S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
SS
A
1
A
2
C
1 C
2
s
1
s
2
2
Figure 1. Planar double pendulum. The rst pendu
lum swings around a xed axis A
1
and carries the axis
A
2
of the second body. The centers of gravity C
1
and C
2
are distances s
1
and s
2
apart from the axes; the distance
between A
1
and A
2
is a. The conguration is determined
by the two angles
1
and
2
.
integrable. It is an elementary exercise to show that the Lagrangian
is [25, 20]
L =
1
2
(
1
+ m
2
a
2
)
2
1
+
1
2
2
(
1
+
2
)
2
+ m
2
s
2
a
1
(
1
+
2
) cos
2
,
(1)
where
1
,
2
are the moments of inertia of the two bodies with respect
to the respective suspension points, and m
2
is the mass of the second
pendulum. Scaling energies with
2
, all possible double pendulums are
described by the two parameters
(2) A :=
1
+ m
2
a
2
2
, :=
m
2
s
2
a
2
.
For the standard textbook case [19] with equal point masses at massless
rods of equal lengths, the values are A = 2 and = 1. In general, the
positivity of the moments of inertia implies A >
2
.
With the scaled Lagrangian
(3) L =
1
2
A
2
1
+
1
2
(
1
+
2
)
2
+
1
(
1
+
2
) cos
2
,
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 5
the angular momenta are
p
1
= (A + 1 + 2cos
2
)
1
+ (1 + cos
2
)
2
,
p
2
= (1 + cos
2
)
1
+
2
,
(4)
and the Hamiltonian becomes
(5) H =
1
2
p
2
1
2Q(cos
2
) p
1
p
2
+ P
1
(cos
2
) p
2
2
P
2
(cos
2
)
,
where
(6) Q(x) = 1 + x, P
1
(x) = A + 1 + 2x, P
2
(x) = A
2
x
2
.
Energy and total angular momentum are rst integrals, H =: h, p
1
=: l,
hence for xed h, l the motion is restricted to a Liouville torus T
h,l
.
The equations of motion are easily derived with the canonical for
malism. Their integration conveniently starts with
2
=
2
(
2
, p
2
; l)
where p
2
is then replaced with the solution of (5) for p
2
(
2
, l, h). The
result is
(7) t =
2
0
d
2
2
=
2
0
P
2
(cos
2
)
d
2
w
,
where
(8) w
2
= P
2
(cos
2
)[2hP
1
(cos
2
) l
2
].
This gives time t as a function of
2
. The complete integral over a
cycle of
2
gives the period T
2
.
The angle
1
can also be obtained as a function of
2
, after dividing
the two equations for
1
and
2
:
(9)
1
=
2
0
Q(cos
2
)
P
1
(cos
2
)
d
2
+ l
2
0
P
2
(cos
2
)
P
1
(cos
2
)
d
2
w
.
The complete integral over a cycle of
2
gives
1
=: 2W, where W
is the winding number of the orbit on T
h,l
.
The above integrals can also be derived with action angle variables
(
1
,
2
, I
1
, I
2
). The actions are dened as
(10) I
i
=
1
2
i
(p
1
d
1
+ p
2
d
2
) (i = 1, 2),
where
i
are two fundamental paths on T
h,l
. We choose
1
: d
2
= 0
and
2
: d
1
= 0. The rst action I
1
is then simply p
1
= l, the second
is the complete integral
(11) 2I
2
= l
2
Q(cos
2
)
P
1
(cos
2
)
d
2
+
2
w
P
1
(cos
2
)
d
2
.
6 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
With l = I
1
this is an implicit representation of the new Hamiltonian
h = h(I
1
, I
2
). We then require that the transformation (
1
,
2
, p
1
, p
2
)
(
1
,
2
, I
1
, I
2
) be canonical; this xes the angle variables associated with
the new momenta I
1
, I
2
. The corresponding generating function that
achieves this is
(12) F(
1
,
2
, I
1
, I
2
) = I
1
1
+
2
0
p
2
(
2
, I
1
, I
2
)d
2
.
From there, the new angles are obtained as
1
=
F
I
1
=
1
+
2
0
p
2
I
1
d
2
=
1
t, (13)
2
=
F
I
2
=
2
0
p
2
I
2
d
2
=
2
t. (14)
The constant frequencies
i
are given as
i
= h/I
i
. For
2
2/T
2
the identity
(15) T
2
= 2
I
2
h
I
1
gives the complete form of the integral (7). To get the rst period
1
,
we use the relation
(16) W =
1
2
=
1
2
=
I
2
I
1
h
and obtain for
1
the complete form of the integral (9).
2.2. The hyperelliptic nature of the problem. Let us now in
troduce the more convenient coordinate x := cos
2
, dx =
1 x
2
d
2
,
and the polynomial of degree 5
(17) P
5
(x) = 4
1x
2
2
x
2
x
l
2
4h
+
A + 1
2
=: 4
5
i=1
(xe
i
),
which denes the hyperelliptic curve V (z) of genus 2
(18) V := {z = (x, y) C
2
: y
2
= P
5
(x)}.
Its branch points (e
k
, 0) all lie on the real xaxis; we call them e
k
for
short and arrange them in the order e
1
e
2
. . . e
5
< e
6
:= .
Two of them are 1; they are the boundaries of the physically accessible
range x
2
cos
2
2
1. Two other roots of P
5
(x) are
A/; they
only depend on the parameters of the double pendulum and lie outside
the physical range. The root
(19) r :=
l
2
4h
A + 1
2
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 7
depends on the angular momentum; its collisions with the xed roots
indicate bifurcations in the set of Liouville tori. At the maximum
possible value of l
2
, l
2
max
:= 2h(A + 1 + 2), we have r = 1. With
decreasing l
2
, the root r moves towards the point 1 and reaches it
at l
2
sep
:= 2h(A + 1 2). This marks the bifurcation from oscillatory
to rotational behavior of the angle
2
. There is another collision of
roots when r =
A 1
2
inside the rotational regime, but it does not involve a critical Liouville
torus. Instead, it marks the resonance W = 0 between the two angular
motions (
1
= 0). Finally, at l
2
= 0 we have r = (A + 1)/2.
Summing up, there are three regimes with physical motion:
e
1
=
, e
2
= 1, e
3
= r, (l
2
sep
< l
2
< l
2
max
);
e
1
=
, e
2
= r, e
3
= 1, (l
2
res
< l
2
< l
2
sep
); (20)
e
1
= r, e
2
=
, e
3
= 1, (0 < l
2
< l
2
res
).
The roots e
4
= 1 and e
5
=
5
k=0
k
x
k
, we have the coecients
5
= 4
4
=
2
A + 1
l
2
2h
1
=
4A
2
,
0
=
4
A
2
, (21)
3
= (
1
+
5
),
2
= (
0
+
4
).
The Riemann surface of the curve V shall now be equipped with
the homology basis (a
1
, a
2
; b
1
, b
2
) H
1
(V, Z) shown in Figure 2. The
physical motion takes place in the range e
3
x e
4
which means that
a
2
is the cycle of interest. As e
4
= 1 corresponds to the angle
2
= 0,
we choose this point as the starting point of integration. Let us collect
the relevant integrals:
t =
x
e
4
(A
2
x
2
)
dx
y
(time) (22)
T
2
=
a
2
(A
2
x
2
)
dx
y
(period) (23)
2W = c + l
a
2
A
2
x
2
A + 1 + 2x
dx
y
(winding number) (24)
2I
2
= 2Wl 2hT
2
(action) (25)
8 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
e
1
e
2
a
1

e
3
e
4
a
2

e
5
e
6
=
b
1

b
2

Figure 2. Homology basis on the Riemann surface of
the curve V (z) with real branch points e
1
< e
2
< . . . <
e
6
= (upper sheet). The cuts are drawn from e
2i1
to
e
2i
, i = 1, 2, 3. The bcycles are completed on the lower
sheet (dotted lines).
The constant c is determined with the theorem of residues:
(26) c = 2
1
1
1 + x
A + 1 + 2x
dx
1 x
2
=
1
A 1
(A + 1)
2
4
2
.
The dicult part of the problem is the inversion of the Abelian
integral (22). In integrable systems where it has been solved (see, e. g.,
[9]), the number f of degrees of freedom coincides with the genus g of
the Riemann surface which is shared by all f = g coordinates. These
coordinates x
1
, . . . , x
g
are conned to g mutually dierent branch cuts,
and together, as a set, they are determined by the Jacobi inversion
of the Abel mapping. In our case, like in many others that occur in
physics, the genus of the hyperelliptic curve, g = 2, is larger than the
number of the eective degrees of freedom, f = 1: the motion of
2
takes place along the branch cut a
2
, and
1
is passively coupled to it.
There is no dynamic role to the other real branch cuts. But then, how
do we solve the inversion problem?
The answer involves the divisor of the Jacobi variety.
3. Jacobis inversion problem and the divisor
Let V (x, y) C
2
be a hyperelliptic Riemann surface of genus g 2,
and z (x, y) a point on it. An Abelian integral
(27) u = u(z) =
z
z
0
R(x, y)dx =:
z
z
0
du,
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 9
where z
0
is any xed reference point and R(x, y) a rational function in
x and y, cannot be considered a onetoone map V (z) C(u) because
its inverse would have to be a 2gperiodic function on C, and such
functions do not exist (in contrast to the case g = 1 where the doubly
periodic elliptic functions are the inverse of Abel maps). Jacobi realized
that the problem ought to be formulated in terms of a gdimensional
complex variety, namely, the Jacobi variety J(V ) of the curve V .
3.1. The case of genus 2: preliminaries. As the double pen
dulum involves a curve of genus 2, we treat this case in detail. To
start, we choose a basis of canonical holomorphic dierentials du
t
=
(du
1
, du
2
) and associated meromorphic dierentials of the second kind,
dr
t
= (dr
1
, dr
2
), in such a way that their periods
2
ik
=
a
k
du
i
, 2
ik
=
b
k
du
i
, (28)
2
ik
=
a
k
dr
i
, 2
ik
=
b
k
dr
i
, (29)
satisfy the generalized Legendre relation
(30)
0 1
2
1
2
0
t
=
i
2
0 1
2
1
2
0
,
where 1
2
is the 2 2 unit matrix. Such a set of dierentials can be
realized with (see [3])
(31) du
1
=
dx
y
, du
2
=
x dx
y
,
and
(32) dr
1
=
3
x + 2
4
x
2
+ 12x
3
4y
dx, dr
2
=
x
2
y
dx.
The periods 2
ik
, 2
ik
are real, the periods 2
ik
, 2
ik
imaginary. We
shall also need the normalized holomorphic dierentials
(33) dv = (2)
1
du,
as well as the symmetric matrices of periods
(34) :=
1
, := (2)
1
.
It is an important fact that is a Riemann matrix, i. e., i is negative
denite.
In the example of the double pendulums time dierential, we have
from (22)
(35) dt = Adu
1
2
dr
2
,
10 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
which involves only two of the four basic dierentials. But let us de
velop the solution procedure for a general dierential of the rst or
second kind,
(36) dt = a du
1
+ b du
2
+ c dr
1
+ d dr
2
.
The Jacobi variety J(V ) is a twodimensional complex torus C
2
/,
where is the lattice generated by the periods of the canonical holo
morphic dierentials; denote as
J(V ) the complex torus C
2
/
, where
J(V ), dened
by
(37) u
i
(z) =
z
z
0
du
i
, v
i
(z) =
z
z
0
dv
i
, (i = 1, 2)
respectively, generate onedimensional images of the Riemann surface
V in the twodimensional Jacobi variety. Obviously, with these maps,
it would not make sense to look for preimages of every point in J(V ) or
z
1
z
0
du +
z
2
z
0
du = u(z
1
) +u(z
2
)
(and similarly for the normalized version), then almost everywhere this
map establishes a onetoone correspondence between points {z
1
, z
2
}
S
2
V and u J(V ). This is Jacobis setting for the inversion problem.
3.2. Theta functions. The key to its solution are theta func
tions [13, 12]. They come in two forms, and both are needed. First,
the canonical function (v) is a map
J(V ) C:
(39) (v) =
mZ
2
exp i
m
t
m+ 2v
t
m
.
As function on the universal covering C
2
of
J(V ), it is even, periodic
in the real, or directions, and quasiperiodic in the imaginary, or
directions:
(v) = (v), (40)
(v +n) = (v), (41)
(v + n) = e
in
t
n2iv
t
n
(v), (42)
where n is any vector from Z
2
. The exponential multiplier in (42)
makes (v) a multivalued function on
J(V ).
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 11
Second, Riemanns
e
function
e
( ) : V C, is the composition
of Abels map, normalization, translation, and the canonical function:
(43)
e
(z) =
(2)
1
u(z) e
v(z) e
,
where e
t
= (e
1
, e
2
)
zero
. Riemanns vanishing theorem (Nullstellensatz) relates them to
the solution of the inversion problem [13, 12]:
Theorem 3.1 (Riemanns vanishing theorem in the case of genus 2).
The function
e
(z) either vanishes identically on V or else has pre
cisely g = 2 zeros. In the latter case, the zeros z
1
, z
2
fulll the identity
(44) v({z
1
, z
2
}) =
z
1
z
0
dv +
z
2
z
0
dv = e +K
z
0
,
where K
z
0
= (K
1
, K
2
)
t
is the Riemann vector associated with the base
point z
0
:
K
1
=
1 +
11
2
a
2
dv
2
(z)
z
z
0
dv
1
,
K
2
=
1 +
22
2
a
1
dv
1
(z)
z
z
0
dv
2
.
(45)
The Riemann vectors for two dierent base points z, z
0
are related by
(46) K
z
= K
z
0
+
z
z
0
dv.
For all v = K
z
, the canonical function vanishes, (K
z
) = 0.
Hence, the Riemann function vanishes identically when e is chosen
as K
z
0
because then
(47)
Kz
0
z
z
0
dv
z
z
0
dv +K
z
0

= (K
z
) = 0.
In the usual applications of the theorem [9], the two preimages z
1
,
z
2
of a point v
e
does not vanish identically on V . Explicit solutions of the inversion
problem will be given later, see (63). We shall be interested in the
opposite case: the restriction of v to
zero
.
12 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
Before we address this problem, let us get familiar with the Riemann
vectors. The formal denition (45) looks cumbersome, but Riemann
developed a surprisingly simple characterization in explicit terms [13].
At this point it is convenient to introduce the halfinteger charac
teristics [],
(48) [] =
1
2
,
where
1
,
2
and
1
,
2
are taken from the set {0,
1
2
}. Thetafunctions
with characteristics are dened as
(49) [](v) =
mZ
2
exp i
(m+
)
t
(m+
) +2(v +)
t
(m+
.
Their importance lies in the fact that they are a convenient manner to
describe functions with shifted arguments. A simple relation holds
between [](v) and the fundamental function (v) = [
0
0
0
0
] (v):
(50) [](v) = exp
2i
t
(v + +
1
2
(v + +
).
It follows that a shift by a vector from the halflattice,
(51) v v + +
,
transforms the functions in a simple way. In particular, if [](0)
vanishes, then ( +
[](v).
Among the 16 possible halfinteger characteristics [], there are 6 for
which 4
t
e
k
e
j
dv. This is the specialization of (46) to
the branching points of our Riemann curve,
(54) K
e
i
= v
i
.
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 13
More generally we may say that the divisor is the set of all possible
Riemann vectors.
Notice that modulo integer lattice vectors, we have
(55) v
1
+v
3
+v
5
= v
2
+v
4
+v
6
= 0.
This reects the fact that with the basis in Fig. 2, the cycle around
the branch cut from e
5
to e
6
is homologous to (a
1
+ a
2
), while the
cycle around e
2
and e
3
, going back on the lower sheet, is homologous
to b
1
b
2
. It follows, for example, that
(56) K
e
6
= v
6
= v
2
v
4
=
e
2
e
6
dv
e
4
e
6
dv,
but the signs do not matter because 2K
e
6
is a lattice vector.
3.3. Explicit solutions. How does this help solving the Jacobi
inversion problem? Consider rst the case where v = (2)
1
u does not
lie on
zero
, and take, for example, e
6
as the base point for integration
in (38). Then Riemanns theorem states that z
1
, z
2
are the two zeros
of
(57)
e
(z) =
z
e
6
dv e
z
e
6
dv
z
1
e
2
dv
z
2
e
4
dv
because e =
z
1
e
6
dv +
z
2
e
6
dv K
e
6
=
z
1
e
2
dv +
z
2
e
4
dv. Let us check
that
e
(z
1
) = 0:
(58)
z
1
e
6
dv e
e
2
e
6
dv
z
2
e
4
dv
K
e
4
z
2
e
4
dv
K
z
2

= 0.
In a similar way, we nd
e
(z
2
) = 0.
Let us absorb the Riemann vector in the denition of a shifted Abel
Jacobi map. Instead of (38) consider
(59) u({z
1
, z
2
}) =
z
1
e
6
du +
z
2
e
6
du 2K
e
6
=
z
1
e
2
du +
z
2
e
4
du.
Then z
1
= (x
1
, y
1
), z
2
= (x
2
, y
2
) are the zeros of
e
(z) with e =
(2)
1
u. The theory of Abelian functions now tells us [4, 6] that this
inversion problem is equivalent to nding the roots of the quadratic
equation
(60) x
2
22
(u)x
12
(u) = 0,
14 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
where
ij
are second logarithmic derivatives of the fundamental 
function,
(61)
ij
(u) =
2
ln (u)
u
i
u
j
=
i
ij
2
.
The function (u) is closely related to the function:
(62) (u) = C exp{u
t
u}
(2)
1
u
,
and the indices i, j at mean corresponding derivatives with respect
to u
i
, u
j
. The modulus = (2)
1
was dened in (34); it contains
the periods of the dierentials of the second kind. The constant C can
be given explicitly but does not matter here.
Solving equation (60) we nd for the symmetric combinations of
the two roots
x
1
+ x
2
=
22
(u),
x
1
x
2
=
12
(u).
(63)
Furthermore, the corresponding y
k
can be expressed as
(64) y
k
=
222
x
k
+
122
, k = 1, 2.
This solves the inversion problem in explicit terms, as far as integrals
of the rst kind are concerned. (In the next section, integrals of the
second kind will also be considered.)
In a typical physical situation where this analysis applies [9], the
two points (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
) on the Riemann surface lie in the re
gions e
1
x
1
e
2
and e
3
x
2
e
4
, respectively, cf. gure 2. x
1
and x
2
represent two degrees of freedom of the system. Their time
development is given by (63) because u varies linearly with t, as (36)
shows (ignore the second order dierentials for a moment).
But what if only one of the ranges (e
1
, e
2
) or (e
3
, e
4
) has physical
meaning, as in the case of the double pendulum? Then we need a set
ting where there is a onetoone correspondence between points on the
Riemann surface and points in the Jacobi variety. This can be estab
lished by the requirement that v = (2)
1
u lie on the divisor. The
curve V and
zero
are isomorphic manifolds of complex dimension 1,
so it ought to be possible to recover a single point z that maps to
u
zero
under the Abel map. Let us see how this can be done.
Notice rst that
zero
is also the set of zeros of the function.
Therefore a naive application of (63) to points of
zero
would produce
innities for x
1
+ x
2
and x
1
x
2
. We must proceed with some care and
consider their ratio. Take the shifted AbelJacobi map (59) and let
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 15
x
2
e
6
= . Then (46) tells us that
(65) u({z, }) =
z
e
2
du +
e
4
du =
z
e
2
du +K
e
2
= K
z
zero
for any z V , i. e., the map u
0
: V J(V ) dened by
(66) z u
0
(z) = u({z, }) = K
z
zero
J(V ),
takes a point z to its home position on
zero
. If we now approach
the point u(z, ) as lim
x
2
u({z, x
2
}), we nd with (63) that x may
be consistently determined from
(67) x = lim
x
2
xx
2
x + x
2
= lim
0
12
2
2
22
=
2
(u
0
).
This is the explicit inversion of the map (66). We remark that the
equality (67) was obtained in [14].
The last piece in the puzzle is to nd an expression for the time
t =
z
dr
1
and
z
dr
2
. To
this end, we employ a few more relations from the theory of hyper
elliptic functions [5, 6]. In traditional notation, the rst logarithmic
derivative of is called a function,
(68)
i
(u) =
log (u)
u
i
=
i
(u).
Then the relations
z
1
e
2
dr
1
+
z
2
e
4
dr
1
=
1
(u) +
1
2
222
(u), (69)
z
1
e
2
dr
2
+
z
2
e
4
dr
2
=
2
(u) (70)
hold [5, 6] and are used in the solution of the Jacobi inversion problem.
The diculty here is that we are interested in the limit z
2
and
16 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
0, i. e., we must investigate the behavior of the function and its
derivatives as u u({z
1
, z
2
}) u({z
1
, }) u
0
. We have
(71) u u
0
=
z
2
e
6
du
and consider the following Taylor expansion:
(72)
i
(u) =
i
u
0
+ (u u
0
)
=
i
(u
0
) +
i1
(u
0
)(u
1
u
0,1
) +
i2
(u
0
)(u
2
u
0,2
) + . . .
(u
0
) +
1
(u
0
)(u
1
u
0,1
) +
2
(u
0
)(u
2
u
0,2
) + . . .
.
We need expressions for u
i
u
0,i
=
z
2
e
6
du
i
. Since = e
6
is a branch
point of our hyperelliptic curve, the appropriate local coordinate is :
x = 1/
2
. Inserting this into the denition of du
i
, see (31), we nd
(using e
1
+ e
2
+ e
3
+ e
4
+ e
5
=
4
/4)
z
2
e
6
du
1
=
1
3
3
+
4
40
5
+ O(
7
), (73)
z
2
e
6
du
2
= +
4
24
3
+ O(
5
). (74)
This is inserted into (72) and gives
(75)
i
(u) =
i
(u
0
)
i2
(u
0
) + O(
3
)
2
(u
0
) +
1
2
22
(u
0
) + O(
3
)
=
1
2
+
i2
22
2
2
2
+ O().
In order to use this in the expressions (69) and (70), we must also
determine the asymptotic behavior of the second kind integrals:
z
2
e
6
dr
1
=
1
3
+
4
8
+ O(), (76)
z
2
e
6
dr
2
=
1
+
4
8
+ O(
3
). (77)
For
dr
2
we see immediately that the leading singularities 1/ cancel
on the two sides of (70). Hence we have the result that
(78)
z
1
e
4
dr
2
=
22
2
2
(u
0
) + c
2
,
where
(79) c
2
=
22
2
2
(u
e
4
)
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 17
and u
e
4
= (u
e
4
,1
, u
e
4
,2
)
t
= u({e
4
, }) =
e
4
e
4
du +
e
6
e
2
du =
e
6
e
2
du.
The case of
dr
1
is more involved. As (69) shows, we must consider
the expansion of
222
as u u
0
. The formal expansion rst gives
(80)
222
=
2
3
2
4
8
2222
2
2
2
222
22
2
+
3
22
4
3
2
+ O().
But the independent term can be shown to be zero! To do so, we
employ one of the KdVtype equations which the
ij
functions fulll,
namely [5, 6],
(81)
2222
= 6
2
22
+
1
2
3
+
4
22
+ 4
12
.
Considering its expansion in , and comparing the leading terms of
order
2
and
1
on both sides, we nd
222
=
3
4
2
22
2
+
4
4
2
+
1
,
2222
=
22
2
22
2
2
+
4
2
2
+ 2
1
(82)
on the divisor. We remark that formulae of the form (82) were de
rived and implemented in [14, 21]. Inserting them into (80) makes the
constant term vanish.
Collecting all the terms involved in (69), we see that
z
1
e
4
dr
1
=
12
(u
0
)
2
(u
0
)
+
1
(u
0
)
22
(u
0
)
2
2
(u
0
)
2
+ c
1
(83)
=
12
(u
0
)
2
(u
0
)
x
1
22
(u
0
)
2
2
(u
0
)
+ c
1
,
where we used (67) for the last equality and
(84) c
1
=
12
(u
e
4
)
2
(u
e
4
)
1
(u
e
4
)
22
(u
e
4
)
2
2
(u
e
4
)
2
.
We can now return to the dierential dt in (36) and outline a pos
sible inversion procedure for its integral t(x) =
x
e
4
dt. We require that
u
0
= (u
1
, u
2
)
t
+u
e
4
lie on
zero
, i. e., we use its denition (u
0
) = 0 to
express u
2
as a function of u
1
. Then Eq. (67) allows us to express x as
a function of u
1
,
(85) x =
u
0
u
1
+ u
e
4
,1
, u
2
(u
1
) + u
e
4
,2
= x(u
1
).
18 V. Z. ENOLSKII, M. PRONINE, AND P. H. RICHTER
Next we express the time integral as a function of u
0
on the divisor,
t(x) =
z
e
4
dt (86)
= a u
1
+ b u
2
+ c
12
2
x
1
22
2
2
+ c
1
+ d
22
2
2
+ c
2
,
where the constants c
1
and c
2
are given in (84) and (79). Using again
= 0 to eliminate u
2
, we get t = t(u
1
). The nal step is to invert this
relation and insert it into (85) to obtain x = x(u
1
(t)).
5. Comments and outlook
We found that the divisor in the Jacobi variety of the systems
hyperelliptic curve can be used to solve the inversion problem, and we
presented a procedure which we checked in detail by numerical compu
tations. As far as the double pendulum at zero gravity is concerned,
the analytic nature of its integration has thereby been claried.
The analysis ought to be extended to encompass even more in
volved situations. For example, the time dierential dt may have con
tributions of the third kind; this situation has not yet been considered.
Another interesting generalization refers to higher genera. The work
of Jorgensen [16] and
Onishi [21] contains hints as to how one would
proceed. Consider a Riemann surface with genus g = 3 as an exam
ple. The number f of degrees of freedom may be 1, 2, or 3. The case
f = g is the standard situation where u moves linearly with time t
(ignoring complications from dierentials of second and third kind).
The case f = g 1 = 2 involves a restriction to a codimension 1 man
ifold. This may again be the theta divisor. With du = (du
1
, du
2
, du
3
)
and du
k
= x
k1
dx/y, the theta divisor
zero
is the twodimensional
manifold (z
0
considered as a xed base point on V )
(87)
2
:= {(z
1
, z
2
) :
z
1
z
0
du +
z
2
z
0
du +K
z
0
}.
It is again characterized by = 0, and the inversion problem from
u
2
to z
1
, z
2
V is solved with x
1
+x
2
=
1
/
3
and x
1
x
2
=
2
/
3
.
The case f = g 2 = 1 requires a further restriction to the set
(88)
1
:= {z :
z
z
0
du +K
z
0
}
which is characterized by = 0 and
3
= 0. The inversion from u
1
to z V is solved with x =
1
/
2
as in (67).
DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 19
The generalization to arbitrary genus is obvious, at least in princi
ple. The sets
0
:= {K
z
0
} and
(89)
f
:= {(z
1
, . . . , z
f
) :
z
1
z
0
du + . . . +
z
f
z
0
du +K
z
0
}
(f = 1, . . . , g) dene a stratication
(90)
0
1
. . .
g1
=
zero
g
= J(V ),
and problems with f degrees of freedom should be treated on the stra
tum
f
.
We are not aware of any previous attempt to put the divisor to
this use, let alone its generalizations
f
. Let us conclude with a remark
on the computational aspects of this procedure. To identify the Jacobi
variety, we need the periods
ij
and
ij
, and if dierentials of the second
kind play a role, the periods
ij
and
ij
as well. These periods can only
be obtained by numerical integration. But given these periods, we
can discuss the time development in terms of  and functions for
which there exist ecient computational procedures in the spirit of
Weierstrass recursions [7] . Unfortunately, the picture is not as simple
as in the usual case f = g where the dynamics in the Jacobi variety
is linear. The divisor is a nonlinear object, not simpler than the
Riemann surface itself, hence its usefulness for practical purposes is
limited.
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DOUBLE PENDULUM AND DIVISOR 21
Dipartimento di Fisica, E. R. Caianiello, Universita di Salerno,
Via S. Allende, I84081 Baronissi (SA), Italy
Email address: enolskii@sa.infn.it,vze@ma.hw.ac.uk
Institut f ur Theoretische Physik and Institut f ur Dynamische Sys
teme, Universit at Bremen, Postfach 33 04 40, D28334, Bremen, Ger
many
Email address: Pronin@Physik.UNIBremenDE
Institut f ur Theoretische Physik and Institut f ur Dynamische Sys
teme, Universit at Bremen, Postfach 33 04 40, D28334, Bremen, Ger
many
Email address: PRichter@Physik.UNIBremenDE