in ASIP and AWPB (FY 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08), a component-wise annual achievement analysis and finally, a summary of EFA performance indicators are presented. 2.1 The EFA Context Universal primary education is one major Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to which all member countries of the United Nations are committed. The World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal in April 2000 embraced a holistic concept of educational development and subsequently, declared the Education for All (EFA) to be achieved by participating countries by 2015 AD. Nepal, as a member country of the forum, has shown its commitments to achieve the EFA goals within the stipulated timeframe. In this regard, GoN has given the education sub-sector high priority, and allocated a significant share of its total budget to this sector. As EFA is a national priority programme, the GoN prepared an Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA- NPA) 2001-2015 with focus on the six overall EFA goals: Expanding and improving early childhood and care, ensuring access to all, meeting the learning needs of all children including indigenous peoples and linguistic minorities, reducing adult illiteracy, eliminating gender disparity, and improving all aspects of quality education. The EFA, NPA is divided into two programme periods EFA 2004-09 and 2010-15 (School Sector Reform). The initial period of EFA, NPA was covered by the BPEP II programme. The GoN has so far implemented the Education for All Programme (200409) with financial support from ADB, AusAid, EC, DFID, Denmark, UNICEF, Finland, Norway and World Bank under the pooled financing funding modality guided by the Joint Financing Arrangement (JFA), and by JICA, UNICEF,UNESCO and WFP in form of parallel support. During the course of implementation, the EFA Programme (2004-09) has already completed three years of its implementation period. This status report focuses on analyzing the component-wise physical and financial progress against the targets outlined in the 2007-08 Annual Strategic Implementation Plan (ASIP) and Annual Work Plan and Budget (AWPB). It also looks at the current status of progress towards the targets of the 18 national EFA indicators. Lastly, it outlines identified constraints occurred and lessons learned during implementation. 2.2 ASIP and AWPB 2007-08 The ASIP 2007-08 was guided by the vision of the Tenth Plan (2002-07), the Three Years Interim Plan within the frame of Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) (2006-2009) and is aligned with MOEs Business Plan for the Education Sector. The MTEF provides a guideline to resource allocations based on past experiences and looking forward to future perspectives, while the Education Sector Business Plan paves the way

to comprehensive educational planning for the sector. The overarching aim of the Tenth Plan is poverty reduction by enhancing capability and productivity, especially of the poor and disadvantaged groups. The DOE is the leading institution that facilitates and coordinates the implementation of the EFA programme. To this endeavour, the ASIP is the main annual guiding programme document for programme interventions. The AWPB is derived to achieve the intended objectives and outcomes of the ASIP. 2.2.1 ASIP 2007-08 The ASIP 2007-08 endeavoured to align resources in-tune with national policies and strategies with a time-bound activity plan that included benchmarked outputs. It also provided a framework for monitoring and tracking programme progress. The main programme priorities were on: 1. Basic equitable provision of teachers, classrooms and books 2. Decentralization support to schools, including funding o Community management o Capacity building of school management committees 3. Quality issues o Developing of indicators o Monitoring o Medium of instruction 4. Inclusion: the un-reached and un-served learners strategies to reach them and retain them in schools 5. Improvement of management, including accountability, planning, implementing and monitoring. Based on these five priorities, the Government identified the following ways: Social audits will be carried out in all schools Partnerships with I/NGOs will be continued and further strengthened Communication both vertical and horizontal will be improved Simple guidelines on fund flow, reporting on funds, tracking funds will be put in place Better systems for reporting on progress and other indicators will be put in place Better orientation of stakeholders at the grassroots will be provided Small scale independent reviews will be introduced as a complement to monitoring schemes Efficient mechanisms for addressing the issue of compliance will be introduced, and Parents and other community members will be involved in the construction and rehabilitation of classrooms The key tasks will be to Identify schools, allocate funds and complete the construction of 6,000 new classrooms in schools where student-teacher ratio is excessive; Rehabilitate and maintain 1,500 schools/classrooms in collaboration with communities

Identify schools with high student-teacher ratios, identify re-deployable teachers and complete the action plan for deploying or redeploying teachers in at least ten districts to meet demand and minimum standards, focusing on allocating teachers to schools with excessively high student-teacher ratios; Provide SIP funds to schools to ensure the timely availability of textbooks; Update the scholarship strategy and associated criteria, modalities and administration practices to ensure transparency and accountability; Define quality and minimum standards in the context of basic education in Nepal; and Need for program to address disparities in access

The ASIP 2007-08 strongly believed that each child (girl and boy) has universal access to quality school education. Improving all aspects of the educational activities the ASIP has realized four strategies i.e. decentralization, inclusion, capacity building, and conflict mitigation and post conflict reconstruction to achieve the intended objectives. Decentralization has been enforced to empower and effectively mobilize the grass-roots level organizations through preparations of School Improvement Plan (SIP) and Village Education Plans (VEP) along with the management training to School Management Committees (SMCs) and other school stakeholders. The aim was to empower SMCs in order to increase the effective utilization of the allocated resources in the schools based upon SIPs. This entails school autonomy for ensuring democratic environment encouraging teachers and parents to take school-based decision-making responding to problems felt locally. For this, the DOE continued its earmarked, block- and performance grants to SMCs. Similarly, continuation of VEPs and SIPs initiatives have been regarded as the tools to bring community stakeholders on board to diagnose, prioritize, plan and manage locally available resources as well as those provided by the DOE with a view to optimize school outcomes. Inclusion was considered an important strategy to promote equality and quality education considering the diversity of students' needs. Provisions of scholarships to all dalits, 50% of the girls and children with disabilities were some of the prominent activities undertaken in this regard. Similarly, mapping of schooling facilities to ensure that there are adequate facilities to provide access to all including ethnic groups even in small and isolated hamlets and mainstreaming of educational institutions run by minority and religious groups including Madarsas, Gumba, Gurukul, etc. with a view to enhancing the indigenous values and improving relevance of education for indigenous groups were the main strategies for the inclusion. Integrated capacity building was focused on VDCs and schools involving chairpersons and members of SMC/PTA and head teachers. Particularly, elements of school management, school grants, ECD, inclusive education, gender sensitization, girls education and women literacy and other parental awareness were taken as the part of a comprehensive package of the integrated capacity building. Social mobilization and orientation to parents, NGO/CBOs, and civil society members were other activities in this direction.

2.2.2 Comparative Analysis of Allocated Budgets in ASIP and AWPB Tables 2.1 and 2.2 show the component-wise budget allocations in ASIP, AWPB and Red Book for 2007-08 central and district levels. Improving all aspects of quality education component took up the biggest share of the budget both in the ASIP and Red Book.
Table 2.1: EFA Budget as in ASIP, Red Book (Revised) for FY 2007-08
NRs in 1000

Total Budget in ASIP Components Expanding early childhood development Ensuring access to all Meeting the learning needs of all Reducing illiteracy Eliminating gender disparity Improving all aspects of quality education Other Total Central District Total 65-3/4- 417 65-3/4-804 879 6,832 15,534 10,132 985 367,700 23,470 425,532 389,067 1,677,860 2,492 110,836 574,327 2,008,706 267,996 5,031,284

Total Budget in Red Book Share of Central Share of District US$ compone compone 65-3/4-417 65-3/4-804 nts nts 7.2 30.9 0.3 2.2 10.5 43.6 5.3 100 879 6,832 15,534 10,132 985 367,700 23,470 425,532 389,067 1,677,860 2,492 110,836 574,327 2,008,706 267,996 5,031,284 6.00 25.92 0.28 1.86 8.85 36.56 4.48 83.95 7.2 30.9 0.3 2.2 10.5 43.6 5.3 100

389,946 1,684,692 18,026 120,968 575,312 2,376,406 291,466 5,456,816

The figures given are NRs in thousands and US$ in million (1US$ equivalent to NRs 65)

The table 2.2 shows the increase of the total pooling budget in the fiscal year 2007-08 as compared to the previous years budget. The increase resulted remarkable increases in all EFA budget heads. This was primarily due to increased funding for additional teacher grants and new classroom construction.
Table 2.2: Allocation of budgets in pooling budget heads in 2006-07 and 2007 08
Budget heads 65-3-140 65-3-167 65-4-167 65-3-169 65-3-170 65-3-176 65-3-417 65-4-417 65-3-804 65-4-804 Headings Primary Teachers' Salary Non-formal Education recurrent Non-formal Education capital Teacher Record Office Special Education Council Teacher Pension Facility EFA (Centre - recurrent ) EFA (Centre - capital ) EFA (district - recurrent) EFA (district - capital) Total Red Book 2006-07 NRs US$ % 7,477,834 105.30 61.24 4,640 235,000 34,000 780,000 70,048 2,797,136 811,182 12,209,840 0.07 3.31 0.48 10.99 0.99 39.40 11.43 171.97 0.04 1.92 0.28 6.29 0.57 22.91 6.64 100.00 Red Book 2007-08 NRs 9,432,602 5,155 240,585 34,400 790,000 425,532 3,491,784 1,539,500 15,959,558 US$ 145.12 0.08 3.70 0.53 12.15 6.55 53.72 23.68 245.53 % 59.10 0.03 1.51 0.22 4.95 2.67 21.88 9.65 100

Figures presented above are NRs in thousands and US$ in million. 1 US$ equivalent to NRs 65.00

Based on the approved AWPB for FY 2006-07, NRs 15,959,558 thousands was allocated for 8 budget heads under EFA programme. No budget was allocated in budget heads 654-167 and 65-4-417 in the 2007-08 fiscal year. The distribution of the total education budget in 2007-08 between GoN and development partners were 72.69% and 27.91% respectively. Likewise, the distribution of the pool fund between GoN and development partners is 70.06% and 29.94% respectively. The primary teachers' salary comprises the largest share of budget (59.10%) in the pool fund. Table 2.3 gives a comparison of EFA budget of the last three fiscal years and annual allocations and expenditures of different budget heads for these fiscal years 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08.
Table 2.3: Comparison of annual financial progress of FY2007-08, 2006-07, and 2005-06
NRS 000
FY 2007-08 Budget Head Nos. Revised Annual Allocations Expenditur es up to 3rd Trimester % of Expenditu res to Annual Allocation FY 2006-07 Expenditure up to 3rd Trimester % of Expenditu res to Annual Budget FY 2005-06 % of Expendi Expen ture up ditures to 3rd to Trimest Annual er Budget

Descriptions

Central Level Budget & Expenditure Primary teacher's salary 9,533,129 65-3-140 65-3-167 65-3-169 NF education Teacher documentation Special education programme Teacher pension NF Education Education for All (centre, recurrent) Education for All (centre, capital) * *

9,401,623 * *

98.6

7,490,256 4,604 222,971

95.41 99.23 94.88

6,944,240 4,437 263,920

99.07 98.53 91.3

65-3-170 65-3-176 65-4-167

38,881 * -

38,458 * -

98.9

31,847 699,988 -

93.67 89.74 -

30,238 333,400 -

90 66.68 0

65-3-417

38,090

24,672

64.8

57,633

82.28

41,821

80.89

65-4-417

22,949.00 7,641,007. 00

95.23

9,610,100 Centre level Sub-total District Level Budget & Expenditure Education for All (district, recurrent) 3,450,060 65-3-804 Education for All (district, capital) 1,543,680 65-4-804 District level Grand Total Sub-Total (Centre + District) 4,993,740 14,603,840

9,464,753

98.5

8,507,300

94.79

96.57

3,199,446

92.7

2,487,932

90.05

2,268,421

86.44

1,515,162 4,714,608 14,179,361

98.2 94.41 97.09

864,116 3,352,048 11,859,348

98.1 92 93.99

538,318 2,806,739
10,447,746

96.36 88.18 94.17

Note: This financial information is based upon un-audited financial data compiled by FCGO * Updated financial information for these categories will be included in the final report as they are received from the FCGO data base.

In general, the financial progress of EFA pooled financing in 2007-08 was 97.1%, whereas it was 94.0% in 2006-07 and 94.2% in 2005-06. The total expenditures in 20059

06 and 2006-07 were 11.2 billion and 11.9 billion NRs respectively, whereas it was more than 14 billion in 2007-08. The budget head that saw the biggest increase from the previous year was primary teachers salary budget head that increased from 5.9 billion NRS to 9.5 billion NRS. The main reason for the higher expenditure on this budget head was an increase in the teacher salary and number of teachers.
Figure 2.1: Comparison of annual financial progress by budget heads and financial years
65-3- 65-4Education f or All (district, capital) Education f or All (district, recurrent) Education f or All (centre, capital) Education f or All (centre, recurrent) Teacher pension Special education programme Teacher documentation NF education Primary teacher's salary 0.000 804 0.098 0.093 0.098 0.090 0.096 0.086

65-4-

417

804

0.095

65-3- 65-3-

417

0.065 0.090

0.082 0.067

0.081

65-3-

170

176

0.099

0.094

0.090

65-3- 65-3-

169

0.095 0.099

0.091 0.099

65-3-

140

167

0.099 0.050 0.100 FY 2007-08

0.095 0.150 FY 2006-07 0.200 FY 2005-06

0.099 0.250 0.300

The financial progress in figure 2.1 mentioned budget heads for FY 2007-08 were above 90% except for budget heads 65-3-417 (Education for All -centre, recurrent) with 65%. The overall financial progress in the FY 2007-08 had increased (increased by 3 percent) as compared to the progress made in the previous fiscal year. The salary of permanent teachers and 'Rahat' teachers had been allocated in the budget head 65-3-140 (Primary teachers' salary). Of the total EFA allocated budget of NRS 15.9 billion, NRS 9.4 billion was allocated to one budget head, namely the "Primary Level Teacher Salary" component and this takes up 59% of the grand total of the budget. On this budget head, NRS 9.4 billion was utilised. The overall financial progress for this budget head was 99% in FY 2007-8 whereas it was 95.41% in FY 2006-07. The total number of government approved teacher positions is 80,176 up to now. The government distributed 18,211 teacher positions in the 'Rahat Grants' of which 2,798 are earmarked for female teacher positions. The financial progress for the budget heads 65-3-167 (Non-formal education), 65-3-169 (Teachers' documentation) and 65-3-176 (Teachers' pension facility) are missing as the data from the FCGO data base were not available. No allocations were made for the budget heads 65-4-167 (Non-formal education, capital) and 65-4-417 (Education for all, capital, centre) as no programmes were proposed under these budget heads. For the budget head 65-3-170, 99% financial progress was made against the annual allocation.

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For the two district budget heads (65-3-804 and 65-4-804), the overall financial progress was 94%, when analyzed separately, the progress on the recurrent budget head was 93% and 98% was for capital budget head. 2.3 Overall Accomplishment in 2007-08 Based on the approved AWPB for the FY 2007-08, the status of physical progress for the central and district level activities is presented below. As mentioned earlier, the overall status in terms of physical implementation of above mentioned 4 budget heads were calculated using the formula prescribed by NPCs Monitoring Guidelines (See annex 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9 ). The financial one is based on information from DEOs as the FCGO financial data do not provide component and activity-wise financial information for cross-analysis of physical and financial progress. The proportions of budget allocations at the centre and the districts were 8% and 92% respectively of the total allocation for budget heads (central level: 65-3-417, 65-4-417 and district level: 65-3-804 and 65-4-804). The overall financial progress for the central and district level activities under these budget heads was 91% in FY 2007-08. The overall physical progress rate (central and district level combined) for the FY 200708 was 97% for total recurrent expenditures, as compared to 95% for the last year. Similarly, the overall physical implementation rate for the component under capital expenditure was 95% this fiscal year compared to 100% last year. The overall financial progress rate for total recurrent expenditures (central and district combined) was 91% in this fiscal year as compared to 85% last year. Similarly, the financial implementation rate for the component under capital expenditure was 80% while it was 100% last year. The overall expenditure of the recurrent budget head, as compare to previous years expenditure, shows that there was a higher percentage of expenditure as per the allocations in the AWPB, whereas it was a bit lower in the capital budget head.
Table 2.4: Comparison between physical and financial progress of central level activities with component-wise weight given in FY 2007-08 S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 EFA component Expanding Early Childhood Development Ensuring access to All Meeting the Learning Needs of All Reducing Illiteracy Eliminating Gender Disparity Improving All aspect of Quality Education Others Weight 0.21 1.68 3.65 2.5 0.23 87.91 3.87 Total Progress Physical Progress% 2.0 94 98 100 100 99 92 99 Financial Progress % 3 75 99 95 86 100 85 96

The main reason for the overall high physical progress rate was that the Improving all Aspects of Quality Education component with a 100% implementation rate constituted of more than 85% of overall central level budget. 11

The component-wise physical and financial progress for district level activities are analyzed in the following sections.
Table 2.5: Summary of district level implementation progress in 2007-08 Implementation Progress (%) Difference between 06-07 and 07-08 2007-08
Physical Financial Physical Financial

2006-07 Component ECD Ensuring Access to All Meeting the Learning Needs of All Reducing Illiteracy Eliminating Gender Disparity Improving all Aspects of Quality Education Educational Management Total Recurrent Total Capital Grand Total
Physical

Financial

98.1 96.7 56.2 97.8 99 96.4 93 95.2 99.8 97.5

88.8 93.9 49.9 93.4 92.2 95 76.5 91.3 99.6 95.5

99.4 99.0 92.4 97.2 99.9 97.2 98.1 98.0 94.7 97.0

94.6 93.1 85.2 92.9 89.0 94.3 82.9 92.4 80.0 90.3

1.3 2.3 36.2 -0.6 0.9 0.8 5.1 2.8 -4.9 -.5

5.8 -0.8 35.3 -0.5 -3.2 -0.7 6.4 1.1 -19.6 -5.2

Note: The physical data is based upon reporting from all 75 districts. The financial information presented in this table is based upon component-wise reporting from DEOs. Therefore it might not resemble precisely with what was presented in the tables above.

In table 2.5, a comparative analysis shows that the grand total of physical and financial implementation rates for two district level budget heads decreased approximately by .5% and 5% respectively this fiscal year as compared to the previous fiscal year progress. The analysis also shows that it was, especially, an increase in utilization of the budget under re-current expenditure that had improved the overall budget utilization. A graphical representation of the analyses of physical and financial implementation rates, for both recurrent and capital expenditures by year, are presented in figure 2.1.
Figure 2.2: Comparison of Physical and Financial Implementation Rates by Recurrent and Capital Expenditures and by Years
110.0

100.0

90.0

80.0 Grand Total (Recurrent and Capital) Total for Recurrent Ex penditure (653-804) Phy sical Progress Total for Capital Ex penditure (654-804) Grand Total (Recurrent and Capital) Total for Recurrent Ex penditure (653-804) Total for Capital Ex penditure (654-804)

FY 2006- 07

FY 2007- 08
Financial Progress

A more detailed analysis by component shows that physical implementation rates were above 97% for all components except for component number 3 (Meeting the Learning

12

Needs of All), which was 92%. Similarly, the financial implementation rates were above 80% for all district level components.
Figure 2.3: Comparison between Physical & Financial Progress by Component in 2007-08

The figure 2.3 shows the comparative status of physical and financial progress on recurrent expenditure for FY 2007-08. This analysis shows that the overall financial implementation rate was relatively close to the physical progress rate as the difference was less than 5%. The narrow gap indicates a slightly improvement as compared to the gap of the previous year. By component the highest gap, 11%, was in the Eliminating Gender Disparity component. The smallest gap was 3% in Improving all Aspects of Quality Education component. In case of the Eliminating Gender Disparity component, the difference in financial and physical progress was due to the activity 50% girls scholarship, which did not make use of all the allocated budget. A summary of the district level implementation analysis on major target beneficiaries for FY 2007-08 against the approved AWPB is presented in table 2.7.
Table 2.6: Summary of District-level Annual Implementation against major AWPB objectives
Components Target beneficiaries in FY 2006-07

Expanding ECD Ensuring Access to All Meeting the Learning Needs of All

Reducing Illiteracy

Eliminating Gender disparity

Improving All Aspects of Quality Education

Educational Management Capital expenditure

19,931 centres @ 20-25 children in each centre SOP, 882 centre FSP, 650 centre Special Needs Education Curriculum and Text books in local level WEP 53,920 Centers WEP II, 3105 centers PSDC, 340 motivators CLC, 203 centre Dalit children: 741,451 children Girls children: 741,451 girls SIP funding: 3,959,093 students Primary school grants: management grants for 16,763 schools and Stationary grants for 79,665 teachers Grants to RCs: 1,047 resource centres Flash report and status report: 75 districts Dissemination of curriculum and text-book: 24,810 teachers School accreditation: 13,814 schools Block grants for community managed schools :2,489 schools School based training: Child friendly 6,018 teachers Monitoring: 75 districts New classroom construction (regular and community managed schools: 2,857 classrooms Classroom construction as per cost sharing: 948 classrooms School rehabilitation: 2,231 schools School environment: 1,443 schools

13

Components

Target beneficiaries in FY 2006-07

DEO/RC building construction: 6 DEOs Rehabilitation of DEOs: 23 DEOs * For more detailed information on each components physical and financial implementation, please consult annex 1 for district level activities and annex 2 for centre level activities.

For the district level activities in the FY 2007-08 in terms of geographical distribution of physical progress among districts, it was found that 2 districts (namely, Arghakhachi and Kapilbastu) achieved a highly encouraging progress of 100%. Other 68 districts achieved a satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100%, 2 districts with moderate satisfactory, i.e. between 80% and 90%, and 3 districts with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. between 70% and 80%, whereas three districts (Taplejung, Bara, and Parsa) had achieved the least progress i.e., below 70%.
Map 2.1: Overall physical implementation rates by districts

In terms of comparison between physical and financial implementation rates, there were 25 districts that had more than 5% difference between the physical and financial implementation rates. The average difference between physical and financial implementation rates, for all 75 districts, was 5%, whereas it was 2.3% in previous year. The districts with higher (more than 10% difference between physical and financial implementation rates) physical implementation rates in terms of financial progress were Dolpa, Panchtar, Pyuthan, Humla, Mugu, Kalikot, Solukhambu, Bajura, Terhathum, Jumla and Salyan. The three districts with the highest differences were Dolpa, Panchthar and Pyuthan with 36%, 29% and 28% respectively in favor of physical progress (See annexes for more details). Similarly, some districts had higher financial implementation rates in comparison to the physical progress. These districts were: Kathmandu, Bardiya, Parbat, Udayapur, Mohattari, Palpa, Okhaldhunga, Ilam and Jajarkot. The Kathmandu district had the highest difference measured with a difference of 4% which was lower than the physical progress.

14

Figure 2.3: Comparison between Physical & Financial Progress by Region


100.0

95.0

90.0

Physical Financial

85.0

80.0
Estern Central Western M idwestern Farwestern

The figure 2.4 demonstrates a comparative status, by region, on a recurrent expenditure in FY 2007-08 between physical and financial progress. Also, the overall financial implementation rate is relatively closer to the physical progress rate as the difference was less than by 5%. The highest gap, noted, was in the Mid-western region with a gap of above 5%, whereas the smallest gap was in the Eastern region with 3%. The Western and Far-western regions had higher physical and financial implementation rates. But, the Mid-western region had the lowest physical and financial implementation rates. 2.4 Component-wise Annual Achievement Analysis 2.4.1 Expanding and Improving Early Childhood Development & Pre-Primary Classes Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children Two forms of programmes, community based Early Childhood Development (ECDs) and school based (PPCs) have been implemented since the fiscal years 2004-05. Both of the programmes are seen as the means of accelerating the internal efficiency of basic and primary education, and are considered instrumental for the social, emotional, intellectual and physical development of children. The Flash Report, 2008 demonstrated that there are altogether 20,023 schools and community- based ECDc/PPCs and 3,636 institutional school- based PPCs running across the country. The main strategy was to consolidate and increase the number of ECDs and PPCs to ensure access for the most vulnerable and marginalized children. In the process of expansion due considerations were given to community mobilization and parental education in running the ECD programme. The ASIP 2007-08 aimed at strengthening the existing 16,523 ECD centres and establishing 3,500 new ECD/PPCs with a view to provide facilities for all round child development. For this, a total 7.15% of EFA budget amounting to NRs. 389.946 million (US$ 6.00 million) was allocated. The major strategic priorities were follows: Continued expansion of the ECD network with the establishment of 3,500 new centres in poor and vulnerable communities; ECDs established in poor and

15

vulnerable communities were to receive matching grants (NRs 9000), Government provides 90% of the matching grants and the community contribution would be 10% of the matching grants. Self help groups will also be encouraged to establish and operate ECD centres in order to increase the community/parental involvement. Design of measures and/or incentives to attract and retain good ECD Facilitators Design, organization and conduction of training for ECD Facilitators, aimed at ensuring basic skills; Review and update of present cost-sharing arrangements with poor and vulnerable communities to ensure access is extended to most needy communities; and Identification and documentation of best practices in the operation and management of ECD centres with a view to develop a model ECD centre.

Achievements against EFA Indicators: The gross enrolment rate of ECD/PPC has increased in recent years, faster than planned, but it has not helped considerably to increase the percentage of new entrants into grade 1 with ECD experience. The Flash I Report, 2008-09 (See table 2.7) indicates that the country has achieved a 63.4% GER with 61.3% girls and 65.3% for boys, which is higher than the intended target of 51% in the EFA-2009. It has increased by 22% as compared with the figures (41.4% GER with 40.9% girls and 41.9% for boys) in 2006-07. The table 2.7, reveals that there is 36.2% (35.9% girls and 36.5% boys) of children enrolled in Grade one with ECD experience in the academic year 2008-09. Though more efforts are needed to meet the target set in the EFA 2004-09 (i.e.60%), it should be noted that a significant achievement was achieved when compared to the figures achieved in 2003 and 2006. The reason could be high in-take into Grade 1, in recent years, has deflated the improvement in terms of children with ECD experience. Similarly another reason could be that the statistics from Flash under-reported the number of new entrants with ECD experiences because of problems of obtaining data from all ECDs/PPCs.
Table 2.7: EFA Indicators on ECD Indicators Gross enrolment rate of ECD/PPC Percentage of New entrants at grade 1 with ECD experience 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Target 41.4 60.2 33.12 63.4 51

Achievement 13 19.8 19.9 39.4 69.91

9.6

13.7

10.9

Na.

18.3

36.2

60

In the calculation of this indicator for this year, the under age children in grade one (children enroll in grade one under 5 years) was also taken as an enrolment of ECD/PPC. 2 The percentage of boys and girls in ECD/PPC experiences is 36.2% and 35.9% respectively.

16

The capturing of ECD programme to vulnerable and marginal groups and the participation of children in ECD/PPC programmes, by sex and social background, is shown in table 2.9. Of the total enrolment, 15.9% of dalit and 38.6% of janjati are in ECD/PPC as indicated in Flash 2008-09.
Table 2.8: ECD/PPC enrolment by sex and social groups, in Flash I, 2008-09) Students Total Girls Boys Total 414,993 466,254 881,247 Number of children in ECD/PPC Dalit 69,036 71,393 140,429 Janajati 162,380 177,366 339,746 Others 183577 217495 401072 Percentage share in total children Dalit 16.6 15.3 15.9 Janajati 39.1 38.0 38.6 Others 44.2 46.6 45.5

Achievements against Annual Targets: There were two main subcomponents and seven activities under this component for the district level. The overall physical and financial progress of the ECDs/PPCs component were 99% and 95% respectively. These were 98% with physical and 89% with financial implementation rates in the previous FY 2006-07. In terms of geographical distribution of achievement, it was found that 52 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100% and 22 districts with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% & 100%, and there was one district, Bara, with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%.
Map 2.2: ECD/PPC: overall physical implementation rate by districts

In brief, one of the ECD targets in the EFA, 2004-09 was to achieve 51% GER with improved transition to grade one. Flash data, mentioned earlier, shows that the GER was 63.4% (61.3% girls and 65.3% boys) in Flash I, 2007-08. The ASIP also included a target of establishing new 3,500 ECD centres. In the end 3,500 new centres were established during the year (i.e. 100%). The EFA-2004-09 document also aimed at increasing the percentage of children in grade 1 with ECD/PPC experience to 60% in 2009, however only 36.2% was achieved.

17

Again, there was a provision for basic training for the 3,500 new facilitators in the AWPB in which 3,500 facilitators had received training. Most of the activities under this component had more than 90% physical implementation rates. But the activity 2.1.5 (Matching Fund activity) had slightly low implementation rate with 90% in comparison to the progress made in other activities under this sub-component. In addition, the AWPB proposed NRSs 47 million for the matching fund, to match funds generated by community members, where expenditure of 32 million was made during the fiscal year. The second subcomponent (Existing ECD Centres) had highly satisfactory progress for two sub-activities with 99% and 97% physical implementation rates, and 97% and 73% financial ones. At the central level, there were four activities planned in this component as per AWPB 2007-08. The overall physical and financial progress against the planned targets was below 10%. But the Meeting allowance for the national council for child development networking activity was completed with a 60% physical progress rate. The reason for the lower progress than expected was that the main activity of this component Competency based training curricular for trainers and facilitators had not been accomplished. DOE had published notices twice to procure the consultancy services, but no qualifying bidder was obtained to develop the competency-based curricular. As a result, other interdependency activities such as activity no. 1.2 and 1.4 (Revision, re-printing and development of resource materials part I & II and Printing of basic Training Packages 2500 pieces, ECD pedagogy material 10,000 copies) could not be implemented. Problems and Issues: A common issue, but very often raised by most districts, is the low remuneration to the facilitators and consequently, they were distracted from the profession. The concern regarding the sustainability of community based ECD centres was raised by some districts this year, because of lacking ownership and participation of community people. Districts have, again, reported that allocated budget for facilitator training was insufficient to conduct training which deprived from professional skills to the facilitators to the desired extent. The district also reported that the issues related to expansion and quality control mechanism for the ECD/PPC programme was poor than expected. The allocated budget (1,000 NRs per year) for the teaching and learning materials for each centre was reported as lower than the market prices, particularly, by remote mountain and hill districts. Furthermore, remote districts have also complained of delayed delivery of training packages and materials. Some districts reported, in particular, that community managed ECD centres had poor physical and instructional materials. Getting VDC more engaged to support ECD activities at local level was one suggestion mentioned as a way to improve local support and accountability.

18

Some schools in most districts (e.g. Sindhupalchok, Mahottari, Bara, Sindhuli, Parsa) have established a PPC within their school and sometimes shift the PPC facilitators to teach in the primary level, as well. This is reported to be especially a case in schools with very few primary teachers.

Lessons learned There were lack of teaching learning and playing materials in ECD/PPC centers despite the fact every ECD/PPC got NRs 1,000.00 for manipulative learning materials each year. Low attention towards the pre-primary is a major alarming issue in school based ECD programme. After training, if trained facilitators getting other attractive jobs creates the problem of using the untrained ECD/PPC facilitator as a primary teacher. Using pedagogy in learning by the ECD child and PPC setting for ECD child is inappropriate for all round development of ECD aged children. Consider the PPC as ECD program as prelude of primary level instead of addressing ECD philosophy. Implementation of programs with a joint collaboration and partnership modality with I/NGOs helps in running the programmes effectively and fulfilling the budget gap. Group monitoring and follow up from the DOE and I/NGOs help in maintaining the quality of the ECD programme. Qualitative indicators should be developed and implemented for the development of quality ECD/PPC with the joint venture of line agencies.

2.4.2 Ensuring Equitable Access to Primary Education Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality Universal primary education (UPE) is one of the main goals of EFA. In 2001, about 20% of school age children were not enrolled in schools and the drop-out rate was even higher at that time. The annual growth rate of the enrolment during 2003 to 2006 was found 3.9% on average (School Level Educational Statistics, Consolidated Report, 2006). The ASIPs have stressed inclusion and decentralization as strategies to increase the access of the un-served children. The 'Enrolment Campaigns' undertaken have been encouraging for parents to bring their out-of-school children in school. With this in mind, the EFA programme supported six major activities, namely Development of Village Education Plans, School Welcome and Enrolment Campaign Programme, Improvement of School Facilities, Alternative Schooling Programme, School Out-reach Programme, and a Flexible School and Special Needs Education Programme in order to achieve an equitable UPE.

19

Targets and Major Focus for 2007-08: In the ASIP, expansion of access to primary education free of cost followed by efforts to provide textbooks and physical expansion of the school network for incentives and subsidies to encourage increased participation of vulnerable, disadvantaged and marginalized children and capacity building with social mobilization, empowerment and awareness activities were the key strategies undertaken in order to reach the un-reach target. Ensuring access to quality basic education MOE/DOE targeted: Construction of 3000 classrooms, Rehabilitation of 2264 classrooms, Cost sharing to construct new classrooms and pay maintenance, Inclusive education programme, Free textbooks to all primary school children, Flexible schooling classes and school out reaches programmes, Achievements against EFA Indicators: In general, the progress on the main EFA targets regarding ensuring equitable access to primary education has been slow but there has been a steady progress in terms of the net and gross enrolment to primary education. However, the changes in the net enrolment have rapidly increased over the past years but perhaps trend is changing slowly. The main reason behind the slow down is that it seems to be a greater challenge to reach the fewer and fewer remaining still out-of-school children. The survival rate to Grade 5 has increased by 1% in comparison to the previous three yeas 2005 - 2007, whereas in 2008-09, it has 73.4 The detailed description of the universal primary education and national target is presented below. The data available, since 2001, indicate that progress is being achieved but still now it is a challenge for EFA 2004-09 to meet the targets.
Table 2.9: EFA Indicators on UPE 2001 2002 Indicators Gross Intake Rate at G1 Net Intake Rate at G1 Gross Enrolment rate Net Enrolment rate Survival Rate to G5 122.9 51 124.7 81 66 101.3 74 118.4 82.3 67.6 2003 117 76.1 126.7 83.5 59.7 2004 2005 Achievement 125.9 148.1 NA NA 130.7 145.4 84.2 86.8 76.2 79.1 2006 148.1 NA
138.8

2007 145.2 NA 138.5 89.1 81.13

2008 147.7 83.1 142.8 91.9 73.44

87.4 80.3

2009 Target 110 95 104 96 85

In assessing the progress, it is useful to analyse the core EFA indicators regarding the gross and net intake rates as well as gross and net enrolment rates. The gross indicators measure both the overall enrolment capacity of the school system, whereas the net indicators capture the extent that whether the children who are in the official age for a specific level of schooling (i.e. either grade 1 or primary) are enrolled or not. The NIR
3

*These figure was calculated by using the formula of proxy method (81.1% for proxy method)

The figure was calculated reconstructed cohort method whereas the previous year has been applied the proxy method.

20

and NER do not take into account of enrolled children who are outside a given official age group because of early or delayed enrolment or grade repetition.
Figure 2.4: Enrolment trends in primary level
175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Achievements T arget 2009

GIR 110 GER 104 NER 96 SR 85

Gross Intake Rate at G1 Net Enrolment rate

Gross Enrolment rate Survival Rate to G5

The figure 2.5 shows the enrolment and survival trends in primary level and the EFA 2004-009 targets. It is obvious that the enrolment is increasing but the access to primary school still remains an issue. A GIR above 100% means that many children younger or older than the official entrance age were enrolled in primary education, whereas a sharp discrepancy between GER and NER indicates that enrolled children do not progress at a regular pace through the grades, which, implies that the use of the resources is not efficient. The data from Flash I, 2008-09 showed that the lower grade has higher share in the enrolment and it is decreasing in upper grades. Similarly, the number of girls enrolled in the primary level was increased. The table 2.10 also indicate an improvement in the overall enrolment of girls and GPI in primary level.
Table 2.10: Total enrolment at primary level by grade and sex (F I 2008-09) Grade 1 2 3 4 5 Total Enrolment Flash I, 2008-09 Girls Boys Total 733493 751902 1485395 477150 480173 957323 440080 443149 883229 393254 402820 796074 321402 338890 660292 2365379 2416934 4782313 % of Girls 49.4 49.8 49.8 49.4 48.7 49.5 Share of student 31.1 20.0 18.5 16.6 13.8 100.0

21

The majorities of out-of-school children are girls living in rural areas and concentrated in mid and far-western mountains and central tarai districts (see detail in Flash I 2008-09). Girls are generally engaged in looking after household activities, including day care for babies and are also deprived of education due to early marriage (Bista, 2005; Jenkins, 2005; Rajbhandary, 2002; UNESCO, 2000). Disparities in education start at lower grade with fewer intakes of girls than boys and widens at upper grades due to their low rate in grade progression and completion. Girls from dalit and janajati groups are double disadvantaged for schooling as the opportunity cost to such families of educating girls is much higher. There are evidences that even rich parents have a son-preference for providing quality education in private schools. Achievements against Annual Targets: For the district level implementation, there were seven main sub-components namely, Village Education Plan, School Welcome and Enrolment Campaign, School Outreach Programme, Flexible School, Special Needs Education, School for Adult Women, (recurrent budget head) and School Physical Facility Improvement (under the capital cost) under this component along with 30 activities altogether. The overall progress of the recurrent budget head (65-3-804), under this component, had a physical implementation rate of 99% and a financial implementation rate of 93% as compared to 97% and 94% of the previous fiscal year. The Village Education Plan subcomponent and programme for supporting school opened to serve adult women were the subcomponent with a lower than 90% physical implementation rate, whereas the welcome to school and student Enrolment campaigning programme activities were the highest (i.e. 108%). For the School Physical Facility Improvement subcomponent, school environment and physical infrastructure related activities were proposed and these activities were allocated under the capital cost (65-4-804). From the perspective of district wise physical implementation rates, it was found that 29 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100% as compared to 32 districts of previous year. Similarly, 37 districts were with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100% and 4 districts with moderately satisfactory, i.e. between 80% and 90%. The remaining 5 districts had less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%. Among the districts with the lower progress were Mugu and Siraha with implementation rates 78% or below. The following map is more illustrative for the district wise progress.

22

Map 2.3: Access to All: Overall physical implementation rates by districts

In the case of the Village Education Plan subcomponent, the target was to prepare 150 Village Education Plans (VEPs), where the overall physical progress was only 87% with a financial implementation rate of 83%, i.e. a total of 130 VEPs were prepared out of the target of 150 VEPs. The main constraining reason for implementation given by districts was the absence of an elected body in VDCs and the absence of village secretary in most conflict affected VDCs. Another reported reason was the lack of professionals and technical resources at the VDC level. For the School Physical Facility Improvement component aimed at constructing and rehabilitating schools and DEO buildings as well as improvement of school external environment. Under this subcomponent, there were 11 activities proposed for the FY 2007-8, namely, new classroom construction, classroom construction for community managed schools, school construction as per the cost sharing scheme (one block = 3 rooms), school rehabilitation, school external environment improvement, construction of DEOs/RCs and completion of the constructing schools started in the previous year. The overall physical and financial progress in this subcomponent were satisfactory, i.e. 85% and 80% respectively (See the analysis on Capital budget head, 65-4-804). The Alternative Schooling subcomponent had two programmes, namely a school outreach programme (SOP) and a flexible school programme (FSP). Flexible Schooling Programme: There were two main broad activities under this subcomponent for continuation of existing and establishment of new flexible schooling programme. The overall physical progress for this subcomponent was 95% for 10 activities and financial progress was 91%. Among the 9 activities, the physical implementation rate was found highly satisfactory i.e. 90% above. Similarly, financial implementation rate of the these activities were recorded 85% and above except on remuneration for the new flexible schooling facilitators and training for facilitators (existing) were 68% and 77% respectively. School Outreach Programme: The overall physical progress of this subcomponent was 98% and financial implementation rate was 94%. Among the nine activities seven activities had more than 93% of the physical progress rate but the financial implementation rates for the targeted activities were 90% and above on average. 23

The activity related to classroom management and training for facilitators (existing), within the subcomponent, had slightly low physical implementation rates with 89% and 79% respectively. On the whole, the physical progress for the Inclusive Education (Special Needs Education) subcomponent was satisfactory i.e. 100% among the five activities and the financial implementation rate was 94%. Among the five activities, the two activities with a comparatively, a high weight, had high progress rates, i.e. a total of 338 resource classes were operated out of the target of 340 and 10,171 students received scholarship out of the targeted 9,916 students. The Inclusive education concentrates on establishing resource classes and district assessment centres that help identifying disabled children to be enrolled in the inclusive education schools. The targets for 2009 are to establish 350 resource classes, 75 assessment centres (one in each district) and 500 inclusive education schools (i.e., each school having the facilities/resources for disabled students including the residential facilities). As of FY 2007-08, 340 resource classes, 47 assessment centres, and 210 inclusive education schools were in operation.
Table 2.11: Annual targets for Inclusive education
Achievemen t for 200405 (cumulative) Target for FY 2005/06 (cumulative) Achievemen t for FY 2005/06 (cumulative) Target for FY 2006/07 (cumulative) Achievemen t for FY 2006/07 (cumulative) Achievemen t for FY 2006/07 (cumulative)

Activities

Target for FY 2004/005

Target for EFA 2009

Operation of Resource class Assessmen t centre Inclusive education school

320

320

330

330

340

334

338

350

35 60

35 60

47 210

47 210

47 210

47 210

47 210

75 500

The activity on Programme for alternative schooling had highly satisfactory physical implementation rate with 100%. Under this component, two new programmes were planned in the FY 2007-08, namely, programme for adult women and textbook learning materials. For these activities, the progress made was relatively low i.e. 75% and 73% physical implementation rates in respective activities. At the central level, there were two subcomponents ('Alternative schooling' and 'Education for special needs children') and altogether fourteen activities were planned for the FY 2007-08. The overall physical and financial progress of this component were 94% and 75% respectively. Under this component, the subcomponent no. 2.1 (Alternative Schooling) had highly satisfactory physical progress i.e. 100% for all activities. However, there were three activities under the subcomponent 2.3 (Education for Special Needs Children) which had comparatively low physical implementation rates, i.e. ranges from 80% to 91%. For example, the activity concerning a 15 day Training for Resource Teachers, 'a 5 day

24

orientation of assessment center coordinator and head teachers' and 'Multi bilingual education programme' were 80%, 82% and 91% respectively. For activity 2.3.1.3 (a 2 day regional level workshop on how to use and practice a UNESCO toolkits/audiovisual for inclusive education), the AWPB only included the heading but no financial allocation was made, because this activity was supported by UNESCO. Problems and Issues: Some districts (like Lamjung, Panchthar, Doti) commented that they did not receive adequate support from VDC staffs for preparing Village Education Plan (VEPs). Most districts (except some districts in the mountain area, like Manang, Dolpa) have reported that school enrolment campaigns have resulted in more enrolments. Districts, however, have pointed out that schools demanded more help for meeting the space and teacher requirement. DEOs (like Panchthar) have also reported that the physical infrastructure and educational materials for the inclusive education resource classes were found insignificant. Similarly, the professional support programme for the inclusive education in terms of resource teachers and technical staffs was requested. DEOs, primarily in hill and mountain districts, have reported that the allocations for the inclusive education resources classes (day-meal or scholarship for residential) were lower than the local market price. Most districts highlighted that FSP/SOP students were irregular and de-motivated as there was no provision of scholarship for them. There was high demand of the School Outreach Programmes (SOPs) in remote and hill districts (i.e. Lamjung and some districts in Karnali zone), at the same time the allocations were reported as insufficient. There is a need of revision in the SIP budget allocation in line with inclusive education policy. Currently, there is no promising partnership in the inclusive education sector. As the other sub-sectors have experienced a worthy contribution from collaboration and partnership building with I/NGOs, an effort in this sub- component might be useful. DOE should strengthen the facilitative role in coordination and collaboration with various central level organizations for providing priority in inclusive approach in every programme component to ensure inclusiveness in school education.

Lesson Learned:

25

2.4.3 Meeting the Learning Needs of All Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes The Interim Constitution of Nepal focused right to education for every child and recognized cultural and linguistic diversity in the country, and opened up the exploration of ways of providing education through childrens mother tongues in primary school. Meeting the learning needs of all relates to the fact that all children have a right to education and that it entails a responsiveness of the curriculum and learning materials to be of relevance to all social groups including the primary learning materials in different languages. CDC has been developing a national curriculum with 20% of the contents based upon local context (three subjects: social studies, creative art and physical education) at the primary level. This curriculum adopts a rights-based approach to education with emphasis on cognitive skills development and respects for diverse cultural values. To deliver primary education in local minorities mother-tongue text materials in some minority languages have been developed in close collaboration with ethnic and linguistic minorities. In addition, DOE has been implementing various activities in order to achieve the objectives of the components. For meeting the learning needs of minority groups, orientation programmes for PTA and teachers are conducted to make the education more inclusive; textbooks are developed in more than 10 major local languages in view of supporting the learning of students with different mother languages. Similarly, to meet the learning needs of the children with disabilities, resource classes and assessment centres, and scholarship programmes for the children with disabilities are in operation. Grants and incentive have been distributed for mainstreaming Madarsa, Gumba and Gurukuls with flexibility in the curricular materials to cater to the needs of specific religious groups. NGO collaborations continued to support rehabilitating street children with their families and schooling them, and to support education of the orphans and the victims of conflict. Targets and Major Focus for 2007-08: The ASIP and AWPB 2007-08 major targets were: Schools' preparation of list of languages spoken within the service area of schools with a view to explore the demand and need for a bi- or multi-lingual approach; Resource persons' preparation of a profile of potential bi-lingual and multi-lingual teachers; Preparation of a package of curriculum and teacher training materials for mother tongue education; and The piloting of mother tongue education based on an assessment of demand and need. Achievements against EFA Indicators: There is no EFA indicator directly related to this component. Achievements against Annual Targets:

26

For the district level, there were two activities planned for the FY 2007-08. The overall implementation rates were satisfactory as compared to the progress made in the previous fiscal year. The physical progress made was 92% and financial one was 85%, whereas they were 56% and 50% respectively in the previous year.
Map 2.4: Meeting the learning needs: Overall physical implementation rates by districts

In terms of geographical distribution of district level achievements, it was found that 65 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100%, and none were in the satisfactory category, i.e. between 90% and 100%. Again, none were in moderate category, i.e. between 80% and 90%, and 10 districts were in less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 0%. The districts with the no progress were Humla, Mugu, Mustang, Myagdi, Rautahat, Sindhupalchouk, Dhanusha, Saptari, Jhapa and Taplejung. For the central level, there were 25 activities under this component, which were related to 'Development and distribution of curriculum and text-book materials'. The overall physical and financial progress of the component were 98% and 95% respectively. Out of those twenty-five activities, twenty activities achieved 100% physical progress, whereas four activities could achieve between 80% and 100%. However, activity no. 3.1.18 (Establishment of picture bank) at CDC had a zero physical accomplishment rate as it was practically impossible to obtain relevant pictures as demanded by the subject matters. Problems and Issues: Some districts had failed to develop and implement activities related to the local curriculum because of low participation of parents. In Tarai, it was a bit severe. In some districts, lack of professional expertise, at both district and community levels, for developing local curriculum was also reported. The activity of mainstreaming Ashram, Madarsha and Gumba, as reported by some DEOs, was affected by a low level of awareness among religious institutions and also by low allocations of budget. A policy on printing and distribution of text materials, including mother-tongue text materials is essential to involve private sectors. 27

Lesson Learned:

Teachers level of expertise needs to be increased to prepare and implement the local curriculum as well as practice on pedagogical approaches related to local languages, bilingual and multi-lingual including grade and multi-grade teaching.

2.4.4 Reducing Adult Illiteracy Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults Nepal narrowed its adult illiteracy from 70% in 1990 to 52% in 2001. Increasing the adult literacy rate to 66% by 2009 and 75% by 2015 is a great challenge and calls for a dramatic reduction. The 2001 census revealed Nepal's literacy rate to be 54% (male 65% and female 43%) at the age group of 6+ while only 48% at 15 + age group. A geographical analysis of the literacy rates by districts also shows that the literacy levels is very unevenly distributed with an overwhelming majority of Tarai districts in Central and Eastern development regions, and hills and mountain districts in the Midwest and Far west development regions having the lowest literacy levels. Currently, adult literacy, women literacy and functional literacy programmes including skill based training for income generation (IG) are in operation and a programme for drop outs together with CLC operation is being carried out. Targets and Major Focus for 2007-08: The total allocation for reducing illiteracy component was 2.22% of total EFA budget amounting to NRs 120.968 million (1.86 million US$) for the activities: Women Literacy I, Women Literacy II, Functional literacy and community learning centres. These literacy programmes targeted to train the facilitators and operations of literacy classes in the communities. The ASIP 2007-2008 proposed the following targets: Women Literacy I for 54,000 women Women Literacy II for 16,000 women Preparation of VEPs Income generation activities for 965 groups Establishment of 38 new Community Learning Centres (CLCs)

Achievements against EFA Indicators: There are four EFA indicators related to literacy. According to the 2001 Population Census, there is a gender gap of more than 20 percentage points in the youth literacy rate (15 to 24 years), literacy rate (6+), and adult literacy rate (age 15 and above). Gender inequality is strikingly apparent in the adult literacy rate where only 35 percent of females are literate compared to 63 percent of males. The Nepal Living Standard Survey (NLSS) 2004 provided an updated status for literacy levels among the development regions and the ecological zones and is illustrated table 2.13. The literacy rate is lowest in the mountains across all development regions. The 28

central hill region, which includes the Kathmandu valley, has the highest literacy while the Midwestern and Far western mountains have the lowest rates. In general, the hill areas tend to have literacy rates above the national average (except in the far and Midwest), the Tarai is generally in the middle, and the mountain areas are usually below the national average. Table 2.12: Literacy percentage of 15+ age by Development Region, Ecological Zone
(NLSS, 2004) Development Region Male Female 63.7 34.7 60.5 31.8 73.5 41. 7 65.2 28.5 65.3 27.4 Ecological Zone Zone Mountain Hill Tarai Male 57.6 70.2 60.8 Female 25.5 39.8 29.7 Total 40.4 53.4 44.3

East Central Western Mid-western Far-western

Total 48.2 45.5 55.5 45.2 43.9

Source: Nepal Living Standard Survey, 2004

The literacy rates among different caste and ethnic groups vary. The lowest literacy rate exists among the Dalits living in the tarai, such as the Musahar (7%) and the Dom (9%); the highest groups are invariably high caste, such as the Hill Brahmin (75%) and the Maithil Brahmin (71%). Hill Janajatis, such as the Thakali (76%) and Newars (71%), also have high literacy rates (NLSS, 2004). Achievements against Annual Targets: In terms of the district level implementation rates, the overall physical and financial progress were 97% and 93% respectively. The component contained 5 subcomponents and 28 activities altogether. In terms of geographical distribution of achievements, it was found that 58 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100%, and 11 districts with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100%, 2 districts with moderate, i.e. between 80% and 90% and 4 districts with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%. The districts with the least progress were Dhankuta and Saptari with implementation rates 53% and 60% respectively.

29

Map 2.5: Reducing adult illiteracy: Overall physical implementation rates by districts

A total of 54,000 and 32,000 women were targeted for Women Literacy I and II programmes respectively. Similarly, 965 women groups were targeted for the income generating skill development and income generating course for different subjects according to local needs. In addition, the component also covered programme for school drop out children (PSDC) through 400 centres. Out of the targets of 54,000 and 32,000 women for Literacy courses I and II, a total of 53,920 and 31,520 women completed the course respectively, i.e. 99.8% and 98.5% physical and 99% and 97% financial implementation rates were achieved respectively. Similarly, out of the target of 965 groups of women for the Skill development and income generating course, a total of 966 (more than 100%) women groups, on different subjects, were benefited. In case of 205 Community learning centres, the physical progress was satisfactory. Centres were run and the physical and financial implementation rates were 99% and 94% respectively. The PSDC was implemented; 92% physical and 83% financial implementation rates were achieved. The reason for the relatively low physical and financial progress for activity 4.5.6 (Training for motivators) was because of the low turnout of the targeted participants.
Table 2.13: Comparison on physical progress 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08
2005-06 Name of the programme Physical Target Achieve ment % of progres s Physical Target 2006-07 Achieve ment % of progress Physical Target 2007-08 Achieve ment (% of progress

Women Literacy programme-I Women Literacy programme-II Skill/Income generating Training Establishment of community Learning centres

40,000 30,000 5,000 150

36,020 24,682 4,166 132

90 82 83 88

60,000 32,000 1,600 166

59,802 31,800 1,489 166

99.6 99 93 100

54,000 32,000 965 groups 205

53,920 31,520 966 groups 203

99 99 100.1 99

Data source: FMR III 2007 and status report 2007

30

Again, at the central level, there were four subcomponents and thirteen activities altogether related to Development of materials for women literacy and incomegenerating programmes, community learning centres, institutional strengthening activities and drop-out student's programmes under this component. The overall physical and financial progress of this component was 100% and 95% respectively. The physical progress, in each subcomponent, was highly satisfactory, i.e. 100%. Each subcomponent contained 'Organization of training of trainers and reproduction of already existing learning materials, and trainers resource books as the main activities. Problems and Issues: Most districts have, still, complained of low remuneration for non-formal education facilitators and also for conducting examination. Some mountain districts, especially, Karnali zone districts, informed for delayed delivery of training materials and text-books for participants (centrally procured). Districts reported that there is low allocation of seed money for the income generating programmes. DEOs from Karnali zone and mountainous districts have shared difficulty of conducting NFEs classes during winter. Districts pointed out the need for conduction of literacy classes and incomegeneration programmes in pocket areas rather than in VDC boundaries. Income generating activities might be helpful for establishing linkage between literacy programme and functional literacy programme. CLCs need to be made the common platform as a cooperative functional organization and taking lead to search the market for the production of income generating activities. A strong mechanism in partnership with the local government and NGOs could be a better platform for strengthening CLCs, conduction of literacy and income generating programme. The contextual and need based training materials are more responsible to explore the local skills and knowledge. Nation-wide functional literacy campaign should be implemented to eradicate illiteracy and social auditing mechanism might be effective for smooth running of the programme. Literacy materials should be prepared one year prior for timely delivery.

Lesson Learned:

31

2.4.5 Eliminating Gender Disparity


Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality

The fifth goal of EFA is to eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015. The most widely recognized approach as a social inclusion and girls education to mainstream gender equality throughout the entire education system. In this regards, the formal policy of the GoN is social inclusion and mainstreaming into all education programs. The government has been implementing the different interventions related to capacity building, initiatives, recruitment of female teachers in each school as well as affirmative actions for the targeted population. Policy decisions towards increasing equitable participation of females in SMCs and PTAs are also in place. Targets and Major Focus for 2007-08: The total allocation for eliminating gender disparity was 10.54% of total EFA budget amounting to NRs 575.312 million (US$ 8.85 million). The major targets and focuses were: Improving parental and community awareness and support through massive community mobilization campaigns; Reducing the financial burden of parents by providing incentive packages and subsidizing the opportunity cost through scholarships; Increasing attention to local situations and preferences, including contextualizing the curriculum and text materials with the inclusion of gender, cultural values of marginalized groups, and life skills; Sensitizing curricula to meet gender specific needs (as well as special issues and needs of marginalized groups); Improving teacher quality through the integration of gender issues in teacher training packages and programmes; Increasing the number of female teachers through implementation of the policy of one female teacher per primary school; and Increasing the role of women in education management activities at all levels in general, and womens participation in decentralized decision-making and school management in particular. Achievements against EFA Indicators: Progress towards eliminating gender disparity in primary education has been achieved in recent years as the gender equity has increased from 0.87 in 2002 to 0.97 in 2008-09. Data from the Flash reports also suggests that gender disparity in terms of GIR has been reduced in recent years as the GIRs GPI was measured to 1.02 in 2005 up from 0.91 in 2004. The GPI in GER also increased from 0.91 in 2004 to 0.95 in 2005, 0.99 in 2006, 1.01 in 2007 and 1.04 in 2008-09. The table 2.14a shows that the GPI in enrolment at the primary level in different social groups.

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Table 2.14: GPI in primary level by social group Social groups Dalit Janajati Others Total Girls 477,234 960,006 928,139 2,365,379 Boys 488,912 967,072 960,950 2,416,934 Total 966,146 1,927078 1,889,283 4,782,313 % of girls in total 49.4 49.8 49.1 49.5 GPI 0.98 0.99 0.97 0.98

It is plausible that this increasement in enrolment in the next years will translate into an improved GPI of NER as well.
Table 2.15: GPI of selected EFA indicators 2002 Indicators 0.89 Gross Intake Rate at Grade 1 0.91 Net Intake Rate at Grade 1 0.86 Gross Enrolment rate (primary) 0.87 Net Enrolment rate (primary) 2003 0.86 0.91 0.86 0.87 2004 0.91 Na 0.91 0.87 2005 1.02 Na 0.95 0.93 2006 0.89 Na 0.99 0.96 2007 1.01 NA 1.01 0.96 2008 1.04 0.96 1.04 0.97

The increasing trends of GPI in GIR and GER indicates that there is still under and over aged girls are enrolling in the primary grades, whereas the higher GPI trend is found in the lower grades. Similarly, the GPI trend in the NER 2008-09 indicates that the girl's participation in primary schooling are more favourable comparing with 2002, which is increased by more than 0.9.
Table 2.16: Female teacher school ratio by level Level 2003 2004 2005 Primary 1.2 1.2 1.1 Lower Secondary 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 Secondary 2006 1.3 0.6 0.4 2007 1.4 0.5 0.4 2008 1.8 0.9 0.7

The table 2.16 shows the female teacher ratio in the school education since 2003 to 2008. Regarding the policy of at least one female teacher in each school, the data available from Flash reports is encouraging as the female teacher school ratio has increased from 1.2 in 2003-04 to 1.4 in 2007-08 and 1.8 in 2008-09. This ratio shows that about two female teacher are in each primary level; it only compares the number of female teachers to the number of schools.
Figure 2.5: Female teacher school ratio by level
2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 0 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.2 1 Primary 0.5 0.6 0.6 1.8 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 2 Low er Secondary 3 Secondary 4 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.7

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Achievements against Annual Targets: At the district level, the main focused activity was the Scholarship for all dalit children, 50% of girl children in primary level (including scholarship for Karnali Zone) and for Martyr's children. The overall physical implementation rate for this component was 100% and the financial implementation was 89%, whereas they were 97% and 92% respectively the previous year. The two major activities in terms of beneficiaries and budget allocation are the Dalits and Girls scholarship programmes. Out of the target of 772,923 Dalits and 612,867 girls for 50% girl scholarship, a total of 741451 and 615,653 children received the scholarships respectively. Thus, 99% and 100%, and 90% and 88% physical and financial implementation rates respectively were achieved. Reports from the districts implied that some districts disbursed budget for scholarships as per the target but that disbursement did not meet the actual need. On the other hand, there was a problem in disbursing the full allocated budget for both major scholarship schemes as the overall physical and financial implementation rates, on average for both the scholarship schemes, were around 90% and 88% respectively. Again, the physical progress for scholarship of the martyr's children was 83%. In terms of geographical distribution of achievements, it was found that 55 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100%, and 14 districts with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90 and 100%, five district with moderate, i.e. between 80% and 90%, while the other one was with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%. The district with the least progress was Rasuwa, which had an implementation rate of 76%. The reason behind was the migration of students and overestimation of the number to some extent.
Map 2.6: Eliminating gender disparity: Overall implementation rates by districts

The two major activities, in terms of number of beneficiaries and budget allocations, were Dalit and Girls scholarships. The physical targets, as AWPB for 2007-08, were 772,923and 612,867 dalits and girls beneficiaries respectively. The following criteria were implemented (either one or both) in the distribution of scholarships.

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Table 2.17: Scholarship distribution criteria Categories Stationeries School Uniform Stationeries and uniform Mountain regions NRs 200 NRs 400 NRs 600 Hill regions NRs 175 NRs 350 NRs 525 Terai regions and municipalities NRs 150 NRs 325 NRs 450

School

Figure 2.6: Comparison in scholarship received by girls and boys

2007-08

10

613
11

773

2006-07

712 2005-06
11

795

596 2004-05
7

681

560 0 200 400 600

635 800 1,000


Th ousa n ds

Dalit Scholarship

50% Girls Scholarship

Scholarship for Disabled children

Table 2.18: Scholarship distributions by fiscal years (2004-05 to 2007-08)


Progress in % (200405) Financia Physical l

Progress in % (2005-06) Physical Financial

Progress in % (2006-07) Physical Financial

Scholarship Types

Target, 2007-08 Budget Number 000

Progress in % (2007-08) Physical Financial

Dalit Scholarship

521,06 4 93%

624,896 98% 105% 692,789 102% 99% 75% n.a. 9,549 92% 88%

262,220 90% 297,669 89%

686,725 96% 776,716 98%

245,244 94% 284,920 91% 612,867 316,540 n.a. 772,923 270,523

741,451 99% 615,653 100%

252,903 90.00% 279,562 88%

50% Girls Scholarship Booster Scholarships Scholarship for Disabled children

574,19 6 90% 79,940 69% 6,322 93%

n.a. 30,801 92%

n.a. 10,177 94%

n.a. 33,406 98%

n.a.

n.a. 10,171

n.a. 34,854 97%

9,916

35,706

102%

* Scholarships for the Karnali zone are included in the dalits and girls scholarship programmes and booster scholarships are included in dalit and girls scholarship.

The monitoring report 2008 on scholarships, this year, highlighted some major concerns: it uncovered a fact that out of school children were attracted in schools. In addition, scholarships contributed to an increase of the enrollment rate; education wastage has decreased due to the rise of survival rate. Some districts have initiated providing detailed information regarding the scholarship quotas and distribution criteria to schools through

35

media such as local newspapers, official bulletins and others. Still, some headteachers and SMC members lack the full information; even if they receive, it is often late; and in some cases, they go to the DEO and ask for the details of the allocations they receive. Data from districts reveal that some districts disbursed the budget to schools for scholarships for a target number of beneficiaries, as there were more number of beneficiaries in some schools than the number of beneficiaries in the AWPB was estimated upon, the actually distributed scholarships by schools to individual students was lower on average. At the same time, there was also a problem in disbursing the full allocated budget to both major scholarships. Similarly, inconsistency is noted there as the allocated budgets, for both major scholarships, were not fully spent as the overall financial implementation rates were only about 89%. The progress on martyr's children's scholarship was 83%. Out of the target of 9,916 scholarships for children with disabilities, 10,171 children could receive it, i.e., the physical progress on this particular activity was around 102%. At the central level, there were five activities planned for the FY 2007-08. The overall physical progress was as high as 100%, whereas the financial implementation rate was as low as 85%. The low progress was caused by the low spending (less than 60%) in activities 5.2 and 5.3 (Data collection of indigenous cast or group, Raute and Chepang and Updating of the profile of women teachers and managers). Problems and Issues:

Districts are facing challenges in monitoring of the scholarship programme in particular. The problem caused mainly by the reporting mechanism from schools to DEOs. Some districts reported that they were not sure whether the scholarships received were used for children's instructional materials or not. Most of the districts (except Manang, Mustang and other mountainous districts) report about an inadequate amount of scholarship for the targeted children because the scholarship amounts were allocated on the basis of previously published data, i.e. Flash data. In order to make scholarship distribution more effective, it is indispensable to determine the actual number of needy children by collecting data of those children belonging to hardcore group. Collaboration with I/NGOs might be worthy. Tracking of beneficiaries as to who and when received the benefits through data verification mechanism would be helpful to scale down problems noted.

Lesson Learned:

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2.4.6. Improving All Aspects of Quality Education Improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills Ensuring quality learning relates to assuring opportunities to schooling for all school aged children in a congenial learning atmosphere entailing appropriate curriculum goals followed by relevant contents, intensive use of time and effective delivery techniques. This also involves careful use of instructional language and a sound assessment policy. Quality of education is as important as providing access to all. Without a sufficient efficiency of the education system, it will suffer from wastage and low efficiency and many children will not complete a primary education. The DOE has been considering a holistic development and learning and to ensure this at least four basic elements are indispensable: teachers, textbooks/instructional materials, the learning environment and the school management. Targets and Major Focus for 2007-08: The ASIP 2007-08 had set the following strategic priorities for improving all aspect of the quality education: Raising the competence and improving the qualifications of teachers; Improving the learning environment in classrooms; Enhancing the quality of curricula and textbooks, and ensuring their timely delivery; Developing school based self governing supervision and monitoring; and Ensuring decentralized management of schools; Day meal program for the students studying in Karnali Zone; Strengthening school level capacities for school planning and management; and Developing the capacity of sub-district, district, regional and central levels education personnel for effective provision of educational services; The major target of ASIP for FY 2007-08 includes: SIP funds to all children (based on the figure received from districts in flash reports) Orientation to SMC members of community schools Accreditation of 10,000 schools Reviews of DEPs of all districts; School based child friendly training to teachers of 6000 schools Achievements against EFA Indicators: The EFA framework measures learning outcomes in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills. As discussed above, data on literacy and numeracy rates is based on the NLSS, 2004 available from CBS. However, there are other EFA indicators that give indications about the quality of the education system. One indicator of the quality of the education system is the repetition rate. Here data indicates only a little improvement. The repetition rate for grade 1 has decreased from

37

39% in 2001 to 29.8% in 2006, 29.5% in 2007 and 28.3 in 2008, but it is still far away from the goal of a repetition rate of 10% in 2009.
Figure 2.7: Repetition rate in grade one and five
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 2001 2005 Achie ve m e nts Repetition rate G1 2008 Target 2009 11.5 9 7.3 3 10 30.4 28.3 39

Repetition rate G5

The repetition rate for grade 5 has even increased since 2001 to 2003 but it has slightly decreased in 2005 and 2006. Again, the repetition rate was decreased by more than 1.1% in 2007 and 2008 compared with last year. The new policy of liberal promotion in grade 1 will produce lower repetition rate for grade 1 but its improvement rates will not reflect quality aspects. The detail description about the quality aspects are presented in the table below:
Table 2.19: EFA Indicators indicating quality aspects 2002 2001 2003 2004 2005 Indicators Achievement Repetition rate G1 39 36.8 34 NA 30.4 Repetition rate G5 9 11 13.5 NA 11.5 Percentage of teachers with 38 in required 15 16.2 17.4 30.5 total qualification and training 49.1 Pupil Teacher 1:39.9 35.7 35.8 39.7 in Ratio total 2006 29.8 10.4 69.5 in total 45.2 in total 2007 29.4 7.8 66.4 in total 42 in communit y school
2008

28.3 7.3 67.1 in total 5 44 in communit y school

2009 Target 10 3

99

37

Another important aspect of quality is the number of teachers and the quality of the teaching. Here data from Flash shows that the number of primary level teachers in community school with the required qualification and training has increased from 15% in 2001 to 38% in 2005, 66.4% in 2007 and 76.1% (71.3% community school and 54.0% in institutional school) in 2008. Another aspect of quality is the number of students per teacher. Having too many students leaves little time for each student limiting teachers ability to pay attention to
5

The percentage is presented in accordance to the number of trained teachers at primary level.

38

students on an individual basis. Here data shows that the pupil-teacher ratio in primary level has increased from the 1: 40 pupils per teacher in 2001, 1: 42 in 2007 and 1: 44 in 2008 (community schools), whereas the national total ratio for primary level is 1: 33.3 . Thus, the progress to achieve the goal of a pupil teacher ratio of 37 in 2009 is dramatically worsening. During the FY 2007-08 DoE initiated an achievement test study for the primary level grade 3 and 5 in the subjects Math, English and Nepali. So far DoE has received test results from 47 districts. Achievements Against Annual Targets: At district level, this component consisted of 18 activities, whereby almost all the activities had more than 93% implementation rates except the activity no 6.17 (Programme for supporting Madarsa, Ashram and Gumba), which was 90%. The overall physical and financial implementation rates were 97% and 94% respectively, whereas they were 96% and 95% in the previous year. In terms of geographical distribution of achievements, it was found that 16 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100%, and 50 districts with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100%, 6 districts with moderate satisfactory, i.e. between 80% and 90% and 3 districts with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%. The districts with the least progress were Manang, Humla and Jajarkot and had implementation rates of 57%, 76% and 79 respectively.
Map 2.7: Improving Quality: Overall implementation rate by districts

Slightly low progress was achieved in activity no. 6.17 (Programme for supporting 'Madarsa, Ashram and Gumba'). The physical and financial achievement rates were 90% and 93% respectively. Schools received NRs 1,163,587,710 in their block grants (SIP fund) according to unaudited figures from DEOs. Again, the grants to school management, based upon SIPs, were for 264,949,410 students in all. The financial implementation rate for the block grant was 97% of the allocated budget. Similarly, schools of 79,665 teachers were reported to have received their annual stationery grants of NRs 300 out of the target of 80,201 teachers. In addition, community managed schools had received NRs 245,700,000 (95% implementation rate) as a block grants.

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To improve the teaching/learning environment in the classrooms, 6,018 teachers had received school based training on child friendly training module. Similarly, a total of 446 schools had received the matching fund for computer and library management out of the target 440 (i.e.104% physical implementation rate). Also, the ASIP targeted a total of 10,000 schools for school accreditation of which a total 13,814 (112%) schools got involved in the process and had received the grants. Again, at the central level, this component had contained two subcomponents (Improving all aspects of quality education and Research & development) and twenty four activities were planned for the FY 2007-08. The overall physical and financial implementation rates were 99% and 100% respectively. For the first subcomponent, the focus was given to printing, publication, distribution of educational materials and reports, revision of the materials and establishment of library at DOE. The physical progress rates for this subcomponent ranged from 80% to 100%, except for one activity no. 6.1 (Publication and distribution of different types of educational materials) with 50% physical progress. Although the multi-grade teaching learning and learning by playing materials were published and distributed, the activity related to teachers' resource books regarding creative art and physical education were not implemented because of the scarcity of the professional expertise required for developing / revising the teacher guidebook. Subcomponent activity 6.1.11 (Per capita funding grant to schools for teacher salary) had a high weightage (i.e. 82.2%) in the AWPB and had a 100% of physical and financial implementation rates and subsequently, contributed for high physical and financial progress for the central level activities. The per capita funding grants to schools were released, based upon Flash 1 data for 2007-08, after the approval of guideline for grant distribution from NPC and MOF, to DEOs. The majority of the activities under the second subcomponent (Research and development) had 90% or above physical progress and the financial ones were above 70%. However, the activity no.6.2.13 (Dissemination and printing of different research reports) had zero physical and financial progress rates because the process of approval took longer than expected time. Hence, the activity could not be implemented. Problems and Issues:

Almost all districts have raised the issue of late availability of textbooks at schools. Remote, mountainous and Karnali zone districts stated that they required additional school grants based on recent increase in market prices and transportation costs. DEOs also hinted at low allocations to run the resource centres (RCs) in the perspective of quality education (for instance, trainings, seminars, teaching/ learning materials etc.). DEOs (such as Doti) have indicated that the Per Child Funding (PCF) modality supports more to best performing and bigger schools rather than to the poor and small schools.

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Lessons Learned: Again, some districts (including remote ones in Karnali zone) reported about nonavailability and late availability of textbooks in full sets. A policy on printing and distribution of text-materials by involving private sectors is essential. Remote districts also requested to review the unit cost so as to address location specific market price and transportation costs.

2.4.7 Educational Management This component has no direct relationship with other six EFA goals. It consists of three administrative activities, namely district monitoring activities, salary to Resource persons (RPs) and Sub-engineer and Engineers, and allowances to RPs, Sub-engineer and Engineers. The ASIP recognizes that the primary aim of the monitoring will be to look into efficiency of service delivery at all levels, i.e. if the information is available on the time, when resources/ targeted interventions reached districts/schools in time as scheduled, and when and how they were put into practise. Achievements Against EFA Indicators: None of the 6 overall EFA Goals relates directly to educational management but MOE has established its own goals in terms of resources that it would like to have allocated to the education sector and in particular to the primary education sub-sector. Progress has been made since 2001 by the MOE in getting more funds allocated to the primary education sub-sector. In 2001 only 1.7% of the GNP was channelled to the primary education sub-sector, whereas it was 2.2 in 2005 and 2.24 in 2008. Likewise, within the total education budget it can be seen that the share allocated to the primary sub-sector was increased from 55.6% in 2001 to 61 in 2008.
Table 2.20: EFA indicator in relation to Education Management 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Indicator Achievement Percentage of GNP channeled to primary 1.7 2.0 1.9 2.0 2.2 education sub-sector Percentage of Total Education budget channeled 55.6 60 60 60 63 to primary education subsector 2006 2007 2008 2009 Target 2.3

2.05

1.95

2.24

62

60

61

60

Source: ASIP 2008-9

It is clearly indicates that the government's priority towards primary sub-sectors has been increasing over the past decades. Achievements Against Annual Targets: At the district level, programme monitoring, salary to RPs, Sub-engineer and Engineers, allowances to RPs, Sub-engineer and Engineers and Day Meal for Karnali Zone were the four activities on district level. The overall physical and financial progress in this

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component was 98% and 83% respectively. One reason for low financial progress was caused by delayed appointments of RPs and other technical staff. Another reason was that the activities of salaries and allowances of RPs, Sub-engineer, Engineers and Accountants did not require full disbursement as the vacancies were partially fulfilled during fiscal year. In terms of geographical distribution of achievement it was found that 56 districts had a highly satisfactory progress of 100%, and 11 districts with satisfactory progress, i.e. between 90% and 100%, 7 districts with moderate satisfactory, i.e. between 80% and 90% and one district with less than satisfactory progress, i.e. less than 80%. The district with the least progress was the Okhaldhunga which had implementation rate 79% only.
Map 2.8: Educational management: Overall physical implementation rate by district

At the central level, this component consisted of four sub-components (Consultancy service, educational management, programme monitoring and management by REDs and activities related to Ministry of Education). The overall physical and financial implementation rates for this component were 92% and 85% respectively. The majority of the subcomponents had highly satisfactory physical implementation rates, i.e. 100%, except for subcomponent no. 7.1 (Consultancy services) with 35%. Problems and Issues: School based follow up and support as well as monitoring and supervision, in some districts of Terai, was uncomfortable and challenging for DEOs due to the unrest and insurgency. A mechanism of the school based monitoring and follow-up support system needs to be strengthened in collaboration with I/NGOs, Teachers' Union, PTAs and local community. In addition, a performance based monitoring mechanism could help to utilize the local human resources and capacities. The DOE desk monitoring system needs to further strengthen, and utilize the regional and district resources as well as the retired professionals to monitor the field activities.

Lesson Learned:

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2.4.8 Capital Expenditures The capital expenditures of the EFA programme that directly work to achieve several EFA goals have been gathered under the same heading. At district level, there were 11 activities and overall financial implementation rate was 80% and the physical one was 95%, whereas they were both 100% each in the previous year. Under capital expenditures, most of the activities were related to schools/DEOs construction, rehabilitation and furniture. The district reports revealed that the physical progress, under this subcomponent, had less satisfactory implementation rates when compared to previous years progress rates. It can be expected that construction activities will be completed during the running FY 2008-09.
Table 2.21: EFA Construction activities in 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08
2004-05 Progress Activities New Classrooms construction Target and budget on regular basis Target and budget for community managed schools Target and budget as per cost sharing proposal Temporary classroom construction School rehabilitation External environment improvement Construction of DEOs/RCs Completion of the constructing RCs/schools started in the previous fiscal year Rehabilitation DEOs of Physical 733 Financial 120,376 2005-06 Progress Physical 1,726 Financial 330,960 2006-07 Progress Physical 99.9% Financial 99.8% 2007-08 Target Financial Physical in 000 1,290,220 4,000 2,000 1,000 430,220 215,000 Progress Physical 95% 95% 95% Financial 86% 87% 87%

1,000 465 (93%) 27010 (98%) 904 (82%) 1445 (96%) 847(85 %) 3 (60%) 54037 (83%) 2522 (39%) 563 (95%) 8 (62%) 50970 (90%) 35750 (95%) 55800 (94%) 18560 (64%)

645,000

95%

84%

na 99.8% 99.7% 100%

na 99.8% 99.7% 99.9%

na 2,264 1493 9

na 54,000 150,000 24,520

na 98% 97% 75%

na 93% 88% 55%

4 (100%)

1525 (95%)

7 (100%)

11907 (88%)

89%

85.5%

15,000

75%

69%

28 9

5,150 4,500

82% 91%

76% 91%

Furniture/furnishi ng for 9 DEOs

The main reason for less than satisfactory physical and financial implementation rates for this budget head comparing with other budget heads is that the lower implementation rates in the activities no. 1.1.3 (Target and budget as per cost sharing proposal - one block = 3 classrooms) had low financial implementation rate but it had a high weight age in AWPB i.e. 13.36%.

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Problems and Issues: Active involvement of local stakeholders in the construction and rehabilitation of schools are indispensable for securing sustainability. However, this requires ample capacity at local level to develop and provide more time during the whole construction period. But, stakeholders are not seemed providing more time in many districts. Such involvements generate ownership on the part of local stakeholders and in turn, will result in increased accountability towards the beneficiary community. To make SMCs, head-teachers and concerned authorities aware of issues on constructing earthquake resistant school buildings is still a challenge Collaboration between DOE and I/NGOs for the management of school physical facilities has been found very effective in terms of school selection, quality assurance of school construction and timely progress of the programme. Collaboration, therefore, is beneficial to the school community, which needs to be further strengthened. . Developing construction manual in simple language for users at school level to understand construction issues including suitable design, drawing and specifications would be worthy. Orientation to the concerned SMCs and DEOs to undertake the construction work following the set procedures would, again, be advantageous. Capacitating to technical human resource to develop building design and quality construction practices including earthquake resistance building using locally available construction materials as per design, drawing and specifications would further facilitate, and contribute to quality control and timely accomplishments. .

Lessons Learned:

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2.5 Summary of EFA Performance Indicators Information on the 18 EFA performance indicators is given below based mainly on Flash data.
Table 2.22: STATUS OF 18 EFA INDICATORS
SN 1 2 3 4 5 Indicators 2004 2005 Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 2006 2007 2008 Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Gross Enrolment Rate of Early 39.4 41.4 37.3 69.9 73.1 66.6 41.4 41.9 40.9 60.2 63.4 56.8 63.4 65.3 61.3 Childhood / Pre School Percentage of New entrants at 10.9 11.1 10.7 18.3 18.4 18.1 33.1 34.2 32.0 36.2 36.5 35.9 Grade 1 with ECD Gross Intake Rate at Grade 1 125.9 131.7 119.8 148.1 146.7 149.5 148.0 157.0 140.0 145.2 144.4 146.1 147.7 145.0 150.6 Net Intake Rate at Grade 1 83.1 84.7 81.4 Gross Enrolment Rate (Primary) 130.7 137.0 124.2 145.4 148.8 141.8 138.8 139.2 138.4 138.5 137.6 139.6 142.8 140.2 145.6 86.4 55.4 90.1 47.6 35.2 2.0 73.9 45.2 78.0 40.2 28.8 76.0 49.8 86.8 84.0 53.5 90.1 68.2 46.0 83.4 71.5 56.7 87.4 52.3 34.7 77.9 60.2 89.3 57.1 37.0 65.4 53.1 85.5 47.8 32.4 78.8 55.9 89.1 52.9 35.3 81.6 59.3 90.7 56.1 37.7 75.9 52.4 87.4 80.1 81.1 59.5 61.6 91.9 93.2 79.0 75.3 90.4 56.6 35.0

Gross Enrolment Rate (Lower 80.3 Secondary) Gross Enrolment Rate 50.4 (Secondary) 6 Net Enrolment Rate (Primary) 84.2 Net Enrolment Rate (Lower 43.9 Secondary) Net Enrolment Rate (Secondary) 32.0 Percentage of Gross National Product channeled to Primary education sub sector Percentage of Total Education Budget channeled to Primary education sub sector Percentage of teachers with required qualification and training Percentage of teachers with required Certification Pupil Teacher Ratio7 Repetition Rate: Grade 1 Grade 5 Survival rate to Grade 5 Coefficient of Efficiency Percentage of Learning Achievement at Grade 5 Nepali Mathematics Social Studies English Environmental Science and Health Education Literacy Rate8 Age Group 15-24 Age Group 6+ years Adult Literacy Rate (15+ years) Literacy Gender Parity Index (15+ years) -

49.6 57.3 58.0 32.8 36.4 37.8 2..24

60.0

69.56 -

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9 10 11 12 12.1 12.2 13 14 15 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 16 16.1 16.2 17 18

30.5 39.7 76.2 72.4 80.6 30.4 11.5 79.1 -

45.0 99.0 39.7 31.1 11.6 82.1 29.5 11.5 75.9 -

67.8 45.2

73.3 -

66.4 -

66.8 38.0

65.7 -

67.1 67.3 43.8

66.6 -

29.8 10.4 80.3 -

27.7 10.7 83.0 -

32.0 10.2 77.4 -

29.4 7.8 81.1 -

83.4 -

78.6 -

28.3 28.4 7.3 7.2 73.4 72.6 -

28.1 7.4 74.1 -

70 54 48 0.6

60 40 65 50 70 -

*63 *52 -

77 69 -

51 38 -

*63 *52 -

77 69 -

51 38 -

6 7

Community schools only Pupil teacher ratio is calculated on the basis of recorded number of teachers in community primary schools 8 Based on CBS data

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Part: Two
Under the chapter two, this part deals with the contribution of the non-polled donor agencies and other organization in EFA.

2.6 Contribution of Non-pooled Donors and Other Agencies in EFA


2.6.1 Support of Food for Education Programme in EFA Under its Country Programme (2008-2010), the World Food Programme, through its Food for Education activity supports the governments Education for All goals and aims to increase access to basic education for families in food-insecure districts with high educational need. The combination of the different outputs will help reduce the opportunity costs of basic education for poor families and improve the overall health status as well as their learning capacity.
Objectives

Long-term:- The long-term objective of FFE is to increase access in basic education for families in food deficit districts with high educational needs and to improve the health and nutritional status of school children.
Short-term:increase school enrolment and attendance particularly of girls and thus reducing gender disparity in primary education; improve school survival rate to grade 5; reduce afternoon absentees; alleviate short-term hunger in school children to help increasing the attention span and concentration of students, producing a gain in cognitive function and learning; reduce the intensity and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in school children through de-worming campaigns; increase community participation in FFE management at schools particularly women and socially excluded groups; raise awareness on gender issues and motivate parents to enrol and keep their children in school. Activities/Individual Ration Scale

Mid-day Meal (HALUWA): in order to boost calorie intake and contribute to macro and micro-nutrient requirements, a mid-day meal (a porridge locally known as haluwa) will be provided. Composed of 85 g. of cereal blended food (maize- 32.5, wheat- 32.5 and soya -20), 13.6 g. of sugar, 1 g. of iodized salt, 0.3 g. of mineral premix, 0.1 g. of vitamins premix and 10 g. of veg. ghee (Total-110 g.). It provides 463 Kcal. Girls Incentive Program (GIP): Provision of monthly take-home ration of 2 Ltr. Veg. oil to mothers of girls who have at least 80% attendance per month. The Food Management Committee (FMC) receives a normal incentive of 4 Ltr. Veg. oil per month to compensate for their extra time needed to implement the activity at school level. De-worming Programme: The students receive de-worming tablet (400 mg. Albendazole) every six months.

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Food for Work/Training Program: 1820 MT. of rice has been allocated for 8000 beneficiaries (guideline for this purpose in under way). Mother and Child Health Care (MCHC): A monthly take home ration of 7 kg. fortified blended food with sugar NUTRIMIX is provided to 6-36 months children and expecting/nursing mothers, receiving MCHC services at the out reach clinic / community organization.
Table 2.24: District and Facilities Covered by the Programme

S.N. 1

Activities Mid-day Meal

Target 170000

2 3 4

Girls Incentive Program (GIP) De-worming Program Food for Work/Training Program

50000 170000 8000

Coverage 11 districts- Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, Bajhang, Bajura, Doti, Achham, Dailekh, Jajarkot, Rukum and Salyan 11 districts + 5 Tarai districts (Dhanusha, Parsa, Mahottari, Sarlahi and Rautahat) 11 districts

Remarks

Every six months 1820 MT rice

Mother & Child Health 31000 Care Program (MCJC)

9 districts - Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, Bajhang, Bajura, Doti, Achham, Dailekh and Salyan

The Food for Education activity will target: Early Childhood Development Centres, public primary schools, School Outreach Programme and Flexible Schooling Programme

The districts and VDCs have been selected on the basis of their food insecurity status, high education need as expressed in low net enrolment, high drop-out rates and high gender disparity. Priority will be given to communities that suffer from high food insecurity and poverty. Based on a need assessment, assistance through WFPs Food for Work schemes and Food for Training activities will be implemented with the objective to complement the Food for Education Activities including infrastructures and capacity building of stakeholders. 2.6.2 UNICEFs Contributions UNICEF has been supporting Nepal in its commitment for Education for All in 2008 through its Country Program Action Plan 2008-2010 signed by GoN and UNICEF early 2008. Strategies for support are diverse and include institutional strengthening at national and district levels, government as non-governmental counterparts, capacity building and direct support for activities.

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Major contributions are in the areas of : Early Childhood Development Program, Formal Education, Alternative Education Program, Emergency Education, Schools as Zones of Peace and Peace Education. UNICEF has continued to support EFA through three modalities - pool funding, Red Book and direct funding to the central level as well as at the district level and through financing other stakeholders, such as civil society actors. ECD Program 1. Implementation of parenting orientation in DACAW districts: More than 12,800 parents and caregivers completed 515 parenting orientation classes in 10 DACAW districts and 8 Quick Impact Program districts. In total, more than 105,000 caregivers in the programme areas have already completed parenting orientation classes since 2002, which is 24 percent of the caregivers in the DACAW and QIP programme areas. 2. Incorporation of home-based care into Community Action Processes: Efforts have been continued to ensure that home-based care of the youngest children is incorporated into the community discussions. A home-based care package, developed and pilot tested in Chitwan district last year, was replicated in five additional districts and issues related to home-based care of young children was discussed in more than 2,800 community organization meetings. 3. Support to Child Development Centres: There are currently 1,189 UNICEF supported ECD centres in DACAW areas in the 15 districts, benefiting a total of approximately 38,000 children aged 3-5 years, corresponding to 33 percent (i.e. 9% increase in enrolment rate in 2007) of the children in the areas. UNICEF supported interested communities to establish and maintain 206 new centres. Support was also provided to centres run by District Education Offices, primarily through training of facilitators, materials development and management and also by establishing district systems for increased coverage, ensured sustainability and improved quality of centres run by the Government. Formal Education Program 1. Welcome To School Campaign 2008: In the year 2008, UNICEF has contributed in nation-wide Welcome to School (WTS) campaign with IEC materials and special support in 30 districts to target to the lowest performing VDC in terms of educational access.

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2. EMIS Support at District Level: DEOs (District Education Offices) were supported to conduct micro-planning exercise as well as the data collection and analysis for Flash Data in 30 districts with joint efforts of the EMIS section of DOE, the Regional Education Directorates. Technical support was provided by World Education. This has resulted in raising stakeholders awareness in the importance of accurate data, and joint programming by district level partners to support the basic needs of the schools in the districts. 3. Capacity Building for Community Mobilization: Regarding capacity building of the partners, UNICEF helped build the capacity of grade 1 teachers in 300 schools and SMC/PTA members in 15 districts on their roles and responsibilities in making schools child-friendly. Tin Trunk Libraries were distributed to 900 schools by December 2007. Two education partners one from MoE and another from NGO attended a 2-week long intensive training in Thailand in 2008. 4. Media Mobilization: UNICEF supported the distribution of Educational Pages to 19,000 schools to support the EFA for better communication from policy level to school and community level. Similarly Education Journalists are supported for investigative reporting on school level budgets to make public schools child-friendly environment. FM Radios were supported to raise awareness on importance of education in local languages in the districts. Alternative Education Program 1. Joint Initiative with NFEC Under the non formal education, UNICEF is closely working with NFEC to strengthen alternative schooling program by providing technical support to develop child centered training packages of Alternative Schooling Programme, reviewing the FSP condensed curriculum in context of changed formal curriculum and assisting NFEC to build coordination, networking and partnership with like minded organizations to share NFE issues and best practice for quality programme intervention. 2. Support to District Level Centers At the district level, UNICEF is working in close partnership with District Education Offices, Municipalities and local NGOs to implement alternative education centers in the communities and in the urban areas. UNICEF is supporting 357 alternative centers for the disadvantaged children of 14 districts and 5 urban areas. More than 8,200 out of school children age 6-14, have accessed quality basic education through these alternative modality. Out of these children, 70 % are girls, socially excluded and working class.

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Emergency and Peace Education 1. Curriculum Development Peace, human rights and civic education content and skills are being integrated into formal education for the teacher guides and text books for grades 3-10 as part of the regular revision process. In addition, peace, human rights and civic education content and skills are being integrated into the non formal education materials for open schooling, flexible schooling, women's literacy and adult literacy. 2. Schools as Zones of Peace Program Schools as Zones of Peace program, with partners World Education and CWIN, is working to ensure that students have access to education regardless of civil unrest by negotiating codes of conduct with community stakeholder to keep schools open during strikes and preventing political interference during school hours. 3. Emergency Response UNICEF has supported 6,700 Child Kits, 308 School Kits and 300 sets of story books for the children affected by flood and the schools affected/ damaged by the flood in Sunsari, Saptari and Mid and Far Western region districts. In addition to these supplies, UNICEF has supported some rehabilitation of schools affected by the flooding emergency. Another important UNICEF contribution in emergency is its coordination role in education response as lead agency on emergency and education which has proven to be instrumental in getting the children faster back to school. 2.6.3 UNESCO's Contributions Within the overall framework of Education for All National Plan of Action 2001-2015, UNESCO supported the national efforts for achieving the goals of Education for All. UNESCOs activities cover all the seven Nepal EFA goals. It should be stressed that collaborations and partnerships with relevant organizations and key stakeholders were emphasized to make the best use of available resources and technical services. The highlights of UNESCOs programme activities particularly in the area of capacity development and research and innovation are summarised below: Capacity Development: Training of Trainers on Understanding of EMIS and its Utilization for Educational Planning and Management in light of the timely and quality production of the Flash Report I, Flash Report II and Consolidated Report of the School Level Educational Statistics of Nepal 2007 Development of EMIS Training Manuals in English and Nepali Training of CLC Management Committee members of mid and far western development regions on the importance and management of ECD Literacy through ICT

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Training of Master Trainers on Multi-grade Teaching Techniques A 10-Year Literacy/NFE Policy and Programme Framework 2006-2015 Education for All Mid Decade Assessment (EFA MDA) National Report Consolidating National Policies on Equivalency towards Accomplishing Universal Primary Education (UPE) Development of Inclusive education (IE) toolkits Advancing Policy Options for Higher Education: Improving Transition and Access to Higher Education Preparing the questionnaire of Nepal for the Regional Information Base on Secondary Education in Asia. UNESCO National Education Support Strategy (UNESS) for Nepal, 2008-2013. Developing a manual for Peace and Human Rights Education in non-formal educational settings adapted to the Nepalese socio-cultural context Development of a Training of Trainers module for pre-service and in-service teachers on peace and human rights education. Developing culturally contextualized resource materials: Capturing the practices of women and disadvantaged communities for mathematics curriculum grade 6. Supporting IDPs through Community Learning Centers Launching a JFIT supported pilot project for literacy campaign within three districts of the country Jumla, Ramechhap and Kapilbastu Celebrating the WFA week 2007 with the theme Join up for education right with the focus of activities on ensuring the right of every child to quality basic education. Reinforcing the formation of EFA forums at the regional, district and village/municipality levels in line with the spirit of the Education for All National Plan of Action (EFA NPA) 2001-2015. Training of Master Trainers on Peace Education Launching and dissemination of HIV/Aids toolkits Initiating discussion on Education and Federalism

Research and Innovation:

Some Joint Activities:

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2.6.4 Contribution of Save the Children to EFA/SSRP Save the Children (SC) has been operating in Nepal for over thirty years. Save the Children Organizations (SCUK from 1976, SC US from 1981, SC Norway from 1984 and SC Japan from 1992) working in Nepal unified into one Save the Children from 1st April 09 as SC UK had already become a part of SC Norway in 2004. The education programme of Save the Children reaches about 700,000 children of more than 2560 ECD centers and approximately 3900 schools in 35 districts. The overall goal of the education program is to increase access for marginalized and vulnerable children to quality education in safe, supportive, inclusive and protective family and school environments. The following are the specific objectives and priorities: Increase access and strengthen quality of ECD opportunities for all children. Ensure access to and improve quality education for all children in primary grades including inclusive education and multi-lingual education. Increase knowledge of and skills in democratic principles, human rights, civic participation and develop school as a safe and supportive place for learning Strengthen capacity of individuals and institutions from community to national level to enable them to deliver quality education Contribute to creating favorable policy environments and its implementation for access, quality and protection in education (schools) for children

Each objective and priority programme area consists of i) sensitizing and empowering children and parents, ii) strengthening capacity and competency of individual and institutions (stakeholders and duty bearers) in education sector primarily to education authorities, School Management Committee (SMC) and NGOs to fulfil their obligation to children and iii) demonstrating practical works to increase access of marginalized children to quality education in the following districts: East region: Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, Morang and Udayapur (5) Central region: Sindhupalchok, Kavre, Dhanusha and Mahottari (4) Western region: Palpa, Tanahu, Lamgunj, Kapilvastu, Pyuthan and Baglung (6) Mid West region: Banke, Bardiya, Surkhet, Dailekh, Dang, Rolpa, Salyan, Rukum, Mugu, Jumla, Kalikot, Humla and Dolpa (13) Far West region: Bajura, Achham, Doti, Kailali and Kanchanpur (5)

SC's education interventions start from collection and analysis of Community based Education Management and Information System, school self assessment, and bottom up education planning based on these baseline findings and reflecting childrens voice. SC primary focus so far is on basic primary education including Alternative Education for over age children and early childhood development opportunities to younger children. Normalizing daily life of children by restoring education and health services in conflict and disaster affected areas is one of the priorities for Nepal to promote culture of peace, protection and education rights of children. SC contributed the following for realizing the

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education for all (EFA) goals and implementation of the school sector reform plan as part of its global campaign rewrite the future: 63,800 children of 3-5 years age are enjoying joyful learning and development opportunities from 2,560 ECD centres with 24506 new entrants. 204 ECD buildings are under construction and 560 ECD centres received ECD kits/ education materials to meet the development needs of younger children. More than 25000 parents are participating parenting education in different districts including Kailali, Kanchanpur, surkhet, Baglung, Tanahu and Siraha. 216,149 children were enrolled in grade one following the school enrolment campaign and door to door visit by Tole Education Committees and School Management Committees including teachers and child clubs. 61,500 children of grade one and two in 700 schools are learning in child friendly environment. More than 1230 teachers use Active Teaching Learning methods in the classroom with other multiple interventions. About 5590 out of school children/ youths are enjoying education opportunities. 1545 children with disability are enjoying primary education inclusive of 670 enrolled in grade one. More than 500 teachers were trained on child friendly schooling tools and techniques. More than 80 schools have declared 100% enrolment in primary education and 21 schools are practicing free and compulsory education in primary sections. 564 schools have been declared as stick free learning environment. 258 schools are applying code of conduct which includes child protection policy and also class room rules prepared by students. More than 80,000 children/ youths of 10-18 years of age associated with 4,000 child clubs, and 150 youth groups are empowering themselves to claim their rights and creating awareness against mal-practices like child marriage, gender discrimination, caste and disabilities with a special focus on the right to education. Child clubs in 845 schools run extra-curricular activities on their own with the support of teachers and SMCs. More than 1300 children living in temporary camps enjoyed learning and development opportunities in 40 safe spaces and additional 980 chidlren got access to education in temporary learning centers in Sunsari and Saptari district after Koshi flood. More than 630 school management committees have invited child representatives in SMC meeting to listen their views and concerns in school management. Palpa, Udaypur and Bajura district education offices have issued circular to all schools to make child clubs representatives into SMC. 730 schools received support for classroom constructions, classroom management and furniture. More than 700 Dalit children are receiving education scholarship in 15 districts and peace education component in the curriculum is being incorporated..

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Since 2006, SC has been partnering with Department of Education for infrastructure development under EFA programme in providing the technical support to 23 districts. This partnership includes ensuring quality of construction work, community ownership and transparency (social audit) of the physical improvement of schools (construction of new classrooms, rehabilitation work for classrooms, construction of toilets, arrangement of drinking water, improvement of compound etc.). There are more than 50 sub-engineers and 23 engineers who are directly working with District Education Offices for social mobilization, technical monitoring, and quality assurance of the construction work and social auditing of the expenses. 450 Lagat Sahabhagita block grants, 420 regular block grants, 330 new classrooms in community managed schools, 156 school rehabilitation, 130 classroom rehabilitation under Lagat Sahabhagita, toilet and water supply in 456 schools are under construction in 2008/9. SC also conducted a midterm review of this programme jointly with the Ministry of Education and Sports through Kathmandu University School of Education and this report says reduced corruption and improved quality of infrastructure development work within time in schools under EFA. SCNN has collaborated with Teachers Union of Nepal (TUN) and Education Journalist Group (EJG) for promoting child friendly schooling to increase access of marginalized children to quality education and making education authorities accountable to fulfil their mandates and duties. EJG has monitored the financial performance and transparency of the EFA grants for better utilization of fund effectively and efficiently in time. In collaboration with Himal Association, Shikshyak monthly magazine has been published to enhance morale, confidence and competency of the teachers which has been popular among teachers. This has become a platform for review and reflection of teachers and their professional development. Additionally SC is representing AIN into EFA Mission and is an active steering committee member for Global Campaign for Education. 2.6.5 Contribution of Research Centre for Educational Innovation and Development (CERID): Formative Research for EFA 2004-09 The Research Center for Educational Innovation and Development (CERID), Tribhuvan University, in the year 2007-08 conducted seven case studies on different areas of EFA. Major findings and recommendations of these studies are given below: 2.6.5.1 School Governance in Nepal This research was carried out in Illam, Chitwan, Syangia, Jumla, and Kailali districts. The main purpose of this research was to analyze how SMC and PTA members have understood their roles and responsibilities in educational regulations and their contribution to better governance in schools. Findings: Schools were managed and controlled by social upper groups despite the fact that community people themselves selected the members of the school governing body (SMC). It also applies to PTA. Role of SMC was regarded just as functional rather than authority and the contributions of SMC and PTA were considered little in educational reform. A little attention was paid to accountability and transparency in schools.

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Teacher recruitment was assumed to be an important role of SMC. However, DEO influenced teacher recruitment in schools. Mostly, SMC chairperson was found active in school management. Recommendations: To ensure good governance in the country, government must stress on empowering grassroots level people and institutions with legal reform provisions. For this, structural provision, division of power, capacity development policy should be addressed to PTA and SMC members of the school. Further, school operational manual should also be developed. 2.6.5.2 Provisions and Conditions for Better Classroom Pedagogical Practices The study was carried out in Morang, Sunsari, Rasuwa, Kavre, Sindhupalchowk and Dadeldhura districts. The main objective of this study was to analyze the initiatives in the areas of curricular support and teacher preparation for facilitating improvements in the classroom teaching-learning practices. Findings: Revised curriculum elaborated learning achievement/content and exemplified teaching methods and assessment strategies for each of the curriculum objectives, which were found user friendly and clear. Provision of local curriculum and teaching in mother tongue helped to make learning more relevant and to reflect the needs of learners. Piloting of the local curriculum was not able to provide needed support and draw lessons for successful implementation of local curriculum at the national level. There was no orientation/training in the revised curriculum and new textbooks to any schools for preparing teachers. Recommendations: Develop a mechanism to draw lessons from the innovative cases and pilot program, and implement them at the national level Make provision of child friendly school in educational policy, act and regulations so that CFS planning, programming, and budget allocation becomes possible. Orientation/training should be provided to the teachers before introducing the new curriculum. There is a need for clarity on local curriculum and national implementation strategy. 2.6.5.3 The Rights to Education for Disadvantaged Children: Existing Status and Challenges This research was carried out in Nawalparasi, Dhading, Rasuwa, Kailali and Kathmandu. Altogether children from five disadvantaged groups were selected: Mushar, Chepang, Tamang, Tharu and children from parents affected by trafficking and displaced due to conflict. The purpose of the study was to explore and understand the reasons of disadvantaged children not able to use their rights to education. Findings: The various problems like physical, psychological and migration exist as a major hindrance for education.

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Lack of awareness among parents was found a major barrier to educate their children. Lack of mother tongue in schools is a problem for students upto grade two. It is very hard for them to understand Nepali language as a medium of instruction in schools. In spite of organizing various programs like scholarship and incentives to ensure rights to education for DAG children, those programs do not address majority of children.

Recommendations: Conduct awareness raising programs to parents to ensure their childrens rights and responsibilities. A teacher from local mother tongue should be employed to teach students up to grade three in their mother tongue. School environment should be made child friendly for effective teaching. 2.6.5.4 A Study on Problems and Prospects of Institutionalizing Inclusive Education at Primary Level This study was conducted in Jhapa, Kavre, Morang, Kaski, Banke and Dadeldhura districts. The main purpose of this study was to find out the problems and prospects of institutionalizing Inclusive Education (IE) at primary level and find out the major obstacles in conducting resource/integrated classes for children with disability. Findings: The deaf students of resource class survived in filthy condition of hostel and their scholarship amount was supplemented by parents/schools donation. Except in Dadeldhura district, quotas of resource classes were inadequate and children had to wait for a couple of years to get admission to the resource classes. Schools physical set ups such as gates, classrooms, toilets were found not appropriate for disabled children. School, family, community and parents were not mentally prepared to accept IE concept. Recommendations: The government should provide hostel facilities to resource classes that contain disabled friendly toilets as per the number of students. The parents of disabled students should be included in orientation program regularly. The deaf and blind should have disabled friendly curriculum and examination system with a small class size. Education in Gumbas, Vihars and Gurukuls in Nepal: Linking with Mainstream Education-Study 2 The study was conducted in Jhapa, Solukhumbu, Kathmandu, Chitwan, and Kaski. The purpose of this study was to find the current provision of primary education in the Gumbas, Vihars and Gurukuls. It also foused on required policy and provisions to enable 2.6.5.5

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Gumbas, Vihars and Gurukuls to provide basic education services , and mobilizing Gumba, Vihar and Gurukul for providing educational services to local community people.

Findings: Because of misunderstanding about the policy of educational mainstreaming of religious institutions, the authorities in those institutions felt that such policy will endanger their religious education. Most of the religious institutions (excluding Vihar) received SIP fund, teacher quota and lump sum amount but they were unaware of such facilities under the provision of primary education. Religious institutions that do not have primary level (only above primary) were found interested in starting classes at this level if they could receive the support from the government. Religious institutions were found reluctant to accept the governments grants because they were suspicious that if they accept it then the communitys support may stop, which they considered as most important for the survival of the institution. Most of the religious institutions used only few subjects of government curriculum. Recommendations: The government should circulate early decision on government provisions for primary education to religious institutions. In order to increase the community participation in religious institutions, more support should be provided to those religious institutions that have more children from the local community. The government should mobilize the national development committees established for the welfare of religious institutions in making people aware of the government provisions for primary education to the religious institutions. The government should also make provisions for conducting formal education up to lower secondary and secondary levels in the religious institutions. Vihars need to be included in government policies and programs. 2.6.5.6 Formal Education in Madrasas of Nepal: A Study on Emerging Trends and Issues The research was carried out in three Madrasas in each district: Banke, Kapilvastu and Morang. The objectives of this research were to analyze reactions of Muslim community after inclusion of formal education in Madrasas. It also evaluated the changes in Madarasas in terms of access and prerequisite of quality of education after inclusion of formal education. Findings: Most of the Madrasas were conducting mainstream courses upto five grades. Madrasas were unable to cope with the teaching of Islamic and mainstream courses at the same time.

57

Madrasas were lacking fundamental prerequisites to maintain quality of education. Curriculum was not properly organized in Madrasas. In addition, Madrasas did not have proper resources to fulfill the demand of quality education. Recommendations: The government should launch a specific program to develop proper physical infrastructure in Madrasas. Madrasas should be registered based on proper mapping, need of the community and their capability to run formal education courses. An integrated curriculum should be immediately developed for registered Madrasas to balance both courses. 2.6.5.7 Study on Exploring the Possibility of Expanding the Per Capita Funding Mechanism This research was carried out in three schools each in Lalitpur and Chitwan districts. The main purpose of this research was to raise the quality of education in the public schools. This study also focused on the opinions of the stakeholders on the provision of per capita funding, strengths and weaknesses, and required strategies for the expansion of per capita funding. Findings: Eight schools in Lalitpur and 26 schools in Chitwan district were selected by DOE for providing PCF grants. Fund disbursement to the schools was delayed due to data inconsistency (mismatch between DEO data and school data) and the condition of community managed schools. Grant funds were inadequate for appointing a new teacher. Moreover, the appointed teacher may have to be terminated in the case of decline in students enrolment. Recommendations: Dissemination of the PCF Guidelines should be given to school level. DEO offices should have authority of correcting data inconsistency. Capacity building of the DEO offices and schools should be strengthened for implementing PCF grants. Regular monitoring of PCF implementation and use of PCF grants should be done by Department of Education (DOE) and District Education Office (DEO).

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CHAPTER - III SECONDARY EDUCATION SUPPORT PROGRAMME (SESP)

Chapter Coverage Part One


SESP Components (ASIP and AWPB, 2007-08)

Part Two
Analysis of Ten Programme Intensive Districts (PIDs)

Part Three
Financial Progress

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Part One
3.1 Introduction This part of the report provides an account of the overall implementation status of the Secondary Education Support Program (SESP) for the fiscal year 2007-08. Physical and financial progress against annual targets from ASIP and AWPB are analyzed, and problems, issues and lesson learned are discussed. 3.2 Background SESP is designed as a six-year programme for the period 2003-09. The Government of Nepal in collaboration with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of Denmark developed and implemented the SESP.The policy strategies are to increase community participation, decentralization, cost sharing, recognition of regional diversities and institutional strengthening. 3.3 Main Objectives of SESP The overall objective of SESP is to provide access, equity, quality and relevance of secondary education and to develop institutional capacity of MOE. The more specific objectives are to: Increase access and equity especially of girls, women and disadvantaged groups in secondary education, Enhance relevancy and quality of secondary education, and Improve management efficiency and institutional capacity of secondary education.

The performance indicators to assess the overall progress of SESP corresponding to the programme objectives are: To raise gross enrolment rates (GER) in lower secondary from 55% to 65%, and in secondary from 35% to 55% by 2007. To raise the participation of girls from 40% to 50% in both lower secondary and secondary education and similarly to increase the percentage of disadvantaged groups by 2007. To raise and sustain measurable improvements in educational outcomes as evidenced by the grade 8 and SLC examinations; the numbers passing grade 8 and SLC should increase by 2007 and similar proportionate increases should be achieved for girls and students from disadvantaged groups. To increase participation of disadvantaged groups.

The SESP activities are clustered into four main activity components: Learning environment Curriculum development, assessment and instructional materials, Teacher education and development, and Institutional management and capacity building

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3.4 Mid-Term Review In March 2006, a Mid-Term Review (MTR) was held which assessed progress made and constrains encountered during implementation. The review produced a number of recommendations for actions to be taken to boost up the implementation. 3.5 ASIP 2007-08 The ASIP for 2007-08 was developed upon experiences from previous ASIPs and the Education Business Plan. The key objectives of the ASIP 2007-08 are considered from the vision of the School Sector Reform based on the Three-Year Interim Plan, following the Tenth Plan and intended to be aligned with political developments. It aims to ensure equitable access to quality education for all children and to increase access and equity for girls and children from disadvantaged communities. The main annual targets of the ASIP were mentioned in the table below:
Table 3.1: Annual targets in 2007-08

Major activities Rehabilitations of schools in Programme Intensive Districts (PIDs) Distribution of scholarships to girls, marginalized and poor students and students with special learning needs and disabilities Distribution of scholarships to girls, marginalized and poor students and students with special learning needs and disabilities in the 10 PIDs and 65 Non-PIDs Conversion of feeder hostels Remote mountain hostels Accommodation of female teacher allowances SIP funds to schools in 10 PIDs SIP funds to schools other than PI schools.

Target 2007-08 145 3600 60,000

7 ( Continuation of 3 and new ones 4)

125 190 12500

Approval of National Curriculum Framework (NCF). Completion of activities related to NCF.


Development of a single integrated framework for teacher development apex teacher training institution (NCTD) Upgrading of SEDUs Establishment of SEDUs Training to secondary teachers Teacher Training Scholarships to women and members of disadvantaged groups 1 12 6000 360

Management training to head-teachers of secondary and lower secondary schools SIP training to head teachers, SMC members Computer training to 75 districts

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In 2007-08, the SESP, again, included in 10 PIDs that received a higher priority in activities like school construction and provision of scholarships (see part two for more information on these 10 PIDs). 3.6 ASIP and AWPB The table below contains the proposed budget in ASIP and the actual allocations in the Red Book for FY 2004-05 to FY 2007-08. In FY 2005-06 and FY 2006-07 the ASIP budgets reflected in the Red Book were 99% and 95% respectively, while it was 86% in 2007-08.
Table 3.2: SESP Budget, 2004-05 to 2007-08 as in ASIP and Red Book
FY 2004-05 NRs in US$ in 000 million @ NRs 71 1,440,000 1,252,770 20.281 17.644 FY 2005-06 NRs in NRs 000 in 000 1,460,000 1,449,951 19.7 19.6 FY 2006-07 NRs in US$ in 000 million @ NRs 71 1,612,412 22.710 1,697,898 23.914 FY 2007-08 NRs in US$ in 000 million @ NRs 1697898 23.914 1467130 20.664

Particulars

Proposed in ASIP Actual allocation in Red Book

The table 3.3 presents the overall allocations for centre and district level activities during FY 2004-05 to 2007-08. The allocations of the budgets for the district and the centre level activities were 77% and 23% respectively in FY 2007-08. The allocations for district and centre were 86% and 14% in 2005-06, while it was 74.24% and 25.76% in 2004-05 as well as 84.8% and 15.2% in 2006-07. The allocation trends show that district level interventions were given higher priority, a clear shift towards decentralisation.
Table 3.3: Comparison of SESP budget 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07& 2007-08
2004-2005 Items
SESP Recurrent Centre SESP Capital Centre Sub-total SESP Recurrent District SESP Capital District Sub-total Grand total US$ in million @ NRs 71 in 2004-05, 74 in 2005-06 and 75 in 2006-07 and 65 in 2007-08

2005-2006 Foreign aid


291,215 11,300 302,515 672,449 194,452 866,901 1,169,41 6

2006-2007 Foreign aid


92,120 103,880 196,000 543,980 609,932 1,153,91 2 1,349,91 2

2007-2008 Foreign aid


52,476 132,902 185,378 468,116 535,984 1,004,10 0 1,189,47 8

Total
304,425 18,345 322,770 701,876 228,124 930,000 1,252,77 0

Govt.
13,210 7,045 20,255 29,427 33,672 63,099 83,354

Total
115,150 129,850 245,000 710,510 656,902 1,367,41 2 1,612,41 2

Govt.
23,030 25,970 49,000 166,530 46,970 213,500 262,500

Total
59,959 141,302 201,261 659,605 589,085 1,248,69 0 1,449,95 1

Govt.
7,483 8,400 15,883 191,489 53,101 244,590 260,473

Total
155155 189025 344180 653300 469650 1122950 1467130

Govt.
22271 13625 35896 314856 124895 439751 475647

Foreign aid
132884 175400 308284 338444 344755 683199 991483

17.644

1.174

16.47

22.71

3.70

19.01

19.6

3.5

16.1

20.664

6.699

13.965

The Table 3.3, above, shows that US$ 18 million was allocated during FY 2004-05 while it was US$ 23 during FY 2005-06. In FY 2006-07, it was US$ 20 million and 21 million in 2007-08.

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Table 3.4: Comparison of SESP budget (ASIP 2007-08 & Red Book 2007-08) Items SESP Recurrent Centre SESP Recurrent - District SESP Capital - Centre SESP Capital - District Total US$ in million Total in ASIP 151916 866660 186259 493061 1697898 23.914 Total 155155 653300 189025 469650 1467130 20.664 Red Book Govt. Foreign aid 22271 132884 314856 338444 13625 175400 124895 475647 6.699 344755 991483 13.965

Figure 3.1: SESP Red Book allocation 2004-05, 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08
Thousands 2007-08 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 SESP District SESP Center SESP District SESP Center SESP District SESP Center SESP District SESP Center
0

702 304 18 660 60 141 711 115 130 653 155 189
200 400 600

228

589

657

470

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

Recurrent

Capital

The increased emphasis given to district level activities for the last four financial years, can be seen from figure 3.1, which shows the budget allocations in the Red Book. Also, the capital costs for central level were reduced from what it was proposed in 2004-05, while the total recurrent budgets were increased. Similarly, the district recurrent budgets allocated took the greater share of the total allocation. 3.7 Achievements against SESP Indicators The Flash data indicated that over the past few years the student's enrolment has increased for both lower secondary and secondary levels. It is also seemed that GER at lower secondary has achieved an increase to 80.1%. Similarly, secondary level has increased to 59.5% in 2008-09. Thus, the achievements are ahead of the projected targets for 2007 ( i.e 65%, and in secondary from 35% to 55% by 2007).
Table 3.5: SESP Indicators
Indicators Gross enrolment rate lower secondary Gross enrolment rate secondary Net enrolment rate lower secondary Net enrolment rate secondary 2001 63.2 43.8 39.4 25.5 2002 57.5 44.8 40.4 27.5 2003 60.0 46.4 42.9 29.5 2004 2005 Achievements 80.3 50.4 43.9 32.0 76.0 49.3 46.5 32.4 2006 71.5 56.7 52.3 34.7 2007 78.8 55.9 52.9 35.3 2008 80.1 59.5 57.3 36.4

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Figure 3.2: Achievement in SESP indicators


2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 0 80.1 78.8 71.5 76 80.3 60 57.5 63.2 50 46.4 44.8 43.8 100 59.5 55.9 56.7 49.3 50.4 42.9 40.4 39.4 57.3 52.9 52.3 46.5 43.9 29.5 27.5 25.5 150 200 GER in secondary NER in rate secondary 250 36.4 35.3 34.7 32.4 32

GER in low er secondary NER in low er secondary

It is also encouraging that the NER for both lower secondary and secondary levels have increased in parallel with the increase of the GER. Additional resources will be needed in the coming years in lower secondary because of the fact that primary level has seen a marked increase in GER and GIR in recent years out of which hopefully a big proportion of the students will continue in lower secondary level. The details about the enrolment rate and share of the girls at lower secondary and secondary level as given in tables below.
Table 3.6: Enrolment at lower secondary level by eco-zone Eco-zone Mountain Hill Kathmandu Valley Tarai Total Girls 48,748 319,982 63,404 274,360 706,494 Boys 60,222 322,636 67,990 309,520 760,368 Total 108,970 642,618 131,394 583,880 1,466,862 % of enrolment in total 7.4 43.8 9.0 39.8 100.0 % girls 44.7 49.8 48.3 47.0 48.2

Table 3.7: Enrolment at secondary level by eco-zone Eco-belts Mountain Hill Kathmandu Valley Tarai Total Girls 21,364 148,341 36,461 131,405 337,571 Boys 28,628 157,386 37,718 154,075 377,807 Total 49,992 305,727 74,179 285,480 715,378 % in total enrolment 7.0 42.7 10.4 39.9 100.0 % girls 42.7 48.5 49.2 46.0 47.2

The table 3.8 shows the indicators which are related to quality of education for lower secondary and secondary education. The Flash data - 2008-09, for grade 8 and 10 seem to indicate lower repetition rates but the pupil teacher ratio for lower secondary level is still higher in comparison to the ratio of secondary level.

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Table 3.8: SESP indicators for quality of secondary education Indicators 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Pupil teacher ratio lower secondary 40.5 (in total) 21.9 (in total) 18.6 17.9 55.7 (in total) 29.0(i n total) n.a. n.a.

2006

2007 69 (in commu nity school) 42


(in commu nity school)

2008

2009

39.7

40.4

48.7 (65.2 in 54.7 (in community total) school) 33.3(i n total) 12 7.4 35.0 (53.2 in
communit y school)

39.6 (57.9
in community schools)

26.6(38.6
in community schools)

Pupil teacher ratio secondary Repetition rates at grade 8 Repetition rates at grade 10

23.8 10.6 10.3

21.1 15.2 13.9

8.6 7.6

8.4 7.5

7.7 7.1

The people teacher ratio of community schools is also remaining a challenge comparing with the national average ratio.
Table 3.9: GPI for GER and NER for lower secondary and secondary Indicators Gross enrolment rate lower secondary Gross enrolment rate secondary Net enrolment rate lower secondary Net enrolment rate secondary 2003 0.83 0.80 0.83 0.80 2004 0.85 0.82 0.84 0.82 2005 0.81 0.86 0.87 0.82 2006 0.84 0.88 0.84 0.88 2007 0.93 0.88 0.88 0.87 2008 0.97 0.93 0.98 0.93

One of the main aims of the SESP is to maintain the gender equality in the education system. The gender parity index for recent years is presented in the table above. Data for the last six years shows in positive trends for GPI in NER and GER for lower secondary and secondary level. 3.8 Achievements against Annual Targets For activities at district level, the overall physical and financial implementation rates, for both budget heads (re-current and capital) were 91% and 87% respectively9, which were 90% and 84% in the previous year10. Similarly, the figures 3.3 and 3.4 below show the physical and financial implementation rates of re-current components. The physical and financial progress of the recurrent budget heads were 89% and 86% respectively.

The table attached in annex 7 and 8 gives a detailed description of the physical progress in line with the approved annual work plan and budget of the year 2007-08. The table attached in annex 7 and 8 gives a detailed description of the physical progress in line with the approved annual work plan and budget of the year 2007-08.

10

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Figure 3.3: Implementation rate of recurrent budget heads for district level activities in FY 2007-08
Institutional Management and Capacity Building Teacher Education, Development and Management Curriculum and Assessment 85.12 71.97 74.74 84.49

94.76 96.08

Learning environment

97.34 96.51

Physical

Financial

The figures below represent the implementation rates of capital budget heads for district level. The physical and financial implementation rates for these heads were 92% and 87%, whereas these were 83% and 70% in the previous year.
Figure 3.4: Implementation rate of capital budget heads for district level activities in FY 2007-08
Institutional Management and Capacity Building Teacher Education, Development and Mangement Curriculum and Assessment 74.31 95.65 68.33 100.00 89.13 91.57

89.22 96.44

Learning environment

Physical

Financial

The overall physical implementation rate for the central level activities was 87%, whereas it was only 42% last year. Similarly, the financial implementation rate was 79%. The diagram below is more illustrative.

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Figure 3.5: Implementation rate of central level activities in FY 2007-08 by budget heads

Total Financial Physical

Capital

Re-current

20

40

60

80

100

Figure 3.6: Implementation rate of central level activities in FY 2007-08 by components


120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Learning Environment Curriculum and Evaluation Teacher Education, Development and Management Institutional Management and Capacity Building Target Progress

Likewise, the table above demonstrates the component-wise progress of the central level activities under the recurrent cost. The entire programme had physical progress above 80% with learning environment component somewhat lower. 3.8.1 Learning Environment Under this component, the main activity consisted of the development of physical infrastructure, i.e. the rehabilitation of (refurbishment) classroom facilities, provision of girls hostels and scholarships. Targets and Major Focus of ASIP for FY 2007-08 The main annual targets for construction were: Completion of the construction of PI schools Construction of remote mountain hostels (Manang, Dolpa, Humla and Mugu) The annual targets for scholarships were: Scholarships for 60,000 (two third girls) secondary students Remote allowance for 125 female secondary teachers

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3600 scholarships to identified vulnerable groups for accessing secondary education Accommodation allowances for 125 female teachers;

Achievements against Annual Targets For the district level, the overall physical and financial progress for this component under the recurrent budget head was 97% 97% respectively. In case of capital budget head, the financial and physical implementation rates were 89% and 92% respectively. The scholarships for secondary education and dalit students were fully utilized, when the numbers of beneficiaries are considered. In general, the physical and financial implementation rates for the secondary scholarship was 99%. Similarly, the physical and financial implementation rates in dalit scholarship were 100% and 99% respectively. The implementation rates in the targeted activities under this component in particular are as follows: 59,517 students received secondary scholarships out of the 60,000 target. Likewise, out of 119,686 scholarships, 119,949 dalit students benefited. A total number of 2,742 marginalized students benefited from the scholarship out of the target 3,324. Out of the 311 (grants for schools with class for deaf, blind, and training for children with physically handicapped and MTR students), 301 schools received the grants. Similarly, out of the 1,590 scholarships, available for the disable children including deaf, mentally retarded, blind and physically handicap, 1,839 (115%) children received the scholarship. All students were benefited from the mountain hostel scholarships (a number of total 337 children benefited from out of the total target 337). Feeder hostel scholarships had been received by 394 students (i.e. 98.5%). Out of the target of 125, only 120 female teachers received the female teacher allowances

Similarly, the capital cost under this component to improve learning environment of the school, contains substantial infrastructure development activities like school construction and rehabilitation, and extension and conversion of feeder hostels. The financial progress for the district level activities was 87%, whereas 92% was for physical one. The detail description for this budget head is presented in the section below under the capital expenditure. At the central level, there were twelve activities in the AWPB, 2007-08 under the recurrent budget heads related to inclusive education, open alternative education program and programme for domestic worker as well as adult women. The overall physical and financial progress for these activities were 46% and 44% respectively. There were satisfactory implementation rates in the five activities (activities no 1.3, 1.4.1, 1.4.2, 1.4.3 and 1.6), which had the physical implementation rates with 98% and above. 68

Similarly, the physical implementation rates on activities no 1.1 and 1.2 ( 'Skill based training focusing on inclusive education' and 'One week training for LSS/SS maths and science teachers teaching blinds students) had 82% and 75% respectively. The low implementation rate was measured in the activity no 1.7, which had only 15% physical implementation rate, whereas the three activities (activities no 1.5, 1.8 and 1.9) had not implemented in the targeted FY 2007-08. There were four activities targeted for this FY under the capital budget head (65-4-430), which were related to construction, rehabilitation, procurement and security printing press. The total weight for this budget heads was shared 58.44 percentage of the total SESP central level budget. The overall physical and financial progress for these activities were 89% and 83%. In contrast, the activity related to establishment of resource centre in CDC had comparatively low physical implementation rate. This was the first time the SESP capital cost measured high implementation rate because of successful implementation of procurement activities regarding security printing press with 94% in both (physical and financial implementation) aspects. Problems and Issues Unavailability of sufficient scholarships quotas for targeted group (Dalit, Poor, Disabled and Minority) obstructed, to some extent, school education for these group population (Udayapur, Ramechhap), but mountainous districts like (Mugu) received more scholarship quotas for girls scholarship than it needed. Still most urban districts had needed RC wise database system in identifying of the students from targeted population for distribution of scholarship. Some districts (e.g. Ramechhap, Parbat) were depending on the school reports for distribution of disabled scholarship due to the lack of the human resources and assessment centre in identification of disabled students. Pre-fixed unit cost of construction facilities continued to be constraint to provide complete facilities to the PI schools, i.e. unit cost not sufficient to cover all the required facilities of the school. There is a lack of local level capacity to develop and monitor construction progress and quality. Local level organization and civil societies need to be mobilized in the matters of identification of beneficiaries of scholarships, Full use of EMIS system to capture data and tracking of beneficiaries are required at district level, Use of a data verification mechanism at the RC level in selection and distribution of disabled scholarship may be helpful (e.g., districts like Parbat has benefited), A construction manual in a simple language for school-level users containing appropriate design, drawing and specifications would be useful. SMCs need more orientation on the proper use and maintenance of the physical facilities.

Lessons Learned:

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The level of monitoring and technical backstopping by DEOs should be increased. Timely release of authority and budget to DEOs and then to schools is necessary.

3.8.2 Curriculum and Assessment With a view to improving the relevancy of the curriculum, establishing a sound assessment system and developing instructional materials, activities were planned for the FY 2007-08 under the curriculum development, assessment and instructional material component. Targets and Major Focus of ASIP for FY 2007-08 The major activities and targets of ASIP for FY 2007-08 were: Dissemination of NCF (National Curriculum Framework), Development, dissemination, updating subject curriculum and teachers guides, Capacity development of SLC Examination (examiners, head examiners and oral exam monitors etc.). Digitizing historic records of OCE. Distribution of incentive grants to high performing public schools Mainstreaming religious institutions (Madarsha, Gumba and Ashram) Conducting national assessment on grade 8 Achievements against the Annual Targets For district level, there were five activities planned under this component and the overall physical and financial progress was 72 % and 85% respectively. A total of 46,971 (91%) stakeholders (teachers, SMC members, parents) received a 3-day orientation on local curriculum out of the target of 51,500. Similarly, the physical and financial implementation rates for a three day orientation to lower secondary subject teachers on student assessment had 89% and 93%. The progress of the other three activities namely, library support to lower secondary and secondary schools of Karnali zone, Dissemination of national curriculum framework and Programme for district curriculum coordination committee were 41%, 76% and 97% respectively. Under this component, one activity, Enhancement of facility to district examination committee, was targeted on the capital cost for FY 2007-08. The physical and financial progress for this activity were 100% and 100% respectively. For the central level, there were 36 activities targeted for this FY 2007-08. The overall physical and financial implementation rates were 93% and 92% respectively. The physical progress of this component was found highly satisfactory implementation rates in the majority of activities (i.e. with 100% physical progress), these are:
Activities 1. 2. 3. Dissemination of NCF at central level Resource person preparation for the orientation of NCF at district level Printing and distribution of NCF for the dissemination at district level

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Activities 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Regional workshop for teachers to revise grade 6-8 curriculum Programme for regional curriculum forum Revision of grade 6-8 curriculum Update of grade 9-10 textbooks A two day orientation for writers and subject committee members to develop inclusive education friendly textbooks

9. Development of teachers guide of Nepali subject for grade 6 & 7 10. Preparation of resource persons at regional level to orient LSS subject teachers on student assessments 11. Development, publication and distribution of the grid according to the updated curriculum of grade 10 12. Regional workshop to finalize the materials of local sports (games) 13. Finalization and CRC preparation of technical dictionary 14. Words collection of physical education 15. Web page update in CDC 16. Study on education about social values and customs at school level 17. Impact study of text materials of social study 18. Pedagogical study on the implementation of text materials in institutional schools. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. Strengthening the library of CDC Publication and distribution of the updated compulsory subject curriculum for grades 9-10 Revision of the textbook of health, population and environment for grades 6-10 Package revision and trainers' training for SLC examiners and head examiners A 3 day orientation for examiners and head examiners of SLC examinations A 3 day orientation on grade 8 examinations A 3 day orientation for question setters and moderators SLC examinations A 2 day orientation for Grade 10/SLC- English Oral Exam Monitors Incentives for high performing public secondary schools on the basis of School Improvement Plan (including incentives for good performing schools in SLC exams) 28. Development of audio visual support materials in 3 subjects to support SLC appearing students 29. Mainstreaming Madarsa, Gumba and Ashram 30. National assessment on grade 8

Two activities were reported of having satisfactory performance, which ranged from 70%-93%. These comprised of activities no 2.10 and 2.29 (i.e. budget for NCF implementation technical committee and the thematic groups under it and data entry, verification and digital filming of old record in OCE). Similarly, the activity no 2.12 (test of the standard of students' health and physical condition) had 50% of physical implementation rate. The reason for low progress was that only a preliminary work (i.e. a proposal development and a detailed plan) was carried out and other work of technical nature were rescheduled for the next year due to the time limitation. Activities related to updating of curriculum for grade 9-10 (activity no 2.5) and a study on education about social values and customs at school level (activity no 2.17) had lower than 50% of physical implementation rate in general. The reason for low progress for activity no 2.5 was that the time period took longer than it was expected in the selection of common subject matters for all students. In addition, the activity no 2.17 had also lower implementation rate as administrative work had demanded more time in the selection of consultancy services.

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Issues and Challenges The main challenges of Curriculum development, assessment and instructional material development were: Local curriculum related activities have not been translated in practice due to insufficient of skills and knowledge at the local level stakeholders and district level professionals. Capturing of relevant contextual contents ensuring learning needs of local clientele groups are equally challenging. Inadequate technical backstopping of CDC professionals, in terms of new dimensions emerged, to implement the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) such as integrated curriculum (secondary and higher secondary), local curriculum, student evaluation and assessment, work-education, value education, peace and human rights and so forth. Building internal capacity of central and district level professionals is most wanted for successful implementation of the NCF, Reference materials for teachers on student assessment would enhance students continuous assessment, The teachers' union and other professional organizations can put in incredible contributions to the process of disseminations and orientations of local curriculum and curricular materials to teachers, PTA members and local community members.

Lessons Learned

3.8.3 Teacher Education, Development and Management The teacher education, development and management component consisted of pre/inservice certification teacher training including short-term demand-driven training and management training aiming at enhancing teacher competencies for the FY 2007-08 with the intention of improving the quality and efficiency of teacher education and ensuring effective teaching in the classrooms. Targets and Major Focus of ASIP for FY 2007-08 The ASIP aims at fulfilling the following major activities and targets for FY 2007-08:

Development of a single integrated framework for teacher development apex teacher training institution -NCTD (one)

Strengthening ETCs' capacity (12) 6000 lower secondary and secondary teachers receive first and third module certification training (one month). 6500 teachers will receive first and third module training (one and half month) 2200 teachers receive 5-months distance mode training Teacher Training Scholarships to women and members of disadvantaged
groups (360)

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Achievements Against the Annual Target For district level, there were two activities proposed in the FY 2007-08 under the recurrent and capital budget heads. The overall physical and financial progress of recurrent budget head against the targets in AWPB were 96% and 95% respectively, whereas they were 96% and 74% respectively for capital cost.
Table 3.10: Target and achievement of major activities under teacher education, development and management component
Activities Physical Target Financial Target Physical Achievement % Financial Achievement %

8425 Demand based training Civil works-construction of RCs (Lead RCs) 46

12637 110535

8095 44

96 96

11974.29 82135.94

95 74

The activities at the central level under the teacher education, development and management component comprised of developing training materials and conduction of M/TOTs as well as grants to FoE (Faculty of Education) for competency based preservice training and ICT. There were nine activities under this component. The overall physical and financial progress was 83% and 78% respectively. Most of the activities under this component had 100% of the physical progress except activity no. 3.9 (Development and collection of supplementary materials), which had 80% physical implementation rate. The following activities achieved a physical progress at a highly satisfactory level (i.e.100% in the implementation rate): Grants to FoE for competency based pre-service training and ICT All kinds of M/TOT (7 days) including III package Print/Photocopying - training package [I-4000, II-6000 and III-5000 module HTs training (1400) and demand driven training-1500] and monitoring and evaluation tools Cassette dobbing for distance mode training (for LSS and SS) Revision of third module training package (11 subjects) including audio and visual Teacher training management, examination and certification (Mark ledger, certificate, printing and distribution) Orientation on open school for central, regional and district level personnel

Some of the activities related to training and teacher development component have been shifted to NCED. NCED is carried out these activities (e.g. one month training, 1.5 month training, distance mode training, etc.) through ETCs across the country. The physical implementation rate of one month training (I and III module) was 98% and progress of 1.5 month training (I and III module) was 94%. Likewise, the progress of the five-month distance mode training was 84% and the progress of HT training was 86%.

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Table 3.11: Training Status for FY 2007-08 Name of the activities One-month training centre based training 1.5 months school based training 5 months distance mode training Head Teacher training physical targets and achievements Target Achievements 4,500 4,406 4,750 4,467 2,200 1,858 1,375 1,189 Physical % 98 94 84 86

Problems and Issues Inadequate translation of training skills in real classroom. Weak follow-up support mechanism to support trainees in applying skills learnt in training programs. Inadequate infrastructure of Education Training Centres (in case of ETC-B and Training sub-center). Insufficient number of subject-specific trainers mainly in Math/Science/English subjects as well as support staffs at the Education Training Centres (in case of ETCB and Training sub-center). Grass-roots level institutions should be developed as a subject specific (language, math-science, social study, management etc.) training institutions to play lead role in specialized subject areas.

Lessons Learned

3.8.4 Institutional Management and Capacity Building The main objective of this component is to improve the institutional capacity of educational institutions at all levels. Targets and Major Focus of ASIP for FY 2007-08 The ASIP 2007-08 intended the following major activities and targets for FY 2007-08: Management training for head-teachers of secondary and lower secondary schools SIP training to head teachers, SMC members Computer training to 75 districts Improvement of vertical communication in general, and between DOE and DEOs Achievements against the Annual Targets For district level activities of this component, a weight of 13.58% of ASIP/AWPB 200708 was allocated. 13 activities were under the recurrent and capital budget heads, where one deals with institutional capacity building activities at district level including training for HTs, SMCs and ICT related. The overall physical and financial implementation rates of the annual ASIP/AWPB targets under the recurrent budget head were 85% and 75% respectively. The activities were to conduct workshops and orientations, provide administrative and operating costs to secondary and lower secondary schools, conduct school accreditation and social audit,

74

as well as monitoring activities. The activity-wise implementation rate is presented in the table below:
Table 3.12: Major activities and progress
Activities Physical Target Financial Target Physical Achievement % Financial Achievement %

Program on school accreditation, social audit, school grants operational manual, school improvement plan and annual program and monitoring Partnership with Teacher Union (school mapping, code of conduct and regularity of teachers) One - day orientation for superintendents on SLC examinations. Running opening school through (NCED) Administrative cost for lower secondary schools Administrative cost for secondary schools Materials (stationary) for LSS and SS teachers Operating cost for feeder hostel Operating cost of mountain hostel Monthly wall bulletin and newspaper publication Program monitoring

15883

13882.60

14872

94

11772.96

85

75

3750.00

63

84

3054.32

81

75 5 3528 3826 28922 20 7 75 75

150.00 2435.00 77616.00 95989.00 14461.00 3655.00 1176.00 1125.00 2250.00

74 4 2964 3133 27855 20 5 73 73

99 80 84 82 96 100 71 97 97

184.00 929.98 52193.48 71724.53 15078.70 3213.40 435.00 1079.61 2145.99

123 38 67 75 104 88 37 96 95

The table 3.12 shows that the progress for mountain hostel management was lower than expectation (i.e. 71%), whereas implementation rates for the rest of the activities ranged from 80 to 100%. For the capital budget head, two activities were targeted in the AWPB. The physical and financial implementation rates for activity no. 4.1 (Internet connectivity in schools) were 100% and 92% respectively. The physical and financial accomplishment rates on the activity related to procurement of laptop for districts had only 59%. The central level activities focused, mainly, on planning and school management, social audit and school mapping, ASIP preparation, strengthening of IT facilities, consultancy services, and program monitoring activities. There were 14 activities altogether. The overall physical implementation rate was above 80% in average. It was found that a total of 11 activities had highly satisfactory implementation rate i.e. 100% and one activity had above 95% (Program for physical and academic transformation plan of PI schools) implementation rate. The following were the activities having highly satisfactory physical implementation rates: Workshop on ASIP preparation for planning officers and accountants (2 times) Donor Mission Trainers' training on planning and management (Social audit, SIP and school grants manual)

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Collaboration with Teacher Union (code of conduct and regularity of teachers and school accreditation) Program for school mapping Publication of bulletin and educational news Strengthening the library in Department of Education Monthly maintenance of photocopiers and computers Program Monitoring (D0E, RED and CLAs) Monitoring by School Inspectorate (MoE) Advocacy and awareness building through radio, television and print media

The activity related to International Consultancy for EMIS was not performed, whereas the implementation rate for the activity related to international consultancy for ICT, teacher training had achieved 60% progress. Problems and Issues The institutional capacity of NCED in order to cater the kinds of capacity building needs of MOE demands high priority. Lessons Learned Fragmentation and duplication of capacity building activities from central to grassroots levels needs to be anchored and streamlined to some extent possible. 3.8.5 Capital Expenditure:

As shown in the table below, the implementation rates in the capital expenditure were found relatively lower as compare to previous years progress. However, some activities had very high implementation rates e.g.134 schools out of 135 schools were constructed/rehabilitated in 10 PIDs. The table below is more illustrative.
Table 3.13: Comparison on targeted programme and achievement for 2004-05 to 2007-08
2004-05 Activities
Physical Target Physical Progress

2005-06
Physical Target progress

2006-07
Physical target Progr ess Physical targets

2007-08
Progres s% Financial allocation in 000 Progres s%

School construction and rehabilitation in 10 PIDs Classroom construction (including non-PI districts) Classroom construction (based on cost sharing ) Construction/Rehabili tation of mountain hostels Extension and conversion of feeder hostel Development of District Examination Committee facilities School grant for classroom construction

90

89

150

135

190

187

135

134 (99%)

228780

101

400

350

172

36

998 89% 4 100%

724980

88

1124 4

30595

17

10

8 30 30 29 26 13 13

8 100%

17840

68

50

32

76

2004-05 Activities
Physical Target Physical Progress

2005-06
Physical Target progress

2006-07
Physical target Progr ess Physical targets

2007-08
Progres s% Financial allocation in 000 Progres s%

20 Development of Lead Resource Centres Construction of Girls Toilet (Grant for School) Materials for Resource Center/DEOs Furniture for Resource Center/DEOs Provision of Computer, Printer, UPS, LCD at DEO, LRC, RC and School Internet connectivity in schools procurement of Laptop for districts 40 0 26 77% 44 96%

65

56

46

110535

74

75

75

28

28

75

75

67 100 67% 704

675 96% 200 46 200 100 27 59% 36550 3450 92 59 -

10 Program Intensive Districts (PIDs) are Rupandehi, Pyuthan, Humla, Jumla, Mugu, Bajhang, Baitadi, Achham, Doti and Kailali.

The table 3.13 indicates that the progress on classroom construction (including non-PI districts-school construction based on cost sharing) and enhancement of district examination facilities were a bit discouraging. The physical implementation rates of above said activities were 88% and 68% respectively. Likewise, the activity, procurement of laptops for districts, had lower achievement than it was expected.

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Part Two
3.9 Analysis of Ten Programme Intensive Districts (PID) Secondary level education has been considering to reducing poverty and inequality by increasing educational access basically for the marginalized group. Considering the aspect of poverty reduction strategies of the nation, the SESP programme emphasizes 10 programme intensive districts. These districts are Mugu, Humla, Jumla, Acham, Bajhang, Doti, Baitadi, Kailali, Pyuthan and Rupandehi. The 10 PIDs are shown in the map below.
Map 3.1: Ten PIDs for SESP

H u m la B a jh a n g B a ita d i D oti A c h h a m K a ila li M ugu J u m la

P y u th a n

N
R up a nde h i

W S
0

300

6 0 0 K i lo m e t e r s

For these 10 districts, the entire programme has been provided with a high priority in budget and planning. The following analysis provides an overview of the degree of priority that the 10 PIDs received and their respective accomplishments as compared to the national averages.
Table 3.14: Comparison between 10 PIDs and other districts by major activities
FY 2004-05 Activities Targets Secondary education Scholarship Dalit Scholarship Scholarship for marginalize d students 31,070 Achieve ments 28,339 91% 11,000 10,616 97% 114,51 7 National/FY 200506 Achieve Target ments 60,000 54,564 91% 111,261 97% 320 100% 114,57 3 National/FY 2006-07 Achiev Target ements 60,000 60,138 100.% 111,35 2 97% 313 98% National/FY 200708 Achieve Target ments 60,000 119,68 6 59,517 97% 119,949 100% 2742 83% 12,75 9 10 PIDs/FY 200708 Targe Achieve t ments 6,819 6,819 100% 12,508 98% 204 67%

NA

NA

320

320

3324

180

78

FY 2004-05 Activities Targets Scholarship for feeder and mountain hostel students Grants to schools for disable students Allowances for female teachers SIP grants for Schools Library grant for LSS and SS School mapping program Teacher Grant for Community LSS and SS Achieve ments

National/FY 200506 Achieve Target ments

National/FY 2006-07 Achiev Target ements

National/FY 200708 Achieve Target ments

10 PIDs/FY 200708 Targe Achieve t ments

NA

NA

400

377

650

618

737

731

200

200

94% 901 96% 125 85 68% 0 0% NA 125 96 77% 0 0% 13,500 90% 0 0 0 0 26,370 125

95% 1784 112% 106 85% 2718 100% 9,135 88% 24192 92% NA 125

99% 301 97% 120 96% NA 15

100% 42 100% 13 87% NA

NA

NA

932

1590

311

42

2697

NA

NA

NA

15,000

10,400

320

130 41% NA

69

69 100%

NA

NA

0 0%

2,870

2,822 98%

28922

27855 96%

2573

2573 100%

The activities mentioned in the table shows that 10 PIDs have been given higher attention in the programming and budgeting from the outset of the project.
Figure 3.10: Secondary education scholarship for 10 PIDs and other districts
2000000 1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 Nation-w ide Number of students PIDs Number of Scholarship

Note: Number of students based on the Flash I 2008-09 and the scholarship quota included main categories(i.e. secondary and dalit scholarship)

79

The graphical presentation mentioned above as an example, in the 10 PIDs under this more students received a higher proportion of Dalit and secondary scholarship as compared to the national average coverage.
Table 3.15: SLC Result 2006 of 10 PIDs compared with national average score
Districts 1. Mugu 2. Bajhang 3. Jumla 4. Acham 5. Humla 6. Baitadi 7. Doti 8. Pyuthan 9. Kailali 10. Rupandehi 10 PIDs 63.73% National pass % 2007-08 Pass % of PIDs in 2007-08 59.49 79.82 47.28 60.00 65.83 60.11 48.9 62.35 31.75 66.16 53.99 58. 64% National pass % 2006-07 Pass % of PIDs in 2006-07 50.00 73.17 32.99 53.28 64.78 46.5 43.16 33.47 47.38 54.02 49.88 46.51% National pass % 2005-06 Pass % of PIDs in 2005-06 13.64 60.5 24.44 23.89 33.33 25.88 34.32 44.75 34.69 53.16 34.8 32.05% National pass% 2002-03 Pass % of PIDs in 2002-03 17.93 13.79 10.49 7 8.33 9.89 16.38 31.45 21.83 39.06 17.67

Source: OCE 2002-03, 2005-06,2006-07 and 2007-08

In terms of learning achievement of secondary level students, table mentioned above shows a comparison of SLC result for students in PIDs in 2002-03, 2005-06, 2006-07 and 2007-08 as compared with the national averages. The result shows that in 2002-03, the average pass rate of the students in the 10 PID districts was 17.67% whereas the national pass rate was 32.05%. Thus, the students in the PIDs on average in 2002-03 had appeared 50% less pass rate as compared with the national pass rate. In 2005-06, the pass rate obtained by students in the PIDs was 34.8%, whereas the national pass rate was 46.51%. In 2006-07, the pass rate in 10 PIDs was increased by 15% whereas national average score was increased by 13%. But, still the pass rate of the 10 PID is lower than the national score by 8.7% which was around 25% difference in 2005-06. The pass rate of 10 PIDs in 2007-08 was 53.99% which was still lower than the national score by 9.74%. Similarly, the pass rate of 10 PIDs has been increased and the gap was reduced by 4.64% in comparison to national score of 2002-03 and 2007-08. But the ratio of some districts from 10 PIDs (e.g. Kailali, Doti and Jumla) shows in the above table was around 50% differences in 2007-08 with comparing the national ratio (see more detail in figure).

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Figure 3. 11: SLC Result of 10 PIDs by Academic year


90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Mugu Bajhang Jumla Acham 2007-08 Humla 2006-07 Baitadi 2005-06 Doti 2002-03 Pyuthan Kailali Rupandehi National average 63.73%

The figure above can be seen the pass rates of the 10 PIDs. It indicates that the learning achievement of students in the PIDs has proportionally increased more than the average national learning achievement since 2003. However, the learning achievement level of students in the 10 PIDs is still significantly lower than the national average in 2007-08 except Rupandehi, Bajhang and Humla.
Table 3.16: Comparison of girls' average pass rate
Districts National pass % 2007-08 Pass % of PIDs in 2007-08 10.66 24.03 12.23 20.44 58.78% 14.11 21.55 15.76 27.29 10.42 26.35 18.28 41.58% National pass % 2006-07 Pass % of PIDs in 2006-07 16.78 32.78 17.18 27.87 22.15 30.58 25.15 44.38 33.07 37.83 28.78 17.72% National pass % 2005-06 Pass % of PIDs in 2005-06 2.84 16.28 5.95 7.37 6.67 7.6 8.13 16.48 9.82 20.08 10.12 10.94% National pass% 2002-03 Pass % of PIDs in 2002-03 1.63 1.56 1.02 1.36 0.83 1.99 2.28 9.46 5.53 12.82 3.85

1. Mugu 2. Bajhang 3. Jumla 4. Acham 5. Humla 6. Baitadi 7. Doti 8. Pyuthan 9. Kailali 10. Rupandehi Average of 10 PIDs

Source: OCE 2002-03, 2005-06,2006-07 and 2007-08

Likewise, an analysis of learning achievement of secondary level girl students has been done and is presented in table above. The results show that in 2002-03, the average pass

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rate of the girl students in the 10 PID districts was 3.85% whereas the national pass rate for girls was 10.94%. Thus, the students in the PIDs on average in 2002-03 had approximately 3 times lower pass rate as compared with the national pass rate. In 200506, the pass rate obtained by girl students in the PIDs was 10.12%, whereas the national pass rate was 17.72%. Thus, the difference of the pass rates was around 70% in 2005-06. In 2006-07, the national average percentage of girls pass rates was increased by more than 100%. For the 10 PIDs it was increased by the same ratio. The girls pass rate for the same period was found 28.78%, where it was 10.12 in 2005-06. Girl's pass percentage of 10 PIDs is still remaining a challenge. The average score of the PIDs was only 18.23% in 2007-08. It was more than three times lower comparing with the national score. The detail description of the academic year-wise pass percentage is presented in the figure below.
Figure 3.12: SLC Result of girls in 10 PIDs by Academic year
60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
R up an d eh i H um la P yu th an B aj ha ng B a ita di Ju m la A ch am K a ila li M ug u D ot i
N a t io na l a v e ra ge 5 8 .7 8 %

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2002-03

Still, it can be seen that the learning achievement of girl students in the PIDs has proportionally increased more than for the average national learning achievement since 2003 but it was decreased in 2007-08. However, the learning achievement level of girl students in the 10 PIDs is still significantly lower than the national average.

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Figure 3.13: SLC appeared and pass number of girls in 10 PIDs in 2007
BAITADI

10.4

5.69

KAILALI

37.77 5.06
2.22

9.04

DOTI

A CHHAM

10.78 6.06
4.69

6.08

BAJHANG

JUM LA

2.69
19 .1

M UGU

0.85
0.5

HUM LA

0.71
0.45

PY UTHAN

8.39

5.1 6

RUPANDEHI

36.58 0 10 20

21 .67

30 40 No of girl appeared Passed

50

60

70
H undre ds

The figure mentioned above also shows the number of SLC appeared and passed girls in the 10 PIDs. The district Rupandehi had appeared highest number of girls and lowest in the Humla. The district Kailali had lowest pass rates compared with the other PIDs. The district Pyuthan had the highest pass rates compared to other districts.
Figure 3. 14 Comparison of SLC Result of 10 PIDs with National by Academic year
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2007-08 Total National 2006-07 Total PIDs 2005-06 Girls National 2002-03 Girls PIDs

The figure 3.13 mentioned above shows the comparison of average pass rates of 10 PIDs with the national level. It is clearly indicates that the average pass percentage of 10 PIDs is still lower than the national average. However, the overall pass rate of the 10 PIDs is increased in past years but still it is below than the national pass rate. Similarly, the girls pass rates in the PIDs is shown as a decreasing trend comparing with previous year and more than three times lower than the national pass rate of the girls. 83

Part Three
3.10 Financial Progress
Table 3.12 below presents the comparative financial progress of fiscal years among 200405 to 2007-08. The expenditures, presented in the table below, are based on line items, made available from FCGO data-base system. The expenditure percentage (i.e.72%) was increased by 30% in FY 2004-05, while it was only 42% in FY 2003-04.
Table 3.17: Cost category-wise progress for FY 2004-05 to 2006-07 (Updated)
FY 2004-05 Description
Annual Budget Expenditure

FY 2005-06
Annual Budget Expenditure

FY 2006-07
Annual Budget Expenditure Annual Budget

NRSs in "000" FY 2007-08


Expendit ure %

Construction Construction (DANIDA) Equipment Furniture Teaching Aids and resource materials Vehicle Training Training Abroad Workshop Fund Studies Consulting Service Operating Cost

192124

115033 59.87%

605,085. 00

408,577 67.52%

432896

345701 79.87%

471650

724980 74314 55.80% 0 0.00% 33904 159.08% 355.75 71.15% 47579.047 46.88% 0 0.00% 20100 46.58% 496029.71 82.99% 2500 46.49% 1817.2 62.60% 9607.28 71.39% 801,239.99 72.11% 123,302. 00 10,052.81 8.15% 57766 23.18% 6864 97.35% 148721 81.83% 0

406,32 1 649,41 1 164,26 7 2,999

86.15 89.58

133176 0 21312

249200 7051

183975 3000

89.29 99.97

26,590.0 0 130,968. 00 527,637. 00 32,669.0 0

17,154.87 64.52% 98,096.96 74.90% 447,350.06 84.78 556.07 1.70% 2,205.47 59.61% 983,993.69 67.86%

181739 125

51148 125

9,821 0

19.20 0.00

500

101487 0

43147

215982

196810 91.12% 199910 59.50% 0 10856 32.94% 207202 86.03% 1173830 69.13%

219179.61

219,18 6 153,97 5 0

100.0 0

597723 5378

335999 1100

244007 0

63.10 00.00

2903

32953

22670

11,934 214,77 4 1,832,6 89

52.64

13458 1,111,2 08.00

3,700.00 1,449,95 1.00

240854

271375 2192109.6 1

7914

1697899

83.60

The table 3.17, shows that expenditure percentages were increased during the fiscal years 2004-05, 2006-07 and 2007-08, but it was slightly decreased in the FY 2005-06 as 68%. The overall financial expenditure for FY 2007-08 was 84%, whereas it was 69% in 2006-07.

84

CHAPTER - IV

COMMUNITY SCHOOL SUPPORT PROJECT (CSSP)

Chapter Coverage:
Component-wise Programmes and Progress Issues and Challenges Lessons Learned

85

4.1 Introduction This chapter, basically, provides overall status of the project in terms of physical and financial progress against the ASIP and AWPB for the FY 2007-08. In addition, key output measures and reports of all key performance indicators are also analyzed. 4.2 Background CSSP is a World Bank supported project that has been in operation since 2003. Since then, intensive grants, school physical facility development grants, teacher support grants, matching funds and capacity building programme have been harmonized with the community involvement in management of schools. As a result, 7015 schools' managements have been shouldered by the community from among 28131 community schools. The summary of the achievement by region as:
Table 4.1: Region wise Community Managed Schools

Region Eastern Central Western Mid-western Far-western Total

Secondary Level 230 192 140 55 33 650

Lower Secondary level 477 404 293 125 75 1,374

Primary Level 1,650 1,382 1001 418 540 4,991

Total 2,357 1,978 1,434 598 648 7,015

Along with CSSP, Policy and Human Resource Development (PHRD) has also been implemented since 2007-08 as the supplementary program of the CSSP. In fiscal year 2007-08, different capacity building related activities were planed under the PHRD. Basically all activities of the PHRD have been designed and implemented with consultancy services. Collaborative approach has been adopted in the AWPB 2007-08. 4.3 Main Objectives of CSSP The overall objective of CSSP is to increase community participation, accountability to enhance the quality and efficiency of the schooling system. Currently, PHRD has been supplementing the several activities for strengthening the Community Managed Schools (CMS) system and subsequently, helps upgrading the capacity of the key stakeholders in CMS. 4.4 Component-wise Implementation Rates As per the AWPB for 2007-08, CSSP contains two heading CSSP itself and another under the heading contained the subcomponents Matching funds, stakeholders, Monitoring and evaluation and the development of the key stakeholders subcomponent. sets of activities, one PHRD. For instance, Capacity building PHRD contained the under the the CSSP of local Capacity

The overall physical and financial progress was 97.6 % and 93 % respectively. The detailed analyses are presented by components in the sections below. The table below is more illustrative for CSSP part.

86

4.4.1 Matching Fund


Table 4.2: Annual performance on grant distribution
Programmes Unit Annual Targets Physical Financial Annual progress Physical Financial
NRs in 000

% of physical progress 100

1. School Grants Matching Fund in Community managed Schools for computer, science lab and library facilities 2. Capacity Development 2 days orientation for community empowerment on community managed school policy in collaboration with CSNN and other NGOs in 30 districts 2 days orientation for political leaders and other stakeholders in central and regional level Media mobilization for disseminating and sharing of changes made by community managed schools Printing and Publicizing of project's progress report 3. Monitoring and Evaluation Program monitoring, central, region and district level Project evaluation

School

200

18565

200

18565

person

1000

2250

1000

2250

100

person

200

1000

80

431

40

500

151

100

250

150

100

500 1 1500
1

437 1163

100 100

As shown in the table above, Matching fund, aimed at promoting learning environment in the community managed schools, viz., establishment of the computer labs, science labs and library. This activity was accomplished with 100% physical and financial progress. 4.4.2 Capacity Development Capacity development of the stakeholders in community managed schools was the second subcomponent of the CSSP part. Under this subcomponent there were four activities set for the FY 2007-08, which are presented in the four bullets below. The orientation program undertook in 30 different districts and thus attained 100% physical progress. Major objectives of this activity were to make aware of educational polices in relation to CMS system and identify the baseline indicators of their schools. Second activity was the regional level orientation programme that focused on awareness and capacity development. The annual progress was only 40%.

87

Third activity was the media mobilization. Unavailability of time for conducting the dissemination of workshops at regional level caused the big gap between the financial target and physical progress. Fourth activity of the capacity building component was the printing and publishing of the project progress. Monitoring and Evaluation

4.4.3

Monitoring and evaluation was another major subcomponent of the CSSP part. Two activities were set under this subcomponent. First one was the regular programme monitoring, which undertook, mainly, during the third trimester of the year. Altogether, 200 schools were monitored. Another activity was the project evaluation, which was to be undertaken in collaboration with the Community School National Network (CSNN). The field level tasks were completed; however, the final report was expected by the end of the September 2008. Yet, the utilization of the budget for capacity building package of the PHRD caused for low financial progress.

Table 4.3: Annual progress of capacity building activities


Unit Programme unit Annual Target Physical Financial Physical Annual progress Financial 1779 % of physical progress 100

1. Capacity Development Program for personnel and related stakeholders 2. Capacity building program for stakeholders in collaboration with CSNN 3. Training, advocacy, study and school profile development by mobilizing central and local level medias ( print, radio and TV) 4. Support to lead schools for providing training and experience sharing 5. Consultancy service for study and research 6. Computer support for lead community managed school 7. Lap-top computer purchasing

person

25

1860

person

200

6000

4176

90

1800

1500

100

schools

200

10000

10000

100

23644

22270

100

schools

30

1500

1500

100

number 8. Desk-top computer purchasing for DOE

400

340

100

number

231

222

100

88

4.4.4 Capacity Development Programme for Personnel and Related Stakeholders under PHRD There were altogether eight activities under PHRD set for the capacity development of the key stakeholders. The status of the physical and financial progress is presented in the sections below. With a view to develop the capacity of the key stakeholders such as the personnel from the Community Managed Schools and from the DOE system, the consultancy service was hired from the Administrative Staff College. Need based customized course was designed; one week residential training in Staff College and one week exposure visit in the educational institutions in Simla, India was organized. 25 key stakeholders benefited from this activity and thus 100% physical progress was attained. The financial one was almost 96%. Next activity capacity building was undertaken in collaboration with CSNN. The physical and financial progress was respectively 90% and 70%. Inception and draft reports were received. The financial progress was somewhat low as the last installment was not released. The next activity was the Training, advocacy, study and school profile development through central and local level Media (Print, Radio and TV). The DOE had authorized the Regional Education Directorates (REDs) for this purpose. At least, one print media, one FM radio and one TV channel were selected in each region and implemented the activity. The physical and financial progress was 100% and 83% respectively. The sub-activity, mobilization of the central level media, was carried out with a different CSSP source but with the same nature. However, it caused low financial progress. Support to lead schools was the fourth activity, which aimed at providing training and developing the capacity of 200 CMS in different districts. Each school, then, was supposed to play a role of a leader for capacity development of neighboring 10 schools. By this activity key stakeholders of 1000 schools were benefited. Again, consultancy services for study and research was the fifth activity for which two sets of activities were designed. For stance, the monitoring and impact evaluation survey of school input, output and outcome indicator were in the first set, while the social mobilization in CMS, identification of community characteristics, development of hand-book based on best practices, peer to peer networking and school report card system were in the second set. Two consultancy forms, the Full Bright and the Policy Research & Consultancy (CPReC) were selected through NCB and, then, hired for the implementations of those activities. The first one had submitted the inception and draft reports, while the second one had submitted the project completion report as well within the agreed timeframe. Thus, around 95% financial and 100% physical progress was met during year. Yet again, computer support for lead CMS was the next activity. Under this activity, based on CSSP evaluation, 30 schools received Rs 50,000 each, on cost sharing basis, to purchase the computers.

89

Procurement of lap-tops and desktops computers.

To strengthen and expand the technical capacity of the DOE, 4 laptops and the 5 desktop computers were targeted for purchasing. By adopting the bidding process, laptops and desktop computers were procured. For these activities, the physical and financial progress, altogether, were 100% and around 90% respectively. 4.5 Issues and Challenges Stakeholders, still, regard management transfer as a way of taking more resources from the government rather than to provide accessible quality education through the community empowerment. Teacher management system (recruitment, promotion) in CMS has not, yet, worked as per the expectations. Capacity building of the stakeholders calls for more allocations and support form the government side. Fund disbursement process adopted in CSSP implementation did not promptly respond to the demands of the recipients. Demands of the school management transfer have been increased progressively, so addressing the demands, adequate financial resource need to be available. Teachers' communities are not, still, fully convinced with the school management transfer policy; instead, they plead for centralized teacher management system. Monitoring is insubstantial. Quality development in CMS has not, yet, corresponded to its incentive.

Community School National Net-work needs to be further extended, 4.6 Lessons Learned Meaningful changes occurred in CMS viz., increasing community involvement in school management, improving schools' performance, reducing out of school children as a result of technical and financial supports to schools. Schools seem to increase schools physical facilities such as the computer lab on cost sharing. Exposure visit is believed to be an effective way of widening horizon and empowering the stakeholders. Peer to peer networking worked as an effective intervention for capacitating the local stakeholders through the selected lead schools. Fund release, from DOE to districts and districts to schools, needs to be prompt and efficient. Community managed schools monitoring, on the basis of their Benchmark plan, (BMP) is indispensable.

90

CHAPTER - 5 HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION COMPONENT OF SECOND HIGHER EDUCATION PROJECT (IDA Grant H2740-NEP)

Chapter Coverage:
Physical and Financial Progress by Components Challenges and Constraints Steps taken to Mitigating the Issues

91

5.1 Introduction This Chapter of the report provides an account of the overall implementation of the Higher Secondary Education Component (component no. 3) of the Second Higher Education Project (SHEP II) for the FY 2007-08. The physical and financial progress against the annual targets from AWPB are analyzed, and the challenges and constraints along with the steps taken to mitigate them are discussed. The financial information contained two sets of sources; viz. FCGO and DOE as well as HSEB different in natures, which do not facilitate to compare one in terms of other. There were 16 activities under the recurrent budget head (65-3-411) and 7 activities under the capital budget head (65-4-411) targeted in the AWPB. The overall physical and financial implementation rates were 92% and 90% respectively (See annex). 5.2 Progress by Components The status of physical and financial progress made by component activities is discussed below. 5.2.1. Basic Grants There was only one activity (Basic grants) scheduled, under this component, for the FY 2007-08. The overall physical and financial implementation rates of this activity was 100%. For this purpose, as per the data provided by HSEB, the allocation was not enough to cover all graduates (11 and 12 passed) across the country and consequently, it meant additional allocations required in the next financial year. 5.2.2. Capacity Building There were 15 activities targeted under this component. The physical and financial achievements are discussed below. For the activities under 2.1, 2.4, 2.5, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14 and 2.15 the physical accomplishment rates were as high as 100%, whereas the financial progress ranged from 60% and above. For example, the lower financial progress was obtained as 60% and 71% respectively under the activity 2.12 (Training for teachers of higher secondary schools in coordination with HSEB and NCED) and the activity under 2.5 (Specification grid preparation workshop). In case of activity under 2.12, out of 75 centres, HSEB could organize the training programme only in four places, whereas for the activity 2.5, the programme was organized for the higher secondary school principles and teachers from around the Kathmandu valley only. The activities under 2.2, 2.3 and 2.7 (Workshops for examination related stakeholders, preparation and establishment of question bank and model questions and specification grid printing and distribution) could not take place at all. As the personnel in the Examination Division at the HSEB were themselves occupied with lunching their own regular examination activities, the said activities could not organized.

92

The activity under 2.6 (Dissemination and orientation of the higher secondary education component) had the physical progress 86%, where a press conference at DOE and workshop in the western region were organized.

5.2.3. Monitoring and Evaluation The physical progress in this component was only 25%, whereas the financial one was around 22%. The reason for low financial progress was, to some extent, due to the use of EFA/SESP and regular budgets for the monitoring and evaluation purposes of the SHEP components. 5.2.4. Goods and Services There were seven activities such as procurement of computers, printers, fax machines, LCD projectors and photocopier machines set under this component. Altogether, the physical and financial progress was 62% and 49% respectively. The main reason for low physical and financial progress was caused by the need of revision of the AWPB during third trimester. Another reason was, of course, the low bidding.

93

Annex 1 Detailed Progress, of EFA District Level (Annual Progress 2007-08) Activities
(NRs in 000)
Annual Program S.N. Main Activities Unit cost Physical Target Budget Weight Physical Target

Annual Progress
% Expenditure %

1 1.1 1.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 1.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2 2.0.1 2.0.2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.1.1 2.1.1.1.1 2.1.1.1.2 2.1.1.1.3 2.1.1.1.4 2.1.1.1.5 2.1.1.1.6 2.1.1.2 2.1.1.2.1 2.1.1.2.2 2.1.1.2.3 2.1.1.2.4 2.1.1.3 2.1.1.3.1 2.1.1.3.1.1 2.1.1.3.1.2 2.1.1.3.1.3

Recurrent Cost 65-3-804 ECD Program New ECD classes Remuneration for facilitator Establishment of ECDs Learning materials for ECDs Training for ECD facilitators Matching fund Training & material support for helping groups Existing ECD Centres Remuneration for facilitator Learning materials for ECDs Ensuring Access to All Village/Municipal Education Plan School welcome and enrolment campaign program Alternative Schooling Primary Flexible Schooling Primary Flexible Schooling - New Remuneration for facilitators Establishment costs Learning materials costs Training for facilitator Classroom management Community mobilization Primary Flexible Schooling Existing Remuneration for facilitators Learning materials Training for facilitator Classroom management School-out-reach Program New School-out-reach Program Remuneration for facilitators Establishment costs Learning materials costs

3396294.00
355602.44 59840.44 37762.64 3500.00 3500.00 15077.80 4725.00 600.00 295762.00 279239.00 16523.00 138360.14 750.00 1800.00 20666.55 6126.55 1590.00 530.00 795.00 1376.55 1590.00 245.00 14540.00 10456.00 798.00 628.00 2658.00 30461.19 3738.43 900.00 300.00 750.00

68.61
7.21 1.21 0.77 0.07 0.07 0.31 0.10 0.01 6.00 5.66 0.34 2.83 0.02 0.04 0.42 0.12 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.00 0.29 0.21 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.62 0.08 0.02 0.01 0.02

98.51
99.40 99.87 100.06 97.80 99.23 100.03 118.48 307.33 99.30 99.43 97.14 98.29 86.67 108.00 94.65 94.71 84.15 95.09 98.49 99.25 98.49 100.00 94.62 96.39 90.98 89.10 90.07 98.96 99.30 100.00 100.00 98.00

3153266.85
336978.36 48393.80 26933.02 3430.52 3457.27 14573.00 3215.30 348.00 288584.56 272849.31 15735.25 127666.69 625.00 1628.57

Person Number Centre Person Centre group Person Centre Number District

3500 3500 3500 3500 525 300 0 16523 16523 0 150 75 0 0 0 265 265 265 265 265 35 0

3500 3423 3473 3500 622 922 0 16429 16050 0 130 81 0 0 0 223 252 261 263 261 35 0 427 242 237 399 0 0 150 150 147

92.84 94.76 80.87 71.32 98.01 98.78 96.65 68.05 58.00 97.57 97.71 95.23 92.27 83.33 90.48 0.00 0.00 87.54 67.92 94.34 97.74 87.68 97.74 100.00 92.61 95.11 89.46 73.40 88.24 93.89 94.00 86.29 100.00 96.67

Person Number Centre Number Number Class

5362.98 1079.96 500.00 777.00 1207.02 1554.00 245.00 13465.25 9944.99 713.86 460.97 2345.43 28600.87 3514.07 776.58 300.00 725.00

Number Centre Number Number Number Person Number Centre

443 266 266 443 0 0 150 150 150

94

Annual Program S.N. 2.1.1.3.1.4 2.1.1.3.1.5 2.1.1.3.1.6 2.1.1.4 2.1.1.4.1 2.1.1.4.2 2.1.1.4.3 2.1.1.4.4 2.1.1.5 2.1.1.5.1 2.1.1.5.2 2.1.1.5.3 2.1.1.5.4 2.1.1.5.5 2.1.1.6 2.1.1.7 2.1.1.8 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.1.6 4.1.7 4.1.8 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 Main Activities Unit cost Physical Target 150 150 5 0 731 586 1347 731 0 340 47 9916 73 190 13 11 75 0 13 75 Budget 853.43 900.00 35.00 26722.76 18136.00 2930.00 1270.76 4386.00 84682.40 40582.40 4935.00 35706.00 550.00 1809.00 500.00 350.00 250.00 750.00 1492.00 750.00 110836.82 38814.12 10243.80 16200.00 5400.00 1350.00 540.00 4320.00 540.00 220.32 18055.40 3670.40 9600.00 3200.00 800.00 Weight 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.54 0.37 0.06 0.03 0.09 1.72 0.82 0.10 0.72 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.02 2.25 0.79 0.21 0.33 0.11 0.03 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.00 0.37 0.07 0.19 0.06 0.02 Physical Target 150 140 12 0 732 586 1058 724 0 338 46 10171 71 190 1 3 55 0 6 64 0 0 2696 53920 53920 51300 51300 51300 2565 117 0 1590 31500 31520 30400

Annual Progress
% 100.00 93.33 240.00 98.92 100.14 100.00 78.54 99.04 99.74 99.41 97.87 102.57 97.26 100.00 7.69 27.27 73.33 59.26 46.15 85.33 108.32 98.98 99.85 99.85 99.85 95.00 95.00 95.00 95.00 95.58 98.33 99.38 98.44 98.50 95.00 Expenditure 837.49 840.00 35.00 25086.80 16814.93 2853.28 1190.48 4228.10 77984.03 36792.04 3870.32 34853.98 534.50 1657.00 6.60 78.00 191.59 639.00 672.81 639.00 102150.86 37294.25 9682.37 16058.38 5363.15 1221.38 512.56 3738.61 513.00 204.81 17492.98 3554.49 9392.00 3130.77 694.50 %

Training for facilitator Classroom management Community mobilization Existing School-out-reach Program Remuneration for facilitators Learning materials Training for facilitator Classroom management Inclusive Education Resource center classes operation Management of assessment centers Scholarship Extra curricular activities Program for street children Program for alternative schooling program Program for supporting school opened to serve adult women Meeting for text book learning materials Meeting the Learning Needs of All Development of curriculum & textbook in local language at local level (Including bilingual teaching ) Educational exhibition or education faire Reducing Illiteracy Women Literacy Program I Training for literacy facilitators Remuneration for facilitators Stationary/supplies and literacy materials Remuneration for monitors & evaluators Examination management Material for practical work Material transportation Local supervisor training Women Literacy Program II Training for facilitator Remuneration for facilitators Stationary/supplies Remuneration for monitors &

Number Number Class Number Centre Number Number Number Centre Number

98.13 93.33 100.00 93.88 92.72 97.38 93.68 96.40 92.09 90.66 78.43 97.61 97.18 91.60 1.32 22.29 76.64 85.20 45.09 85.20 92.16 96.08 94.52 99.13 99.32 90.47 94.92 86.54 95.00 92.96 96.89 96.84 97.83 97.84 86.81

Number Number Center

Number

Number Number Set Number Times Set

0 0 2700 54000 54000 54000 54000 54000 2700 122 0 1600 32000 32000 32000

Number Number set

95

Annual Program S.N. Main Activities Unit cost Physical Target 32000 1600 81 0 965 Budget 320.00 320.00 145.00 32864.50 2952.90 16154.10 9650.00 4030.00 77.50 12620.80 10250.00 2370.80 8482.00 4800.00 1200.00 642.00 180.00 580.00 1080.00 589062.58 270523.00 316539.58 2000.00 1942278.30 Weight 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.67 0.06 0.33 0.20 0.08 0.00 0.26 0.21 0.05 0.17 0.10 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 11.95 5.49 6.42 0.04 39.08 Physical Target 30580 1530 74 0 966 8283 902 151 146 0 203 1514 0 340 340 272 16 320 300 0 741451 615653 43 0

Annual Progress
% 95.56 95.63 91.61 95.49 100.10 95.37 93.47 97.42 94.19 97.76 99.02 92.32 237.77 85.00 85.00 1700.00 1600.00 80.00 75.00 98.32 95.93 100.45 82.69 97.96 Expenditure 305.47 296.00 119.75 29573.64 2750.47 14553.87 8559.00 3644.30 66.00 11496.42 9612.20 1884.22 6293.58 3469.80 984.16 483.06 144.00 459.86 752.70 533372.61 252903.92 279562.69 906.00 1837441.06 %

4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

evaluators Examination management Material transportation Training for local supervisors Income Generating Program (965 Groups) for program II completers Training on saving and credit Subject wise training Seed money Remuneration for motivators Material for motivators Community Learning Center Grants distribution Orientation for management committee Program for School Dropout Children Remuneration for motivator Stationary/supplies Monitoring Reporting Orientation for parents/teachers Training for motivator Eliminating Gender Disparity Dalit scholarship 50% girls scholarship Scholarship for Marty's Children Improving all Aspects of Quality Education Grants to schools based on per child NRs 275, NRs 300 and NRs 325 per annum for Tarai and Valley, Hill and Mountain districts respectively Grants to school management Grants to primary schools for stationary/supplies per annum NRs 300 per teacher Grants to resource centers Grants to RC Rs.5.00 per student to organize examination based on learning achievement text in Nepali, English and Mathematics of Grade V

Number times

95.46 92.50 82.59 89.99 93.14 90.09 88.69 90.43 85.16 91.09 93.78 79.48 74.20 72.29 82.01 75.24 80.00 79.29 69.69 90.55 93.49 88.32 45.30 94.60

Number Subject Number Set Centre Number Number Number

8685 965 155 155 0 205 1640 0 400 400 16 1 400 400 0 772923 612867 52 0

Person Person Child Child Child

4166000

1249800.00 298004.00 24060.30 1236.00 5690.00

25.35 6.04 0.49 0.03 0.12

3959093 16763 79665 1047 1130202

95.03 94.09 99.33 99.43 993.15

1163587.61 264949.41 23872.05 12530.00 5627.18

93.10 88.91 99.22 1013.75 98.90

Child Time Teacher Centre

17816 80201 1053 113800

96

Annual Program S.N. Main Activities Unit cost Physical Target 17712 25000 Budget 30000.00 7500.00 7500.00 375.00 750.00 1500.00 261300.00 10000.00 6000.00 6000.00 4828.00 15172.00 12563.00 259403.73 7717.20 147645.93 31708.20 72332.40 182950.00 1543390.00 0.00 430220.00 215000.00 645000.00 0.00 27000.00 27000.00 0.25 5.25 0.16 2.99 0.64 1.46 31.30 31.30 8.72 4.36 13.08 0.55 0.55 Weight 0.61 0.15 0.15 0.01 0.02 0.03 5.30 0.20 0.12 0.12 0.10 Physical Target 17686 24810 149 74 75 74 2489 13814 6018 5621 146 343 942 0 17696 1181 1539 25044 0 0 0 1907 950 948 0 1155 1076

Annual Progress
% 99.85 99.24 99.33 98.67 100.00 98.67 95.25 138.14 100.30 93.68 104.29 Expenditure 28146.22 7054.59 7187.14 367.00 749.91 1253.69 245700.00 34811.10 5716.92 5618.97 3793.10 14764.50 89.46 98.13 99.33 97.68 96.37 99.68 94.70 94.70 0.00 95.35 95.00 94.80 0.00 98.72 98.35 11711.68 215018.27 7498.06 134852.64 28741.67 43925.90 146366.00 1306830.28 0.00 372506.00 186665.00 541590.11 0.00 25100.00 25018.75 %

6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.16.1 6.17 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

Dissemination and orientation of School Grants' Directive including programme implementation manual Dissemination of curriculum and textbooks of Grade 3 School Level, Flash Report I and II preparation Progress/status report preparation ASIP preparation and dissemination Computer training / operation of internet & email Block grants for community managed schools School accreditation program School-based training for teacherschild friendly Extra activities in school Matching fund for computer and library management Computer (2 computer & 1 Printer) School 29000, DEO 41000 Program for supporting Madrsa, Ashram & Gumba Educational Management Program monitoring Salary (RPs-1091, Overseer; Engineer; and Accountant) Allowance (RPs-1091, Overseer, Engineer and School Supervisor) Day meal program for Karnali Zone Capital Cost 65-4-804 School Physical Facilities Improvement Program New classroom construction Target and budget on regular basis Target and budget for community managed school Target and budget as per cost sharing proposal (one block=3 rooms) Rehabilitation of classroom Target and budget on regular basis Target and budget as per proposal submitted by school

Student

93.82 94.06 95.83 97.87 99.99 83.58 94.03 348.11 95.28 93.65 78.56

Person Time District District District School School Number School Set Set Number Number Student Student

150 75 75 75 2613 10000 6000 6000 140 371 1053 0 17816 1209 1597 25124 0 0

93.22 82.89 97.16 91.34 90.64 60.73 80.00 84.67 0.00 86.59 86.82 83.97 0.00 92.96 92.66

Classroom Classroom Classroom Number Number

0 2000 1000 1000 0 1170 1094

97

Annual Program S.N. 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Main Activities Unit cost Physical Target 1493 9 4 9 0 28 Budget 150000.00 24520.00 15000.00 4500.00 0.00 5150.00 4939684.00 Weight 3.04 0.50 0.30 0.09 0.00 0.10 100.00 Physical Target 1413 6 3 63 0 23

Annual Progress
% 94.6 66.67 75.00 700.00 0.00 82.14 94.92 Expenditure 133031.00 11816.22 3506.51 3698.63 0.00 3898.08 4460097.13 %

External environment improvement of school Construction of District Education Offices Payment for backlog of DEO construction Furniture/furnishing for 9 District Education Offices Operating cost Rehabilitation of DEOs Grand Total

Number Number Number Number

88.69 48.19 23.38 82.19 0.00 75.69 90.29

98

Annex 2 Detailed Progress of EFA Central Level (Annual Progress 2007-08) Activities
Total Project Activities
Total budget weight Physical % weight-age

S.N. 1
1.1

Project activities Expanding Early Childhood Development


Development of competency based training curricular for trainers and facilitators

Unit

Annual Progress
Expenditure Financial %

Remark
Notice was published twice a time but consultancy service was not selected The reason for not developing and printing the competency based facilitators' training materials was that the training curriculum was not developed Net working meeting was conducted but child development council meeting was not held The reason for not developing and printing the competency based facilitators' training materials was that the training curriculum was not developed

879
300

0.21 0.1

1.98
0.0

0.00 0.0

23.58
22.14

2.68 7.38

Person

1.2

Revision, re-printing and development of resource material Part I &II

Package

200

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.00

1.3

National council for child development and networking working meeting

29

0.0

60.0

0.0

1.44

4.95

1.4

Printing of basic training package 2500pcs, ECD pedagogy material 10000 copies Ensuring access to All School Physical Improvement Alternative Schooling Flexible schooling program and school outreach program Material printing and distribution Teachers' guide preparation FSP, first phase Training manual preparation FSP, first phase Training manual preparation of school out reach program Reference material preparation for facilitators Preparation of statistic forms Model question preparation and printing ( 15 subjects ) 6 days TOT for flexible schooling programme Free textbook distribution for flexible schooling program Program monitoring Text-books revision and CRC preparation for NFESOP programme Education for Special Needs Children Inclusive Education 15 days training for resource teachers

Package

350

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.00

2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.3 2.2.2.4 2.2.2.5 2.2.2.6 2.2.2.7 2.2.2.8 2.2.2.9 2.2.2.10 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.1.1

7132.0 0.0 3752.0 Book 3752 2783

1.68 0.00 0.88 0.88 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

93.71
0.00 100.00 100.00 100.0

1.57 0.00 0.88 0.88 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

5350.3 0.0 3696.0 3696 2781.0

75.02 0.00 98.51 98.51 99.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Person Subject 419 150 100 300 Person Person 3380.0 3380 780

0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.79 0.79 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 86.73 86.73 80.0

0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.69 0.69 0.1

415.0 100.0 100.0 300.0 1654.3 1654

99.05 66.67 100.00 100.00 48.94 48.94 0.00 No financial progress with activitieswise mentioned

99

S.N.
2.3.1.2 2.3.1.3 2.3.1.4 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.8 3.1.9 3.1.10 3.1.11 3.1.12 3.1.13 3.1.14 3.1.15 3.1.16 3.1.17

Project activities
5 days orientation of assessment center coordinator & head teachers 2 days regional level workshop on how to use and practice the Toolkits/Audiovisual document (UNESCO) in Inclusive Education Multi bilingual education program Meeting the Learning Needs of All Curriculum and Textbook Translation and publication of primary level curriculum in English Primary level curriculum printing and distribution for remote districts Revision and CRC preparation of grade 5 textbook Publication and distribution of grade 5 textbook for experiment/test or piloting purpose Re-printing, distribution and monitoring of grade 4 textbooks Finalizing and CRC preparation of grade 3 textbooks CRC Preparation of grade 4 textbook 6 subjects teacher's guide (including English) CRC preparation of class 3 Development of teacher guide of all subjects of grade 4 Development, printing and distribution of two subject's dictionary Teacher's guide printing and distribution of class 1and 2 for all subject for remote district Finalize the children's dictionary and CRC preparation Development, printing and distribution of 4 mother language textbooks Translation of 10 textbooks for multilingual education programme Nine supplementary material development, printing and distribution for 3 multilingual education programme Package development and printing for class 3 textbook dissemination Capacity building of resource person for class 2 textbook dissemination Establishment of picture bank Teacher resource material development for creative art teaching

Unit

Total Project Activities


Total budget weight Physical % weight-age

Annual Progress
Expenditure Financial %

Remark
No any disbursement needed because financial support was received from UNISCO

650

0.2 0.0

82.0

0.1 0.0

596.3

91.74 0.00

Copy Copy Subject Copy Copy Subject Subject Subject Subject Copy Copy

1950 15534.0 15534 170 800 955 880 800 410 50 315 340 1250 2500

0.5 3.65 3.65 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3

91.0 97.99 97.99 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 80.0 100.0 100.0 95.0 100.0 100.0 95.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

0.4 3.6 3.58 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3

1058.0 14735.0 14735 137.0 770.0 947.0 878.0 790.0 409.0 0.0 312.0 340.0 1238.0 2450.0 148.0 769.0 662.0 1135.0 203.0 1249.0

54.26 94.86 94.86 80.59 96.25 99.16 99.77 98.75 99.76 0.00 99.05 100.00 99.04 98.00 89.70 98.09 94.57 99.56 90.22 89.21 It was not possible to collect the pictures as per the need of subject matter, so that programme was withdrawn CRC was prepared

Copy Subject Copy Copy Person

165 784 700 1140 225 1400

3.1.18

Subject

50

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.00

3.1.19

Subject

150

0.0

100.0

0.0

144.0

96.00

100

S.N.
3.1.20 3.1.21 3.1.22

Project activities
Local level resource material development for mathematics teaching Develop resource material to assess and evaluate the social studies subject To develop science education material, and develop, print, and distribute teacher resource material Curriculum development for Madarsa, Gumba, Gurukul and guideline development for local curriculum Feedback collection of piloted textbooks Programme monitoring Reducing Illiteracy Women Literacy Program I + II Printing & distribution of learning materials and textbooks for 86000 women participants for women education 1 & 2 TOT of woman education facilitators I (12days) & II (7 days)

Unit
Subject Copy Region

Total Project Activities


Total budget weight Physical % weight-age

Annual Progress
Expenditure Financial %

Remark

150 150 1500

0.0 0.0 0.4

100.0 100.0 90.0

0.0 0.0 0.3

137.0 147.0 1320.0

91.33 98.00 88.00

3.1.23 3.1.24 3.1.25 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

School

300 250 100 10432.0 7332 6500 732

0.1 0.1 0.0 2.5 1.72 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.30 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.25 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.23 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

0.1 0.1 0.0 2.5 1.72 1.5 0.2 0.0 0.30 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.25 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.23 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

265.0 186.0 99.0 9901.1 7103 6489.5 513.0 100.0 1228 355.6 300.0 172.5 100.0 300.0 982 700.0 282.3 588 235.5 152.7 200.0 842 181.9 88.0 30.0 488.1 53.8

88.33 74.40 99.00 94.91 96.87 99.84 70.08 100.00 95.95 88.90 100.00 95.83 100.00 100.00 91.80 90.91 94.10 78.43 67.29 76.35 100.00 85.45 90.95 56.77 100.00 97.61 53.75

Copy Copy

Program Monitoring Income Generating Program


5 days TOT training for PSDC facilitators 5 days pre-service training for motivators 5 days orientation program for facilitator about income generating program Preparation of program monitoring & evaluation Printing of passbook and group account for income generating group Community Learning Center 7 days orientation for capacity building of the members of CLCs 5 days skill development training for CLC motivators Program for School Dropout Children (PSDC) 5 days TOT training Printing of training materials Reference material printing and distribution Eliminating Gender Disparity Yearly publication of women education bulletin Data collection of indigenous cast or groups ( Raute and Chepang) Meeting with members of girls education networking School welcome and enrolment champion (WTS) program Update the profile of women teacher and managers

Person Person Person

100 1280 400 300 180 100 300

Centre Person

1070 770 300

Person Package Package Copy Centre Time

750 350 200 200 985 200 155 30

Copy

500 100

101

S.N.
6

Project activities
Improving all aspect of Quality Education

Unit

Total Project Activities


Total budget weight Physical % weight-age

Annual Progress
Expenditure Financial %

Remark
Multi-grade teaching learning and learning by playing materials were printed but two (creative art and resource material for physical education) subjects will be proposed to develop next year including some reforms. Achievement test reports on English and Nepal languages were made and disseminated at different districts. The report on Nepali language was developed, printed and distributed but English version report was not printed because of the insufficient allocated budget

362600

87.91

99.39

87.38

364089

100.41

6.1

Publication and distribution of different types of educational materials

500

0.1

50.0

0.1

124.0

24.80

6.2

Report publication, dissemination and development of achievement tests report

300

0.1

98.0

0.1

294.8

98.27

6.3

Programme for management of free textbook and educational material distribution Establishment of education material display centre at DoE based on school education

100

0.0

100.0

0.0

94.1

94.10 Key materials for DOE- ICT center were purchase but the purchase of Audio Visual Display materials were planned for next year Appropriate proposal for developing soft-ware was not received in time and re-notice notice to proposal submission was not made due to the time limitation

6.4

300

0.1

80.0

0.1

118.5

39.50

6.5

Consolidation of library at DoE

100

0.0

80.0

0.0

98.9

98.86

6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5 6.2.6 6.2.7 6.2.8

Preparation of FMR and status report, other reports publication and distribution Action plan based monitoring and evaluation Preparation for social audit, school accreditation, SIP program ASIP and AWPB preparation Developing partnership model between community and institutional schools Per Capita Funding (PCF) Research and Development Flash I and II preparation, preparation and publication of consolidated report Flash I and II data entry workshop 20000 school grant manual printing and distribution Management of email , internet and web hosting Networking DEO (MOES and other agencies) One laptop per child Action research Research studies

500 9000 1300 200 300 350000 11500 Person Book Number 500 1500 700 500 600 1000 300 1200

0.1 2.1 0.3 0.0 0.1 82.2 2.70 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.04 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 90.0 100.0

0.1 2.1 0.3 0.0 0.1 82.2 2.24 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.3

458.8 4144.5 247.1 198.6 231.7 350000.0 8078 497.8 1315.5 357.0 436.5 352.0 983.3 140.0 1196.8

91.75 46.05 19.01 99.32 77.22 100.00 70.24 99.57 87.70 51.00 87.30 58.67 98.33 46.67 99.73 All allocation was sent to districts for distribution

102

S.N.
6.2.9 6.2.10 6.2.11 6.2.12 6.2.13 7 7.1 7.2 7.2.1 7.2.2 7.2.3 7.2.4 7.2.6 7.2.7 7.3 7.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.3 7.3.4 7.3.5 7.3.6 7.3.7 7.3.8 7.3.9 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4 7.4.5 Total

Project activities
Networking with REDs and DEOs National assessment grade 5 Publishing educational bulletin Publication and dissemination of previous year's research reports Dissemination and printing of different research report Others Consultancy services for providing services to service receivers in the form of service fees Education Management Salary and allowance for staff (Contract) Salary and allowance for staff (Permanent) External environment improvement of DoE building complex Joint review mission Preparation, printing and distribution of guidelines - Use of fund Revise and print DoE management planning documents Programme monitoring and management REDs Monitoring , report preparation and dissemination Regional level statistic analysis and dissemination Formative/action research in REDs Programme and progress review; programme orientation workshop for 3 -5 days for district education officers, programme officers and accountants Publication of DoE calendar Awareness program Prize distribution for education journalist Co-work with journalist program Mobile school program Ministry of Education and Sports Publication of educational statistics 1500 copies and monograph 1500 copies Technical support utilization programme Status report preparation and printing and dissemination Monitoring for evaluation and supervision MTEF and annual program preparation

Unit

Total Project Activities


Total budget weight Physical % weight-age

Annual Progress
Expenditure Financial %

Remark

Book Book

500 2000 200 600 1900 16470 1700 7545 2695 3520

0.1 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.4 3.87 0.4 1.77 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.46 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.23 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100

100.0 100.0 90.0 100.0

0.1 0.5 0.0 0.1

376.2 1669.5 167.8 585.5

75.23 83.47 83.91 97.58 0.00 The approval of changing programme taken long time so that it was not implemented

92.38 35.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.59 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 70.0 100.00 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.79

3.58 0.1 1.77 0.6 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.43 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.23 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 98.79

13973 544.1 6785 2582.8 2898.6 799.9 293.8 119.7 90.0 5765 998.0 1395.9 491.7 1763.0 184.2 100.0 200.0 300.0 332.4 878.6

84.84 32.01 89.92 95.84 82.35 99.99 97.93 92.04 90.00 92.61 99.80 97.96 98.34 97.94 92.08 33.33 100.00 100.00 66.48 87.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Draft was prepared The partial achievement was made due to the lower allocation on the activity

Time

800 300 130 100

RED RED

6225 1000 1425 500 1800 200 300 200 300 500 1000 250

PCs

Time

100 150 150 350 425532

408913

96.09

103

Annex 3 Overall Physical Implementation Rates by District 2007-08


ECD District Udayapur Taplejung Syangja Solukhumbu Siraha Sindhupalchok Sarlahi Sankhuwasabha Salyan Rupandehi Rolpa Rautahat Rasuwa Ramechhap Pyuthan Parsa Palpa Okhaldhunga Nuwakot Nawalparasi Myagdi Mustang Mugu Morang Manang Mahottari Lamjung Lalitpur Khotang Kavre Kapilvastu Kanchanpur Kailali Jumla Jhapa Humla Gorkha % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Ensuring Access to All District Jumla Kathmandu Chitawan Gulmi Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Khotang Sarlahi Ramechhap Dolakha Rasuwa Kavre Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Syangja Gorkha Lamjung Parbat Baglung Myagdi Kalikot Banke Surkhet Bajhang Nuwakot Achham Baitadi Darchula Rolpa Jajarkot Dhading Kailali % 106.13 100.22 100.01 100.01 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.98 99.98 99.98 99.98 99.98 99.97 99.89 Meeting the Learning Needs District Panchthar Ilam Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Solukhumbu Khotang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Siraha Mahottari Sarlahi Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Rasuwa Dhading Nuwakot Kathmandu Lalitpur Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Bara Parsa Chitawan Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Gulmi Syangja Tanahun % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Reducing Illitracy District Bardiya Ilam Taplejung Panchthar Jhapa Terhathum Bhojpur Sunsari Morang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Siraha Mahottari Sarlahi Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Sindhupalchok Dhading Nuwakot Kathmandu Lalitpur Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Rautahat Bara Chitawan Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Syangja Tanahun Gorkha Manang % 103.15 100.07 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Eliminating Gender Disparity District Dolakha Makawanpur Siraha Kanchanpur Taplejung Panchthar Ilam Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Dhanusa Sarlahi Ramechhap Dhading Kathmandu Bhaktapur Kavre Rautahat Parsa Nawalparasi Arghakhanchi Gulmi Gorkha Manang Lamjung Parbat Myagdi Mugu Humla Kalikot Salyan Dailekh % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Improving All Aspects of Quality Education District Udayapur Arghakhanchi Rukum Sarlahi Jhapa Dang Morang Sindhuli Parbat Kapilvastu Dadeldhura Panchthar Bajura Kailali Makawanpur Gorkha Kanchanpur Terhathum Bara Solukhumbu Khotang Myagdi Bhojpur Dolakha Gulmi Dolpa Dailekh Banke Doti Dhankuta Achham Sunsari Darchula Kalikot Baglung Nuwakot Surkhet % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.99 99.96 99.96 99.96 99.96 99.95 99.95 99.93 99.92 99.88 99.87 99.83 99.78 99.74 99.74 99.63 99.63 99.62 99.54 99.48 Educational Management District Lalitpur Sankhuwasabha Taplejung Jhapa Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Solukhumbu Khotang Saptari Siraha Dhanusa Mahottari Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Sindhupalchok Rasuwa Dhading Nuwakot Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Rautahat Bara Parsa Chitawan Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Gulmi Tanahun Manang Parbat Myagdi % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Recurrent Total District Arghakhanchi Parbat Kapilvastu Makawanpur Dolakha Bhojpur Morang Dang Myagdi Sindhuli Dailekh Kalikot Banke Bajura Terhathum Achham Jhapa Kanchanpur Gulmi Baglung Darchula Rautahat Baitadi Solukhumbu Sunsari Rukum Khotang Surkhet Dolpa Sarlahi Sankhuwasabha Nawalparasi Dadeldhura Bajhang Sindhupalchok Kavre Dhading % 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.98 99.97 99.97 99.95 99.94 99.93 99.91 99.91 99.87 99.87 99.85 99.84 99.83 99.83 99.82 99.80 99.73 99.69 99.67 99.66 99.66 99.64 99.63 99.59 99.56 99.49 99.45 99.44 99.38 99.38 99.35 99.28 99.18 99.14

104

ECD District Doti Dolakha Dhankuta Dhading Dang Dailekh Dadeldhura Chitawan Bhojpur Bajura Bajhang Baitadi Baglung Arghakhanchi Achham Parbat Banke Kathmandu Bhaktapur Makawanpur Surkhet Tanahun Panchthar Darchula Sindhuli Dhanusa Gulmi Sunsari Terhathum Bardiya Ilam Jajarkot Rukum Kalikot Kaski Dolpa Saptari Bara % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.97 99.93 99.87 99.86 99.85 99.62 99.57 99.51 99.35 99.05 99.01 98.61 98.60 98.30 98.22 98.04 97.98 97.27 97.22 97.16 96.37 94.01 78.34

Ensuring Access to All District Rautahat Sunsari Udayapur Ilam Sindhuli Lalitpur Makawanpur Panchthar Rukum Bardiya Mahottari Dailekh Sindhupalchok Kaski Dadeldhura Tanahun Dang Morang Kanchanpur Parsa Bajura Jhapa Salyan Pyuthan Bhaktapur Taplejung Dolpa Solukhumbu Okhaldhunga Humla Bara Doti Manang Mustang Dhanusa Saptari Siraha Mugu % 99.89 99.87 99.87 99.82 99.81 99.77 99.66 99.60 99.57 99.32 99.29 99.13 99.05 99.05 99.05 98.99 98.98 98.87 98.80 98.38 97.95 97.75 97.38 97.07 96.53 95.62 94.62 92.55 92.44 87.32 85.56 85.13 80.85 79.33 79.29 78.91 78.13 76.54

Meeting the Learning Needs District Gorkha Manang Lamjung Kaski Parbat Baglung Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Rukum Rolpa Pyuthan Dang Salyan Banke Bardiya Surkhet Jajarkot Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajura Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Dadeldhura Kanchanpur Taplejung Jhapa Saptari Dhanusa Sindhupalchok Rautahat Myagdi Mustang Mugu Humla % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Reducing Illitracy District Lamjung Parbat Baglung Myagdi Mustang Mugu Dolpa Jumla Rolpa Dang Salyan Banke Surkhet Jajarkot Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajura Bajhang Baitadi Kalikot Gulmi Dadeldhura Rasuwa Darchula Pyuthan Rukum Kaski Parsa Solukhumbu Kanchanpur Dhanusa Sankhuwasabha Humla Khotang Saptari Dhankuta % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.93 99.80 99.51 99.50 99.44 98.98 97.14 95.91 95.66 94.10 93.42 89.10 81.76 78.92 73.69 59.88 52.45

Eliminating Gender Disparity District Bajura Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Dadeldhura Sindhupalchok Dang Rupandehi Kapilvastu Jumla Achham Baglung Sindhuli Jajarkot Mahottari Jhapa Bara Syangja Pyuthan Surkhet Solukhumbu Khotang Mustang Palpa Rukum Saptari Banke Dolpa Doti Tanahun Lalitpur Chitawan Bardiya Kaski Nuwakot Kailali Rolpa Rasuwa % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.91 99.87 99.86 99.78 99.71 99.62 99.38 99.26 99.19 98.35 86.85 86.27 86.27 84.94 83.27 76.18

Improving All Aspects of Quality Education District Baitadi Rautahat Sankhuwasabha Bajhang Sindhupalchok Kavre Dhading Ilam Rupandehi Ramechhap Salyan Kaski Rasuwa Lamjung Nawalparasi Parsa Saptari Dhanusa Tanahun Bhaktapur Mustang Siraha Mahottari Syangja Pyuthan Palpa Rolpa Chitawan Bardiya Lalitpur Mugu Kathmandu Taplejung Jumla Okhaldhunga Jajarkot Humla Manang % 99.45 99.43 99.34 99.06 99.05 98.85 98.55 98.47 98.40 96.91 96.41 96.12 96.11 95.71 95.61 95.61 95.54 95.54 95.36 95.32 95.11 94.64 93.68 93.11 92.37 92.22 91.34 90.89 90.23 88.92 88.00 87.30 87.16 81.66 80.80 79.43 70.86 56.85

Educational Management District Mustang Mugu Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Rukum Rolpa Dang Salyan Banke Bardiya Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Kanchanpur Kaski Baglung Pyuthan Surkhet Bajura Ilam Udayapur Kathmandu Palpa Humla Dadeldhura Nawalparasi Jajarkot Syangja Panchthar Lamjung Gorkha Sarlahi Okhaldhunga % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.66 99.64 98.49 98.24 98.22 98.18 98.03 96.81 96.55 93.85 90.40 88.93 88.90 87.92 87.43 86.70 84.87 82.00 78.82

Recurrent Total District Rupandehi Doti Dhankuta Gorkha Panchthar Udayapur Ilam Bhaktapur Ramechhap Nuwakot Salyan Jumla Kailali Bara Parsa Mugu Dhanusa Tanahun Rasuwa Mahottari Siraha Lamjung Pyuthan Kaski Mustang Palpa Syangja Lalitpur Chitawan Saptari Rolpa Humla Kathmandu Bardiya Taplejung Jajarkot Okhaldhunga Manang % 99.13 99.05 99.02 98.96 98.95 98.90 98.66 98.25 98.22 98.00 97.86 97.50 97.32 97.23 97.16 97.02 96.88 96.83 96.65 96.57 96.33 96.28 95.28 95.21 94.99 94.80 94.75 94.53 94.46 94.14 92.52 92.36 92.07 91.81 91.70 87.16 86.41 83.23

105

Annex 4 Overall Financial Implementation Rates by District 2007-08


ECD District Achham Arghakhanchi Baglung Baitadi Bajhang Bajura Bhojpur Chitawan Dadeldhura Dailekh Dang Dhading Dhankuta Dolakha Doti Gorkha Humla Jhapa Jumla Kailali Kanchanpur Kapilvastu Kavre Khotang Lalitpur Lamjung Mahottari Manang Morang Mugu Mustang Myagdi Nawalparasi Nuwakot Okhaldhunga Palpa Parsa % 100.03 100.02 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.78 99.69 99.32 99.31 99.24 99.08 99.05 99.05 98.53 98.53 98.47 98.23 98.20 98.12 97.57 97.56 97.50 97.45 97.31 97.25 97.23 97.15 97.02 96.95 96.80 96.68 96.50 96.47 96.26 Ensuring Access to All District Jumla Kathmandu Chitawan Gulmi Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Khotang Sarlahi Ramechhap Dolakha Rasuwa Kavre Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Syangja Gorkha Lamjung Parbat Baglung Myagdi Kalikot Banke Surkhet Bajhang Nuwakot Achham Baitadi Darchula Rolpa Jajarkot Dhading Kailali % 101.75 100.40 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.97 99.82 99.80 99.42 99.32 99.12 99.08 99.05 98.98 98.87 98.72 98.46 98.37 98.24 98.23 98.12 98.08 97.97 97.85 97.61 97.44 97.27 97.25 97.13 96.53 96.53 96.34 96.30 96.27 95.98 Meeting the Learning Needs District % Panchthar Ilam Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Solukhumbu Khotang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Siraha Mahottari Sarlahi Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Rasuwa Dhading Nuwakot Kathmandu Lalitpur Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Bara Parsa Chitawan Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Gulmi Syangja Tanahun 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 Reducing Illitracy District Bardiya Ilam Taplejung Panchthar Jhapa Terhathum Bhojpur Sunsari Morang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Siraha Mahottari Sarlahi Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Sindhupalchok Dhading Nuwakot Kathmandu Lalitpur Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Rautahat Bara Chitawan Nawalparasi Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Palpa Syangja Tanahun Gorkha Manang % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.98 99.95 99.80 99.76 99.71 99.69 99.68 99.65 99.64 99.24 99.00 98.67 98.60 98.53 98.49 98.37 98.37 98.15 98.14 Eliminating Gender Disparity District % Dolakha Makawanpur Siraha Kanchanpur Taplejung Panchthar Ilam Sankhuwasabha Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Udayapur Okhaldhunga Dhanusa Sarlahi Ramechhap Dhading Kathmandu Bhaktapur Kavre Rautahat Parsa Nawalparasi Arghakhanchi Gulmi Gorkha Manang Lamjung Parbat Myagdi Mugu Humla Kalikot Salyan Dailekh 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.99 99.98 99.98 99.98 99.98 Improving All Aspects of Quality Education District % Udayapur Arghakhanchi Rukum Sarlahi Jhapa Dang Morang Sindhuli Parbat Kapilvastu Dadeldhura Panchthar Bajura Kailali Makawanpur Gorkha Kanchanpur Terhathum Bara Solukhumbu Khotang Myagdi Bhojpur Dolakha Gulmi Dolpa Dailekh Banke Doti Dhankuta Achham Sunsari Darchula Kalikot Baglung Nuwakot Surkhet 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.98 99.98 99.96 99.91 99.87 99.86 99.76 99.75 99.63 99.40 99.38 99.24 99.24 99.23 99.08 98.93 98.52 98.22 98.03 97.96 97.75 97.74 97.14 96.59 96.51 96.34 95.69 95.63 95.56 95.46 95.40 95.39 95.36 Educational Management District Lalitpur Sankhuwasabha Taplejung Jhapa Terhathum Bhojpur Dhankuta Sunsari Morang Solukhumbu Khotang Saptari Siraha Dhanusa Mahottari Sindhuli Ramechhap Dolakha Sindhupalchok Rasuwa Dhading Nuwakot Bhaktapur Kavre Makawanpur Rautahat Bara Parsa Chitawan Rupandehi Kapilvastu Arghakhanchi Gulmi Tanahun Manang Parbat Myagdi % 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.99 99.99 99.98 99.86 99.85 99.74 99.73 99.72 99.65 99.63 99.55 98.97 98.90 98.86 98.37 98.35 97.77 97.73 97.47 95.35 95.29 94.58 94.34 94.30 94.26 94.11 94.05 92.27 Recurrent Total District Udayapur Parbat Baglung Dailekh Dadeldhura Jhapa Baitadi Nawalparasi Ilam Makawanpur Surkhet Mahottari Sunsari Pyuthan Solukhumbu Morang Rautahat Kapilvastu Rupandehi Panchthar Parsa Sindhuli Gorkha Achham Kanchanpur Bajhang Sindhupalchok Gulmi Bhaktapur Palpa Banke Sarlahi Bardiya Dhankuta Doti Ramechhap Bara % 99.76 99.64 99.51 99.41 99.11 99.01 98.90 98.84 98.82 98.76 98.59 98.36 98.31 98.25 98.24 97.79 97.32 97.30 97.14 97.11 97.03 96.99 96.91 96.78 96.63 96.57 96.50 96.48 96.44 96.37 96.12 95.99 95.80 95.56 95.04 94.58 94.54

106

ECD District Pyuthan Ramechhap Rasuwa Rautahat Rolpa Rupandehi Salyan Sankhuwasabha Sarlahi Sindhupalchok Siraha Solukhumbu Syangja Taplejung Udayapur Parbat Banke Kathmandu Bhaktapur Makawanpur Surkhet Tanahun Panchthar Darchula Sindhuli Dhanusa Gulmi Sunsari Terhathum Bardiya Ilam Jajarkot Rukum Kalikot Kaski Dolpa Saptari Bara % 96.21 96.20 96.13 95.73 95.72 95.13 94.99 94.91 94.63 94.55 94.41 94.31 94.05 93.97 93.95 93.95 93.94 93.53 93.43 93.27 93.22 91.74 91.45 90.75 90.68 90.49 89.35 89.30 88.84 88.79 88.48 87.28 85.48 84.74 84.58 80.11 73.37 57.11

Ensuring Access to All District Rautahat Sunsari Udayapur Ilam Sindhuli Lalitpur Makawanpur Panchthar Rukum Bardiya Mahottari Dailekh Sindhupalchok Kaski Dadeldhura Tanahun Dang Morang Kanchanpur Parsa Bajura Jhapa Salyan Pyuthan Bhaktapur Taplejung Dolpa Solukhumbu Okhaldhunga Humla Bara Doti Manang Mustang Dhanusa Saptari Siraha Mugu % 95.80 95.78 95.61 95.44 94.86 94.64 94.62 94.45 94.39 94.11 94.11 93.86 93.79 92.95 92.49 92.37 92.22 90.76 90.47 90.13 89.21 88.15 87.64 87.46 86.92 86.72 85.88 85.51 83.57 81.88 79.89 79.58 73.82 73.50 67.22 65.13 58.68 54.96

Meeting the Learning Needs District % Gorkha Manang Lamjung Kaski Parbat Baglung Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Rukum Rolpa Pyuthan Dang Salyan Banke Bardiya Surkhet Jajarkot Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajura Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Dadeldhura Kanchanpur Taplejung Jhapa Saptari Dhanusa Sindhupalchok Rautahat Myagdi Mustang Mugu Humla 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 99.38 88.14 80.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Reducing Illitracy District Lamjung Parbat Baglung Myagdi Mustang Mugu Dolpa Jumla Rolpa Dang Salyan Banke Surkhet Jajarkot Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajura Bajhang Baitadi Kalikot Gulmi Dadeldhura Rasuwa Darchula Pyuthan Rukum Kaski Parsa Solukhumbu Kanchanpur Dhanusa Sankhuwasabha Humla Khotang Saptari Dhankuta % 97.68 97.53 97.35 97.00 96.96 96.89 96.71 96.47 96.28 95.66 95.63 95.60 95.55 95.39 94.81 94.51 94.44 93.99 93.87 93.48 92.38 91.64 91.63 90.99 90.05 89.57 86.13 85.04 84.22 83.20 82.66 80.46 75.25 74.58 70.72 70.50 52.40 51.23

Eliminating Gender Disparity District % Bajura Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Dadeldhura Sindhupalchok Dang Rupandehi Kapilvastu Jumla Achham Baglung Sindhuli Jajarkot Mahottari Jhapa Bara Syangja Pyuthan Surkhet Solukhumbu Khotang Mustang Palpa Rukum Saptari Banke Dolpa Doti Tanahun Lalitpur Chitawan Bardiya Kaski Nuwakot Kailali Rolpa Rasuwa 99.97 99.97 99.96 99.95 99.94 99.92 99.91 99.87 99.86 99.81 99.81 99.76 99.72 99.72 99.71 99.67 99.53 99.51 99.41 99.40 99.38 99.26 99.19 98.92 98.35 98.34 97.06 96.29 94.74 93.32 90.19 86.29 86.27 84.77 84.35 50.04 42.52 41.85

Improving All Aspects of Quality Education District % Baitadi Rautahat Sankhuwasabha Bajhang Sindhupalchok Kavre Dhading Ilam Rupandehi Ramechhap Salyan Kaski Rasuwa Lamjung Nawalparasi Parsa Saptari Dhanusa Tanahun Bhaktapur Mustang Siraha Mahottari Syangja Pyuthan Palpa Rolpa Chitawan Bardiya Lalitpur Mugu Kathmandu Taplejung Jumla Okhaldhunga Jajarkot Humla Manang 94.96 94.87 94.19 94.17 94.09 93.77 93.77 93.67 93.36 92.89 92.89 92.80 92.40 92.29 92.13 91.06 90.11 89.66 89.66 89.21 89.17 88.91 88.76 87.79 87.39 87.16 86.48 86.44 85.85 85.58 83.43 82.95 80.65 79.95 79.42 78.20 68.55 55.77

Educational Management District Mustang Mugu Dolpa Jumla Kalikot Rukum Rolpa Dang Salyan Banke Bardiya Dailekh Kailali Doti Achham Bajhang Darchula Baitadi Kanchanpur Kaski Baglung Pyuthan Surkhet Bajura Ilam Udayapur Kathmandu Palpa Humla Dadeldhura Nawalparasi Jajarkot Syangja Panchthar Lamjung Gorkha Sarlahi Okhaldhunga % 91.40 91.17 90.84 90.44 90.10 89.52 89.38 89.02 88.38 87.73 86.96 86.80 85.81 85.59 84.43 83.38 82.90 82.29 82.25 81.64 81.36 80.10 77.99 77.94 77.89 75.98 75.72 74.62 73.66 72.87 71.41 69.26 67.97 67.23 63.84 59.29 51.27 43.41

Recurrent Total District Khotang Lamjung Salyan Arghakhanchi Kailali Dhading Nuwakot Kavre Rukum Lalitpur Dang Sankhuwasabha Taplejung Rasuwa Myagdi Siraha Bhojpur Dolakha Rolpa Dhanusa Tanahun Bajura Kaski Syangja Jajarkot Okhaldhunga Darchula Chitawan Saptari Kathmandu Jumla Kalikot Mustang Terhathum Manang Mugu Dolpa Humla % 94.47 93.91 93.90 93.66 93.64 93.32 93.13 92.93 92.75 92.42 92.21 92.05 91.97 91.90 91.62 91.50 91.26 91.25 91.16 90.63 90.40 90.16 89.27 87.78 87.28 86.80 86.75 86.57 84.30 84.10 82.46 82.32 81.01 78.99 77.41 73.57 71.31 62.60

107

Annex 5 A Summary of NPC Guideline for Calculating Annual Progress Formulae 1. 2. 3. 4. AW AW1G TW TW1 = = = = = = AWB/TB 100 AW AWPP %/100 Summation of AW Summation of AW1G TW1/TW 100 Figure of amount expenditure/ total targeted budget 100

5. TPP% 6. FP%

Where, AW = AWB = AW1G = AWPP = FP = PP = TB = TPP = TW = TW1 = W= W1 = Activity-wise weight Activity wise budget Activity-wise weight age Activity wise physical progress Financial progress Physical progress Total Budget Total Physical Progress Total Weight Total Weight-age Weight Weight age

In the annual programme, the total budget is set to be 100 in weight so to compute the activity-wise progress and weight-age we calculate separately every weight and weight-age.

108

Annex 6
District and School Selection/ Fund Allocating Criteria for School Physical Facilities Improvement A. District Selection Criteria From this FY 063/64, All 75 District has been covered (District phase out modality dropped) and targets are fixed proportional to their demand (i.e. high demand but limited resources). Basis for Targeting New Classrooms to Districts 1. As per district demand based on EMIS data 2001 Need for new classrooms construction = 30,960 Constructed by different projects SERD/PEP/EAARRP/BPEP I/PEDP/BPEP II/EFA - 2 years = 13,332 Actual need of classrooms as of FY 2005/06 = 30,960 - 13,332 = 17,628 Construction target for current FY (2006/07) = 3,918 2. Supervising/ Technical capacity of districts to handle such physical facilities Engineer only in 29 massive program districts Overseers @ 2 to 3 persons per district 12 districts to be supervised by Save the Children Norway Nepal 6 districts to be supervised by Plan Nepal B. School Selection Criteria Schools are being selected according to the following well defined criteria in two stages Step 1: Educational criteria 1.1 Those schools which are damaged by Strom, hurricane, Flood, Landslide, Fire, Earthquake and from natural disaster and there is a vital need of construction of New classroom affected by above said reason were given first priority. 1.2 Those Resource Center which do not have their own building and were using classroom as an office room by disturbing on teaching learning environment were given Second priority. 1.3 All management handed over to community Schools is prioritized Third priority. 1.4 All the Schools with classes running inclusive education (i.e. Special education) are prioritized fourth. 1.5 Prioritizing the remaining schools based on Educational Index In this step all the Schools including Secondary and Lower Secondary schools having primary section (Excluding private and Boarding Schools) will be prioritized based on following Educational Criteria (Index)
A. Enrollment of Deprived Students (X) = Total No. of Deprived Students in PS Total No. of Students in PS

Weightage of X = 40 % Total No. of Girl Students PS Total No. of Students in PS

B.

Enrollment of Girl Students (Y)

Weightage of Y = 30 % Total No. of Students in grade 5 Total No. of Students in grade 1

C.

Ratio of grade 5 to grade 1 students (Z)

Weightage of Z = 30 %

109

Educational Index (EI)= 0.4 X + 0.3 Y + 0.3 Z Thus, all the schools of a district will be prioritized giving the highest priority to those schools having highest Educational Index (EI) and least priority to those schools having lowest EI. Note:1) All the educational data will be extracted from Educational Management Information System (EMIS) of DOE. This leads to use of single source data and least chance of data manipulation. Second Step: Need Identification For the need identification of schools, a physical survey of all the schools will be carried out and then the schools will be prioritized based on the following criteria.
Adequacy of classrooms (ACR) = Total No. of Classrooms in PS Total No. of Classes in PS [Including Section(s)]

If ACR is less than 1 the school is eligible for NCR construction Note: If ACR is equal to or greater than 1, the school has sufficient classrooms and it will be ignored for NCR construction.
B. Space per Student (SST) = Total Area of Classrooms in PS (m) Total No. of Students in PS

If SST is less than 0.75 m then the school is eligible for NCR construction
Note: For Primary School minimum SST has been prescribed as 0.75 m and for Secondary and Lower Secondary Schools minimum this value has been prescribed as 1.2 m per student in order to create conducive physical environment for effective teaching and learning. If the value of SST is equal to or greater than 0.75 then the school will be ignored for NCR construction since the minimum requirement is fulfilled. Lower the value of SST than the prescribed value lesser the space available per student or more crowded is the classroom showing higher demand for additional space for new classroom construction. C. Students per Classroom (SCR) = Total No. of Students in LSS or SS Total No. of Classrooms in LSS or SS

Educational Rules and Regulation (2059) prescribed the Standard value of SCR as 50, 45 & 40 for Terai, Hill and Mountain region respectively. If value of SCR exceeds by 20% the school is eligible for NCR construction, because classrooms are highly crowded. If value of SCR is less than the standard value (i.e. 50, 45 & 40) then the school will be ignored for NCR construction, because min. required space per student is available in the classroom.

110

Annex 7 Detailed Progress, of SESP District Level (Annual Progress 2007-08) Activities
(NRs in 000)

S.N.
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.12.1 1.12.2 1.12.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2

Program

Unit

Annual Target Physical Budget


441280.60 190154.00 102000.00 59843.00 750.00 1755.00 1332.00 1950.00 6706.00 4000.00 4520.00 5744.00 0.00 0.00 150.00 1248.00 156.00 22000.00

Weight
27.68 11.93 6.40 3.75 0.05 0.11 0.08 0.12 0.42 0.25 0.28 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.01 1.38 0.05 0.65 0.24 0.20 0.25 0.79 0.00 0.79

Physical

Annual Progress % Expenditure


89.38 96.51 377608.97 96.51 101435.76 59001.94 716.36 1412.49 1331.00 1838.72 4927.90 3405.60 4293.32 5507.72 0.00 0.00 112.50 978.40 134.80 18726.21 730.00 9434.84 2780.19 2960.14 2821.04 11974.29 0.00 11974.29

%
85.57 97.34 99.45 98.59 95.51 80.48 0.00 94.29 73.48 0.00 94.98 95.89 0.00 0.00 75.00 78.40 86.41 85.12 97.33 91.60 74.14 92.50 0.00 94.76 0.00 94.76

Recurrent Cost (65-3-830) Learning Environment Development


Secondary Education Scholarships Scholarship for Dalit students Female teachers' accommodation Grants to schools with classes for deaf children Grants to school with classes for blind children Grants to skill training for physically handicapped and MR children Scholarship for marginalized students (Chepang, Raute, Musahar, Badi and other marginalized groups) Scholarship for mountain hostel students Scholarship for feeder hostel students Scholarship for disabled students Mitigating effects of conflict (Scholarships, teacher support and reconstruction) Open School Program (through NFEC) Establishment and Management Resource Teacher (For Contact Session) Instructional materials Curriculum and Evaluation Program for District Curriculum Coordination Committee A 3 days orientation to the stakeholders (teachers-3, SMC members-2, parents-2) on local curriculum Dissemination of National Curriculum Framework A 3 days orientation to lower secondary subject teachers on student assessment Library support to lower secondary and secondary schools of Karnali zone Teacher Education, Development and Management Scholarship for women and disadvantaged group (DAG) Demand Based Training Student Student Teacher School School School Student Student Student Student
3324 337 400 1590 0 0 10 10 10 60000 119686 125 7 4 300

59517 119949 120 7 4 290 2742 337 394 1839 20 0 8 9 9

99.20 100.22 96.00 100.00 0.00 96.67 82.49 0.00 98.50 115.66 0.00 0.00 80.00 90.00 90.00 71.97

Class Person Class District

75

750.00 10300.00 3750.00 3200.00 4000.00 12637.00

73 46971 57 14292 130

97.33 91.21 76.00 89.33 0.00 96.08 0.00 96.08

Person District Teacher School


320 51500 75 16000

Person Teacher
0 8425 0.00 12637.00 0 8095

111

S.N.
4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 1 1.1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 3 3.1 4 4.1 4.2

Program Institutional Management and Capacity Building Program on school accreditation, social audit, school grants operational manual, school improvement plan and annual program and monitoring Partnership with Teacher Union (school mapping, code of conduct and regularity of teachers) One - day orientation for superintendents on SLC examinations. Running opening school through (NCED) Administrative cost for lower secondary schools Administrative cost for secondary schools Materials (stationary) for LSS and SS teachers Operating cost for feeder hostel Operating cost of mountain hostel Monthly wall bulletin and newspaper publication Program monitoring

Unit Person

Physical

Annual Target Budget


216489.60

Weight
13.58

Physical

Annual Progress % Expenditure


84.49 161811.96

%
74.74

15883

13882.60 3750.00 150.00 2435.00 77616.00 95989.00 14461.00 3655.00 1176.00 1125.00 2250.00 1152730.00

0.87 0.24 0.01 0.15 4.87 6.02 0.91 0.23 0.07 0.07 0.14 72.32 61.75 14.35 45.48 1.92 1.12 1.12 6.93 6.93 2.51 2.29 0.22 100.00

14872 63 74 4 2964 3133 27855 20 5 73 73

93.63 84.00 98.67 80.00 84.01 81.87 96.31 100.00 0.00 97.33 97.33 92.26 91.57 99.26 88.79 100.00 100.00 100.00 95.65 95.65 96.44 100.00 58.70 91.46

11772.96 3054.32 184.00 929.98 52193.48 71724.53 15078.70 3213.40 435.00 1079.61 2145.99 1007398.40 877385.04 233006.98 639245.02 5133.04 12189.46 12189.46 82135.94 82135.94 35687.96 33662.96 2025.00 1385007.36

84.80 81.45 122.67 38.19 67.25 74.72 104.27 87.92 0.00 95.97 95.38 87.39 89.13 101.85 88.17 16.78 68.33 68.33 74.31 74.31 89.22 92.10 58.70 86.89

District
75

District School School School Teacher Hostel Hostel District District


75 5 3528 3826 28922 20 7 75 75

Capital Cost (65-4-830)


Learning Environment Development Civil Works - school construction - in 10 PIDs School Construction (based on cost sharing) Construction of remote mountain hostels Curriculum and Evaluation Enhancement of district examination facilities Teacher Education, Development and Management Civil works-construction of RCs (Lead RCs) Institutional Management and Capacity Building Internet connectivity in schools Procurement of Laptop for districts Total School School Hostel District No School District
87075 135 1124 4 8 46 200.00 46.00

984355.00 228780.00 724980.00 30595.00 17840.00 17840.00 110535.00 110535.00 40000.00 36550.00 3450.00 1594010.60

134 998 4 8.00 44.00 200.00 27.00

112

Annex 8 Detailed Progress, of SESP Central Level (Annual Progress 2007-08) Activities
(NRs in 000) Total project activities 200708
Phy Total Budget Weight Phy. pro.% Financial progress

S.N.

Programme activities 65-3-430 (Recurrent) Total Learning environment Skill based training focusing on inclusive education One week training for LSS/SS maths and science teachers teaching blinds students One month training for the teachers teaching deaf and blind students Open alternative education program Development, Printing and distribution of textbooks and teacher's guide for open school program at LSS level Workshop and seminar to collect feedback in different 7 subjects Development and printing of self-learning materials for open school program at LSS level Preparation of status of physical facilities in lower secondary and secondary schools and plan preparation Program for domestic workers(children) and street children's education Support to schools opening for adult women Support to establish secondary schools in collaboration with local communities Supporting schools for developing infrastructure and modules on computer supported learning Curriculum and Evaluation Dissemination Dissemination of NCF at central level Resource person preparation for the orientation of NCF at district level

Unit

Annual Progress %
73 44 78 61 95

Remarks

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4.1

127325 7670

41.56 2.50 0.13 0.08 0.16 0.00

84.28 45.93 82.00 75.00 98.00

92808.28 3375.586 310.02 147.16 472.51

Person Person Person

45 20 60

400 240 500

Subject Time No

630

0.21

100.00

602.00

96

1.4.2

140

630

0.21

100.00

629.90

100

1.4.3

200

0.07

100.00

198.00

99

1.5

400

0.13

0.00

Activities were not done and proposed for next year

1.6 1.7 1.8

school school school school

4 10 10

770 2000 1500

0.25 0.65 0.49

100.00 15.00

770.00 236.00 10.00

100 12 1

1.9 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2

400 54525

0.13 17.80 0.05 0.24 92.58 100.00 100.00 49936.18 139.00 735.00

0 91.58 99.29 100.00

Person Person

250 105

140 735

113

S.N.
2.1.3 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

Programme activities Printing and distribution of NCF for the dissemination at district level Regional workshop for teachers to revise grade 6-8 curriculum Program for regional curriculum forum Revision of grade 6-8 curriculum Update of grade 9-10 curriculum Update of grade 9-10 textbooks Two day orientation for writers and subject committee members to develop inclusive education friendly textbooks Development of teacher's guide of Nepali subject for grade 6 & 7 Preparation of resource person at regional level to orient LSS subject teachers on student assessment Budget for NCF implementation technical committee and the thematic groups under it Development, publication and distribution of the grid according to the updated curriculum of grade 10 Test of the standard of students' health and physical condition Regional workshop to finalize the materials of local sports (games) Finalization and CRC preparation of technical dictionary Words collection of physical education Web page update in CDC Study on education about work at school level Study on education about social values and customs at school level

Unit Copy Person Committee Subject Subject Subject Person Subject Person Committee Copy

Total project activities 200708


Phy Total Budget Weight Phy. pro.% Financial progress

Annual Progress %
98.57 98.97 100.00 98.47 0.00 2233.00 148.00 100.00 98.67 This activity was not carried-out because the study of selection of content for all students taken long time period

Remarks

8000 125 5 8 5 11 100

700 875 250 720 450 2233 150

0.23 0.29 0.08 0.24 0.15 0.73 0.05

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 25.00 100.00 100.00

690.00 866.00 250.00 709.00

2.8

320

0.10

100.00

315.00

98.44

2.9

105

750

0.24

100.00

746.00

99 Report require further discussion so that it was not published

2.10

21

800

0.26

70.00

795.00

99

2.11

10000

1900

0.62

100.00

1900.00

100.00 Only proposal was developed and remaining activities were not completed due to the lack of technical manpower

2.12

Student Person Subject Subject Subject Subject

4500

1000

0.33

50.00

650.00

65.00

2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18

125 3 1

330 392 90 75 1200 200

0.11 0.13 0.03 0.02 0.39 0.07

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 30.00 100.00

328.00 386.00 90.00 197.00 285.00 198.00

99.39 98.47 100.00 262.67 23.75 99.00 Public notice was published many times so that programme was not done

1 1

114

S.N.
2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.30

Programme activities Impact study of text materials of social study Pedagogical study on the implementation of text materials in institutional schools. Strengthening the library of CDC Publication and distribution of the updated compulsory subject curriculum for grade 9-10 Revision of the textbook of health, population and environment for grades 6-10 Package revision and trainers' training for SLC examiners and head examiners A 3 days orientation for examiners and head examiners of SLC examinations A 3 days orientation on grade 8 examinations A 3 days orientation for question setters and moderators SLC examinations A 2 days orientation for Grade 10/SLCEnglish Oral Exam Monitors Data entry, verification and digital filming of old record in OCE Implementation of SLC Research recommendation Incentives for high performing public secondary schools on the basis of School Improvement Plan (including incentives for good performing schools in SLC exams) Development of audio visual support materials in 3 subjects to support SLC appearing students Mainstreaming Madarsa, Gumba and Ashram National assessment on grade 8 Teacher Education, Development and management Grants to FoE for competency based preservice training and ICT All kinds of MTOT (7 days) including III package Print/Photocopying - training package [I-

Unit Subject Subject No Subject Subject Person Person Person Person Person No Person

Total project activities 200708


Phy Total Budget Weight Phy. pro.% Financial progress

Annual Progress %
99.33 100.00 98.50 99.42 100.00 89.33 100.00 98.76 92.47 56.92 92.04 0.00

Remarks

1 1 1 1200 5 50 1200 1200 300 150 150

150 150 200 1200 815 300 2100 2100 600 600 2000

0.05 0.05 0.07 0.39 0.27 0.10 0.69 0.69 0.20 0.20 0.65 0.00

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 93.33

149.00 150.00 197.00 1193.00 815.00 268.00 2100.00 2074.00 554.80 341.50 1840.70

2.31

School

200

20000

6.53

100.00

20000.00

100.00

2.32 2.33 2.34 3 3.1 3.2 3.3

Subject

6000 2500 2500 15280

1.96 0.82 0.82 4.99 0.33 0.41 1.77

100.00 100.00 100.00 99.40 100.00 100.00 100.00

5003.54 1539.23 2050.41 11836.16 1000 1155.762 5243.454

83.39 61.57 82.02 77.46 100.00 91.73 96.74

Subject

Campus Person Copy


17900

1000 1260 5420

115

S.N.

Programme activities 4000, II-6000 and III-5000 module HTs training (1400) and demand driven training1500] and monitoring and evaluation tools Cassette dobbing for distance mode training (for LSS and SS) Revision of third module training package (11 subjects) including audio and visual Teacher training management: examination and certification (Mark ledger, certificate, printing and distribution) Orientation on open school for central, regional and district level personnel

Unit

Total project activities 200708


Phy Total Budget Weight Phy. pro.% Financial progress

Annual Progress % Remarks

3.4 3.5

No Subject Copy Person

12000 11

800 1100

0.26 0.36

100.00 100.00

800 766.933

100.00 69.72

3.6

20000

800

0.26

100.00

586.492

73.31

3.7

1171

2000

0.65

100.00

1927.169

96.36 Supplementary materials for secondary level science and social study as well as lower secondary level English were developed but materials for LSL math was not developed due to the procurement of consultancy service

3.9

Development and collection of supplementary materials

Subject

400

0.13

80.00

356.35

89.09

4 4.1 4.2 4.3

4.4

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Institutional Management and Capacity Building Workshop on ASIP preparation for planning officers and accountants (2 times) Donor Mission Program for physical and academic transformation plan of PI schools Trainers' training on planning and management (Social audit, SIP and school grants manual) Collaboration with Teacher Union (code of conduct and regularity of teachers and school accreditation) Program for school mapping Publication of bulletin and educational news Strengthening the library in Department of Education Monthly maintenance of photocopiers and computers

49850

16.27 0.85 0.16 0.65

81.50 100.00 100.00 96.96

27660.36

55.49 0.00 Programme was completed using the DANIDA Direct Fund

Person Time

320 2 90

2600 500 2000

244.50 1734.50

48.90 86.73

District

1460

0.48

100.00

1460.00

100.00

2230 6300 390 100 100

0.73 2.06 0.13 0.03 0.03

100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

2210.34 2402.53 331.18 32.61 46.52

99.12 38.14 84.92 32.61 46.52

Month no Month

116

S.N.
4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14

Programme activities International Consultancy for ICT, Teacher training International Consultancy (EMIS) Program Monitoring (DOE, RED and CLAs) Monitoring by School Inspectorate (MOES) Advocacy and awareness building through radio, television and printed media Capital Cost (65-4-430)

Unit Person Person

Total project activities 200708


Phy Total Budget Weight Phy. pro.% Financial progress

Annual Progress %
59.90 0 57 54 58 82 42.20 48.88 99.12 Bidding publication documents were prepared to establish security printing and no-objection letter was received . Similarly, ADB provided no-objection on bid evaluation report and contract award was made. In addition, letter of credit was opened and advance payment was made The process taken longer and lack of budget and shorter time activity was not done

Remarks

19170 1500 4500 1500 7500 179025

6.26 0.49 1.47 0.49 2.45 58.44 0.82 13.87 0.04

60.00

11483.12

100.00 100.00 100.00 88.88 50.00 75.00 100.00

2545.54 807.00 4362.52 147695.27 1055.00 20775.20 123.90

1 2 3

Establishment central resource center in CDC Construction and rehabilitation of REDs Motorcycle

No No No
1

2500 42500 125

Security printing press

No

133900

43.71

94.00

125741.17

93.91

306350.00

100

87.00

240504

79

117

Annex 9 Figure of Physical and financial analysis by districts


Udayapur Terhathum Taplejung Tanahun Syangja Surkhet Sunsari Solukhumbu Siraha Sindhupalchok Sindhuli Sarlahi Saptari Sankhuwasabha Salyan Rupandehi Rukum Rolpa Rautahat Rasuwa Ramechhap Pyuthan Parsa Parbat Panchthar Palpa Okhaldhunga Nuwakot Nawalparasi Myagdi Mustang Mugu Morang Manang Makawanpur Mahottari Lamjung Lalitpur Khotang Kav re Kathmandu Kaski Kapilv astu Kanchanpur Kalikot Kailali Jumla Jhapa Jajarkot Ilam Humla Gulmi Gorkha Doti Dolpa Dolakha Dhanusa Dhankuta Dhading Darchula Dang Dailekh Dadeldhura Chitawan Bhojpur Bhaktapur Bardiya Bara Banke Bajura Bajhang Baitadi Baglung Arghakhanchi Achham 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00 Financial Physical

118

Annex 10 Annual Program and Budget, FY 2007-08 (SHEP)


1 2 3 4 5 FY 2064/065 Budget Head 65-3/4-411 Name of the Ministry : Ministry of Education and Sports Name of the Department : Department of Education Name of the project /Program: 2nd Higher Education Project (Component no. 3 Higher Se. Edu.) Place a) District: b) VDC/MC/Ward no:7 8 9 Program beginning date: Program ending date: Name of the head of Department: Janardan Nepal Development partner: 10
Annual Budget NRs. 248798.68

a) Internal 1) Gov: 2) Institution: 3) Public Participation:

b) Foreign 1) Loan: 2) Grants: NRs. c) Exchange Rate:


Word Bank

11. Total Expenditure of this F/Y : NRs 223633.18 a) Internal 1) Gov: Yearly Target/s of F.Y 2007-08 S. N. Programme Activities Recurrent Cost (65-3-411) Grants Basic Grants Performance Grants Matching funds Capacity Building Teaching Learning reference materials development Workshops for Examination related stakeholders Preparation and establishment of question bank Workshop on answer key development and practical examination material Specification grid preparation workshop Workshop for effective implementation for authorities of HSEB and SMC personnel about orientation of Higher Education Project and management of higher Secondary schools Model question and specification grid printing and distribution
Unit Physical Quantity Unit cost Yearly budget Weight age Physical Progress

Rs. in Thousands Yearly Progress of F.Y 2007-08


Weight-age Financial Expenditure Financial Progress

Remarks 99.0 100.0 100.0 0 0 98.1 97.76 0 0 83.30 71.13 86.3

1 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Students Schools Schools Subjects Persons Set Times Times Persons

48,345 0 0 20 60 0 1 1 0

4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

203799 193377 193,377 0 0 7922 350 250 200 100 200 1000

82 77.5 77.7 0 0 3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.4

99 100 100 0 0 98 100.0 0 0 100 100.0 86.0

81 77.7 77.7 0 0 3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.0 0.3

201707 193377 193376.9 0 0 7769 344.22 0 0 83.30 142.20 862.6

2.7

Set

100

0.0

0.0

119

2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12

2.13

2.14 2.15 3 3.1 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6

Computer networking (HSEB) Computer / language training (District) Computer/ language training ( Center) Educational Information Management Committee meeting allowances (DOE & HSEB) Training for teachers of Higher Secondary Schools (on coordination of HSEB & NCED ) Regional level programme implementation orientation workshop for principals, and teachers of Higher Secondary Schools and authorities of SMCs by RED on coordination with regional offices of HSEB) Advocacy of the activities on HEP, printing and distribution of Boucher Progress report preparation Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring, supervision and evaluation of project implementation sectors Capital cost 65-4-411 Goods and Services ( Including HSEB) Purchase of laptops Purchase of photocopier Purchase of Fax Purchase of multi media projector ( LCD) Purchase of computer, printer, UPS, Volt-guard etc Purchase of Motorcycles Purchase of Vehicles Total

Network Districts Persons Times Districts

1 75 15 100 75

0 10 20 5.0 0

500 750 300 50 2500

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 1.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

0.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 1.0

383.35 750.0 299.3 50.0 1493..91

76.70 100.0 99.8 100.0 59.76

Persons

150

1022

0.4

100.0

0.4

1021.7

100.0

Copy Times

5000 3

0 0

300 300 2500 2500 45000 45000 738 1600 50 2240 11122 750 28500 248798.68

0.1 0.1 1 1.0 18 18 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.9 4.5 0.3 11.5 100

100.0 100.0 25 25.0 62 62 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 40.0 92

0.1 0.1 0 0.3 11 11 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.9 4.5 0.3 4.6 92

284.4 300.0 561 561.1 21926 21926 736.8 1167.1 0.0 1540.8 6406.7 713.3 11361.5 223633.18

95.1 100.0 22.4 22.4 48.7 48.7 99.8 72.9 0.0 68.8 57.6 95.1 39.9 90

Sets Sets Sets Sets Sets Sets Sets

6 10 2 16 83 5 19

123 160 25 140 134 150 1500

Physical Progress 92 % Financial Progress 90 % Note: The amount of budget allocated and disbursed for regions and districts regarding grants are indicated as expenditures.

120

Status Report - 2008 Preparation Team

Advisory Team: Mr. Bishnu Kumar Devkota, Director, DOE Mr. Lok Bilas Pant, Deputy Director, DOE Mr. Hari Lamsal, Deputy Director, DOE Mr. Bhanu Bhakta Niraula, Chief Financial Controller, DOE Coordinator Member Member Member

Working Team: Mr. Balaram Timilsina Deputy Director, DOE Mr. Bhoj Bahadur Balayar, Section Officer, DOE Mr. Indra Bahadur Thapa, Under Secretary-Account, DOE Mr. Durba Regmi, Section Officer, DOE Ms. Dev Kumari Gautam, Section Officer, DOE Mr. Krishna Prasad Dhungana, Section Officer, DOE Mr. Shankar Bahadur Thapa, Section Officer, DOE Mr. Thomas Grotkjaer Nielsen, Advisor, ESAT Mr. Pravin Babu Bhattarai, TA, DoE Miss. Nandamaya Sitaula, CO, DoE

121