Anda di halaman 1dari 154

Allplan 2009 Step by Step

Geodesy

This documentation has been produced with the utmost care. Nemetschek Allplan GmbH and the program authors have no liability to the purchaser or any other entity, with respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused, directly or indirectly by this software, including but not limited to, any interruptions of service, loss of business, anticipatory profits, or consequential damages resulting from the use or operation of this software. In the event of discrepancies between the descriptions and the program, the menu and program lines displayed by the program take precedence. Information in this documentation is subject to change without notice. Companies, names and data used in examples are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this documentation may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Nemetschek Allplan GmbH. Allfa is a registered trademark of Nemetschek CREM Solutions GmbH & Co. KG, Ratingen. Allplan is a registered trademark of Nemetschek AG, Munich. AutoCAD, DXF and 3D Studio MAX are trademarks or registered trademarks of Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA. BAMTEC is a registered trademark of Hussler, Kempten, Germany. Parts of this product were developed using LEADTOOLS. (c) 1991-2007, LEAD Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows und Windows Vista are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. MicroStation is a registered trademark of Bentley Systems, Inc. Parts of this product were developed using the Xerces library of 'The Apache Software Foundation'. All other (registered) trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Nemetschek Allplan GmbH, Munich, 2009. All rights reserved. 1. edition, june 2009 Document no. 090eng01s07-1-BM0509

Geodesy

Contents

Contents
Before you start ........................................................................... 1
Requirements..........................................................................................................2 Feedback on the documentation .....................................................................2 Sources of Information .......................................................................................3
Documentation............................................................................................................ 3 Additional help ............................................................................................................ 4

Training, coaching and project support.........................................................5 Project and drawing files....................................................................................6 Basic settings for the exercises.........................................................................9
Track tracing...............................................................................................................10

Unit 1: Site Plan module ..........................................................11


Overview of exercises ....................................................................................... 12
Exercise 1: main road...............................................................................................12 Exercise 2: side road.................................................................................................13

Default settings .................................................................................................. 14 Exercise 1: main road........................................................................................ 16


Task 1: entering the road gradient ......................................................................17 Task 2: labeling and stationing the main road ................................................24

Exercise 2: side road.......................................................................................... 31


Task 1: designing the side road.............................................................................32 Task 2: labeling and stationing the side road...................................................38 Task 3: skewing the roadsides ...............................................................................41 Task 4: connecting the side road to the main road........................................47

ii

Contents

Allplan 2009

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module................................... 50


Overview of exercises ....................................................................................... 51
Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model.............................. 51 Exercise 4: raising a 3D element.......................................................................... 53

Default settings .................................................................................................. 54 Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model....................... 57
Task 1: placing point symbols............................................................................... 57 Task 2: creating and optimizing a DTM............................................................. 64 A note on meshing elements at the height of the terrain .......................... 68 Task 3: entering a breakline.................................................................................. 70 Task 4: drawing contour lines and labeling the DTM.................................... 72 Task 5: changing the smoothing factor of contour lines............................. 75

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element ................................................................... 77

Unit 3: Road Construction ....................................................... 83


Overview of exercises ....................................................................................... 84
Exercise 5: importing DTM files ........................................................................... 84 Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section .................................... 85 Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient .................. 85 Exercise 8: torsion trace......................................................................................... 86 Exercise 9: slope ....................................................................................................... 86 Exercise 10: computing cut and fill.................................................................... 87

Data on the Internet......................................................................................... 88


Downloading data.................................................................................................... 88

Exercise 5: importing DTM files..................................................................... 89 Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section ............................. 94 Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient .........104 Exercise 8: torsion trace.................................................................................107

Geodesy

Contents

iii

Exercise 9: slope ...............................................................................................111 Exercise 10: computing cut and fill ...........................................................113 Additional steps to edit the DTM................................................................115

Unit 4: importing files ........................................................... 116


Exercise 11: importing file using an offset..............................................117

Appendix.................................................................................... 125
Bridge construction.........................................................................................125
Bridge cross-section.............................................................................................. 126 Designing the road ................................................................................................ 127 Task 1: defining the path..................................................................................... 128 Task 2: entering cross-sections.......................................................................... 132 Task 3: exporting data.......................................................................................... 140

Index ........................................................................................... 145

iv

Contents

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Before you start ...

Before you start ...


In this step-by-step guide, the most important tools of the Site Plan and Digital Terrain Model modules are presented to you in four units: Unit 1 shows you how to create a site plan. Unit 2 shows you how to create a digital terrain model. Unit 3 contains additional exercises for road construction. You raise a road to the height of the terrain, create a slope and compute the cut and fill by comparing the original terrain with the modified terrain. Unit 4 shows you how to use the offset to import and export files. The appendix includes an example showing how to Bridge/Civil Engineering Component. create a You can download the data required for units 3, 4 and the appendix from the Internet.

Requirements

Allplan 2009

Requirements
This step-by-step guide assumes that you are familiar with and have a working knowledge of Windows and Allplan 2009. The essentials are described in the manuals and in the online Help that come with Allplan 2009. You should work through the exercises in the given sequence as tools that are presented in more detail in the earlier exercises are only referred to by name in later exercises. However, you can work through the four units in any sequence as all the given examples are independent exercises.

Feedback on the documentation


We are always trying to improve the overall quality of our program documentation. Your comments and suggestions are important to us and we welcome feedback on the manuals and online help. Please do not hesitate to contact us to express criticism or praise concerning the documentation. Feel free to contact us as follows:

Documentation NEMETSCHEK Allplan GmbH Konrad-Zuse-Platz 1 81829 Munich, Germany Tel.: 0180 1 750000 Fax: 0180 1 750001 Email: Dokumentation@nemetschek.de

Geodesy

Before you start ...

Sources of Information
Documentation
The Allplan documentation consists of the following: The online Help is the main source of information for learning about and working with Allplan. While you work with Allplan, you can get help on the current function by pressing the F1 key, or activate Help on the Standard toolbar and point to the icon on which you require help. The Manual consists of two parts. The first part shows how to install Allplan. The second part is designed to provide an overview of basic concepts and terms in Allplan as well as introduce approaches for entering data in Allplan. The Basics Tutorial guides you step by step through the most important tools for designing and modifying elements in Allplan. The Architecture Tutorial guides you step by step through the process of designing a building. In addition, you learn how to analyze and evaluate the building data using lists and schedules and to output the results to a plotter. The Engineering Tutorial guides you step by step through the process of creating key plans, shell and formwork drawings as well as reinforcement drawings. In addition, you learn how to output the results to a plotter. The brochure New Features in Allplan provides information on what's new in the latest version. Each volume in the Step-by-Step series deals with a specific concept or series of tools/modules in Allplan in detail. The areas covered include data exchange, system administration, geodesy modules, presentation tools, 3D modeling etc. These guides can be obtained from the Nemetschek training department: NEMETSCHEK Deutschland GmbH Campus Center Munich Konrad-Zuse-Platz 1 81829 Munich, Germany

Sources of Information

Allplan 2009

Tel.: 0180 1 750000 Fax: 0180 1 750001

Additional help
Tips on efficient usage
The Help menu includes Tips on efficient usage. This topic provides practical tips and tricks showing you how to use Allplan efficiently and to carry out operations with ease.

Allplan forum
A good way to answer questions, receive tips or learn in general from other users how to use Allplan. To register, go to http://serviceplus.nemetschek.de

LineLetter
The LineLetter is a digital publication that appears several times a year. It is sent free of charge to Serviceplus customers. The LineLetter includes practical tips and tricks on all program areas.

FAQs on the Internet


Up-to-date FAQs are available on the Internet at the following address: http://www.serviceplus.nemetschek.de/faq Note: You can also get this address right from Allplan. On the Help menu, point to Nemetschek on the Web and click FAQs.

Feedback on the help


If you have suggestions or questions on the online Help, or if you come across an error, send an e-mail to Dokumentation@nemetschek.de

Geodesy

Before you start ...

Training, coaching and project support


The type of training you are given is a decisive factor in the amount of time you actually spend working on your own projects: a professional introduction to the programs and advanced seminars for advanced users can save you up to 35% of your editing time! A tailor-made training strategy is essential. Nemetscheks authorized seminar centers offer an extensive range of programs and are happy to work out a custom solution with you that will address your own needs and requirements: Our sophisticated, comprehensive seminar program is the quickest way for professional users to learn how to use the new system. Special seminars are designed for users who wish to extend and optimize their knowledge. One-on-one seminars are best when it comes to addressing your own particular methods of working. One-day crash courses, designed for office heads, convey the essentials in a compact format. We are also happy to hold seminars on your premises: These encompass not only Allplan issues but include analysis and optimization of processes and project organization. The current online seminar guide can be found on our support website (http://www.nemetschek-campus.de). For more detailed information, simply call Tel.: Fax: 0180 1 750000 0180 1 750001

Project and drawing files

Allplan 2009

Project and drawing files


Start by creating a new project for the exercises in this step-by-step guide. You can create projects in ProjectPilot or by clicking Open Project on the File menu. Note: The basic concepts of project organization are described in detail in the online Help.

To create a project in ProjectPilot


1 On the File menu, click ProjectPilot opens. 2 On the File menu of ProjectPilot, click New Project. ProjectPilot - Admin....

3 The New Project - Specify Project Name dialog box opens. Enter Step by Step - Geodesy for the name of the new project and enable the Same folder name as project name option. Then click Next.

Geodesy

Before you start ...

4 Click Next to confirm the next dialog box.

5 Click Finish to confirm the last dialog box. 6 Exit ProjectPilot by clicking Exit on the File menu. You are back in Allplan 2009. The new project opens automatically. This step-by-step guide requires the drawing files listed below. Before you get started, please create the following files:

Project and drawing files

Allplan 2009

Unit
1

Drawing Drawing file name file number


1 2 Main road (location line + parallel lines) with label Side road with connection to main road Digital terrain model created by entering single points Digital terrain model, imported Computing cut and fill: digital terrain model, imported Computing cut and fill: unedited digital terrain model Unedited digital terrain model Point file with free ASCII format, imported using an offset

2 3

11 21 22 23 25

31

Note: Allplan automatically names drawing files 22 and 23 when calculating the cut and fill.

Geodesy

Before you start ...

Basic settings for the exercises


All the exercises use the following basic settings.

To define basic settings


1 On the View menu, point to Toolbars and Input Options. Click Float Input Options (if this setting is not active). 2 The Palette Configuration is active by default. Do not change this setting. You require an additional configuration toolbar. On the View menu, point to Toolbars and click Landscaping/Urban Planning. 3 Dock the Landscaping/Urban Planning toolbar in the right border of the viewport beside the Edit toolbar. Tip: As the exercises in this guide make constant reference to the flyouts, we advise bookmarking or making a copy of this page.

Advanced Draft flyout Site Plan flyout Digital Terrain Model flyout Landscaping flyout Urban Planning flyout Modifications flyout

4 Set the unit of length in the border of the viewport to m. 5 Set the reference scale in the border of the viewport to 1:1000. 6 On the Format toolbar, select pen thickness 0.25 and linetype 1.

10

Basic settings for the exercises

Allplan 2009

Track tracing
The innovative track tracing feature, which was launched with Allplan 2006, makes it a lot easier to create custom designs. As the exercises that follow are based on fixed measurements, you need to deactivate track tracing (which is active by default).

To deactivate track tracing


1 Click Line (Create menu in the Draft module). 2 Click with the right mouse button in an empty area of the workspace and select Point entry options on the shortcut menu. 3 Select the Track Tracing tab and clear the Track tracing check box. Tip: You can quickly enable and disable track tracing at any time while entering points by pressing the F11 in the key or clicking dialog line.

4 Click OK to confirm the settings and press ESC to quit the tool.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

11

Unit 1: Site Plan module


Site Plan is a module that includes a wide range of tools that are particularly useful for road and bridge construction. Amongst others, it includes tools for creating curves and slopes of any shape, as well as for location line labeling and stationing. Additional tools are provided for creating point files and for exchanging these with geodetic stations, for example.

12

Overview of exercises

Allplan 2009

Overview of exercises
Exercise 1: main road
Create individual elements Combine the individual elements to produce a composite element Create roadsides as parallel lines to the composite element

Define the labels for the road location line Label the main curve points of the composite element Disable the labels for the main curve points Station the location line

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

13

Exercise 2: side road


Design the side road Move the stations reference point Station the side road Skew the roadsides manually and in compliance with RAS Connect side road to main road by filleting

14

Default settings

Allplan 2009

Default settings
Tip: Offsets can be used to import supraregional country coordinates with high numbers (e.g. Gauss-Krger coordinates). Once you have set an offset, it always applies to the entire project. In unit 4, you will learn how to import files using an offset. First, set general defaults for the Site Plan module. These general defaults are used in all exercises in this step-by-step guide.

To set general defaults for the Site Plan module


1 Click Options (Standard toolbar) and select Site Plan. 2 Set the options as shown below. Make sure that the offset is disabled and point symbols and lines are created as 3D elements.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

15

3 Click OK to confirm the settings.

16

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

Exercise 1: main road


It is advisable to create the main road and the side road in two separate drawing files so that you can see better and to reduce the volume of data per drawing file. To create the main road, start by entering the road gradient. Then create the roadsides as parallel lines. After this, you can station and label the road.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

17

Task 1: entering the road gradient


The following overview shows you all necessary steps: Create the road location line first. Join the individual elements to form a composite element , which can then be addressed, modified and edited as a single entity. Use Modify Element Parameters to check the composite element. Use Parallel Line Segments to create the roadsides and the shoulder. First enter the elements of which the gradient consists. Use the Modify Element Parameters tool. The basic procedure is always the same: Define the elements parameters on the Context toolbar. While you are defining the element, it is displayed in construction line color on screen. To ensure that the element has the same direction as the previous one, specify the start point as follows: define the previous element as the reference element and the end point as the reference point. This way, Allplan automatically uses the coordinates and direction defined by this point. Finally, right-click in the workspace to confirm the settings. Now the element is created, and you can continue and enter the parameters for the next element.

To enter parameters
1 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar), make drawing file 1 current and close all the others. 2 Click Tip: If you enter the value 0 for the radius, Infinite is shown in the data entry box. Modify Element Parameters (Site Plan flyout).

3 To define the start point of the first element, click XS (X coordinate in start point) on the Modify Element Parameters Context toolbar.

18

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

4 Define the start point of the first element using the global point setting. Click Global point in the dialog line. 5 Enter the following values for the global point: Global X coordinate: 5 Global Y coordinate: 5

6 Press ENTER to confirm. Now the element is displayed on screen as a construction line based on the parameters you have set. 7 The first element is to be a line. To create a line, set the parameters Rad (Rs) and Rad (Re) to 0 and enter 20 for the arc Length. The Context toolbar should now look like this:

8 Right-click in the workspace to confirm the settings. The line is created using the pen thickness and linetype currently set; Modify Element Parameters remains active. 9 On the Context toolbar, click XS (X coordinate in start point) so that the following element (a circle) is connected directly to the line. Tip: When designing circles, it is important to change the direction as circles are always created in a counter-clockwise direction. 10 Click Delta point in the dialog line and then the line created previously to select it as the reference element. The direction is indicated by an arrow (see below). If the arrow has the wrong direction, you can change it using S->E or E->S in the Input options.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

19

11 Click the end point of the line to select it as the reference point (see below). The start point of the element automatically assumes the angle and the coordinates of this point.
10
Direction of element

11

12 Enter the following values on the Context toolbar: Rad (Re) 80.000 A= 50.000

13 Confirm the parameters. The clothoid is created. Your drawing should now look like this:

1. element (line) 2. element (clothoid)

14 Use the values given in the table below to enter the other elements. All you need to do is enter the values that are shown in bold; Allplan automatically calculates the other values. Repeat the steps above: On the Context toolbar, click XS. Double-click with the middle mouse button in the workspace to refresh the display so that you can see the drawing in its entirety. Click the reference element (the element you created last). If necessary, change the direction by clicking in the Input options.

20

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

Click the reference point whose angle and coordinates you wish to adopt (the end point of the element you created last). Enter the values as shown below (you only need to enter the values shown in bold). Confirm the parameters. Type Straight line Clothoid Circle Spiral clothoid Circle Spiral clothoid Circle Spiral clothoid Circle Clothoid Straight line Arc Length m already entered already entered 40.000 45.9375 30.000 50.000 30.000 45.9375 40.000 31.250 20.000 80.000 80.000 - 40.000 - 40.000 + 40.000 40.000 - 80.000 - 80.000 0.000 80.000 - 40.000 - 40.000 40.000 40.000 - 80.000 - 80.000 0.000 0.000 35.000 31.6228 35.000 50.000 Rad (Rs) m Rad (Re) m A=

15 Press ESC to quit the Modify Element Parameters tool. The result should now look like this:

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

21

The next step is to combine the individual elements to produce a composite element , which can then be addressed, modified and edited as a single entity.

To combine elements to produce a composite element


1 Click Composite Element (Advanced Draft flyout). 2 Enter a name for the composite element. Note: By assigning a name, you can select the composite element without having to click it. This is very useful if several composite elements are within a small area. 3 To define a reference element, click an element of the location line.

4 Double-click with the right mouse button in the workspace to select all connected entities. 5 Press ESC to quit the tool.

Note: You can configure Allplan to display the individual elements with different colors: Show/Hide Disable the Color stands for pen option (with the tool on the Standard toolbar), click Modify Composite Element and enable the Dsp Ce parameter.

22

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

In the steps that follow, you will learn how to check the data of composite elements and of the associated individual elements.

To check data
1 Click Modify Element Parameters (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the composite element. The Context toolbar displays the parameters of the composite element.

3 The Elements box shows the number of the individual element clicked and the total number of elements in the composite element. Clicking in the data entry box opens another Context toolbar containing the parameters of the corresponding individual element. 4 Press ESC to quit the Modify Element Parameters tool.

Note: To peg out road location lines, you can create a list including the individual elements and print it out: File Interface and create a composite element file; enable Click the Show option and confirm the settings.

Then place the list in the workspace. You can use to print out the list on a printer.

Print Preview

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

23

Now you will create the roadsides as parallel lines to the composite element. The road is to be 7 m wide.

To create parallel lines


1 Click Parallel Line Segments (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the location line. 3 Click Element in the Input options as you want to create a parallel line to the entire segment.

4 Enter 3.50 for the offset. 5 Click in the workspace below the composite element to specify the side on which the parallel line is to be created. 6 Enter 1 for the number. The roadside on the right is created. 7 Create the parallel line for the roadside on the left. Enter -7.00 for the offset and 1 for the number. Your drawing should now look like this:

8 Press ESC to quit

Parallel Line Segments.

24

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

Task 2: labeling and stationing the main road


Now you will label the main curve points and stationing points of the route. This involves two steps: First, click Modify Composite Element to define the label. You can set a different label type, symbol and offset for stationing points and main curve points. Then, use the Label tool for the actual labeling. If the element or the composite element has not been stationed yet, the labels of the stationing points are only displayed after you have stationed the element/composite element.

To define the labels


1 Click Modify Composite Element (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the road location line. The Context toolbar shows the current settings. 3 Set the parameters as follows: Statio (station's label type): Normal St Sym (station's point symbol number): 2 St Off (spacing between station text in mm): 0 (= automatic) Label (element's label type): Layout Lb Sym (labels point symbol number): 1 Lb Off (element label offset in mm): 18 Lb Dir (label direction): S -> E Dsp Ce (display composite elements): Yes Ts L/S (text size factor): 0.8

4 Click the Toggle on the right and set the text height to 2.5 and the text width to 2.0.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

25

5 Click the Toggle again and click OK to confirm the settings. This defines the parameters for the labels. The next step is to label the elements. 6 Press ESC to quit the Modify Composite Element tool.

26

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

Next, you will label the main curve points of the location line. First, you need to define the size of the point symbols using the Point Symbol tool.

To label the route


1 Click Point Symbol (Advanced Draft flyout). 2 On the Context toolbar, click Symbol. Set the symbol size to 1.0 in the dialog box that appears. 3 Confirm the settings. 4 Press ESC to quit the Point Symbol tool. Geo family and open the

5 In the Tools palette, select the Site Plan module. 6 Click

Label (Tools palette, Create area).

The Label Site Plan setting is active in the Input options. Leave it as it is. 7 Click the road location line. The composite element is labeled based on the parameters you have set. Your drawing should now look like this:

8 Press ESC to quit the

Label tool.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

27

Now you will station the composite element. The stationing points are labeled according to the settings in Modify Composite Element.

To station the location line


1 First, deactivate the labels of the elements again by clicking Modify Composite Element. 2 Click the composite element (see below). 3 To deactivate the labels of the elements, set Label to No and click to switch Lb Sym off. To specify the spacing between station text, enter 5 in the St Off data entry box.

4 Click OK to confirm the settings. This defines the label. 5 Click Station Element (Site Plan flyout) to station the composite element. Retain the Element setting in the Input options. 6 Click the composite element (see below). 7 Set the spacing between stations to 10. This stations the composite element. The stationing points are labeled according to the settings in Modify Composite Element. Your drawing should now look like this:

28

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

8 Press ESC to quit the

Station Element tool.

Note: The tools in the Site Plan module let you create station labels that best suit your own preferences and requirements. In addition, you can also specify the direction and start point of stationing. The pages that follow provide an overview of the options available for setting the reference point, the reference points default station and the direction of stationing.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

29

Reference point of stationing: Starting from this point, the stationing is implemented. In the case of composite elements, the reference point is displayed as a cross (in construction line format). You can move the reference point using Ref Pnt provided in the Modify Element Parameters tool.

Reference points default station: The value used to station the reference point (see above). Modify Element You can change this setting using Def Sta in Parameters.

Stationing direction: The direction of stationing. You can change this setting using Lb Dir in the Modify Composite Element tool. You can only change the direction when the composite element is not labeled.

30

Exercise 1: main road

Allplan 2009

Examples:

Reference point = 0 Default station = 0 Label direction: S->E

Reference point = 5 Default station = 0 Label direction: S->E

Reference po int = 5 Default station = 7.5 Label direction: S->E

Reference point = 0 Default station = 0 Label direction: E->S

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

31

Exercise 2: side road


This exercise involves designing the side road, which you will connect to the main road by filleting. Use a separate drawing file for the side road.

32

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

Task 1: designing the side road


The side road starts at station 217.88 of the main road and is to be perpendicular to the main road. To design the first element (line), use the Perpendicular tool. To create the other elements, use Modify Element Parameters.

To create the side road (first element)


1 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar) and make drawing file 2 current. Open drawing file 1 in edit mode. 2 Click Perpendicular (Create menu in the Draft module).

3 Click the location line of the main road (see below). 4 To define the start point of the side road, right-click in the workspace and select Offset by line on the shortcut menu. 5 Click the location line of the main road, move the crosshairs to the start of the location line (station 0) and enter the value 217.88 for in the dialog line (see illustration below). 6 Enter -15 for the confirm. offset in the dialog line and press ENTER to

First element of sid e ro ad

3 5

7 Press ESC to quit the Perpendicular tool. This completes the first element of the side road. Note: You can use the Station Element tool in conjunction with the Part setting (Input options) to create the station for the

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

33

side road's start point and thus check whether the value is correct.

34

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

The other elements of the side road are created using the Modify Element Parameters tool, which is familiar to you from the first exercise.

To design the side road (other elements)


1 Click Modify Element Parameters. 2 To define the start point, click XS on the Context toolbar. 3 To define the reference element, click the line of the side road (see below). 4 To define the reference point, click the end point of the line. The coordinates and the angle of this point are adopted (see below).
4 3

5 To create the first clothoid, enter the following values on the Context toolbar: Rad (Re) -30.000 A= 20.000

6 Right-click in the workspace to confirm the settings. This creates the second element of the side road.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

35

Clothoid

Line (perpendicular)

7 Enter the other elements using the values given in the table below. Type Straight line Clothoid Circle Spiral clothoid Circle Clothoid Straight line Arc Length m Rad (Rs) m Rad (Re) m A=

already designed as a perpendicular already designed 15.000 18.750 12.000 11.250 20.000 - 30.000 - 30.000 + 20.000 + 20.000 + 0.000 - 30.000 + 20.000 + 20.000 0.000 0.000 15.000 15.000 -

8 Press ESC to quit the Modify Element Parameters tool. Your drawing should now look like this:

36

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

37

You will combine the individual elements of the side road to produce a composite element and create parallel lines at a distance of 3 m from the location line in the steps that follow. Tip: Here the approach is only outlined briefly. For a detailed description, please refer to Exercise 1: main road (on page 21).

To generate a composite element and to create parallel lines


1 To create a composite element, click (Advanced Draft flyout). Composite Element

2 Enter a name for the composite element and click a reference element on the side road. Then click twice in the workspace with the right mouse button so that all elements are included in the composite element. The start point of the composite element (= reference point of stationing) is indicated by a cross in construction line format. 3 Click Parallel Line Segments (Advanced Draft flyout).

4 Create the parallel lines at a distance of 3 m from the road location line. Your drawing should now look like this:

5 Press ESC to quit

Parallel Line Segments.

38

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

Task 2: labeling and stationing the side road


Now you will station and label the side road. The stationing is to begin at the main road with a value of 0. Start by changing the label direction and moving the reference point to the point where the two road location lines intersect.

To define the label


1 Click Modify Composite Element (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the side road (see below). 3 Set the parameters for the label: Statio (station's label type): Normal St Sym (station's point symbol number): 2 St Off (spacing between station text in mm): 5 Lb Dir (label direction): E -> S Define the other parameters as shown. Tip: If you want to see the direction of the composite element, right-click in the workspace before you select the composite element, click Offset by line on the shortcut menu and then click the composite element. The direction is indicated by an arrow.

4 Click OK to confirm the settings. 5 Press ESC to quit the Modify Composite Element tool. Modify

6 To modify the reference point of the stationing, click Element Parameters (Site Plan flyout). 7 Click the side road. 8 On the Context toolbar, click Ref Pnt.

9 Click the point where the main road and the side road intersect to define it as the new reference point.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

39

The new reference point is indicated by a cross in construction line format. 10 If you want, you can now station the elements without having to activate the Station Element tool. All you need to do is click Spacing on the Context toolbar, enter 10 and confirm the entry. This stations the composite element. Your drawing should now look like this:

40

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

11 Press ESC to quit the

Modify Element Parameters tool.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

41

Task 3: skewing the roadsides


Tight curves, road openings, etc. sometimes need to be enlarged in order to accommodate heavy trucks, for example. You can perform the enlargement manually or automatically (according to RAS guidelines). Both procedures are presented in this chapter. Before you start, disable the stationing of the road location line so that you can see better. Then station the roadside on the right. The stations are to be spaced at 5 m.

To station the roadside on the right


1 Click Modify Composite Element (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the road location line. Click the Statio data entry box and set the label type to No.

3 Confirm the settings. The label is no longer displayed; remains active. 4 Click the roadside on the right.

Modify Composite Element

5 On the Context toolbar, click Statio and set the label type to Normal. 6 Click Lb Dir and set the label direction to E -> S. 7 Confirm the settings. 8 Click Station Element (Site Plan flyout) to station the roadside. 9 Click the roadside on the right. 10 Enter 5 for the spacing. Your drawing should now look like this:

42

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

11 Press ESC to quit the

Station Element tool.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

43

You will skew the roadside from station -85 to station -60 manually.

To skew the roadside manually


In the Tools palette, the family). 1 Click Site Plan module is active (Geo

Skew (Tools palette, Create area).

2 In the Input options, click Manual to skew the roadside manually.

3 Click the roadside on the right. 4 Enter 6 for the number of stations. This way, you can define values for the skew at six stations. The Station-Dependent Skew dialog box opens. Enter the station in the column on the left and the value by which the roadside is to be skewed at this station in the column on the right. 5 Enter the values as shown below:

6 Confirm your entries. The roadside is skewed manually. Your drawing should now look like this:

44

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

Skewed manually

The stationing points show the skew clearly. 7 Press ESC to quit the Skew tool.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

45

As an alternative, you will now use RAS guidelines to skew the roadside from station -60 to station -20.

To skew according to RAS guidelines


Tip: If the Skew tool is still active, you can simply click RAS in the Input options. 1 Click Skew. 2 Click the roadside on the right (see below). 3 Click the start point of the skew (see below). This is the end point of the manual skew you performed beforehand. 4 Click the end point of the skew or enter the value at the keyboard. The end point is at station -20. 5 Enter the offset in the end point by clicking this point again or entering the value 0. Your drawing should now look like this:

Skewed acc. to RAS

6 Press ESC to quit the

Skew tool.

46

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

7 Click Modify Composite Element (Site Plan flyout). Switch off the station label for the roadside and switch on the one for the road location line.

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

47

Task 4: connecting the side road to the main road


Finally, you will connect the roadsides of the side road to the main road by filleting. You first need to isolate the roadsides from the composite element.

To connect the side road to the main road by filleting


1 Click Tip: A composite element can only be exploded in the current drawing file. Explode Composite Element (Advanced Draft flyout). 2 Click the two roadsides of the side road one after the other (see below). 3 Press ESC to quit the Explode Composite Element tool.

4 Use the shortcut menu to open the drawing file with the main road. Click an element of the main road with the right mouse button (see below). 5 On the shortcut menu, choose Activate Drawing File. This makes drawing file 1 current and opens drawing file 2 in edit mode.

6 Click Explode Composite Element again and click the (top) left roadside of the main road.

48

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

2 6 4

Tip: You can also use the Fillet tool (Change menu in the Draft module).

7 Click

Fillet and Tangent (Site Plan flyout).

8 To define the first element, click the right roadside of the side road (see below). 9 To specify the second element, click the (top) left roadside of the main road (see below). 10 Enter 8.0 for the radius of the fillet. Several circles are presented for selection. 11 Click the appropriate circle (see below).

8 11 9

Geodesy

Unit 1: Site Plan module

49

12 As you do not want to reduce the radius, confirm the prompt displayed in the dialog line. 13 You can now create the other fillet by repeating the steps described above. The fillet is drawn. 14 Use Delete (Edit toolbar) and Del Segment of Line (Change menu in the Draft module) to delete the superfluous lines. Your drawing should now look like this:

50

Exercise 2: side road

Allplan 2009

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module


You can use the tools in the Digital Terrain Model module to edit and model terrain data in three-dimensional space. Based on point data which can be entered manually or imported as a file, a three-dimensional model is created by meshing points to form triangles. Special areas (e.g., building plots) can be defined in this model and cut out later during the edit phase. This unit will introduce you to the most important tools of the Digital Terrain Model module. In particular you will learn how to Place point symbols in a grid Create a three-dimensional model based on individual points Add points to a DTM and optimize the grid Create contour lines and elevation points Label the terrain Raise 3D elements to the height of the terrain

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

51

Overview of exercises
Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model
Place points in a grid Mesh points to form a digital terrain model Add more points to the model

Enter a breakline Draw contour lines in the DTM Label contour lines along a contour gradient Label grid points Change the smoothing factor of contour lines by modifying the DTM

52

Overview of exercises

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

53

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element


Create a standard 3D element Raise the 3D element to the height of the terrain Create a cutaway around the 3D element

54

Default settings

Allplan 2009

Default settings
To set general defaults for the module
1 Click Model.

Digital Terrain Model

Options (Standard toolbar) and select Digital Terrain

2 Set the options as shown below:

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

55

3 Click OK to confirm the settings. 4 Click Representation (Digital Terrain Model flyout).

5 In the dialog box, activate the display of all elements according to the following illustration to ensure that all DTM elements are visible on screen.

56

Default settings

Allplan 2009

6 Click OK to confirm the settings.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

57

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model


Task 1: placing point symbols
In the task that follows, you will place point symbols as individual points. Start by creating a grid with a spacing of 2 m to help you place the point symbols exactly.

To define a grid
1 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar), make drawing file 11 current and close all the others. 2 Set the reference scale in the border of the viewport to 1:100. 3 To define a grid, click Grid Settings on the View menu.

4 To define the global point of the grid, enter 0 for both the X axis and the Y axis. Tip: A point number should be assigned to all points you place so that the cut and fill can be calculated later. 5 To define the width of the grid, enter a value of 2 for both the X axis and the Y axis. 6 On the View menu, click screen. Grid on/off to display the grid on

58

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

To place point symbols in a grid


Tip: Point numbers are also displayed when you check the coordinates with the Measure tool. 1 Click Point Symbol (Advanced Draft flyout). 2 Click Pnt No and enter 1. The points are numbered, starting at number 1. 3 Click Symbol, select symbol 1, set the symbol size to 5 and enable the Constant size in plan option (see below).

4 Click Text, check the Additional text box, set the text parameters as shown, uncheck the Additional text box again and click OK to confirm your settings. Tip: You will also use these text parameters to label the DTM later. It is advisable to disable the Additional text option again. Otherwise, you have to press ESC each time you enter a point symbol in order to skip the prompt for additional text.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

59

5 Click Height and enter 0 for the height of the first point. 6 Set the other parameters as shown below:

7 Click the Toggle and define the text parameters as shown below:

This defines the text size for the label of the grid points. 8 Click the Toggle again to confirm the settings. 9 Click in the workspace with the right mouse button and choose Point Entry Options on the shortcut menu. Switch to the Snap Points tab and check the Gridpoint box.

60

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

10 In the lower border of the viewport, click Reduce View and place the first point symbol on a grid point at top left (see illustration below). 11 Place the other points as shown below (construction lines, point labels and the numbers of the axes are visible in this illustration to help you place the point symbols; this information is not displayed on your screen). On the Point Symbol Context toolbar, assign the height given below to each point symbol. You do not need to change the other parameters.

12 Press ESC to quit the

Point Symbol tool.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

61

13 On the View menu, click

Grid on/off to hide the grid again.

Note: When creating points, make sure that you always use point numbers so that the cut and fill can be calculated later.

62

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

Assigning point numbers


With the tools in the Site Plan module used for creating point symbols (e.g. Point Symbol, Station Element, Divide Element, Label, Perpendicular through Station, File Interface), point numbers can be assigned automatically. The point number, which consists of a maximum of eight digits, is made up of a four-digit primary point number and a four-digit secondary point number. The point numbers are defined as follows: Point Symbol, Label, and File Interface, the settings for Pr Pnt (constant primary point number) and Pnt No (start point of secondary point number) in Point Symbol are used. In

In Divide Element, Station Element and Perpendicular Through Station, the point numbers can be defined using Point symbol definition (on the shortcut menu when entering points).

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

63

Primary point number It represents the constant part of the point number. Entering 0 will set this off, i.e., no primary point number is used. In site plan-specific Point symbol definition, the primary point number can be transferred automatically from an existing location Perpendicular Through line number (for example, when using Station). In order for the number to be transferred automatically, the name of the composite element must include an encrypted number beginning with #N. Example: The name Location Line #123 used for a composite element generates the primary point number 123. When automatically transferring the number, the option for manually setting the number is unavailable. Secondary point number It represents the dynamic part of the point number; this value will increase with each consecutive point. Enter 0 to switch this off. Perpendicular through Station, the secondary point number In is transferred automatically from the reference element for composite elements.

64

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

To assign point numbers later, use

Modify Point Symbol.

Task 2: creating and optimizing a DTM


Next, you will create the actual digital terrain model by meshing the individual points to form triangles.

To create the grid


1 Click Mesh/Optimize Grid (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Double-click in the workspace with the right mouse button to select all points or use the left mouse button to open a selection rectangle enclosing all the points. This creates the digital terrain model. Your drawing should now look like this:

3 Press ESC to quit the

Mesh/Optimize Grid tool.

In your daily work, you often need to add points to an existing digital terrain model. First you will place the points using the

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

65

Point Symbol tool and then you will integrate them into the model. Allplan will automatically optimize the digital terrain model.

To add grid points to the DTM


1 On the View menu, click screen again. Grid on/off to display the grid on

2 Click Point Symbol (Advanced Draft flyout). The Context toolbar should look like this:

If you have just entered the point symbols, the parameters set are still correct. Otherwise, set the parameters as described in Task 1: placing point symbols (on page 57). 3 Place the two points as shown below. The height of the points is important:

66

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

4 Press ESC to quit the 5 On the View menu, click

Point Symbol tool. Grid on/off to hide the grid again.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

67

The next step is to integrate these two points into the digital terrain model.

To add elements to the DTM


1 Click Grid Point (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Select the two points you want to mesh with the DTM. 3 Click the DTM. The two points are added to and meshed with the DTM. Meshing is based on the principle of achieving a "minimum total of triangle sides". The following illustration shows the optimized grid; the dashed lines show the grid before the optimization:

4 Press ESC to quit the

Grid Point tool.

68

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

A note on meshing elements at the height of the terrain


You can also use the Mesh Element with DTM tool to add elements to the grid. The height of the points meshed is interpolated to the terrain. You can then optimize the DTM.

To mesh elements and optimize the DTM


1 Click Mesh Element with DTM (Digital Terrain Model flyout) and click the DTM. 2 Do not change the Polyline setting in the Input options and select the two points you want to mesh with the DTM. Grid Tip: You can use the Point tool to modify the height of grid points later. Allplan creates new grid lines. Please note that the interpolation to the height of the terrain produces new height values for the points.

3 Click

Mesh/Optimize Grid (Digital Terrain Model flyout).

4 In the Input options, click Optimize. 5 Select the two new grid points.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

69

Meshing is based on the principle of achieving a "minimum total of triangle sides". 6 Press ESC to quit the Mesh/Optimize Grid tool.

70

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

Task 3: entering a breakline


The task that follows involves specifying a breakline in the terrain. You can use this tool to define terrain edges such as slopes, for example. Triangles with these mandatory grid lines are not optimized and calculated as breaklines.

To enter a breakline
1 Click Breakline (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the DTM in which you want to create a breakline. Tip: Define the color used to display the breakline in the module's Options. 3 Click the first point of the breakline (see below). 4 Click the second point of the breakline (see below). 5 Press ESC twice to finish entering points and to quit the Breakline tool.

Note: Two additional tools are provided for editing digital terrain models:

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

71

Exterior Boundary: You can use this tool to create a new exterior boundary for the DTM. The exterior boundary defines the area of a DTM within which Allplan will perform calculations, apply labeling and update data automatically. Cutaway: You can use this tool to insert cutaways in a DTM. Contour lines, elevation points and labels are not displayed within these regions.

72

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

Task 4: drawing contour lines and labeling the DTM


To draw contour lines
1 Click Contour line (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the DTM in which you want to create the contour lines. Tip: Contour lines can easily be deleted using the Delete incl. Contours and Elevation Points tool. 3 You are prompted for the minimum and maximum height. Press ENTER to confirm each time. This way, contour lines are created for the entire DTM. 4 Enter 0.5 for the difference in height. This defines the spacing between the contour lines. The contour lines are created; the following should now be displayed on your screen. Tip: You can use the Grid Point tool to modify the height of grid points later. The contour lines update automatically.

Next, you will label the contour lines. In detail, the points of intersection between contour lines and a contour gradient that you

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

73

will enter are labeled. The location of the contour line labels and the number of decimal places are defined in the module's Options.

To label contour lines


1 Click Label Triangles, Contours, Points (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 In the Input options, click Cont. (contour line). 3 Click the DTM. 4 Click the start point of the contour gradient (see below). Tip: The font size used to label the contour lines depends on the settings in . 5 Click the end point of the contour gradient (see below). The contour lines are labeled based on the settings in the module's Options. Your drawing should now look like this:

6 Press ESC twice to finish entering the contour lines and to quit Label Triangles, Contours, Points.

74

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

Now you will label the grid points. The font size depends on the settings in Point Symbol.

To label grid points


1 Click Label Triangles, Contours, Points (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 In the Input options, click Point. 3 Click the DTM. Tip: The font size used to label the grid points depends on the settings in Point Symbol. 4 Use the left mouse button to enclose all the points of the DTM in a selection rectangle. The drawing should now look like this:

5 Press ESC to quit the

Label Triangles, Contours, Points tool.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

75

Task 5: changing the smoothing factor of contour lines


As the value for the smoothing factor is set to Linear in the Digital Terrain Model module's Options, the contour lines are drawn linearly between the individual grid lines. If you want the contour lines to be displayed more exactly, you need to increase the smoothing factor in the Options prior to creating the DTM. Alternatively, use the Modify DTM tool. Tip: The smoothing factor only affects contour lines, elevation points and interpolations. It has no effect on cut and fill, slope and surface calculations. The higher the factor, the more time is required for large models.

To increase the smoothing factor and the number of decimal places for contour lines
1 Click Modify DTM (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the DTM you want to modify. 3 On the Context toolbar, click Factor and set the smoothing factor to 10. 4 Click Point and set the point label type to H + No (height + number). 5 Click Decim. and set the decimal places in contour line labels to 1.

6 Click OK to confirm the settings. The contour lines adapt accordingly. Your drawing should now look like this:

76

Exercise 3: creating and editing a digital terrain model

Allplan 2009

As you can see, the contour line labels also update automatically. 7 Press ESC to quit the Modify DTM tool.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

77

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element


In the last exercise of this unit, you will create a simple 3D element (consisting of two boxes) and raise it to the height of the terrain. Before you do this, however, you need to assign the same group number to these two boxes to ensure correct results. Finally, you will check the position of the building in the terrain by creating a cutaway around the 3D element.

To create a 3D element
1 In the Tools palette, select the the 3D Modeling module. 2 On the Window menu, click 3 Click Bonus Tools family and open 3 Viewports.

Box (Tools palette, Create area).

4 In plan view, specify the corner of the first box (see below). 5 Enter the following values: X coordinate: 6 Y coordinate: 4 Z coordinate: 3 6 In isometric view, define the start point of the second box (see below). 7 Enter the following values: X coordinate: 2 Y coordinate: 2 Z coordinate: 1 8 Press ESC to quit the Box tool. Your drawing should now look like this:

78

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

79

3D elements are always raised segment by segment; in other words, every individual segment is raised to the height given. The two boxes need to be combined into one entity group to ensure that their height settings are retained. Otherwise, the position of the two boxes relative to one another would change.

To assign the same group number to 3D elements


Tip: The two boxes can be grouped automatically. All you need to do is click Assign Group Number on the Format menu before you create them. 1 Click Modify Format Properties (Edit toolbar). near the 2 In the Modify Format Properties dialog box, click bottom of the dialog box. 3 Click one of the two boxes. The group number of the box clicked appears in the Group number line.

4 In the dialog box, deactivate all check boxes except for Group number and click OK to confirm. 5 Click the other box in plan view. Now both boxes have the same group number. 6 Press ESC to quit Modify Format Properties.

3D elements can be raised to the minimum, maximum or mean height. You can also enter a constant height. This exercise uses the

80

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element

Allplan 2009

mean height. To determine this value, Allplan calculates the height of the element in all its corners.

To raise 3D elements
1 In the Tools palette, select the Digital Terrain Model module. 2 Click Geo family and open the

Raise 3D Elements (Tools palette, Change area).

3 Click the DTM. 4 Select the two boxes by clicking them with the middle and then left mouse button. This selects the entire group. Make sure that plan view is active when you click the two boxes. 5 In the Input options, click Mean to raise the 3D element to a mean height. The following illustration shows the effects of the Min, Max and Mean options.

Min

Max

Mean

6 Press ESC twice to quit the

Raise 3D Elements tool.

Geodesy

Unit 2: Digital Terrain Model module

81

Although you have raised the 3D element to the mean height of the terrain, it is still not possible to see how the height calculated by Allplan and the actual terrain heights behave in the building area. To achieve this, you will create a cutaway around the 3D element. Before you do this, however, you need to mesh the corners of the element with the DTM.

To mesh elements with the DTM


1 Click flyout). Mesh Element with DTM (Digital Terrain Model

2 Click the DTM. 3 Click Polyline in the Input options. 4 Click the 3D element. Points are meshed with the DTM and interpolated to terrain height at the corners of the element. The DTM should now look like this in plan view:

4 2

5 Press ESC to quit

Mesh Element with DTM.

82

Exercise 4: raising a 3D element

Allplan 2009

To create a cutaway around the 3D element


1 Click Cutaway (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the DTM. 3 Click the four corners of the 3D element one after the other (start point = end point) and press ESC to finish. The cutaway is created. In isometric view, you can see how the terrain behaves around the 3D element.

Edge of building

Cutaway

You can see, for example, that the building corner at top left is above the height of the terrain. You can use Raise 3D Elements to lower it. 4 Press ESC to quit the 5 Set the view to Cutaway tool.

1 Viewport (Window menu).

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

83

Unit 3: Road Construction


In this unit, you will define routes and roads using the tools in the Digital Terrain Model and Site Plan modules. In particular you will learn how to Import data of points and composite elements as a file Create a profile section from a DTM and activate this section Adjust a road location line to a gradient Create and use a torsion trace to determine the transverse slope of a route Create a slope Compute the cut and fill in the terrain

84

Overview of exercises

Allplan 2009

Overview of exercises
Exercise 5: importing DTM files
Import data of points and composite elements into the user's data exchange directory Import files to the current drawing file

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

85

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section


Define a profile section along the road location line through the terrain Place an extract

Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient


Draw a gradient in the extract Adjust the height of the road location line to the gradient

86

Overview of exercises

Allplan 2009

Exercise 8: torsion trace


Create a torsion trace Adjust roadsides automatically to the transverse slope determined by the torsion trace

Exercise 9: slope
Create a slope

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

87

Exercise 10: computing cut and fill


Compute the cut and fill

88

Data on the Internet

Allplan 2009

Data on the Internet


You can download the data required for the exercises in this guide from the Internet.

Downloading data
You can download the data required for the exercises in this guide from Nemetschek's Serviceplus Portal at http://serviceplus.nemetschek.de Use your customer number and email address to register. Registration is free and not subject to any conditions. Within 5-10 minutes you will have access to some areas of Nemetschek's Serviceplus Portal. To download the data used in our step-by-step guides, go to http://serviceplus.nemetschek.de - portal - enter your customer details - homepage - library. You will find data for earlier versions in the library's "archives". Navigate to Allplan 2009 - Step by Step. You will find the relevant data and the latest version of this document as a PDF file. Open the file and copy all data to any folder (C:\data\allgeo, for example). Note: As a Serviceplus customer, you will find more step-by-step guides on Nemetschek products in the library. It usually takes one to two working days until you can download these documents. This service is available to Serviceplus customers only. For general information on Serviceplus, go to http://www.nemetschek.de/serviceplus

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

89

Exercise 5: importing DTM files


You will create a realistic digital terrain model based on a finished point file. This way, you do not have to enter all points manually. In this section you will import the file and create a DTM by meshing the points. The entire process involves five steps: Tip: As an alternative to the Services application, you can also use the Import function in / File Interface to import the files. This method is described in unit 4. In the Services application, import the files (for the DTM and the road location line) into the current project. Import the point file into the current drawing file. Mesh the points to form a digital terrain model. Copy the DTM to another drawing file (for computing the cut and fill). Import the road location line as a composite element (in the Site Plan module).

90

Exercise 5: importing DTM files

Allplan 2009

To import the files into the data exchange folder


1 Switch to the Services application. 2 Click DXF/DWG, point to DTM files and choose Restore DTM files.

3 A dialog box opens. Determine the folder into which the files are to be imported.

4 As the point files are to be copied to a subfolder, select User exchange folder and click OK to confirm. The Browse for Folder dialog box opens where Allplan prompts you to specify the source of the data.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

91

5 Select the folder with the data (e.g. C:\data\allgeo) and click OK to confirm. If you use this step-by-step guide as a PDF file on CD, insert the CD in the appropriate drive and then navigate to this drive: <CD drive letter e.g. E>:\DATA\ALLGEO Click OK to confirm. 6 The Multi-select dialog box appears.

7 Click allgeo.re1 and wegachse.re1 and click OK to confirm. The files are imported into the users data exchange folder ...\Allplan\Usr\Local\i_o.

92

Exercise 5: importing DTM files

Allplan 2009

The next step is to import the terrain model onto a separate drawing file. In advance you determine in Point Symbol which parameters are to be assigned to the points (symbol, text, size, etc.) to be imported.

To import the point file into the current drawing file


1 Switch back to Allplan 2009. 2 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar), make drawing file 21 current and close all the others. 3 Set the reference scale in the border of the viewport to 1:1000. 4 To define the parameters for the points to be imported, click Point Symbol (Advanced Draft flyout). 5 Set the following parameters on the Context toolbar: Click Text and disable Additional text and Special text. By doing so, the points are not labeled when they are imported. Click Symbol, select symbol 1 and set the symbol size to 1. Enter the other parameters as shown below. You do not need to set Pnt No (point number) exactly as the points have already numbers (from the file). But the point number has to be enabled so that points created later are numbered.

6 Press ESC to quit the Tip: As an alternative to the Services application, you can also import the files (for the DTM and the road location line) into the users data exchange folder by clicking the Import button.

Point Symbol tool. File Interface (Digital Terrain

7 To import the point file, click Model flyout).

8 Set the following parameters on the Context toolbar: F Type: Coor F (coordinate file) F Ext: re1 I/O: I File (input file) Set the other parameters as shown.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

93

9 Click Apply to confirm the settings. A dialog box opens in which all files with the filename extension re1 in the user folder are listed. 10 Choose the allgeo file. The file is imported to the current drawing file. 11 Press ESC to quit the Tip: If you want to label points you have already imported at a later stage: 1. Create a coordinate file from the points you want to label (in File Interface). 2. Delete the points on the drawing file or switch to a different drawing file (otherwise the points exist twice). 3. Select the desired text (in Point Symbol). 4. Import the points again. File Interface tool. Refresh to display

12 In the lower border of the viewport, click all the points. Your drawing should now look like this:

94

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section

Allplan 2009

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section


In the following exercise, you will create the digital terrain model by meshing points to form triangles. Then you will copy the DTM to a different drawing file so that the original terrain is available for subsequent cut and fill calculations. Finally, you will import the file with the road location line.

To mesh points to form a digital terrain model


1 Click Mesh/Optimize Grid (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Double-click with the right mouse button in the workspace to address all the points in the drawing file. Tip: If the grid lines are not displayed, check whether gridlines are enabled in the Representation tool (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 3 Press ESC to quit the Mesh/Optimize Grid tool. The DTM should now look like this:

As the original terrain is required for subsequent cut and fill calculations, copy the imported model to another drawing file. 4 On the File menu, click Documents.... Copy/Move Elements between

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

95

5 The Across documents dialog box opens. Select the Copy option and click OK to confirm.

6 Select file 25 and click OK to confirm. 7 In the Input options, click All or double-click with the right mouse button in the workspace to address all the elements in the drawing file. The Copy/Move Elements between Documents tool closes automatically. 8 To import the file with the road location line, click File Interface (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 9 On the Context toolbar, click F Type, select Composite element and click Apply to confirm the settings. 10 Select the file called wegachse. The result should look like this (the illustration shows the road location line highlighted):

96

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section

Allplan 2009

Imported road location line

If the Dsp Ce parameter in Modify Composite Element is set to Yes and Color stands for pen in Show/Hide (Standard toolbar) is off during import, the composite element is displayed with different colors.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

97

The next step is to define a profile section through the terrain. The imported road location line will serve as the bearer element. Based on this profile section, you will then generate an extract and draw the gradient.

To create a profile section


1 Click Profile Section (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the DTM of which you want to create a profile section. 3 Set the following parameters on the Context toolbar: Grid: Yes Stat S: 0 (automatic station difference, only possible when Grid is set to Yes or Spec) P Type: Longit Set the other parameters as shown:

4 Click in the workspace with the right mouse button and choose Point Entry Options on the shortcut menu. Switch to the Snap Points tab and deactivate the Gridpoint box. 5 Click the road location line to define the section line. Tip: If you have not clicked the road location line exactly, an orthogonal section line is created. Press ESC to quit the Undo tool, click (Standard toolbar), zoom in on the DTM and start once again!

5 2

98

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section

Allplan 2009

6 Press ESC to quit the Profile Section tool. The road location line is stationed at the points where it intersects the grid lines.

Now you will create an extract and place it below the DTM.

To place an extract
1 Click Activate Profile Section (Digital Terrain Model flyout). 2 Click the profile section. Note: If the warning Define Pattern Line first! appears when you click the profile section, select Pattern Line Settings (Format toolbar), choose any pattern line and click OK to confirm. 3 Set the following parameters on the Context toolbar:

Note: Make sure that the Aspect parameter is set to 1. 4 Place the extract below the DTM. 5 Press ESC to quit the Activate Profile Section tool. The extract should look like this:

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

99

Reference height of horizon and reference scale of height


The reference horizon's upper limit and the height's reference scale are mutually dependent. Allplan calculates the reference horizon based on the values you specify for the height level and the smallest height of the terrain. In this example, the profile is defined by 5.00 and 15.00 [mm] for the terrain above the profile box. With the height's reference scale set to 1:1000, these values result in a length of 20.00 m. The smallest height of the terrain is -13.068 m. The maximum height of the reference horizon is thus -13,068 20,00 = -33.068 m. When you enter 500 for the height's reference scale, the same values result in a length of 10.00 m and the maximum height of the reference horizon is -13.068 10.00 = -23.068 m. This value is displayed in the Input options when you select the horizon. When you change the height's reference scale to 1000, Allplan will automatically set the height of the reference horizon to the maximum value.

100

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section

Allplan 2009

Next, you will delete the profile section as it is no longer required.

To delete the profile using the DTM filter


In the Tools palette, the active (Geo family). Digital Terrain Model module is

1 Click Delete incl. Contours and Elevation Points (Tools palette, Change area). 2 To delete the profile section only, use a filter. On the Filter Assistant toolbar, click Filter by DTM Element Type (Filter by Element Type flyout):

3 Select Profile section and click OK to confirm. 4 Use the left mouse button to open a selection rectangle around the entire profile section.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

101

5 Press ESC to quit the Points tool.

Delete incl. Contours and Elevation

102

Exercise 6: creating and activating a profile section

Allplan 2009

Using several profiles in an extract


You can also use several profiles (even from different DTMs) in an extract. Several identical profiles in an extract You can display the original status, planning, and spoil status of a terrain in an extract in order to measure the differences in area, for example. To do this, create a profile section for each DTM with an identical clipping line (for example, by using the same bearer element each time). Activate all the drawing files and select the relevant clipping lines. Example of a longitudinal profile with several horizons:
Section: AAA Scale = 1:100/50
Actual level Planning lev el Ref height Centers Terrain for p ro file Reference line

AAA BBB

A=10.84 m2 xS=3.1 1 m A=10.37 m2 xS=3.15 m

Station
Height lines without skew

Several different profiles in an extract What is important when creating the profile sections is the stationing of the individual profiles. For the profile section to be displayed without breaks, the end station of the first profile section must match the start station of the second profile section. Example: activating a transverse profile and a longitudinal profile The end station of the first (transverse) profile is 1.3 m. Consequently, the first station of the second (longitudinal) profile must also be 1.3. Therefore, the second element must be a composite element as a station origin can only be defined here.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction


Location line Long. profile Station 1.3 m Offset 1.3 m Transverse profile 1
Location line Skew

103

Station 0+010.00 Scale = 1:100/50

Ref. height
Total sum of horizons with consecutive stations

Height Longit. Station

Height lines with skew

104

Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient

Allplan 2009

Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient


You will enter the height gradient of the road as a spline in the extract placed. In practice, you will probably design the gradient more precisely and, for example, use Line and Fillet or import a file. To ensure that this step-by-step guide is clear and easy to understand, you will use a simple spline for the gradient.

To draw a gradient
Tip: On the Format toolbar, select a different color for the spline so that it is clearly visible. 1 Click Connecting Spline (Advanced Draft flyout). 2 Draw the spline in the extract. Note the sequence (points 1 to 5) in which you enter the spline (see below). To ensure that the length and the direction of the gradient coincide with the length and direction of the road line, click the left start point of the extract (1) to define the starting point of the spline and click the right end point of the extract (5) to define the end point of the spline.

3 Press ESC to finish creating the spline. 4 Click No to answer the following questions: Connection in start point and Connection in end point.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

105

5 Press ESC to quit Connecting Spline. The following should now be displayed on your screen:
Gradient defined as spline

Now you will station the road location line. This way, you define the polygonization of the road, the points for exactly transferring the height from the gradient and the location of transverse profiles you will create later. Tip: If you have created or imported a gradient that has the wrong direction, change the direction of the composite element before you station it (with Lb Dir in Modify Composite Element).

To station the road location line


1 Click Station Element (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the road location line. 3 Enter 10.0 for the station difference in the dialog line. The road location line is stationed. 4 Press ESC to quit the Station Element tool.

106

Exercise 7: adjusting height of road location line to gradient

Allplan 2009

In the next step, you will use Modify Point Symbol Height to adjust the road location line to the gradient. The stationing points will be raised or lowered to the height of the gradient.

To adjust the road location line to the gradient


1 Click Modify Point Symbol Height (Site Plan flyout). 2 Click the road location line. The start point is indicated by a small direction arrow. 3 Click the gradient you have just drawn as a spline in the extract.

This is the heig ht of the first point

4 Enter -3.993 for the reference height (as specified in the extract). The road location line is adjusted to the height of the gradient at the stationing points. 5 Press ESC to quit the Modify Point Symbol Height tool.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

107

Exercise 8: torsion trace


The following exercise involves creating a torsion trace. You will then use this torsion trace to create the transverse slope of the road automatically.

To create a torsion trace


Tip: The font size used to label the torsion trace depends on the settings of the text parameters in Modify Composite Element. 1 Select the 2 Click Site Plan module in the Tools palette. Label (Tools palette, Create area).

3 In the Input options, click Tors (torsion trace). 4 Click the road location line. 5 Enter the value 1. This value defines how many units of length are used to display a torsion of 1%. 6 Enter the speed: 40. 7 Place the torsion trace below the extract. The torsion for the right roadside is displayed as a dashed line; the one for the left roadside as a continuous line.

A = Torsion for left roadside B = Torsion for right roadside 8 Press ESC to quit the
Label tool.

108

Exercise 8: torsion trace

Allplan 2009

Now, you will create the roadsides as parallel lines to the road location line at a distance of 3.5 m.

To create parallel lines


1 Click
Parallel Line Segments (Site Plan flyout).

2 Create the parallel lines at a distance of 3.5 m from the road location line. Your drawing should now look like this:

3 Press ESC to quit

Parallel Line Segments.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

109

Next, you will station the roadsides by dropping a perpendicular from the stationing points of the road location line to the roadsides. The transverse slope of the road is computed from the torsion trace created beforehand; Allplan automatically calculates the height values for the roadsides.

To station the roadsides


1 Click
Perpendicular through Station (Site Plan flyout).

2 Click the road location line. 3 Click the torsion trace (see below). 4 Click the torsion trace for the roadside on the left (which is represented by a continuous line).

4 6
5 Click the roadside on the left.
5 6

6 Repeat steps 2 to 5 for the other roadside. Click the torsion trace for the right roadside (which is represented by a dashed line). 7 Press ESC to quit the
Perpendicular through Station tool.

3 Viewports (with zoom; 8 We recommend working with display of grid points and triangular lines is deactivated) to look at the new points:

110

Exercise 8: torsion trace

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

111

Exercise 9: slope
The following exercise shows how to create a slope.

To create a slope
1 Click
Slope (Digital Terrain Model flyout).

2 Click the DTM. 3 Click the roadside on the left (see below) to define the first element of the slope. Make sure that you do not click the element near a stationing point. 4 Confirm the following prompts displayed in the dialog line: From Point/Station 0.0 and To Point/Station 364.375. 5 Click the roadside on the right (see below) to define the second element of the slope. 6 Do not confirm the prompts in the dialog line. Click the end point of the right roadside (see below). 7 Click the start point of the right roadside.
3 7

This illustration does not show the grid lines and points so that you can see better.

112

Exercise 9: slope

Allplan 2009

Tip: If you want to define different inclinations, enter the station to which the inclination is to apply at step 10, then define a new inclination, enter the station to which this inclination is to apply and so on.

8 Press ESC to finish entering the outline of the slope. The polyline closes automatically. 9 Enter the parameters for the slope: Incl: 1:x Cut: 1.000 Fill: 1.500

10 As you do not want to define several sloping regions with different angles, confirm the prompt displayed in the dialog line. The slope is created. Your drawing should now look like this:

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

113

Exercise 10: computing cut and fill


In the following exercise, you will compute the cut by comparing the edited DTM (in the current drawing file) with the original DTM (in the drawing file in edit mode). Allplan calculates cut and fill according to REB 22.013. The result is a prism drawing, which is created automatically, and a print list you can use to check the calculations. Finally you will label the prism drawing.

To compute cut and fill


1 Open drawing file 25 with the original DTM in edit mode. 2 Click
Compute Cut and Fill (Digital Terrain Model flyout).

3 Set the parameters as shown below:


Note: Allplan creates fills that represent the cut and fill in the relevant drawing files. You can hide these fills in Show/Hide.

Tip: If the points clicked are part of both DTMs, the DTM in the drawing file open in edit mode automatically serves as the original DTM and the DTM in the current drawing file as the edited DTM.

4 Click the first DTM (which is to serve as the original DTM). 5 Select drawing file 23. Allplan will place the prism drawing for the original DTM in this file. 6 Click the second DTM. 7 Select drawing file 22. Allplan will place the prism drawing for the edited DTM in this file. Allplan starts to compute the cut and fill. The lists (coordinate list, prism list, results etc.) are displayed one after the other on screen.

114

Exercise 10: computing cut and fill

Allplan 2009

8 To check the calculations, open one of the two drawing files (e.g. 22) and label the triangles (prisms) and points using Label Triangles, Contours, Points.

Geodesy

Unit 3: Road Construction

115

Additional steps to edit the DTM


To edit the digital terrain model, for presentation purposes, for example, you can convert it to a 3D element using the Convert DTM Elements to 3D tool. You can use tools provided in the
3D Modeling Animation

modules to enhance it graphically and optically.

116

Additional steps to edit the DTM

Allplan 2009

Unit 4: importing files


In this unit, you will learn how to import files with Gauss-Krger coordinates. To read in point files with country coordinates in a coordinate range favoring processing, you use an offset. At the same time you interchange the X and Y coordinates so that the file is displayed correctly on screen. An example is included in the data provided with this step-by-step guide. In particular you will learn how to Make settings for user-defined ASCII-format files Use an offset to import files with point coordinates in the Gauss-Krger country coordinate system Interchange the X and Y coordinates for the import Please note that the offset set is always valid for the whole project.

Geodesy

Unit 4: importing files

117

Exercise 11: importing file using an offset


Tip: If a point file with free ASCII format does not have the filename extension asc, you have to rename the file before you import it.

In this exercise, you will copy the file provided with this guide into the user's data exchange folder and import it to the current drawing file. The file is a user-defined ASCII-format file. As this is not a standardized format, you need to find out first which data (X, Y, Z,...) is displayed in which column of the file. Import the file just to run a test and have the contents of the file displayed.

To import the file and check the format


1 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar), make drawing file 31 current and close all the others. 2 Set the reference scale to 1:1000. 3 Click
File Interface (Advanced Draft flyout).

4 Set the following parameters on the Context toolbar: F Type: Coor F (coordinate file) F Ext: ".asc" (free ASCII format) I/O: I File (input file) Show: View Set the other parameters as shown.

5 Click the Import button, select the folder with the data you imported in unit 3 (e.g. C:\data\allgeo), or, if you use this step-by-step guide as a PDF file on CD, navigate to the appropriate drive <CD drive letter e.g. E>:\DATA\ALLGEO and open the offset file. The file is imported into the user's data exchange folder. 6 Click Apply to confirm the settings. A dialog box opens in which all files with the filename extension asc in the user folder are listed.

118

Exercise 11: importing file using an offset

Allplan 2009

7 Click the offset file. The file is imported to the current drawing file.
Tip: You can have the contents of the file also displayed in any ASCII editor (e.g. notepad).

8 As you have set the Show parameter to View, the contents of the file are displayed.

9 The column numbers are displayed in the title line. You can see that
the point number starts in column 12 and has eight digits. the X value (in country coordinates; it is the Y value in Allplan 2009) begins in column 20 and has seven leading digits and three decimal places.

Geodesy

Unit 4: importing files

119

the Y value (in country coordinates; it is the X value in Allplan 2009) begins in column 32 and has seven leading digits and three decimal places. the Z value begins in column 50 and has one leading digit and three decimal places (in this example, the Z value of all points is set to 0). the code assignment begins in column 61 (in this example, the code of all points is set to 0).

You will use this information to set this format in the Terrain Model module's Options at a later stage. 10 Click
Undo (Standard toolbar).

Digital

The imported points are deleted.

120

Exercise 11: importing file using an offset

Allplan 2009

Now you will use the Digital Terrain Model module's Options to define the format of the file to be imported. In detail, you will specify the columns where the point number and the X, Y and Z coordinates start and set the number of leading digits and decimal places for the coordinates. As in the national coordinate system, the X axis points up and the Y axis to the right (in contrast to the mathematical coordinate system which is used in Allplan 2009), you need to interchange the X and Y axes.

To define the format of the file to be imported


1 Click Options (Standard toolbar) and select Digital Terrain Model in the dialog box. 2 Select the Settings tab and activate the Offset option.
Tip: During import, the offset value is subtracted; during export, it is added. When you measure, the offset is also taken into account.

3 Set the offset as shown below. It is best to enter the same offset values for all the points. By doing so, all the points are imported to the same quadrant. As the X and Y axes are interchanged, set the offset in X direction to 1510000.000 and in Y direction to 1300000.000.

4 Click Point Coordinates in the Interface area.

Geodesy

Unit 4: importing files

121

Another dialog box opens in which you can define the format of the point file. Enter the values as shown below:

Bear in mind that the column numbers for the X and Y coordinates are interchanged. 5 Confirm the settings and the Digital Terrain Model Options dialog box by clicking OK.

122

Exercise 11: importing file using an offset

Allplan 2009

To import the file


1 To import the point file, click flyout). 2 Set the parameters as shown:
File Interface (Advanced Draft

3 Click Apply to confirm the settings. A dialog box opens in which all files with the filename extension asc in the user folder are listed. 4 Click the offset file. The file is imported to the current drawing file. 5 Press ESC to quit the
File Interface tool. Refresh to display

6 In the lower border of the viewport, click all the points. Your drawing should now look like this:

Geodesy

Unit 4: importing files

123

Tip: You can activate the Coordinate Tracking toolbar on the View menu under Toolbars.

7 To check whether the coordinates have been imported correctly, move the crosshairs onto the points. The coordinates are displayed on the Coordinate Tracking toolbar.
Digital Terrain Model Deactivate the Offset option in the module's Options. Now the X coordinates have to be between approximately 1,000 and 2,900 and the Y coordinates between approximately 550 and 2,400. Make sure that you activate Offset again before you export the data.

Note: Take advantage of the Optimize working with large coordinates option on the Miscellaneous tab in the Global Options. This option produces more detailed results when you work with elements that are far from the global point (origin).

124

Exercise 11: importing file using an offset

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Appendix

125

Appendix
This appendix includes an example showing you how to create a bridge construction based on a road you have already designed. You will use the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool in the 3D Modeling module to match the existing route and define the cross-sections at the relevant station points. Allplan 2009 will then create a 3D object from this data.

Bridge construction
A linear path and at least one cross-section must exist before you can create a 3D object. You can create or import this path, which is defined by individual stationing points, using the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool. The required cross-sections can also be defined in this tool or you can retrieve them from symbol catalogs. All cross-sections must have the same number of points. You do not need to enter a cross-section for each stationing point. Allplan automatically uses the existing stationing to determine the missing cross-sections by interpolation.

126

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Bridge cross-section

Geodesy

Appendix

127

Designing the road

128

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Task 1: defining the path


For the path, you will use the road you designed using the tools in the Site Plan module. The route profile is to have a constant slope of 2 % in the longitudinal direction. You can also use a gradient you have already defined.

To import the route


1 Click Open on a Project-Specific Basis (Standard toolbar), make drawing file 40 current and close all the others. 2 Click Options (Standard toolbar) and select Digital Terrain Model in the dialog box. 3 Select the Settings tab and deactivate the Offset option. 4 In the Tools palette, select the 3D Modeling module. the
Bonus Tools family and open

5 Click Bridge and Civil Engineering Component (Tools palette, Create area). 6 Click
Import Route on the Route toolbar or File menu.

7 Click Browse, select the folder with the data you imported in unit 3 (e.g. C:\data\allgeo), or, if you use this step-by-step guide as a PDF file on CD, navigate to the appropriate drive <CD drive letter, e.g. E>:\DATA\ALLGEO and open the bruecke file. 8 The Create station points automatically option is active and the spacing between stations is set to 25 m. Do not change these settings. Specify where you want to insert the route in the tree structure and enter a name for it. The Import profile section of route option lets you import a gradient. However, you will not use it here. The bridge is to have a constant longitudinal slope of 2 %.

Geodesy

Appendix

129

9 Click OK to import the route. Allplan imports four route sections and creates ten stations. 10 As the points are part of a defined route, you can only change the Z coordinate and the Rise angle. To check the data, select a station point and click Edit Station Point on the Station toolbar or Edit menu.

130

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

To define the longitudinal slope by entering the rise angle


1 Click menu.
General Properties on the Standard toolbar or Edit

2 Select the Route Profile tab and deactivate the Define route profile manually option. 3 Enter 900.413648 (top level of road surface) for the elevation spec in the current station point - Point1 - (current station point). 4 The constant longitudinal slope of 2 % results in an angle of -1.145763 degrees. Enter this value for the Rise angle.

5 Click OK to define the longitudinal slope.


Edit Station Point and check 6 Select station point 10, click the height: 897.513648 (top level of road surface). Now you cannot modify the Z coordinate and Rise angle anymore.

Geodesy

Appendix

131

If you do not know the slope or it is not constant, you can also define the longitudinal slope by specifying the height of individual station points. It may be necessary to add station points using New Station Point. In the section that follows you will define the longitudinal slope by specifying the elevation spec of Point10.

To define the longitudinal slope using elevation specifications


1 Click General Properties, enter 0.00 for the rise angle and click OK to confirm.
General Properties again, deactivate the Same rise for 2 Click entire route option and click OK to confirm.

3 Select station point 10 and click the Route toolbar or Edit menu.

Edit Height Curvature on

4 Activate the Height option and enter the value 897.513648 for the absolute height (top level of road surface). The rise angle specified beforehand is entered.

5 Click OK to define the longitudinal slope.

132

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Task 2: entering cross-sections


In accordance with the road designed, you need to define different transverse slopes for the bridge cross-section. Start by defining the cross-section in the area of the spiral clothoid (station point 6). Enter a transverse slope of 5 % for this cross-section. You will then use it for the transition between the arc and the clothoid at pier 2 (station point 3). Next, you will modify the cross-section by adjusting it to the transverse slope of 0 %. For the transition between the clothoid and the arc at the north abutment (station point 9), you will use the option of matching dimensions you have already entered.

To define the bridge cross-section


1 Select station point 6 and click Define New Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu. 2 Click Add Cross-Section Variant on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu and select Box girder, type 1.

Geodesy

Appendix

133

As the cross-section is symmetrical, all you need to do is enter the values for the left-hand side and the slopes as shown below. Then you will apply these values to the cross-section's right-hand side.
Tip: As an alternative to TAB and Shift-TAB, you can also use the Page Up and Page Down keys to toggle between the data entry boxes.

3 Click the top left measurement of the cantilever, enter values in the unit of length set and use the TAB key to switch to the next data entry box. 4 Click the measurement of the box girder's left side, enter values in the unit of length set and use the TAB key to switch to the next data entry box. 5 Click the icon on the left, keep the mouse button pressed icon on the right. Now you down and drag the cursor to the can release the mouse button again.

6 Click OK to define the cross-section.

134

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

After having defined the bridge cross-section, you will now define the caps as separate cross-sections.

To create caps as additional cross-sections


1 Select cross-section point 11 in the tree structure and click Addition to Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu. 2 Click menu.
Add Polygon on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit

3 The coordinates of cross-section point 11 are used for the first point. Click OK to confirm the values.

4 Click in the graphics area above cross-section point 11. The coordinates of the point clicked are displayed. 5 Select the Delta option and enter the following values: X = 0.00, Y = 0.15

Geodesy

Appendix

135

6 Define the other four corners one after the other. To do this, click roughly where you want to place each corner and adjust the delta values in the dialog box: Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 Point 6
Point 3

X = -3.25 X = 0.00 X = 0.35 X = 0.00


Point 6

Y = 0.13 Y = -0.50 Y = 0.03 Y = 0.2625

Point 4

Point 5

Note: Point 6 is equivalent to point 1 of the bridge cross-section.

7 Right-click in the graphics area to finish entering the cross-section. 8 Use the same approach to create the cap on the right. The reference point is point 9 of the bridge cross-section.

136

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

9 Click route.

Save and Exit to assign the cross-section to the entire

Geodesy

Appendix

137

As you cannot use the entry dialog box to modify cross-sections calculated by Allplan, you will leave the cross-section as it is and use it for the transition between the arc and the clothoid at pier 2. Then you will modify the transverse slope of the cross-section in the area of the spiral clothoid.

To modify cross-sections
1 Select station point 3 and click Insert Active Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu. 2 Select station point 6 again and click on the Station toolbar or Edit menu.
Define Reference Point

As the first point of the bridge cross-section is at top left, place the reference point there. 3 Select the first option. Point 1 serves as the reference point. Leave this setting unchanged.

4 Click OK to define the reference point.


Edit Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or 5 Click Edit menu.

The Cross-Section Definition dialog box opens.


Modify Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or 6 Click Edit menu.

138

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

The entry dialog box of the defined bridge cross-section is displayed. 7 Change the transverse slopes of the road to 0 % and click OK to confirm.

As a result, the position of the cap on the right is too high and needs to be reduced by a value of 8.50 * 5 % = 0.425. 8 Select cross-section point 6 of cross-section 3 and click Modify Point on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu.

9 Change the value of the Y coordinate to -0.0725.


Tip: If these modifications lead to additional points or missing points, thus changing the shape of the area, stop modifying the cross-section without saving and start again at step 5.

10 Use the same approach to change the Y coordinates of the other points to the following values: Point 1 Point 2 Point 3 Point 4 Point 5 Y = 0.00 Y = -0.2625 Y = -0.2925 Y = 0.2075 Y = 0.0775

Note: Make sure that you modify the points in the correct sequence. If these modifications produce interlaced areas, the number of points will change.

Geodesy

Appendix

139

11 Click

Save and Exit to assign the modified cross-section.

For defining the bridge cross-section at the transition between the clothoid and the arc at the north abutment, you will use the option of matching dimensions you have already entered.

To retrieve the bridge cross-section from the database


1 Select station point 9 and click Define New Cross-Section on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu. 2 Click Add Cross-Section Variant on the Cross-Section toolbar or Edit menu and click OK to confirm the Selection of Cross-Section Variants dialog box. 3 Click Record Management at bottom left, choose Last entry and click OK to confirm.

4 Change the transverse slopes of the road to 5 % and click OK to confirm.

5 Create the two caps as additional cross-sections as described in Save and Exit. "Task 2: entering cross-sections". Then click

140

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Task 3: exporting data


The entries you make in the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool can be written to an Excel file or transferred to Allplan 2009's 3D Modeling module. Based on the path and the cross-sections defined, Allplan 2009 creates a 3D object with all the information from the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool. The 3D object is attached to the crosshairs and can be placed in the workspace. You can reimport this 3D object into the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool and and modify it there without additional steps. Now you want to create the bridge construction in Allplan 2009. As the reference line for the route is the road location line, you need to modify the reference point again. In addition, you will reduce the spacing between the station points to optimize the model.

To modify the reference point and spacing between station points


First select a station point with a defined cross-section. 1 Click menu.
Define Reference Point on the Station toolbar or Edit

2 Activate the first option if it isn't active and select point 10 as the reference point.

Geodesy

Appendix

141

3 Make sure that Applies to all station points is active and click OK to define the reference point. 4 Click menu.
General Properties on the Standard toolbar or Edit

5 Select the Route tab and enter the value 10 m for Regular spacing between station points.

6 Click OK to create the new station points. 7 Enter a name for the route and Save it. This way, you can open the route in the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool at any time.

142

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Now you have entered all the information you need to create the 3D object. Finally, you will export the data to Allplan 2009.

To export the route and create the 3D object


1 Click
Export Route on the Route toolbar or File menu.

Global point is active in the dialog line: In Allplan 2009, Global X coordinate = Global Y coordinate = Global Z coordinate = 0.000.

2 Press ENTER to confirm the settings.


Note: To define the transport point, open the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool, select General Properties and switch to the Define Transport Point tab.

3 Exit the Bridge and Civil Engineering Component tool. In 2 + 1 Animation Window (Window Allplan 2009, click menu). Now the bridge construction looks like this (elevation view as a hidden line image, display in animation modified):

Geodesy

Appendix

143

144

Bridge construction

Allplan 2009

Geodesy

Index

145

Index
3
3D elements, raising 77

C
checking element data 22 combining elements to produce a composite element 21 composite element 21, 37 computing cut and fill 113 connecting by filleting 47 contour lines 72 decimal places 75 labeling 72 smoothing factor 75 creating a DTM 64, 94 creating a grid 64, 94 creating a profile section 97 creating individual elements 17 cutaway 70

A
activating a profile section 98 adding elements to DTM 67 adding grid points 64 adjusting road location line to gradient 106 assigning point numbers 62

B
basic settings 9 input options 9 pen thickness and linetype 9 reference scale 9 toolbars 9 unit of length 9 breakline 70 bridge construction 125 bridge/civil engineering component additional cross-sections 134 defining bridge cross-section 132 defining the longitudinal slope using elevation specifications 131 defining the longitudinal slope using the rise angle 130 exporting route 142 importing route 128 matching a cross-section 137 modifying a cross-section 137 modifying spacing between station points 140 modifying the reference point 140 retrieving bridge cross-section from database 139

D
data exchange folder 90 data on Internet 88 decimal places for contour line labels 75 defining labels 24, 38 deleting a profile 100 digital terrain model 50 adding 64 creating 64, 94 drawing contour lines 72 entering a breakline 70 importing 89 meshing elements 67 modifying 75 optimizing 68 options 54 representation 54 direction of stationing 29 displaying DTM elements 54 drawing gradients 104

146

Index

Allplan 2009

E
element parameters 17 entity group 79 examples of stationing 30 exterior boundary 70

F
filleting 47

G
grid 57

placing point symbols in a grid 58 placing points 57 placing points in a grid 58 point number primary point number 62 secondary point number 62 primary point number 62 project creating 6

R
raising 3D elements 77 reference points default station 29 reference scale 9

I
importing a DTM 89 importing files 92 importing files into data exchange folder 90 input options 9

S
secondary point number 62 site plan 11 assigning point numbers 62 composite element 21 creating individual elements 17 options 14 secondary point number 62 slope 111 smoothing factor 75 sources of information training, coaching and project support 5 speed 107 spline 104 stations reference point 29 stationing direction 29 examples 30 reference point 29 reference points default station 29 stationing roadsides 109 stationing the location line 27

L
labeling defining 24, 38 performing 26 labeling contour lines 72 linetype 9 listing elements 22 listing individual elements 22

M
meshing elements with DTM 67 meshing, optimizing grid 64, 94 modifying a DTM 75 modifying point symbol height 106

O
offset 120 optimizing a DTM 64, 68 options digital terrain model 54 site plan 14

P
parallel lines 23, 37, 108 pen thickness 9 perpendicular through station 109 placing point symbols 57

Geodesy

Index

147

T
toolbars landscaping/urban planning 9 torsion trace 107 track tracing 10 transverse slop 109

U
unit 9 unit of length 9

148

Index

Allplan 2009