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SGD1 SCALP AND SKULL MED1B2015 Discuss the layers of the scalp and give the clinical significance

e of each layer. Skin Connective tissue (subcutaneous tissue) with thin layer of fat, fibrous tissue; highly vascular; rapid wound healing Aponeurosis epicranialis (galea aponeurotica) tough layer of dense fibrous tissue which runs from the frontalis muscle anteriorly to the occipitalis posteriorly Loose areolar tissue (loose subaponeurotic connective tissue) provides easy separation of the upper three layers of the pericranium; made up of collagen bundles; contain major blood vessels of the scalp; rich in GAGs Pericranium or periosteum of the skull provides nutrition for the bone and repair capacity *clinically important layer: Aponeurosis scalp lacerations through this layer renders the loss of anchorage for the superficial layers, thus gaping of wounds occur 1. 2. Illustrate the neurovascular supply and venous drainage of the scalp. Sensory Nerve Supply of the Scalp Nerve Branch of the Description supratrochlear nerve ophthalmic division of the - winds around the superior orbital margin and supplies the scalp trigeminal nerve - passes backward close to the median plane and reaches nearly as far as the vertex of the skull. supraorbital nerve ophthalmic division of the - winds around the superior orbital margin and ascends over the trigeminal nerve forehead - supplies the scalp as far backward as the vertex zygomaticotemporal nerve maxillary division of the - supplies the scalp over the temple trigeminal nerve auriculotemporal nerve mandibular division of the - ascends over the side of the head from in front of the auricle trigeminal nerve - its terminal branches supply the skin over the temporal region lesser occipital nerve cervical plexus (C2) - supplies the scalp over the lateral part of the occipital region and the skin over the medial surface of the auricle greater occipital nerve posterior ramus of the second - ascends over the back of the scalp and supplies the skin as far cervical nerve forward as the vertex of the skull

Arterial Supply of the Scalp Artery Branch of the supratrochlear and the ophthalmic artery supraorbital arteries superficial temporal artery smaller terminal branch of the external carotid artery

posterior auricular artery occipital artery

external carotid artery external carotid artery

Description - ascend over the forehead in company with the supratrochlear and supraorbital nerves - ascends in front of the auricle in company with the auriculotemporal nerve - divides into anterior and posterior branches, which supply the skin over the frontal and temporal regions - ascends behind the auricle to supply the scalp above and behind the auricle - ascends from the apex of the posterior triangle, in company with the greater occipital nerve - supplies the skin over the back of the scalp and reaches as high as the vertex of the skull

Venous Drainage of the Scalp Vein supratrochlear and supraorbital veins superficial temporal vein

Description - unite at the medial margin of the orbit to form the facial vein - unites with the maxillary vein in the substance of the parotid gland to form the retromandibular vein posterior auricular vein - unites with the posterior division of the retromandibular vein, just below the parotid gland, to form the external jugular vein occipital vein - drains into the suboccipital venous plexus, which lies beneath the floor of the upper part of the posterior triangle ( the plexus in turn drains into the vertebral veins or the internal jugular vein) * The veins of the scalp freely anastomose with one another and are connected to the diploic veins of the skull bones and the intracranial venous sinuses by the valveless emissary veins.

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Describe the temporalis muscle as to its origin, insertion, action and neurovascular supply. Temporalis Muscle Origin : temporal lines on the parietal bone of the skull Insertion: coronoid process of the mandible Artery : deep temporal Nerve : third branch of the trigeminal nerve (mandibular nerve) Enumerate the component bones of the neurocranium and viscerocranium. Viscerocranial Bones Neurocranial Bones (1) Frontal bone (2) Zygomatic bones (2) Maxillae (2) Parietal bones (1) Occipital bone (2) Nasal bones (2) Lacrimal bones (2) Temporal bones (1) Sphenoid bone (1) Vomer (2) Palatine bones (1) Ethmoid bone (2) Inferior conchae (1) Mandible Define the bony landmarks that demarcate the three cranial fossae and its contents. The interior of the base of the skull is divided into three cranial fossae: anterior, middle, and posterior. The anterior cranial fossa is separated from the middle cranial fossa by the lesser wing of the sphenoid, and the middle cranial fossa is separated from the posterior cranial fossa by the petrous part of the temporal bone. Identify the neurovascular structures transmitted by the different foraminae.

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