Anda di halaman 1dari 83

Hindi should replace English as a link language.

"
FOR

1. Hindi is spoken/ understood by a majority of the population of our

country whereas English is spoken/understood by a limited section of educated people. So, for mass communication purposes, Hindi would be better suited in the context of national integration. 2. Hindi has its roots in Sanskrit like most other Indian languages. Hence learning Hindi would be easier than learning English, which is a foreign language.

AGAINST

because most of the educational literature especially in the fields of science and technology is available in English only. 2. Most people in non-Hindi speaking states feel that emergence of Hindi reduces the importance of their own language. In their view, since English is the lingua franca of the world, its total replacement by Hindi would cut India off from the rest of the World.

1. Hindi cannot function as a link language as effectively as English

Present day ills of Society can be attributed to the democratic system of government in India."
FOR

1. Even after years of democracy, most of the social/economic evils like

poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, casteism, regionalism, communalism etc., are rampant in present-day society. A democratic form of government has resulted in the perpetuation of the above evils because petty, corrupt, self-centered politicians have exploited people and society. 2. Democracy, which means rule by the majority, in the Indian context has turned out to be rule by the ignorant majority, - those who cannot differentiate between good and evil while exercising their franchise. 3. Democratic rule has become synonymous with populistic rule with welfare measures having more appeal than developmental activities. AGAINST

1. Among the countries that gained independence during the postwar


period, India's survival as the largest democratic country, despite its diversities and complexities, and India's emergence as the leading third world country shows that democracy has not totally failed in India. The all- round development, which is appreciated by the world at large, shows that India has achieved good progress. 2. Institutions like a free press, fundamental rights, Directive Principles of State Policy have encouraged the growth of the individual and a free society which will go a long way in the overall development of the nation in the long run. 3. Economic/Social evils cannot be attributed to the democratic form of government, as they are prevalent even in other forms of government.

"Adult Franchise - Age alone as criteria for the right to vote is not correct. Education also should be a criterion."
FOR

1. Considering the low percentage of literacy in India, people's ability to

judge between right and wrong, good and evil and to choose the right man as their representative is considerably influenced by extraneous factors such as caste, money etc. Educated people are not swayed by these factors and hence can make a better judgement. 2. Educated voters can not only elect the correct leaders but also keep a watch on their effective functioning, as they are well informed about the happenings in the country. Politicians also will be careful for fear of corrective actions. AGAINST

1. Even the educated may lack the quality of judgment to choose between
the right and the wrong.

2. Because of the low literacy rate in India, restriction of right to vote to


the educated alone would mean the rule of the few over the vast majority, depriving them of participating in shaping their own destinies.

"Autonomy to electronic media could be disastrous to the society."


FOR

1. The reaction and impact of the electronic media is vast. Lack of control

may lead to activities that may hurt the sentiments of people, thereby affecting the national fabric of unity. 2. Composition of viewer ship of this media is diverse, ranging from children to old persons. Loosening of control will lead to programmes of mass appeal playing upon basic emotions of people and hence will have a negative impact on the people.

AGAINST

government's purposes. By giving autonomy to the media, people's right to information as enshrined in the Directive Principles of the Constitution would be honoured. 2. The removal of bureaucratic hassles involved at various stages will go a long way in improving the quality of programmes as well as catering to the needs of people of varied interests. 3. Deliberate manipulation.

1. Governmental control of media results in programmes that suit the

"Terrorism can be eliminated only by use of sheer military force rather than by a political dialogue."
FOR

1. Conciliatory measures have failed to curb the increase of terrorism as

the terrorists are motivated by harrow and perverted ideologies, which are not amenable to reason. Therefore use of force is the only way to curb terrorism. 2. The situations in Punjab, North East, Kashmir and Sri Lanka clearly prove that the trigger-happy terrorists resort to indiscriminate killings to create terror among people. There is neither an organized leadership nor a sense of purpose in their activities. Therefore, negotiations would not yield any result.

AGAINST

1. Lessons from Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Punjab, Assam and Kashmir show

that by sheer force, terrorism cannot be curbed. Systematic attempts to remove the political /economic grievances of the terrorists, combined with persuasive negotiations alone would succeed. 2. Political solution would alone be the lasting solution, and the use of force would only temporarily solve the problem. Even though suppressed for a while, terrorism would crop up again as the terrorists are mostly unemployed, frustrated youth, who are very much committed to the redressal of their grievances.

"Computerisation in banks is desirable."


FOR

1. Computerisation in banks is desirable because it will lead to reduction in

delays with regard to clearance of cheques, drafts etc., resulting in better customer service. 2. Introduction of computers in banks will also improve the work attitude on the part of the bank employees. Apathy towards customers' problems will have no excuse, which will ultimately boost investment by the general public as well as the business and industrial class, as they would like to transact each and every business through banks. 3. Computers will hasten the process of building a modern, self-reliant and industrialised India as the volume of operations, due to its vast area and tremendous natural and human resources, is fast growing beyond mere human control. Banks have a crucial role to play in the development of the economy and only computers can keep pace with such heavy demands of the future. 4. Introduction of computers will open new avenues of bank employment, in the field of data processing, systems analysis, programming etc. A boost to the computer industry will automatically bring about radical growth in the semiconductor and allied industries which will have its effect not only in banking but also in defence, space, atomic energy etc. AGAINST

growth rate of economy to warrant Computerisation in banks. What India requires is the extensive expansion of the banking industry so as to reach out to the rural areas and tap the rural resources. 2. Except a few centres like Mumbai, Madras or Delhi, the volume of operations in banks is still manageable by the employees. Computerisation will lead to retrenchment or will stop the recruitment of people, which is bad in a labour- intensive economy like India. 3. Poor service to the customers could be corrected by giving the bank employees proper training in human relations and productivity. Because if attitudes do not change, giving computers will not make a difference. After all, humans operate computers too! 4. Computers by themselves cannot take decisions or initiate an innovation. It is the human element that is solely endowed with this quality. Thus for making progress, only Computerisation will not help. Proper management of human and physical resources is more important than just Computerisation.

1. India, being largely an agricultural country, does not have the required

"Government should fund elections. "


FOR

periodically take place. Elections are costly affairs requiring huge sums of money to contest. Political parties receive donations from the business, industrial and other pressure groups. So, they expect the members of legislatures to frame policies to suit their interests. 2. The money spent by each candidate is not honestly declared. What is declared is a small fraction of the total money that is spent. Naturally, unaccounted money or black money enters through the back door in elections, which is detrimental to the economy and politics. 3. Whenever a candidate is elected, and especially if he belongs to the ruling party, he has to prepare for contesting the next election, which means he has to resort to unfair means for acquiring wealth that results in corruption. This has a demoralizing effect on the bureaucracy. Thus elections set up a vicious circle of corruption, which permeates down to the bureaucracy corrupting the whole system. 4. The cost of contesting an election being very high, many a time, good candidates who cannot afford the expense, stay away from elections. Thus, criminal elements get to dominate in the august body of the Parliament. AGAINST

1. The root cause of corruption in our polity is the nature of elections that

misappropriation because the number of candidates may increase and they may keep the money to themselves by fabricating evidence of expenditure. 2. With government funding the elections, not only the number of candidates will increase in the election fray but also there is no guarantee that vested interests will still not influence prospective candidates to get future policies in their favour. 3. Funding of election by the State is no remedy to the evils with which our political parties are beset. Moral values, ethical norms and national consciousness cannot be instilled and imbibed in the minds of contestants. As State will fund the elections, frequency of elections, will further increase. 4. State funding of elections will erode the limited financial resources of our economy. Moreover, this investment will be in the nature of nonproductive investment.

1. Funding of elections by the State will not necessarily mean removal of

"Strikes should be prohibited."


FOR

1. Every year, lakhs of man-days are lost due to strikes, lockouts and

work-to-rule methods adopted by labour leaders. This is obviously not conducive to the rapid growth of our economy, which is our national goal. On an average, 54 lakh man-days per year are lost due to strikes and lockouts. Economy improves through productivity. A country like India cannot effectively bring about equitable distribution of wealth among its people if productivity does not increase. As most of the man-days are lost due to strikes, it is in the interest of the nation and its people alike to ban strikes in the country. 2. The legitimate demands-of workers could be channelised through various forums like workers' representatives in management, labour ministry, welfare ministry, as these venues are open to them. But for petty issues and personal prestige, labour leaders provoke workers to resort to strikes on artificial and superficial demands. Thus, instead of using strike as a medicine, they are using it as a meal. 3. Strikes should not be considered as a 'right'. The workers and their leaders should also realise their 'duty' towards the community. As the Indian example shows a contrary picture, it is desirable and necessary to ban strikes legally. 4. Strike is a key to violence. It often culminates into disruption, destruction and loss of property and human life. This results in serious damages to the economy and society. AGAINST

1. Democracy implies the right to dissent. Thus the right to strike cannot
be taken away in a democracy. helps maintain the balance of power between the employer and the employees. It protects the workers from possible exploitation by the employers. 3. Genuine grievances of the workers find their expression through the means of the right to go on a strike. It gives the management and the employers sufficient time to think rationally on their legitimate demands. If the right to strike were taken away, there would be a communication gap. The employers will consider tranquility amongst the workers as an all-is-well sign, which may not be the true picture. Explosive outbursts in some sudden and unexpected manner may result and the resultant situation will be chaotic, unmanageable and pregnant with deleterious consequences for the organisation in the long term. 4. The strike is a natural sequel to other peaceful means such as petitions and lists of demands that are put across to employers. Thus, it is the right to strike which gives rise to discussions, debates and reconciliation, which are essential for the survival of democracy and for putting things in the right perspective.

2. The right to strike is the only weapon in the hands of workers, which

"Should reservations be scrapped?"


FOR

lowers the standard of education. Education should be promoted solely on the criterion of merit and nothing else. By lowering the standards of professionals who are turned out at such institutions, we are placing ourselves in the hands of incompetent persons, which is detrimental to the well being of the society. 2. Originally, the Constitution-makers, including Dr.Ambedkar, had maintained that reservations should be for ten years only so that others are not deprived of equal benefits. However, even now the ruling parties just to secure votes are extending reservations. The issue of reservations has been totally politicised and reservations are continued mainly to secure votes from these sections. Reserved communities are treated as vote banks. 3. Well-off families from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes also get benefits of the reservation policy, which is not fair to poor families of unreserved segments. 4. Reservations go against democratic norms as they violate the principles of equality. AGAINST

1. Reservation for admissions to medical and engineering institutions

sanctions it. It is the Parliament that has the right to amend the reservation policy, and since Parliament consists of people's representatives, it clearly reflects the will and opinion of the people of India. 2. Benefits of reservation policy have not permeated and percolated to the most downtrodden people for whom they are meant. Scheduled castes and tribes have not come out of the exclusion and have not joined the mainstream of the society on their own, and so long as they are not able to compete with the rest of the society on equal footing, reservation policy should continue. 3. The backward classes who have suffered for thousands of years cannot be expected to advance in a small period of time like 30 to 40 years. If they are to be given a proper chance of coming on equal footing with the rest of the society, then the policy of reservation i.e. positive discrimination should be continued for few more years. 4. In a multi-religious, multi-ethnic, multi-ethnic, multi-caste plural society in India, the State must take special pains to make targeted efforts to ameliorate the lot of backward classes and hence reservation is necessary to maintain the unity of India as a nation.

1. Reservation policy should not be scrapped as the Constitution of India

"Degrees should be de-linked from jobs."


FOR

1. Linking of jobs with degrees has unnecessarily put a strain on Indian

universities. Almost every school-going child enrolls into a university in later years, without paying attention to his natural aptitude and inclination. Educational standards suffer due to the rat race for admission to higher educational institutions. Students pursue studies not for higher learning but to enter a job market that requires the possession of a degree. 2. There is no correlation between the nature of a job and the education acquired because skills required for the job are never taught in university degree studies. Almost all industries are required to train new recruits, which renders years of university education useless. Thus, time and money that were spent on acquiring a degree are wasted. 3. India is a very poor country and it cannot afford to waste its resources. The government spends a large amount per student per year during the degree course and very often, even after acquiring a post-graduation degree, a student ends up joining as a cashier in a bank spending the rest of his life counting from 1 to 99!

AGAINST

tremendous rush in the job market. Degrees act as a screening process for employment. Below average students are automatically filtered in the process of graduation, so that average and above average students are readily identified. 2. Graduate and undergraduate studies provide rationality, analytical thinking and decision- making because maturity and effectiveness is possible only when one has put in sufficient time in pursuing an academic career. All-round development of a person can take place only in an atmosphere of University standards and not when only specialised training is given to a candidate. Specialised training results often in depriving him of the chance to develop his personality. 3. In a developing country like India, there is no constitutional right to work or employment. Hence, if the younger generation is not kept engaged in educational pursuits, a large army of the unemployed will gnaw at the entrails of the society. College education on a large scale thus provides the continuum necessary for order and tranquility in the society.

1. If the minimum requirement of graduation is not there, there will be a

"Uniform civil code should be implemented in India."


FOR

1. The Constitution of India enjoins its States to strive for uniform civil
code. It is thus the duty of our legislature to bring it into practice. non-adoption of the uniform civil code in India. There is alienation among various religious communities, as every community wants to be governed according to its own socio-religious laws as sanctioned by the scriptures and holy books. This has resulted in different laws for different religious communities, which is not conducive to national integration. Uniform civil code is essential to ensure peace among various religious and social communities, as then there would be no divergent views of various communities. This will help in national integration. 3. Some of the practices sanctioned by some religions particularly in the matter of treatment of women constitute acts of obscurantism and superstition. Women's rights to equality under law are violated in the name of sanction of religion. This must be ended. 4. India is a secular, sovereign country. Domination of different religious laws is not at all consistent with the tenets of secularism and sovereignty. AGAINST

2. All the social evils like fundamentalism, communalism can be traced to

civil code will affect the observance of separate religious laws. Therefore, uniform civil code should not be imposed. India's unique flavour lies in its unity in diversity. That flavour would get lost. 2. Uniform civil code by itself will not disrupt social harmony. 3. Even the Constitution makers did not make uniform civil code compulsory but expected the State to strive towards it, which implies that there are certain hurdles that need to be removed before putting it to practice. Thus it is evident that the various religious communities are not psychologically prepared and modernised to accept the uniform civil code. It should be our endeavour to prepare them to accept the uniform civil coda and not impose it on them. 4. The Constitution of India grants freedom of religion freedom of religious and freedom practice all, including the minority communities. This augurs well with the secular nature of our State. The idea of a uniform civil code therefore solve social evils like communalism, as vested interests will still try to manipulate and manoeuvre the people to works against this guaranteed freedom of religion.

1. Religious minorities should be allowed to practise their culture. Uniform

"Public Sector Enterprise should be abolished."


FOR

1. The public money invested in the public sector enterprises has not been

2.

3.

4.

5.

made good use of. A review of the working of public sector enterprises has revealed that either the profits made by them are deplorably low or that they have been making huge losses. It has been noted that in many situations, political-factors influence decisions about location of public sector projects. This approach leads tea considerable wastage of capital resources. Further, invariably there is a delay in the completion of the project because of red-tapism leading to increase in the costs of construction. The tenure of public sector heads is generally very short, leading to a frequent change in policy and method of working. This has proved to be very harmful to the health of various enterprises. It is general found that a generalist heads the public sector whereas the functioning demands a specialist. Capacity-utilisation is well below the required standard in public sector enterprises and so the rate of capital formation is also not very encouraging. Also, manpower is in excess of actual requirements. There is no work culture in public enterprises. Some years ago, Mrs. Margaret Thatcher, the then Prime Minister of U.K. had undertaken a privatisation drive. She had handed over uneconomic holdings and organisations from the Government sector to the private sector. The performance of these undertakings considerably improved in the following years. This is an object lesson to prove that privatization helps. Private initiative can overcome formidable handicaps and can pierce through bureaucratic red tape so that a culture of efficiency becomes an integral part of a private venture, infused with dynamism and vitality, resulting in profits.

AGAINST

it in the Indian economy and not from the profit point of view. The basic aim of the public sector was to create a proper infrastructure for a backward country like India and this they have done quite successfully. Their contribution to the Indian economy should be judged from this point of view. Public sector has made investment in those areas that do not give high profits and have high gestation periods. The private sector was always reluctant to enter these fields. 2. The public sector has generated employment opportunities to a large section of the society. The public sector employs 68% of the workers employed in the organised sector of the economy. 3. The share of the public sector in the net domestic product has shown a steady improvement. Public sector accounts for about one-fifth of the national output. 4. The public sector is greatly responsible for the rapid industrialisation of the economy. The public sector has greatly diversified in the post independence period. Its operations include basic and capital goods like steel, coal, copper, zinc and other minerals, heavy machinery, drugs and chemicals, fertilizers, consumer goods, hotel services etc.

1. The utility of the public sector should be seen from the role assigned to

Trading Corporation and Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation have done a wonderful job in promoting exports. The foreign exchange earnings or public sector enterprises is very substantial. 6. The public sector has helped greatly in removing regional disparities and has promoted balanced regional development. 7. The public sector has total monopoly in defence production and research. As defence is crucial to the nation, this area cannot be given to the private sector. 8. Private sector has its own failures and foibles. It is seen to be extremely selfishly governed to sub-serve the interests of the capitalists. These private tycoons, while demanding privatisation of some PSUs have their eye only on profit-making PSUs. At the same time, the private sector has jettisoned many of their loss-making units, which the Govt. had to take over so as to maintain production and employment. Thus the attitude of the private sector capitalists is of "nationalising the losses, and privatising the profits."

5. The public sector has played a vital role in export promotion. The State

"There should be a ban on migration of educated Indians.(Brain Drain)"


FOR

1. Migration of educated Indians is a huge loss to the country. A poor

country like India with a high rate of illiteracy cannot afford this loss. It means a loss of trained technical or general manpower. It also means a loss of their creative potential that a developing country like India can ill-afford. 2. Migration of educated Indians also means financial loss to the exchequer. Education is very costly. It is heavily subsidised by the government. It is estimated that the government spends about Rs.1.5 lakhs on every medical graduate, Rs.1 lakh on every engineering graduate and Rs.30,000 - Rs.50,000 on arts, commerce and science graduates. All this investment is wasted owing to a high rate of 'braindrain' from the country. 3. Migrating for monetary benefits or for other materialistic values is not a very healthy trend. It reveals a sort of anti-national trend. India is faced with immense socio-political and economic problems like communalism, nepotism, drug addiction, trafficking, regionalism, smuggling etc. This situation calls for the educated and intelligent Indians to come forward and mobilise the energies of the masses into concrete ideas and actions and make the Indian democracy a success. AGAINST

1. Banning educated Indians from migrating would be against democratic


traditions and would mean denial of individual rights.

2. The state of economy in India cannot absorb or offer good working

conditions to many educated specialists and technically trained personnel. The pay scales offered to many educated Indians are far below their expectations and needs. The working conditions prevalent in India are not of international standards. They have no alternative but to migrate. 3. It is evident from the recent trend that many Indians who have migrated have come back to India or are investing money in the Indian economy. This has proved to be highly beneficial to the country. Thus, the migrated Indians represent the country's assets and can be of use to the country in future. 4. The Indians abroad have proved to be very successful and have promoted India's name and culture abroad. They have played an important role in influencing the policies and decisions of foreign governments pertaining to India. We need such good Samaritans and goodwill ambassadors in the developed world in a highly interdependent world, racing towards globalisation.

"A country like India requires a presidential system of government rather than a parliamentary type of government."
FOR

1. Presidential type of government is independent of legislature and

judiciary. This ensures effective decision-making process, without getting its content changed as per the whims and pressures of legislature. 2. In the Presidential system of government, it is the President who is the Head of Government and Head of State, the sole decision-maker. He selects his men not necessarily from legislature but from various fields in which the candidate has excelled himself and possesses a high level of expertise. Thus, he can have the guidance from experts irrespective of the ideology and the party to which they belong. This is not the case with the Parliamentary system of government. 3. India is a vast country where delays in decision-making are not conducive to - and in fact hamper - national priorities. This implies that a Presidential system of government would be more suitable. It ensures quick and prompt decision-making at the time of national crisis. AGAINST

high percentage of literacy so that people are in a better position to judge in the right perspective and analyse the personalities. India has yet to achieve a literacy rate above 60%. India has a plethora of parties. If every party puts up its own candidate for the election, this will create lots of confusion. Presidential system of government is well suited for a two-party system. 2. By changing over to the Presidential system, basic problems like illiteracy, unemployment, health, shelter for the homeless etc. cannot be solved overnight. No system of government is perfect. 'Every system has to be in consonance with the country's socioeconomic cultural ethos. Thus, instead of asking for the Presidential system, the present Parliamentary system must be improved to cater to the new demands of the society. 3. In the Presidential system, there are more chances for a man with a charismatic personality to become a dictator than in the Parliamentary type of government. Dictatorship would be extremely harmful in a country consisting of people of diverse religions. Parliamentary type of government would be more conducive to maintain the harmony among these diverse religious communities.

1. For the Presidential type of government to be successful, it requires a

Is India's decision to go nuclear correct?


FOR

1. In a recent interview, the Prime Minister of Pakistan had admitted that

Pakistan has made a nuclear bomb. India is the most likely country on the globe against which Pakistan can use this bomb. The Pakistani bomb can be used as blackmail against India to gain concessions. 2. The security and integrity of the country is of pivotal importance and cannot be compromised. Without a proper security, the economy cannot be stable and hence it was necessary for India to go in for a nuclear bomb. 3. India possessed the required nuclear infrastructure to make a nuclear bomb.. The Indian nuclear bomb would act as a very effective deterrent against nuclear threat from any country. 4. India has of late emerged as the regional super power in the Indian Ocean zone. To maintain the regional balance in view of the volatile scenario in and around the region, acquisition of nuclear weapons is essential and will be befitting India's growing clout. AGAINST

1. India is basically a poor country and the cost involved in making the

nuclear bomb would affect developmental expenditure substantially. Differences among nations can also be sorted out by sincere diplomatic dialogues rather than by acquisition of nuclear weapons. The expenditure thus avoided can be utilised for other much needed developmental works. 2. India is basically a peace-loving country and is committed to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Thus, making a nuclear bomb is against her political ideology. Truth and nonviolence constitute the bedrock of philosophy of the late Mahatma. The production of the nuclear bomb will negate the very basis of our moral stand in world affairs. 3. The making of the nuclear bomb by India would induce other Asian countries in the neighbourhood to go nuclear. This could be a very dangerous trend as tensions would further be accelerated in the Asian zone and our efforts to make a peaceful world would be futile. 4. In view of the devastating destructive capabilities of the weapons, there is a growing international opinion against nuclear weapons. Even superpowers have gone ahead with nuclear disarmament programmes. India, as the advocate of peace and nuclear disarmament should not have made nuclear bombs.

"Should students take part in politics?"


FOR

1. The world has changed and so have modes of thought and behaviour.

Today the youth should be encouraged to take part in politics so that 'fresh' ideas and actions can be accepted and implemented. The youth represent the future, the older men the past. The young students have to live in the 21st century; hence, they should not hand over their fate to old people. 2. Many modern students' ideal is not a "bookworm" scoring record marks in Shakespeare or Physics or Philosophy, but dynamic personalities in politics and business who motivate them to follow their footsteps in changing the society for the better. 3. Students have tremendous energy and enthusiasm that can be utilized rightly in politics for our country's progress. It is always the ideal course to see that the destiny of the country is entrusted to the strong and vibrant young generation. AGAINST

their studies if they take part in politics. Parents spend their hardearned money to send the students to college or university to complete their education and not for "playing" politics. 2. Students are too young or immature to take important political decisions or actions. To maintain the decorum and seriousness of concerned issues in politics, senior politicians should keep students away. 3. Politics is too dirty a game for students and hence they should be kept away from the dust and din of it. It is not for nothing that someone warned us while declaring politics as the last resort of the scoundrel.

1. Politics and studies cannot go together. Students are bound to neglect

Family planning should be made compulsory in India


FOR

vastly benefited, as family planning will help tremendously to curb the population growth. With lesser population to look after, the standards of living will improve. Thus the future generation will be well educated and well nourished. 2. Also, the larger the population, the greater is the pressure on the country's environment, disturbing its natural life cycle. Population reduced by family planning will help to sustain the environment. 3. Financial resources can be diverted to other spheres of national progress, rather than being used up in coping with the ills of spiraling population growth. AGAINST

1. India, which is already facing the problem of overpopulation, will be

like abortion that are quite unacceptable in India, majority of whose population is orthodox and superstitious. Child being considered a gift of God, implementation of family planning will face not only hurdles but also a lot of resistance. 2. Premature death of the single child of a family will cease its lineage. Parents will be at a complete loss, both financially and emotionally in their old age. 3. Scientists have proved that marriages in very close relations lead to birth of unhealthy or abnormal children. Traditional in-caste marriages will be restricted to a few single children after a couple of generations of compulsory family planning, thus, leading to the birth of many an abnormal child, due to genetic inbreeding. 4. Compulsory family planning will give rise to more nuclear families. The future generation will drift away from their ancestors, losing the traditional Indian family bonding and security of a joint family.

1. Implementation of family planning will encourage unethical practices

"Violence and crime should not be shown in movies."


FOR The younger generation, prone as they are to influence, is affected adversely by such films. As often happens, youngsters may resort to violence in real life. More people will be attracted-to crime as a quick way to make easy money, as shown in films. Laymen will try to imitate actors lifestyles and behaviour in movies, leading to undesirable consequences for society. In short, violence and crime will be on constant increase in society. AGAINST Cinema being a popular media, first can help to create awakening against injustice and fighting for ones rights. Violent movies help to send across the message of self-defence in times of need. Realities and crimes, intense as they are, are presented in their true form. The viewing of negative aspects of crime and violence in a graphic form will encourage viewers to shun them and follow the righteous and positive notions of life. Schools protect children in an unreal environment

"India needs dictatorship."


FOR

1. Among the quite unsolvable problems faced by modern India is

corruption. Dictatorship will reduce the scope of corruption to a large extent, with strict accountability and action. 2. The working of the nation will be governed with more discipline and dedication than the whims of the government servants and politicians. Bureaucracy has frequently been the cause of delays on decisions of important matters. Dictatorship will rule out this consequence as the dictator will be the only decision-making authority and prompt decisions will follow. 3. Antinational and antisocial elements, whose threat is gravely faced by India, will not only be severely checked but will prevent others from indulging in such activities. The guilty will be punished promptly, so also the innocent will be released without delay. AGAINST

1. As the stream of corruption flows from those at the top to the bottom in

2. 3.

4. 5.

a democracy, so does the stream of favouritism flow from the top to the end. Undue advantages will be taken by those in the good books of the dictator, by way of which disparity, inequality and disharmony will increase. Control being solely in the hands of the dictator, chances of unaccountability corruption and nepotism become much higher, as seen in other dictator- ruled countries. The dictator may not heed the advice of any other authority and may not even consult them. Matters requiring extensive opinion and experienced judgement will be decided in haste and without detailed discussion. Institutions of a society would be dispensed with. Discipline and duty will be forced rather than being built-in, leading to inevitable resentment and sabotage. The dictator may not receive the heartfelt support of all the countrymen, as he may not be the choice of many of them. Also, the advantage of having an opposition voice of dissent, so common in democracies, to keep a check on misuse by the ruler will not exist.

"Beauty contests are derogatory to women."


FOR

1. Beauty contests do not serve any useful economic or social purpose. In

fact, holding of beauty contests wastes huge amount of money that can be utilised otherwise for the right social causes. 2. Beauty contests portray women as commodities rather than human beings. Portrayal of physical features of beautiful women. In catwalks give fillip to sexual overtones in the society and lower its moral and ethical standards. 3. Physical appearance is the sole criterion for the selection of winners, though a sham of intellectual assessment is conducted, through a laughable one question-all intelligence probe. 4. Portrayal of women in beauty contests is against our age-old respectable image of women. Physical beauty is but skin deep and true beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder. Present-day beauty contests undermine the vast majority of hard-working women, who are made to feel that they have no claim to beauty because they don't look like models. AGAINST

1. Indian women get a chance to compete with women from all over the

world by participating in beauty contests. Beauties like Sushmita Sen, Aishwarya Rai and Diana Hayden have put India on the world beautymap and have given a new and vibrant image of India to the whole world. 2. In the Indian context, where women have long been suppressed and have remained backward for about a thousand years, the beauty contests and their winners give women as a class, visibility, image and a sense of liberation and freedom. 3. India is a sexually suppressed society that results in large-scale offences like molesting, rape against women. Beauty contests at national level in full view of television media have a cathartic influence on the populace who can now look at a beautiful woman without experiencing a compunction of conscience. 4. India's economic advancement now impinges on our fully embracing a market economy. The age of cloistered virtue is dead. Your personal morality and ethics is not any worth if you lose them with exposure to an open, liberal society.

"Voluntary Disclosure Schemes are benefiting the Indian Economy."


FOR

1. The success of VDIS'97 with additional tax revenues of Rs.10.050/-

Crores and disclosures exceeding Rs.30.000/- Crores is a vindication of tax disclosure schemes. 2. Voluntary Disclosure Schemes effectively bring the paralleled economy into the mainstream thus galvanising valuable resources for the nation's economic development. This is important in the Indian context because the black money which is estimated anywhere between three lakh to seven lakh Crores constitutes a threat to the real economy. 3. No tax system can be foolproof. The Voluntary Disclosure schemes thus give a second chance to the citizens to be tax-honest. 4. Raising financial resources at today's critical juncture is more important than questions of ethics. Amnesty schemes work as a magic wand in this respect. AGAINST

1. Voluntary Disclosure Schemes place a premium on dishonesty. They

forgive dishonest and unpatriotic persons who have failed to disclose their full income in the first place. 2. The repetition of such schemes brings in the habit of tax evasion in the hope of future amnesty. Thus current tax collection efforts suffer. 3. The honest taxpayers like the salaried classes, who have no way of concealing their income or evading taxes feel discriminated and punished. 4. Honest taxpayers pay their taxes in relevant years at correct rates, while tax-dodgers pay tax in much later years at concessional rates under the Amnesty schemes. This destroys the concept of tax equity principle that says "equal tax for equal income."

Indian Independence is a success story."


FOR

1. India's progress, over the past half-century since Independence, has

2.

3. 4. 5.

been unique and commendable in many ways. The economy has grown in every direction and we can today boast of a variety of capabilities like achievement of self-sufficiency in foodgrain production; industrial growth; a large pool of skilled work-force; and educational infrastructure. The green revolution that started in the irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh has spread to other regions. As regards manufacturing, India has developed considerable technological capability and skills to manufacture a wide range of products. Nationalised industries like Banking, Insurance, Mining and Civil aviation have shown considerable growth over the decades. The Service sector has shown considerable growth with expertise in skill-based technologies like software development, where India has become a leading global human resources supplier. As a society, too, quite a few, if not all, shackles of our social and religious past have been dispensed with. Sati, dowry etc. have been banned. The largest democracy in the world has shown its resilience, even when the neighbours were losing out to military takeovers. The Judiciary and the press are contributing tremendously in maintaining this country's democratic spirit.

AGAINST

country set out to achieve and could certainly have achieved. Even after succcessive five-year plans, 25 to 40 percent of our population is still below the poverty line. The basic problems like illiteracy, unemployment, health and shelter still persist. The situation as regards public and primary health, drinking water, sewerage, sanitation and housing is far from satisfactory. 2. The Public sector is uncompetitive and unprofitable. The bureaucratic stranglehold and procedural red tape have undermined autonomy and enterprise. Corruption is rampant at all levels of government and accountability is misting. 3. The pressures of numbers, the economics of survival, obsolete technologies and undisciplined development have resulted in major environmental degradation. Many species of flora and fauna are danger of becoming extinct. 4. Years of freedom have not yet instilled the concept of 'Indianness'. People still fight and are divided on issues of caste, language, region and religion.

1. The post-independence record is disappointing in relation to what the

"Privatisation of banks is desirable."


FOR

1. Privatisation

of banks will lead to healthy competition, cost consciousness and greater attention to depositors' interests. It will play a crucial role in the development of the Indian economy into a global giant. 2. Banks will become customer service-oriented. 3. Accountability in private organisations will lead to more efficiency and responsibility, which would mean higher returns and lower costs to customers. 4. Special customer-grievances' cells would be set up to handle customer complaints in an effective manner, and customer-oriented schemes will be introduced. AGAINST

efficiency of banks. There are many private organisations that are in the red. 2. Various banking reforms have resulted in increase of profits in a number of public sector banks. Loss-making ones (prior to nationalization), are also making profit. 3. The appointment of eight ombudsmen under the banking ombudsman scheme has helped resolve customer grievances in a quick and inexpensive manner. 4. 4. The finance ministry has appreciated the fact that the public sector banks have managed to adjust with ease to the new liberalised scenario. Profits of public sector banks are used towards the nation's priorities. This will not happen with private profits.

1. Privatisation of banks will not prove to be advantageous regarding

"Do Women need reservations in Government services in our Country?"


FOR

1. Women have suffered for thousands of years and hence they deserve

the reservations for their all-around development. The mandating of one-third representation for women is surely the single largest step in empowering women. 2. Reservations for women will influence priorities in favour of primary education and health, which will have a major transforming effect. 3. Reservations for women in the public sector will motivate them to educate themselves. Women from rural areas have not yet come out of their shells even after five decades of independence. 4. They should be given a proper chance of coming on equal footing with the men. AGAINST

1. Reservation for women will lower the minimum standards of

employment in Government services. 2. The issue of reservation is a political one and it is deliberately put forth at the time of elections to secure votes from women. They are treated as vote-banks. Urban women or women from well- connected families will get the major share of the benefits of the reservation policy, which is not fair. 3. Reservations go against democratic norms because they violate the principle of equality. With reservations for women, we would be denying job opportunities to those many men who may be better-suited (a reverse case of gender discrimination.)

"Science has made man's life quite comfortable."


FOR

1. Science has been making rapid strides in the last five or six decades.

Man has worked miracles in the field of science and there seems to be nothing that he cannot achieve. Most of the inventions in the last 50 years have turned out to be beneficial in peacetime. For example, invention of rocketry and missiles paved the way for space exploration and the epochal landing of man on the moon and the landing of 'Pathfinder' on Mars. Nuclear energy is also being used for peaceful purposes in many parts of the world, including India. 2. Scientific inventions and discoveries are important because they lead to the creation of mechanisms and artifacts, which improve our living conditions. Inventions are today integral to new industrial methods and production. Mobile telephones, faxes, radios, computers, satellite television, Internet etc. have brought about a whole new world closer.

3. The recent developments in medicine and surgery (like cloning,

transplantation of the human heart, kidney and other organs) have revolutionized the medical field. With the developments in science, we have eradicated small pox; practically banished poliomyelitis; rendered tuberculosis completely curable and coronary artery disease surgically relievable. We have conquered everything except death. Newer explorations and advances in genetic science promise miraculous breakthroughs in the mysteries of birth, growth and longevity.

AGAINST

1. Science has not solved all our problems. In fact it has added to our
worries. Perhaps, it has brought tremendous stress to our lives.

2. With the advent of science in our lives, we can now kill each other more

easily and swiftly than ever before. Discovery of the atom bomb has resulted in nuclear warfare, leading to the death of innumerable innocent people. 3. Science may give us comfort but it cannot give us happiness. Science has not been able to find a solution to poverty, misery and has also not found a formula for human happiness. In spite of incredible achievements in the field of science leading to materialistic happiness, more people are turning to age-old methods of yoga, meditation and pranayam for seeking mental peace. 4. The immense devastation and pollution of our world's environment in the present century is because of developments in science and consequent industrialization.

OTHER TOPICS FOR THE GDs


Public sector is more a hindrance than help to promote socialism. Economic betterment of the poorer nations is as important as disarmament to ensure lasting world peace. From public sector to privatization as in the U.K., is the right answer for Indias instant economic breakthrough. The doctrine of limited nuclear war is an ill-convinced, ill-logical, irrational and extremely dangerous concept. Some simple but effective electoral reforms will enable us to retain the present parliamentary system and ensure the preservation of democracy in India. We must have only two national parties to contest parliamentary elections and regional parties should not be allowed to contest for the same. We can increase our food production not only to match our population explosion but also for export provided we adopt modern, mechanized farming methods with large size land holdings. Nuclear war cannot be won and should not be fought. Private enterprise and not public sector will contribute to faster and higher economic growth in India. Inflation is inevitable in our developing country. The policy of reservation is a legacy of the British and it has done more harm than good. Do you think MBAs are useful in the manufacturing / production department? For a marketing post graduate, without prior work experience working in a big marketing firm is a disadvantage when compared with working in a small firm. Discuss.

Consumerism is destroying the social fabric of Indian culture. Free market is a prerequisite for growth. Cricket as a national obsession is a detriment to other sports. To develop India has to empower women.

Formulate the governments health policy to control the spread of AIDS. Advertising is a waste of resources. Privatization will lead to less corruption. State is the biggest violator of human rights. There can never be a classless society. Beauty pageants are a marketing gimmick. Voting rights to illiterates in India is illogical because it is widely misused. Joint family is a blessing in disguise. Higher education should be made possible only for those who can pay for it. The weaker sex is the weakness of the stronger sex. Women cannot successfully combine both career and home. Women are good managers. Executive should be allowed to form unions. Effect of liberalization on poverty. Indians perform better as individuals rather than in groups. Business and ethics go hand in hand, or do they? Developing countries should spend more on development than on defense. Political parties have outlived their utility. Is Swadeshi relevant for India today? Money is required to earn more money. Foreign trade is necessary for any country to survive . Presidential Vs Parliamentary form of government of India. Technology: The Ism Of The New Millennium? Religion And Politics Should Not Mix TRIPS Controversy And The Patent Act Amendment Export Stagnation: Causes And Cures Excessive Depiction Of Sex And Violence In Films

Classical Music Heritage And The Growing Pop- Culture Decentralisation & The Panchayati Raj Institutions Should India Sign The CTBT State Interventions In Market Kind Or Mixed Economy Science Is A Boon Or Bane Is Swapping Terrorists For Hostages An Encouragement For PlaneHijackers? India and the political dynasties: The Nehru Family context Nice Guys Finish Last All Work And No Play Makes Jack A Dull Boy Individual Freedom And Civil Society Conventionalism And Modernity: The Ever going Debate Should There Be A Restriction On Permissiveness Being propagated by The MTV Culture And Foreign Media? Marxism And Its Future All Over The World The Growing Menace Of Casteism And Regionalism Presidential Form Of Government Is Needed In India Bullet For Bullet: Is It The Right Policy? Capitation Fees Should Be Abolished Arranged Marriages Are Better Than The Love-Marriages

Brain-Drain Has To Be Stopped Business And Ethics Cant / Dont Go Together Are women As good as Men Or Inferior? Nothing Succeeds Like Success The Malthusian Economic Prophecy Is No Longer Relevant Secessionism In The North-East: Whos To Blame?

Should India Break Diplomatic Ties With Pakistan? Age and Youth: Experience And Young Talent East Is East & West Is Where All The Action Is: Mark Twain Freedom Of Expression And The State Authority. Capital Punishment Should Be Abolished Tuitions Should Be Banned India Needs Gujral Doctrine For Better International Relations Doctors Accountability To Improve Health-Care Universal Disarmament Is A Must Indian Cricket Team Shouldnt Be Allowed To Play Abroad

Prohibition of Alcohol in India


Prohibition refers to the ban on partaking alcohol. Certain state governments have from time to time banned the consumption of alcohol. In this GD the students are supposed to discuss the various issues concerning prohibition e.g. should it be implemented, its benefits and drawbacks, loss of revenue for States implementing prohibition etc. For: 1. The evils of drinking are quite well known. 2. Indian Constitution in its Directive Principles of State Policy purports to do away with this evil. 3. The great leaders of yesteryears like Gandhiji were an ardent preacher of prohibition. 4. Alcohol not only leads to loss of good health but also may lead to a disturbed domestic life. 5. Drinking before (or while) driving may lead to accidents. One of the major causes of road accidents is driving under the influence of alcohol. 6. Even the companies selling alcohol are now forced to give Public Interest Messages highlighting the drawbacks of alcohol. 7. Gujarat has successfully enforced prohibition. Other states should also follow its lead. 8. Alcoholism is very difficult to cure. And since prevention is better than cure, it would be better if prohibition was implemented.

Against: 1. The people have the Right to Choose. In a democratic country such restrictions on an individuals will should not be kept. 2. Drinking is not as harmful as it is made out to be. Excessive drinking is harmful not drinking in moderation. 3. Government is receiving a big amount as tax from this industry and if prohibition is implemented, the Government will lose this money. 4. Many people are employed for this purpose. Enforcing prohibition may produce more unemployment. 5. The illicit liquor manufacturing in prohibited states shows prohibition has been a failure. 6. It may be argued that some of the States in India need alcohol due to their cold climate. 7. Social drinking brings people together. Men, it is said ,bond over a glass of alcohol.

Bureaucracy: Downsizing Alone Is Not Enough


We have been hearing a lot about downsizing of the government or, to be more precise, to cut down the staff strength. It is well known that the clich, "Too many cooks spoil the broth", is more applicable to the Indian bureaucracy than to any other group of people. More people, less work and more delay. In most organisations it has been seen that more than 70 percent of the budget goes as salary and very little funds are available to secure the objective of the organisation for which such a large work force is recruited. This is invariably the case with most of the Central and State-level organisations. In the wake of economic liberalisation, youngsters in many of the MNCs and wellknown private firms were paid hefty pay packets commensurate with their qualifications, quality of output and laborious work. In the course of the several meetings preparatory to the submission of the Fifth Pay Commission Report, top bureaucrats in the Government of India pleaded with the Commission that they felt a bit odd, despite their commanding status, to deal with CEOs of different companies since the IAS officers' monthly pay packet was thinner than that of the CEOs. , An obliging Gujral government hiked the pay! to an all-time high, but left out all other recommendations of the Pay Commission such as quality of work, accountability, etc. Consequently, bureaucracy in India still remains the same steel frame of the British days, impervious to the sensitivities of the public, dilatory in tactics and trapping the poor public in the blind alleys of red tape. The poor ordinary citizen is at the mercy of both petty babus and unapproachable high officials. The colonial mindset still reigns supreme from the village office to the Central Secretariat or the other Departments in Delhi. What is the guarantee that downsizing will ensure better quality and accountability in government departments? While addressing a full-fledged meeting of District Collectors, Heads of Departments and Secretaries of different departments in Thiruvananthapuram the other day, Mr. A. K. Antony, the Chief Minister of Kerala openly admitted that he was not getting the cooperation of most of the officials in implementing different Programmes. The Chief Minister of Karnataka, Mr. S. M. Krishna about his officials at a meeting a few weeks later, aired more or less the same sentiments. If the Chief Minister cannot make the officials 'behave', who else can? Not the poor chap who had to visit the RTO office thirty times in two years to get the registration of his vehicle changed, and still being asked to come on another day. He knows he cannot afford to antagonize the babes howsoever times he may be asked to visit their office. Since Independence, the performance of bureaucracy has staggered from bad to worse, with the officials having no dedication to work, accountability or work culture. A microscopic minority of officials who still retain qualities of honesty, dedication, hard work, make the government machinery run. It is high time that the Vajpayee government infused a much-needed work culture, involvement, dedication, efficiency, discipline, accountability and sensitivity to the problems of the people in the officials at all levels. Similar steps need to be taken by the State Governments, too. Officials on their part should feel that they are part of the people and should not sit in ivory towers looking down upon the millions who eagerly look for a better quality of life. The people have been struggling for the basic necessities of life like drinking water, minimum sanitation, health care, education, housing and two square meals a day; the fact that they are not getting these even after more than five decades of Independence shows that the administration has

failed them and in this the bureaucracy at all levels must share the blame for nongovernance and the failure to deliver the goods. It is not that things are not available at reasonable cost, but it is gross mismanagement that has made even basic things beyond the reach of the people. When one Dr. Verges Kurten, who was conferred the life time "Excellence Award", from The Economic Times this DRISHTI (11) of (12) Day 6 Jan 28th, 2002 year, for making India the No.1 milk producer in the world, can't the officialdom in India, take a leaf out of the book of this great genius and make India No.1 in every field? For: 1. Downsizing the Indian bureaucracy 2. Too money woks spoil the broth GOI is the largest employer in India. 3. Inefficient working and bad work culture 4. Corruption, Red tapes, Nepotism are rampant. Everyone has his or her rates fixed. 5. They hinder the functioning of private sector enterprises also. The private sector has to have to face with humorous delays and has to spend a lot of money on bribes etc. 6. Thelma scandal the true colors of the Indian bureaucracy. 7. In most organizations more than 70 of budget goes to pay the salary and other compensation benefits. 8. The government departments are grossly over staffed and under worked. 9. The employers who are willing to work are also dissatisfied and have low morale. By getting rid of deadwoods these employees will also get a chance to give their true inputs. 10. The government officials one underplayed. One of the reasons is because of their sheer number. By downsizing the remaining officials can get a deserving ray package. 11. Mr. A.K. Antony, C.M. of Kevolc has openly admitted that he was not getting cooperation of most of the officials in implementing different programs. Same sentiments were expressed later by CM and by Mr. S.M. Krishna. If the CMs themselves are in a soup, then what kind of service can a common man expect? Against: 1. If down saying was carried out then what will no open to the 10005 of families who will be without a bread earner. 2. The need is to train, empower and motivate the employees. 3. By downsizing the morale of remaining staff would go down. 4. Instead of downsizing the other possibility could be to stop recruitment or new staff. 5. If employees are asked to leave then the states will have to face a cash crunch: as payment of PF, gradually etc. Will cause a dent to the states pocked. 6. Instead of throwing people out of their jobs another options could be to shift then from full time workers to part time workers who work on shifts. 7. What is the grantee that downsizing will ensure better quality and actuate ability in government departments. 8. More than there size, it is the work culture of bureaucracy that is the main culprit. The work culture has to change forms lassiez-faire to a participative open and halting work environment. 9. There is a need to educate the public. If people stop giving bribes then the systems of computation 10. Immediate redressal of public complains, giving harsh punishments to rule breaks and implementing the some readily etc. are the ways by which the evils of bureaucracy can be eliminated. 11. Bureaucracy is a necessary evil in a country the size of India. Administers turn of such a huge country is not an easy goes.

In the Indian context, we have had the experience of being united as a nation in the true sense of the term, only for the last fifty years or so. The process of nation building was initiated in the aftermath of a prolonged freedom struggle followed by a bloody partition. It was then that the constitution makers were faced with the dilemma as to what would be the best cement to hold together our nation. Though we are committed to being a secular nation and our preamble reads: WE, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY, assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation ; Still doubts have been raised as to whether an average Indian really considers himself an Indian first or whether he identifies more closely with a particular religious or linguistic group. Conventional wisdom points to the latter. The matter of Indianness- questioning our very identity, indeed deserves closer scrutiny. For: 1. It was justified for us to divide the country on the basis of linguistic majority provinces. The people with genuine affinity and close ties historically, were logically united together as a single administrative province. 2. Religion has always been one of the unifying aspects among people everywhere. Thus, it was only natural that religion would play a major part in post- freedom India. E.g. special provisions and rights for religious minorities, different civic laws for different religions were included in the Constitution. 3. The special provisions mentioned above, were indeed the reasons why we were able to ensure that the nation stood united. 4. The lesson learnt during the Freedom Struggle was that, people participate in a larger cause, only when matters related to language and religion are at stake. People gave higher priority to religion than the liberation of the country. For example linguistic struggles in various states in British India, sectarian riots in various parts of the country at the peak of the freedom movement. 5. Religion and language, being more tangible parameters as opposed to administrative matters- would appeal to the people and gain more acceptability. E.g. Samyukta Maharashtra movement, struggle for a separate Andhra Pradesh soon after independence, etc. 6. The people of the country are, indeed deeply divided and polarized to such an extent on religious and linguistic lines, that the constitution makers had to reflect this reality in the Constitution. 7. It was also easier to manage states that were made on the linguistic basis.

Religion and language - Basis of Nation building

Against: 1. A modern democratic nation can never progress if its raison detre is based on religion or language. 2. Parochialism has no place in a democracy. It goes against the principle of Unitary Federalism adopted by the constitution makers. 3. Genuine rule of law and egalitarianism are supposed to be the cornerstone of democracy, whereas religious bias and language barriers are an anathema for the same. 4. The tendency to accept language as a criterion of creating separate states is being exploited by vested interests. E.g. Demand for Vidharbha, Purvanchal, Gorkhaland, etc. 5. Instead of religion and language, administrative convenience should have been adopted as a benchmark for division of states. 6. Adoption of different civic laws based on numerous religious groups, leads to legal complications, in terms of long drawn court battles and interpretation of sensitive socio-religious laws. 7. Being a country of numerous linguistic dialects, there is no end to the demand for creation of new states. 8. Creation of more states can only lead to more burdens on the exchequer, and dependence on the center for day-to-day running.

Lay offs and restructuring- denting employee loyalty


Todays corporate are confronted with burning realities of Liberalization, privatization and globalisation (LPG). Let us now consider the debate about the impact of the LPG bomb on the labor market, as a whole. The last decade has shown that reforms have largely resulted in capital intensive, and not labor intensive growth. Pressure on PSUs to cut flab and compete with their private counterparts is forcing the government to initiate labour sector reforms. Government is being forced to reduce the size of its bureaucracy For: 1) Labour Union movements, along with political affiliations have proved to be a powerful lobby. The government of the day can ill-afford to antagonize this powerful section of society. Traditionally the socialistic pattern of growth (mixed economy) model has been adopted by the policy makers through Five-year plans. 2) With most public sector units being faced with excess labour force and unproductive staff, the need for retrenchment and cost cutting is paramount, but vehement opposition from the labour unions is a major hurdle. 3) The state is committed towards providing basic infrastructure, but at the same time follow prudent corporate governance and labour reforms. 4) The second-generation reforms include enactment of various enabling legislation, requiring support of all major groups in the Parliament. It calls for the need to build consensus within political parties, a difficulty indeed for any government in power. 5) Thus a basic conflict (Catch 22) situation has arisen. The need to undertake harsh steps is recognized by the powers, but the present political situation does not lend itself towards disturbing the status quo. Against: 1) The massive wave of restructuring- Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As), has led to downsizing of the work force in almost every sector. 2) The above aspect leads to a sense of insecurity among the work force. 3) The retrenchment drive has affected workers at all levels across sectors especially banking and finance, software, and other service industry. 4) Though VRS has been offered as an attractive exit package, but the benefit accrues generally to senior level employees only. Middle level staffs do not tend to benefit much from such schemes. 5) Employee morale and motivation levels take a serious beating. Imbalance in the labor market. The most badly affected are potential new recruits, as experienced people are ready to enter the market, and willing to settle for a lower pay package. 6) Extremely skewed buyers market has worsened the unemployment scenario. With need for technical / skilled manpower on the decline (due to latest mechanized technology and methods of production) the skill-set and jobs available are shifting to the lower rungs in the value chain i.e. unskilled workforce and casualisation are on the rise. 7) Overall, the scenario as far as entrepreneurship and venture capital growth is also witnessing a slump. As a result both the public as well as the private sectors unable to absorb the pool of talent at commensurate levels. 8) Lay Offs point towards a crisis on the sociological front- as direct fallout of the IMF-World Bank model of growth. Thus reworking of the model to suit Indian needs becomes questionable.

Petroleum i.e. crude oil represents the single most progress achieved by mankind in the industrial field. Being always played a prominent role in international politics and net oil-importing nation, has to have a clear long-term procurement, distribution, pricing, etc of this key resource.

Petroleum must be declared a strategic sector

important factor for the a scarce resource, oil has economics. India, being a strategic perspective for

For: 1. Government will always have a role to play as far as the petroleum sector is concerned. If left to market forces alone (vagaries of international prices dominated by OPECs arm twisting policies, customers will have to bear the brunt of highly unpredictable oil prices. 2. An economy can ill afford wide short-term fluctuation of prices of such a key resource. The govt. thus is duty bound to ensure a reasonable stability of market prices of petroleum products. 3. By giving the sector the status of a strategic one, the government would be, in principle giving it the due importance it deserves. 4. After the dismantling of the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) the private players would have a much more active role in pricing at the retail outlets. The Regulatory framework must be in place to provide a level playing filed to all the major refineries. 5. Tie-ups would be inevitable with global majors. The govt. should ensure that the Nirvanas- profitable producers in the petroleum sectors are not sold away are throwaway prices. 6. Ownership of pipelines carrying petroleum products should be in govt. hands- for reasons of security and safety. 7. It calls for the govt. to have a clear cut regulatory mechanism to work out the details for the post March 2002 scenario when most petroleum products would be out of the ambit of APM and would be able to compete with global giants. Against: 1. The status of strategic sector notwithstanding, the Govt. would be wise in encouraging Pvt.sector participation actively in exploration and drilling neglect in this regard in the past is the reason for lack of new discoveries of oil fields. 2. The recent govt. move of awarding regions for exploration on the basis of global tenders is a welcome step. 3. The sector id best left to market forces with minimal interference by the govt. With Pvt. sector refineries also in the fray, the healthy competition would be beneficial to the customers in the long run. 4. Mergers in the sector would be natural- the swap ratio worked out on the basis of company fundamentals, should not be found objectionable by anyone. 5. Only a policy of laissez faire will be beneficial for the govt. in the long run-, as it would conform to the inprinciple stand of the govt. to curb the burgeoning fiscal deficit due to the Oil Pool Account.

The concept of emotional intelligence is an umbrella term that captures a broad collection of individual skills and dispositions, usually referred to as soft skills or inter and intra-personal skills, that are outside the traditional areas of specific knowledge, general intelligence, and technical or professional skills. Most of the authors on the topic note that in order to be a well adjusted, fully functioning member of society (or family member, spouse, employee, etc.), one must possess both traditional intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (dubbed EQ). Emotional intelligence involve1s being aware of emotions and how they can affect and interact with traditional intelligence (e.g., impair or enhance judgement, etc.). This view fits well with the commonly held notion that it takes more than just brains to succeed in life one must also be able to develop and maintain healthy interpersonal relationships. Taken from this perspective, emotional intelligence is nothing new. According to Mayer and Salovey (1993): Emotional Intelligence allows us to think more creatively and to use our emotions to solve problems. Emotional Intelligence probably overlaps to some extent with general intelligence. The emotionally intelligent person is skilled in four areas : Identifying emotions using emotions understanding emotions and regulating emotions. Goleman (1995) takes a somewhat broader position in describing emotional intelligence. In his writings, emotional intelligence consists of five factors: Knowing one's emotions, managing emotions, motivating oneself, recognizing emotions in others, and handling relationships. Emotional Intelligence at Work In Working With Emotional Intelligence, Goleman applies the emotional intelligence concept to the workplace setting. In this analysis, he argues that the emotionally intelligent worker is skilled in two key areas he presents in his emotional competence framework. These are "personal competence" - how we manage ourselves, and "social competence " - how we manage relationships. Each broad area consists of a number specific competencies, as outlined in the table below.

Is EQ over rated?

Personal Competence

Self Awareness (of internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitions) feelings, Self Regulation (of internal states, impulses, and resources) desireable Motivation (tendencies that facilitate reaching goals)

Social Competence
Empathy (awareness of others

needs, and concerns) Social Skills (adept at inducing

responses in others)

According to Goleman: "At best IQ contributes about 20% to the factors that determine life success, which leaves 80% to other forces... No one can yet say exactly how much of the variability from person to person in life's course it accounts for. But what data exist suggest it can be as powerful, and at times more powerful, than IQ." The ability to manage feelings and handle stress is another aspect of emotional intelligence that has been found to be important for success. A study of store managers in a retail chain found that the ability to handle stress predicted net profits, sales per square foot, sales per employee, and per dollar of inventory investment. Emotional intelligence has as much to do with knowing when and how to express emotion as it does with controlling it. For instance, consider an experiment that was done at Yale University by Sigdal Barsade . He had a group of volunteers play the role of managers who come together in a group to allocate bonuses to their subordinates. A trained actor was planted among them. The actor always spoke first. In some groups the actor projected cheerful enthusiasm, in others relaxed warmth, in others depressed sluggishness, and in still others hostile irritability. The results indicated that the actor was able to infect the group with his emotion, and good feelings led to improved cooperation, fairness, and overall group performance. In fact, objective measures indicated that the cheerful groups were better able to distribute the money fairly and in a way that helped the organization. Similar findings come from the field. Bachman found that the most effective leaders in the US Navy were warmer, more outgoing, emotionally expressive, dramatic, and sociable. Empathy is a particularly important aspect of emotional intelligence, and researchers have known for years that it contributes to occupational success. Rosenthal and his colleagues at Harvard discovered over two decades ago that people who were best at identifying others' emotions were more successful in their work as well as in their social lives. This is a small article on EQ,which will answer the basic question-what is EQ? For: 1) IQ is as essential as EQ, if not more. In todays world one has to be tech savvy. 2) Quantification of work is being avoided. Instead of becoming more people oriented people are becoming less result oriented. 3) Management Gurus, writers etc. are minting money by magnifying and selling the concept as a one shot solution to peoples problems. 4) It has been realized that SQ-Spiritual Quotient is more essential than EQ. 5) Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations gave Moneymaking a moral acceptance. The result USA is a super power. If instead of concentrating results and outcomes we focus our attention on intangibles then real progress will still elude us. 6) EQ is very idealistic. It is not possible to achieve it completely and a half-baked attempt is just not good enough.

7) The Indian labour class some believe can only be motivated by carrot and stick philosophy. Spare the rod, spoil the worker! 8) Relying only on emotions, intuitions, feelings may not be a good choice as these are quite fickle and unreliable.

Against: 1) EQ leads to emotional self-awareness. This involves: a. Recognizing and naming ones own emotions b. Knowledge of the causes of one own emotion c. Recognizing the difference between feelings and actions 2) One can manage ones emotions only if one is aware of them. So, EQ helps in management of ones emotions. 3) Stress management prerequisite for success in todays world. 4) Helps in anger management. Eliminates verbal put-downs, fights and group disruptions. Enables the individual to express anger appropriately without resorting to violence. Thus fewer suspensions or expulsions. 5) EQ enables the person to work synergistically with others. Enhances the ability to deal with others. 6) Generates more positive feelings about self, family, surroundings, colleagues etc. 7) Helps in harnessing emotions effectively. The person with high EQ is: a. More responsible b. Better able to focus on task at hand and pay attention c. Less impulsive; more self-controlled 8) High EQ helps in reading people a. Better able to take another persons perspective b. Improved empathy and sensitive to others feelings c. Better at listening to others 9) High EQ leads to the following benefits: a. Increased ability to analyze and understand relationships b. Better at resoling conflicts and negotiating disagreements c. Better at solving problems in relationships d. More assertive and skilled at communication e. More popular and outgoing; friendly and involved with peers f. More sought out by peers g. More concerned and considerate h. More "pro--social" and harmonious in groups i. More sharing, cooperation, and helpfulness j. More democratic in dealing with others

Imagination is more important than knowledge


What is this life if full of care. We have no time to stand and stare these words ring true in the present context, as we are so busy going about our daily business of life that we have hardly any time to reflect. Man has hardly any time to think as to where hes headed in terms of having a purpose or raison detre in life. 1. No one any more seems to bother or care as to why he or she really lives. 2. The urban lifestyle- full of targets to be achieved - keeps us gainfully busy every hour of the day.People have hardly any time for leisure activities. 3. The standard of living in a society is measured by the amount of quality time a person spends for leisure activities. Developed countries, traditionally during their growth phase had set a maddening pace, which left no time for enjoying their personal life. This syndrome seems to have caught up in our society- in the corporate field at least. 4. We seem to have imported an alien work culture, which requires us to be constantly on the move, whizzing past fellow beings and trying to achieve that everelusive target. 5. Management by objectives- the popular concept in corporate field, requires each executive to setmeasurable, quantifiable targets, and not hazy ones. Monetary goals being more tangible, we are conditioned to work towards achieving this. 6. This may seem to contradict the very definition or purpose of management. One might argue that management is essentially about trying to a good man manager above all else. 7. Aspects that make top-notch leaders are very difficult to quantify. Even great leaders had an indefinable quality- the power to foresee, imagine something apparently beyond the power of conventional thinking. 8. This may be sixth sense- however years of experience, combined with genuine empathy for people and a positive attitude can enable a person to make it big in life. 9. Creativity, or imagination is also a function of how we have spent our formative years- i.e. basic schooling has a major impact on the ability to perceive things. 10. It is not unusual in our conventional schooling system to see a child being punished for trying to experiment and not stick to the conventional point of view. 11. Society as a whole has conditioned us into a particular type of behavior and penalizes innovation in some form or the other. Iconoclasts have had to fight it out against mainstream society- whatever country it may be. 12. The foundation of democracy and open society e.g. in the US - is the encouragement given to imaginative and original thinking. Freedom to choose the topic for research, to try to discover yourself in the true sense- is what such educational systems encourage.

13. Eventually a person gets to follow a profession which is as closely suited to his/her inherent

strengths.
14. In our country, parents are the key decision-makers in choosing their childs career. Even after reaching adulthood, it is not uncommon to see an Indian student totally unaware as to why he has chosen a particular topic of study. 15. Real life phenomena, unlike bookish theories, often occur in non-linear fashion, requiring imagination, street-smartness and presence of mind. 16. Lack of encouragement to think, has resulted in zombies being churned out from our educational institutions. 17. Reading as a hobby has unfortunately never been pursued seriously by the youth. This is one of the main reasons for intellectual bankruptcy in society. Our parliamentarians, judges, lawyers, scientists and common citizens are used to getting packaged information in the form of one minute sound bytes thanks to the electronic media revolution. 18. We therefore think mechanically, and are prone to jump to conclusions. No wonder rumor mongering takes a particularly nasty turn in todays real politic e.g. fundamentalism, terrorist propaganda, etc. 19. Reflection i.e. analyzing the pros and cons after reading or hearing something- is something quite alien to us. 20. Moreover, with kin ship ties breaking down and more nuclear families emerging, and with the rise of each one to himself philosophy, one is unable to get the other side of the story through healthy community debate. Without scrutinizing an issue, we jump to conclusions. 21. Also, the sense of insecurity, unemployment, lack of state support has given rise to herd mentality- we are easily prone to getting provoked. E.g. People are ready to vandalize a painters works on grounds of offending sensibilities of society, without even having seen the paintings themselves. 22. Intolerance, and acceptance of stereotypes- adopting a medieval age approach lifestyle amongst many cultures in the world- is cause for concern. This intolerance stems from non- establishment of rule of law and respect for institutions. 23. Wherever the state has tried to impose a homogenous mindset upon its people, it has given rise to unrest, as it amounts to suppressing the natural tendencies for creativity and imaginative thinking.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Press Advertising:


To be successful in todays fiercely competitive era, a products marketing is just as important as the product itself. Marketing managers focus a great deal on advertising. These days managers have a variety of channels to choose from. We have print ads, banner ads on the Internet, television advertisements, radio ads etc. In this GD topic the advantages and disadvantages of the press advertising are discussed. Advantages: 1. The press is a static medium-word and pictures on a page. It is therefore very suitable for communicating detailed information. 2. The advertisement can be kept and read many times. 3. The target audience may be wide (national newspapers) or narrow and specialized (magazines and journals). 4. Advertisements can be placed at short notice, in some cases the day previous to or only a few hours before printing. 5. Sufficient space can be taken to tell 'the full story'. 6. Replies and other responses can be encouraged and coupons can be used. 7. Advertisements can be illustrated. Disadvantages: 1. Newspapers and weekly magazines are fairly short-lived. A daily newspaper is 'old news' the next day. 2. Newspapers and some magazines are printed on low quality paper and advertisements can look disappointing when printed. 3. There are many advertisements. Unless the media-buyer has bought a prime space the advertisement can get lost among so many others. 4. Unlike radio, cinema and television advertising, the reader has to make a voluntary effort to study the advertisements. Consequently, modern advertisements must often display sentences, which are very visual, so that they are absorbed rather than consciously read. 5. Even though colour is becoming more widely available it is still expensive.

Capitalism-A solution for the present World


IN recent years numerous writers have predicted that the global spread of capitalism will render the notion of economic nationalism obsolete. Yet in American politics globalization may be inducing the opposite effect. Although the American left has traditionally been wary of nationalism, over the past few years an array of progressive organizations, from the AFL-CIO to Ralph Nader's Public Citizen, have charged that globalization is costing America jobs and eroding national health, safety, and environmental laws. At the same time, a network of groups on the normally pro-free-market right, from Republicans for the National Interest (a coalition of voters) to the Manufacturing Policy Project (a think tank headed by H. Ross Perot's former running mate, Pat Choate), now view free trade as a dire threat to American sovereignty. Last year these groups helped to persuade a bipartisan alliance to block President Bill Clinton's bid for so-called fast-track authority on trade legislation. Considering that this nationalist thunder struck in the midst of rapid economic growth, one wonders if a larger storm is on the way. OF these problems, none is more significant and potentially divisive than globalization's impact on U.S. jobs and wages. In part one of The Great Betrayal, Buchanan attempts to show that free trade is turning America into "two nations": an elite of professionals "prospering beyond their dreams," and a mass of workers suffering "middle-class anxiety, downsized hopes, and vanished dreams." The book opens with Buchanan touring Acadia Parish, Louisiana, in the heart of Catholic Cajun country, where a Fruit of the Loom plant recently closed, while the company opened two new factories in Mexico. "Who killed that plant?" Buchanan asks, pointing a finger at "both parties." To illustrate the need for tariffs, he provides a chart showing that since the early 1970s, as America's duties on imports have fallen, workers' average weekly earnings have plummeted, creating an entire nation of Acadias. For: 1. Capitalism has helped America become a Global Super Power. 2. Chinas economic policies are capitalistic in nature, even if its political ideologies are not. The supremacy of Capitalism cannot be ignored. 3. Todays LPG world is the result of capitalism. One cannot favor globalization and rule out the benefits of capitalism. 4. Capitalism makes the perusal of wealth a noble objective. Thus the peoples standard of living improves. 5. The main alternative to capitalism Socialism, has collapsed. 6. Education and self development are more important for people belonging to capitalist 7. Capitalism supports competition, which is healthy for an economy.

Against: 1. Capitalism widens the gap between the Haves and the Haves Not. 2. All the major capitalist countries are suffering from an economic slowdown. 3. Stress, frustration, depression, dissatisfaction etc. are becoming alarmingly common in the capitalistic economy. 5. Capitalistic maximization. economy usually favors money maximization to wealth

6. Capitalism lets the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.

K
At times the students may get an abstract topic like-K, frog, if, light bulb vs. tube light etc. In such cases the students should use their imagination and creativity to come up with as many different ideas as possible. In a topic like K the various issues that could be discussed are: 1. Kashmir 2. Literacy does not guarantee education and liberation of mind. Even the so-called elite and educated Indians are superstitious like Ekta Kapoor and her obsession with the letter K. All her serials begin with K e.g. Kyonki saas bhi kabhi bahu thi, Kkusum, Kahani ghar ghar ki etc. 3. The serials of Ekta Kapoor are regressive and glamorize a feudalistic society. They stereotype women into the role of a dutiful housewife whose life begins and ends with her family. 4. The movies of today, like Kabhi Khushi Kabhi Gham are also regressive for the same reasons. 5. Ku Klux Klan of America and their atrocities on the black Americans 6. The concept of Karma- (a) What you sow so shall you reap.(b) Stress management i.e. dont worry about results just do your job. 7. Kids- Impact of violence on them

Booming Consumerism in India


Consumerism can be defined as the right of the customer to get the information he wants. After Independence India did not tread upon the capitalistic path. The pursuit of materialistic satisfaction in India did not catch on as it did in the West. However the 90s witnessed a major change with the Indian economy opening up. So after 10 years of LPG how has the consumerism affected India is the topic of discussion today. For: 1. The rate of growth of income in India has gone up to 6.7% 2. Indias Consumer Protection Act is unparalleled in the South Asian region. If properly implemented it will prove to be a big asset. 3. Previously the Indian population was usually divided as - Poor, Lower Middle Class, Upper Middle Class and then the Elite Class. Now due to LPG and the resulting consumerism the Lower Middle Class and the Upper Middle Class can be joined to form the Growing Class. The salaried rich now have the annual income of Rs. 2.15 lakhs and above. 4. The Indian Middle Class has grown from 435 million in 1994 to about 600 million in2001. Thus the purchasing power of certain sections of Indian population has improved.

5. Consumerism offers the consumer with the chance of getting a better product at a competitive price. It is in the interest of the consumer. 6. Due to increased competition the quality of goods and services has drastically improved in India especially in certain areas. 7. Consumer in urban India has become better informed. Thus the chances of him being cheated by the seller have diminished.

Against:

1. The growing trend of materialism is alarming. To succeed at all costs is becoming the motto of the young Indian. Yeh dil maange more is the new psychic of the Yuppies. 2. The domestic industries are at a major disadvantage as the dont have the capital that the MNCs have. Thus their goods are of inferior quality, so the consumer rejects them and the earnings dwindle. This forms a vicious circle. 3. The Diseases of the Rich like stress, depressions etc. have come to India. 4. Unemployment and under employment problems have cropped up. 5. The small-scale industries have also suffered due to the increased competition. 6. The Rat Race has left a patch on the moral fabric of the society. 7. Corruption by Govt. employees is also an example of the Indian middle class trying to keep up with the consumerist elite.

Should Industries be Nationalized


Den Xiao Ping has revolutionised the idea of being a Communist at heart and a Capitalist by Profession.The Communist party of China still ruling the country, has emerged to be one of the leading Economic powers in the world. Ping had realised that it is not possible to become a super power by just being very strong at defense, you also need to liberalise your Industries. This is one of the reasons why Made in China today has become a stamp of quality for several products like electronic goods, light, vehcles ,toys, cycles etc. Thus, the message is clear and loud for other Communist countries in the world, if you want to survive in this dog eat dog world, liberalise your industries of Nationalistic shackles. For: 1. By nationalising industries capitalism sees its death knell. 2. It means better and equal opportunities for employment for all unlike a private firm. 3. he goods produce could be of much less price as it does not look only for profit (i.e., since there is no profit motive). 4. The problem of capital for expansion of industry is absent in the case of nationalished companies as Government has the control of money. 5. It will help boost our economy very much

Against: 1. It is difficult to force nationalisation in a democracy. 2. When Government takes over, the profit motive is absent, they affect the production of finished goods as there is lack of enthusiasm for work. 3. The nationalished companies and industries show they are not successful compared to private industries. 4. It is futile to argue that there will be equal opportunities of employment. On the other hand Government never pays even equal to the sum a private concern pays. 5. In many cases, since there is no competition, the quality of finished goods is far below in standard. 6. The already over-burdened Government many not be able to hold more responsibilities.

DISARMAMENT
Hiroshima and Nagasaki are horrific examples of the destructive potential of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons cannot distinguish between combatants and civilians. They impose suffering of the most horrible kind on their victims, including on the yet unborn through trans-generational effects. Civil and medical defence against them is impossible. They are uniquely evil in their capacity to exterminate all life on this planet. The International Court of Justice has unequivocally condemned nuclear weapons. Calling them the ultimate evil, its President pronounced the decision of the Court on July 8, 1996, declaring the threat and use of nuclear weapons generally contrary to rules of international law applicable in armed conflict. In its historic decision, the Court unanimously called on all states to bring to a conclusion negotiations leading to disarmament in all its aspects. For: 1. To save the world from the present day cold war and threat to peace is only by disarmament. 2. By disarmament countries come closer since there is no fear of enemy. 3. Millions of dollars that are used for the armament race could be used for the helping of under-developed countries. 4. A powerful United Nations, and co-operation between nations can easily achieve this objective. 5. The test ban treaty and optimism. Against: 1. The idea of disarmament, the past history shows, has been a colossal joke. 2. As long as there in no understanding between the East and the West there cannot be any disarmament. 3. Even if disarmament is agreed upon, the vast store of atomic weapons that Russia and USA have, will be a threat and hence it will be failure. 4. The idea of control and inspection clauses in the disbarment policies could be used for paying purposes. 5. Disarmament may dislocate the economic structure of the world. USA is at present helping non-leftist countries with aid and Russia the leftists. If there is disarmament this help will not be seen. 6. More than anything, as long as there is race for power disarmament cannot be a success.

Should men and women have equal rights of divorce?


In the single's world, there is more to divorce than the "marriage" that needs a legal divorce.Many singles get in at least one long-term relationship that never gets to the altar.How do you know when it is time to end a relationship or marriage? Ask them over a period of time and emotional ups and downs before reaching any conclusions. There are no cut-and-dried answers, merely accumulated feelings that show it is time to end the relationship. For: 1. The days of slavery for women are gone. 2. In unhappy marriages we find that men are mostly responsible who have an attitude of masters over their wives. 3. It is always better to get separated for a woman than to remain under a brutal husband and hence she should be given equal rights. 4. Out codified family laws have provisions for equal rights of divorce for both. 5. It gives women a say in their own matter, which is a fundamental right that should be assured of. Against: 1. It will make for easy divorces. 2. The Ancient Hindu Law for example did not give this right to women since it saw the disruption of society itself. 3. In practice, a woman never wants to get a divorce, since she is under the sole protection of her husband. And she finds many obstacles in living another married life. 4. It not only makes easy for divorce but it will completely overrule the idea of compromise, since many unpleasantness are short-lived family quarrels and there is every change for patching up.

INDIA is one Geographically but not Emotionally


India has been a country inflicted by continuous invasions in the past. Starting in ancient times with the Aryans then the Mongols ,the Mughals. Nobody can forget what Indias past has been, also the Invasion of East India Company and the way they started as a trading corporation but later took charge of the country as a whole. The policy of Divide and Rule can be best applied to India as has been already proven. Even after independence we have not been able to achieve much on this front. The rise of Fundamentalism in the country and later the Demolition of the Babri Masjid prove as facts for the same. Even though we may all claim to be Indians, but truly we cannot call ourselves to be the same. On the other hand the kind of growth shown by the country in the last 55 years of independence probably goes to talk of our strength. The kind of efforts put in by the country can be called as nothing short of Stupendous. Even after the 4 wars India has seen since independence, we are still one country is a mere contribution to the fact that we all do live together as a family. For: 1. The historical accounts say that many types of peoples from Mongoloid to Aryan settled over here. 2. As a result there are many a caste, creed and color. 3. There are as many as 500 dialects spoken in this geographically united India. 4. It is this emotional separated ness that paved the way for mutual quarrels and foreign invasions. 5. There is neither a common spoken language nor a custom that can unify the tower of Babel that is India where one finds only confusion. 6. The very fact that we have organized our States in terms of languages shows that we are no way nearer this emotional integration. 7. Even present day attempts to ban a party like DMK will not solve the problem as it has come from within. Against: 1. Though in the past we had this emotional separateness, now the feeling of national unity has come. 2. Gandhiji's leadership and our fight with the British are the reasons for this. 3. It is this emotional and geographic unity, which Pt. Nehru discussed as "unity in diversity". 4. More attempts are being made to get away with this disunity and develop emotional integration. 5. The Integration Council has set forth a few propositions as regards realizing this integration. 6. The Chinese invasion has once more given us the clue to hold fast to this emotional integration.

Here some view points by some great personalities:

The Issue of Democracy and India

"... democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property; and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths." James Madison. "A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can exist only until the voters discover they can vote themselves largesse (defined as a liberal gift) out of the public treasury. From that moment on, the majority always votes for the candidate promising the most benefits from the public treasury, with the result that democracy always collapses over a loose fiscal policy, always to be followed by a dictatorship." Alexander Fraser Tyler. "Democracy literally means the rule of the people, a concept which will not admit any limitation in the political power. A Republic signifies an organization dealing with affairs which concern the public, thus implying that there are also private affairs, a sphere of social and personal life, with which government is not and should not be concerned; it sets a limit to the political power." Isabel Paterson.

For:

1. Democracy is the fit governmental form for a country, fought and won by the people. 2. Though there is delay, nobody can dictate the policies. 3. Public opinion has to be taken account of even by the Prime Minister. 4. India's economic and other developments show that democracy has been a success here. 5. The very fact that in Burma, Pakistan, etc. people are restless against their present dictatorship shows that we should adhere fast to democratic form of Government. 6. In a world, which is tending towards more democratic ideals, India's democratic stand will have its way even in the future. Against: 1. Democracy paves the way for undue delay and soapbox orations. 2. The very fact that Burma and other once democratic nations chose the other form shows that something is wrong with this political system. 3. Though in fact there is public opinion in democracy it is the Prime Minister and party that is dictating the policies-there is no such thing as Government by the people and for the people. 4. The present trends show that we are fast moving towards something other than democracy (Congress split may be discussed). 5. If democracy fails here and the future is saved by a dictator, the better for the country since matters like war are to be better handled by a dictator for better results.

Family Planning
India's population has increased by nearly five times from about 238 million at the beginning of this century to one billion now. The current annual increase of about 15.5 million people in the country-the largest in the world-puts great pressure on resources and the environment. Some Facts: Although fertility has fallen from about six children per woman in 1951 to about 2.7 children in 1997, the population continues to grow by 15.5 million annually. If couples average two children each by 2001-2006, India's population will stabilise at about 1.7 billion. But, if it is delayed by 20 years, it will rise above 2 billion. Achieving the national health (for all) and demographic goals is a formidable task because 36% of the population is under 15 years of age, and represents a large youth population- the parents of tomorrow. Barriers to family planning include low literacy (male: 64%; female: 36%), the low status of women, high infant mortality (ranging from 15 to 112 per 1000 live births), and socio-cultural factors such as son preference and early marriage of girls For: 1. The present day over-population. 2. Over-population affects the economy of the country reducing the rate of human comforts and happiness. 3. All the modern comforts and happiness. 4. The argument against family planning as to the instance of man-power a our disposal. 5. Science has so advanced that birth could be controlled effectively. 6. It is only by good family playing that an under-developed country can march ahead. Against: 1. Family panning is against the law of nature and therefore there may be refute so far. 2. It prevents us from having enough manpower for war, as well as for other purpose. 3. The common man is never convinced of the idea. 4. The common man cannot understand the technicalities birth control and hence it results in failure. 5. It only helps to spur immorality as Gandhiji himself said.

Students And Strikes


The Gurukul system seems to be heading towards obsoletion in the current times. Gone are the days when students like Eklavya used to give out their thumb as Gurudakshina,Today, the modern Shishya is more interested in shortcuts to success. Such is the state of affairs that colleges have had to put a minimum attendance criterion to make students attend classes. And thus has evolved the phenomenon called student strikes. A medium through which students are expected to raise their voice against all the wrong doings in the world of Education. But does this happen in reality! This is the burning question that comes to ones mind again and again. The Problem: 1. Present day education system has many flaws. 2. Wrong idea of democracy that gives the student the impetus to fight for every problem. 3. Crowded for every problem. 4. Political parties having a hand in the students organization. 5. Lack of experienced and able teachers. 6. In a few cases at least, the administration is also responsible for the strikes, since that is the only way by which students get redress. Remedies: 1. Introduction of compulsory military training in school and colleges. 2. More of able teachers ad less of students in the class, so that they may get good training. 3. Keeping all political parties off the educational premises. 4. Need for administrative reforms. 5. More of extra-curricular activates like group discussions, play, dramatic association etc. so that the energy is diverted for good purposes. 6. More of mutual contacts between the teacher and the taught and sympathetic outlook the students will solve the problem.

Schools should introduce compulsory military cadet training to give young people discipline and purpose. Schools should open up to the armed forces so personnel could share their skills during weekly classes and students should also undergo training. It would give them a sense of (belonging) to something and pulling together with their mates, with their peers and give them some grounding. Also the Workers' and Peasants' Government of the Republic deems it its immediate task to enroll all citizens for compulsory labor and military service. This work is meeting with stubborn resistance on the part of the bourgeoisie, which refuses to renounce its economic privileges and is trying, through conspiracies, uprisings and traitorous deals with foreign imperialists. For: 1. It is the best solution when we anticipate a threat from an enemy. 2. In the modern world no country can maintain large standing armies. 3. It saves money and labour. 4. It spreads the ideas of nationalism in the growing minds of youngsters. 5. It makes them healthy and active. 6. It provides them with the right type of discipline Against: 1. This compulsory training diverts a child who is studious. 2. Not all the boys take it seriously. 3. It makes them war minded. 4. When everyone is trained to handle a weapon, it may make a revolution easier in nation. 5. When all the nations for this which could be utilized for economic development.

Compulsory Military Training

Should Student take part in Politics?


The relationship of social problems to each other and to the political context in which they occur forces the student of politics to proceed from the evaluation and prescription of particular policies to the evaluation and prescription of procedures, institutions, and regimes. The practical-minded often view this enterprise with skepticism, and perhaps it is true that some theorists have been guilty, as Bacon put it, of "spinning cobwebs out of their own substance." The objective of political philosophy as described by Aristotle, however to learn not only "that which is best in the abstract, but also . . . that which is best relatively to circumstances" demands both realism and imagination. The pursuit of that goal over a period of more than two thousand years has produced a literature that is as rich and challenging as that in any field of learning. Students of politics, like other social scientists, have become increasingly self-conscious about the way in which they seek knowledge, whether their purpose in doing so is to test the truth of a theory or the worth and realism of a proposal for action. The application of statistical techniques to data about politics has, for instance, become increasingly widespread because such techniques can compensate in part for the impracticability of experimentation. For: 1. It is but correct to give students ideas of politics even in the early age. 2. In a democracy, politics of the right spirit will only prove beneficial. 3. It provides them with leadership qualities. 4. It gives them the idea of nationality and confidence to work for the nation. 5. It makes them aware of the problems that face India, and to find out right solutions. 6. They become ideal citizens by taking part in politics. Against: 1. Politics diverts the students attention. 2. It gives rise to strikes etc. 3. An immature mind is not capable of knowing the full details of a particular party. 4. Their exploitation by the selfish politicians is well known. 5. Instead of becoming the best citizens, they get into the most miserable conditions in life as a result of this.

Who could run the Government better, men or woman?


Several names in the past like, Indira Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu, Margaret Thatcher etc. have been examples of women who have led from the front. And these ladies have been no less achiever then their male counter parts. Even today Sonia Gandhi, Mamta Banerjee etc. are some of those few iron ladies who are fighting it out to make a mark in Indian Politics, and consequently better the life of the Countrys ciitizens. Still, will they be able to make it or not is a big question. Following the same rural social structure, where the decision of the head of the family (Male) is supreme, it seems as if the Indian female has a long way to go. Thus we can only wish them all the very best, and pray for another Mother India to up and save the Country from corrupt hoodlums.

For:
1. History shows man is the best to run a Government. 2. Though woman may be intelligent she cannot run a Government as she lacks courage and other qualities. 3. A womans nature itself is not running a Government. 4. Running a Government is not maintaining a house and looking after children. 5. History has shown that it has always been a mans world.

Against: 1. There is no difference between men and women except in form. 2. She is as intelligent and courageous as man. 3. Many instances could be quoted for their success in Government. 4. Women with their sweet temper can understand the problems patiently and better. 5. If they can mould a king why not a kingdom?

Which brings greater success in life, hard work or intelligence?


The human brain has been quizzing the human race from times immemorial. Till date after so much of research we still seem to be at zero with regards to this special object in our Universe. Prodigies like Stephen Hawkins, Beethoven, Vincent van Gogh etc seem to have proven this fact again and again. But ultimately we should realize that they are prodigies, a special gift endowed to them by Mother Nature! In the present World, full of competition whenever we try to look at the success stories of bright students, we find endless sleepless nights, constant R & D and self up gradation, which has gone to make these people successful in life. Thus the only message we get from the above fact iis that there is no substitute to hard work.

For hardwork: 1. Success is about 99% perspiration and 1% inspiration. 2. However intelligent one is, only hard work pays 3. A happy go lucky nature puts you on the cross roads of life 4. Gandhiji and others were ardent followers of hard work. 5. The above fact has been proved through ages in Human Civilization 6. Statistics of successful candidates in the IITs and the IIMs prove the above statement. For Intelligence: 1. Intelligence is a valuable faculty in human beings. 2. It reduces hard work by half. 3. Where hard work fails, intelligence easily takes one through hurdles. 4. An intelligent one can do far better if he has little hard work too. 5. There is nothing impossible for an intelligent man in life. 6. Prodigies are recognized only by their brains. 7. Stephen Hawkins, Carl Sagan etc. are synonymous to Intelligence.

Co-education is the panacea for our future talents


Recently, as one separate college after another has announced the addition of either men or women students, there have been frequent rehearsals of the arguments for coeducation. Graduate and professional schools, not to mention working life, are for men and women together. Students who have been used to coeducation should not face a major readjustment to separate education and then another after their brief three or four years, particularly since the shifts would come during years when students most want to learn about themselves in relation to the other sex. There is a widespread opinion that women are temperamentally different from men in the way they learn. While some educators believe the supposed differences argue for separate education, where they can flourish, others think they argue for coeducation, where they can be shared. On the other hand, those who see no temperamental differences between men and women encourage coeducation so that men and women can more easily discover their similarities. In the aggregate, then, there is more support for coeducation than for separate. Men have more respect for feminine intelligence when they are with women academically, and that a husband who respects his wife in this way has more concern for her career or graduate-study plans than if he had known her before marriage in social situations only. Since a man's care for his wife's interest often determines what she will do more than any other factor, in this respect the cause of women's education is certainly served better at a coeducational institution than at a separate one. For: 1. Co-education is the best solution for spreading education far and wide in the country. 2. The education pattern in such schools ensures all round development of any individual. 3. A village for example cannot afford to have two separate schools for boys and girls. 4. It helps each boy and girl to understand each other better, and lead a healthier family life later in the future 5. Such education helps both the sexes to develop themselves morally and socially. 6. It helps to grow a lot of competitive spirit amongst them. 7. Co-education schools help its students to grow a more catholic attitude towards society. 8. Students with such an educational background are more compatible in any society 9. Convents, who follow the above pattern of education, have the best success records in the country. 10. Such an education helps to break the feeling that males are alien to females and vice versa.

Against: 1. Co-education is a curse in the modern education system, as it promotes less of education and more of distraction. 2. Idea of education is to impart the right type of training to boys and girls while coeducation simply makes the mingling of the two genders possible. 3. An Indian girl may need more of home science and music more than the knowledge of mathematics or logical reasoning. 4. Male teachers in a co-education institution are not advisable for girl students. 5. Close proximity often gives rise to premature sexual activities. 6. Elopement & heartbreaks cases are more a feature of co-ed institutes rather than education. 7. It is a huge blow to the morals of the traditional Indian home. 8. This pattern has killed Indian culture. 9. Improper implementation of the above pattern has created a situation of conflict in our Countrys Education system. 10. Our traditional schools are living on the edge due to the aggressive marketing of all such cash hungry schools.

FEDERALISM V/S SEPARATISM


Developments in both Kashmir and Sri Lanka have thrown up once again the confusions, uncertainties and hypocrisies that inevitably surround the issue of selfdetermination. Among Sri Lankan Tamils and Kashmiris strong sentiments favouring complete independence can be found. But otherwise the limits of respectable and legitimate debate are supposed to be set by the inviolable character of the existing territorial boundaries of both Sri Lanka and India. In short, secession of either Jaffna from Sri Lanka or of Kashmir (in part or whole) from the Indian Union is axiomatically deemed out of the question. What is extraordinary, however, is that the exclusion of a secessionist option is invariably justified in the name of respecting the sovereignty of the country in question. For India, the rejection of Tamil Eelam is often justified in the name of national interest. This usually suffices to silence potential critics, but it is not as effective as the claim that Sri Lankan sovereignty must be respected. After all, there can be those irritating voices in India who will say that the interests, aspirations and wishes of Sri Lankan Tamils cannot be held hostage to Indian national interests as defined by its dominant elite. For all those who are seriously concerned about the pursuit of justice in politics (and not just national aggrandizement and self-importance), the issue of self-determination, up to and including independence, must be treated with the respect that it deserves. It does not follow that one should advocate independence for either Jaffna or Kashmir. Self-determination is an appropriately general term which can mean a state of affairs short of full independence, provided this is acceptable to the people concerned, namely the principal victims of discrimination or repression, whose justified sense of grievance has helped create the resistance movement in the first place. But it does mean that the option of full independence cannot be ruled out by arbitrary fiat. If such independence is opposed it must be done so through arguments based on principles of political justice. For: 1. The rigidity attached with the inviolability of existing territorial boundaries severely curtails the limits of agenuine and objective debate on the question of a demand for a separate state. 2. Self determination leading to a separate nation is justified only in cases where it leads to the development of strong and long lasting democratic traditions. 3. Any separation should not result in replacement of the external oppressor by a home grown one. This argument greatly weakens the claims of the fundamentalist militant groups in Kashmir and LTTE in SriLanka. 4. Good governance and responsive administration are the best defenses against separatism. 5. Genuine federalism and decentralization of power is increasingly recognized as providing the most democratic and therefore the most stable foundation for preserving that voluntary unity. 6. Rejection of demands for separation must be based on stronger grounds than sacrosanct and pristine nature of the countrys federal borders.

Against: 1. Replacing tyranny of the ruler from some of those who were also among those ruled earlier is like pouringsalt into the wounds of the oppressed. 2. Acceptance of the domino theory of nationalism that treats demands for secessionism as having the potential to stir similar such demands from other parts of the country is not based on sound logic as sovereignty can never be forcibly maintained. It has to be won from the people. 3. Free discussion and debates are the very essence of a democracy. Hence equating any such discussion with treason and sedition is unwarranted 4. Devolution of unequal powers to provincial administrative units is the best compromise that takes into account the unique circumstances associated with the formation of multi-cultural federal nations

Are we more civilized than our forefathers?


Civilisation in the literal sense means the evolution of the Human race in the form of a highly cultured and wellmannered society. A civilised person or society should follow the norms of live and let live, and should strive to be a social animal to the hilt. That is what should happen ideally. But in the current scenario the above meaning seems to have been restricted to just being an ideal. In this capitalistic world, where mans best friend seems be money, social values been murdered and have been put to the grave. The Greenhouse effect, World War I &II, all have been our doing, and at the current moment we are standing at the doorsteps of a third World war ready to destroy ourselves. The tribals of this poor World seem to have better sense, as they are more compatible with nature and know to respect the weaker sex much better than we do. They can survive in the worst conditions and know to use their commonsense in a much better manner, as they work with minimal resources. Thus it seems as if we need to be tutored afresh, by these uncivilised tribals on aspects of how to be a true social animal. We need to give a hard look at our own definitions of education and literacy. For: 1. There is no comparison between the naked forefathers, who went hunting, and the present humans. 2. The various comforts and scientific advancement show we are more civilized. 3. Due to the efforts of the civilized man even the moon is accessible these days. 4. The difference between humans and animals were almost non-existent as they used to live and reproduce just like them. 5. The invention of various languages, and lot of thought being given to aspects like literature proves the existence of a civilized world. 6. Today research on aspects like I.Q and E.Q indicate the rapid evolution of the human brain. 7. Great men like George Washington, Mahatma Gandhi, Winston Churchill etc. are ideals of our modern society. 8. The family system and the constant aspiration for morals, values and ethics in a society are clear proofs of civilization. 9. Evolution is the law of nature and thus in no case can we be worse than our forefathers. 10. Educational Institutions are the pillars of a civilized society.

Against: 1. Our civilization is just an illusion. 2. Though we have so-called comforts, our forefathers were having more peace of mind. 3. It is difficult to say which civilization is better since we are partial to measure them with our own standards. 4. If they killed their brothers we are killing people by thousands by atomic bombs. 5. A civilization with all this unrest and suspicions is worse than our forefathers who lived just through the day and knew nothing. 6. Our society is burdened more by the educated illiterates rather than illiterates themselves. 7. The dahej system, widow burning, female infanticide etc. are all features of our modern society. 8. War is a feature of our civilized society. 9. Numerous divorce cases have put a question on the existence of our family system, which is in the core of our civilization. 10. Living with the third world war just by our doorstep we have put the existence of our own civilization in question.

SHOULD THE WORLD BE MOULDED AND CONTROLLED BY A FEW RESPONSIBLE PERSONS OR BY THE MASSES?
History has been witness to the wrath of several Dictators and Fascists in the past. Individual brains given enormous powers to mould and control several human minds. How can one forget the terror reign of Hitler.What he did was possible only because he was given the authority to control the masses, and hence he was successful in brainwashing them. Romanias Chousesku made school teachers teach poetry and nursery rhymes written on him.He wanted to become Godlike and rule for eternity. Somebody has rightly said that, Power corrupts. And finally to top the list there was Idi Amin from Africa, who ruled by his military, was a cannibal, and was an animal with woman. Thus the moment we talk of a single Individual ruling the masses, a big question looms up in our mind, and our hearts starts screaming an instantaneous No! But the question is, in the current perspective of corruption and lawlessness in our Country cant we possibly risk such an option! For: 1. If a few powerful man control the world, it means better aid and progress for under-developed countries. 2. Only powerful nations can, in practice, control the world, mainly due to their economic stability. 3. Even though UN comprises of many countries yet major decisions are controlled by Britain, U.S.A. and U.S.S. R. 4. The control by masses will mean a lot of confusion. Against: 1. It is a fundamental principle that the minorities should be heard. 2. Power in the hands of a few means corruption and dictatorship. 3. Power by few will only bring forth discontentment, as they will try to thrust their ideas on weak nations. 4. Power in a few hands is impossible since there will be an endless fight between two bigger nations to gain control over the world. 5. In all ways, it is better to envisage a world controlled and moulded by masses, since it will ensuredemocracy all over the World. 6. The voice of the masses will be nullified in such a case. 7. It doesnt take time for an Angel to turn into a villain. 8. History has proven the failure of the aspect of an Individual ruling the masses again and again.

India has a long seacoast. Is it an advantage or a liability?


The Geographical boundaries of our country defined by water on two sides and the Himalayas on the other side have made us Indians, a very insular community. Thus consecutively these coasts have been witness to many invaders and voyagers in the past history of our country. Starting with the Portuguese who entered India from Goa, to the Britishers who later went on to enslave our country with the formation of the East India Company, it has been a real sad past for us. Now in the current times maintaining our coasts through a huge navel fleet has also become a huge cost for the country. Thus we dont seem to have benefited a lot from our coastline except for some productive measures like generation of energy from sea waves is taken up recently. Also, even after having such a huge coastline we have not been able to prove ourselves as a major player in the Fishing Industry. Japan, Denmark, Britain etc. are still the major players in this area. Advantages: 1. More of coastal area more of ports (we have some eight good navigable ports.) 2. More of ports mean more of trade. (England, for example, could become the greatest power in the world once, mainly due to its trade and commercial undertakings.) 3. More of trade means more of foreign currency and economic development. 4. A long coastline means better opportunities unemployment and food problems to a certain extent. for fishing which solves

5. Long coast line affords not only the expansion of shipping industry but also paves the way for valuable materials like pearls etc. (e.g., Tuticorin).] 6. It can also be used for inland trade as we have commercial services plying from Bombay to Calcutta. 7. It affords good climate over the coastal area. 8. The coastal sand affords many valuable minerals like uranium, silicon etc. 9. Affords raw material for salt industry. Liability: 1. More of coastal line means a greater threat from foreign aggressors. 2. Coastal line is more easily accessible than the land as we have instances of the Portuguese, French and English invasions. 3. This means more of navy, armament and expenditure. 4. This means burden on foreign currency. 5. Even in times of peace, natural calamities like floods and tides tax the Government budget and are also responsible for taking away human life.

Is science a curse or a boon?


A science may affect human life in two different ways. On the one hand, without altering men's passions or their general outlook, it may increase their power of gratifying their desires. On the other hand, it may operate through an effect upon the imaginative conception of the world, the theology or philosophy, which is accepted in practice by energetic men. The latter is a fascinating study.The effect of the biological sciences, so far, has been very small. No doubt Darwinism and the idea of evolution affected men's imaginative outlook; arguments were derived in favour of free competition, and also of nationalism. It is probable that great effects will come from these sciences sooner or later. The anthropological sciences are those from which, a priori, we might have expected the greatest social effects, but hitherto this has not proved to be the case, partly because these sciences are mostly still at an early stage of development. Even economics has not so far had much effect. One general observation to begin with. Science has increased man's control over nature, and might therefore be supposed likely to increase his happiness and well-being. This would be the case if men were rational, but in fact they are bundles of passions and instincts. An animal species in a stable environment, if it does not die out, acquires equilibrium between its passions and the conditions of its life. If the conditions are suddenly altered, the equilibrium is upset. Wolves in a state of nature have difficulty in getting food, and therefore need the stimulus of a very insistent hunger. The result is that their descendants, domestic dogs, over-eat if they are allowed to do so. When a certain amount of something is useful, and the difficulty of obtaining it is diminished, instinct will usually lead an animal to excess in the new circumstances. The sudden change produced by science has upset the balance between our instincts and our circumstances, but in directions not sufficiently noted. Over-eating is not a serious danger, but over-fighting is. The human instincts of power and rivalry, like the dog's wolfish appetite will need to be artificially curbed, if industrialism is to succeed.

Curse: 1. The evil effects of Science are the cause of unrest in the world today. 2. It has helped arms race and power politics. 3. The threat of atom bomb and the Hiroshima affairs are still ringing in everyones ears. 4. There is no way of preventing politicians who use scientific advancement for bad purposes. 5. The advancement of Science has made our society more complex and in the name of comforts we have lost our mental peace.

Boon:
1. The advancement of Science has brought forth many comforts. It has brought men closer than ever. 2. It has brought men closer than ever. 3. It has made human labour reduce to the minimum by the use of machines. 4. By the advancement of Science, luxuries of life have become a reality 5. The ill effects of Science help innovation and human advancement, (many attempts that are being made may be discussed.

WHICH LIFE IS BETTER FOR A STUDENT LIFE IN A HOSTEL OR LIFE OF A DAY-SCHOLAR?


With growing competition and a demand for more qualified personals, studies have become more of a necessity rather than a source of knowledge. Times earlier the hostel was like a dread or like a jailhouse for children who misbehave. So like a demon, was the word hostel . But with changing times, hostels have become more like a common asset for students. More and more students are found to be migrating from their houses for more qualifications. The first entrance into the hostel is something which many dread a lot. The biggest challenge especially is to break the ice, which is something all are not comfortable with, especially after realising the fact that the hostel would be their world for quite a time. To the students, it is like the opening of a new world, a world without parents, without your favourite teachers and most of all the realisation to the fact that there is no one to hear your woes. Now this is something, which is quite unbearable with many, in fact with all. Unlike teenagers who find it easy to break the ice, children on the other hand find it very difficult to do the same. Teenagers are more exposed to the outside world, or at least to their school atmosphere and hence they find mingling with people relatively easy, in comparison to the young children who find it difficult to do the same. The atmosphere in a hostel is much more different than it normally is in schools or other institutions. It is like a living school or an institution practically every day. The other drawback that the students face is the worry and fear, fear of being ragged, fear of losing out on money, or the most dreaded fact of having to face the dreaded "bully". But hostel life can also be an experience of a lifetime, for persons who are lucky to have good hostel environment. Being away from home, children realise the meaning of team spirit (as co-operation is very essential to survive in hostels), they become financially more independent (as only a limited sum of money is available, which is to be spent wisely), more disciplined and aware of the world too. Moreover good institutions take care to see that students not only excel in studies but also in other extra curricular activities too. This definitely proves to be an advantage for the students in their future. For a hostelite: 1. Life in a hostel brings him into touch with young blood. 2. It gives the first lessons for independent and responsible living. 3. It gives more time to spare for studies and games. 4. It keeps him away from worries of the family and makes his life more joyful. 5. The various activities in a hostel make one the best future citizen. 6. It teaches discipline, as he is required to do things according to a schedule laid down by the authorities. 7. He becomes co-operative in nature since he lives with so many students.

For a day scholar: 1. A Day-scholar is lucky enough to get continuous parental love and affection. 2. He gets better attention for studies since parents will have an eye on him. 3. He is not disturbed by bad companions. 4. With lesser independence he has minimal chances of going off the track. 5. He leads a healthier life under the supervision of the parents.

Who serves the country better, a Teacher or a Soldier?


Pen is the mightier than the sword, this saying has been known by man since the middle ages of civilasation. But now it is a matter of the Countrys security. To meet our second basic need of safety, we need to keep our countrys borders secure. For a smooth functioning of our Government it is necessary that our Capitol buildings and its members be safe, also we need to ensure the safety of our future citizens through the safety of our Educational institutions, and so on. But is that all? Well the answer is a big NO. The future of the Country lies in the hand of our children, and their future lies in the hands of our teachers. Our soldiers may prove to be fatal for the security of our country if they are not educated and properly trained. Our children may grow up to be crippled and distorted beings if not properly looked after by our Teacher. Hence the eminence of this being, called the Teacher in our society is pretty obvious. The rest, I leave for you to explore since you are the Future citizens I am talking about. For Teacher: 1. Teacher has the sole responsibility to mould children into future citizen. 2. A teacher is behind all the technological innovations & scientific developments in society. 3. A soldier can save the country from invasions but a teacher saves the country from illiteracy andmental handicap. 4. All progressive nations have realized the worth of a teacher. For Soldier: 1. A soldier saves the country by sacrificing his own life. 2. A soldier saves the country both during the time of war as well as in peace. 3. A slave nation is saved only by a teacher. 4. A soldier is an example of sincerity, hard work and discipline for the masses of the country.

Thirty percent reservation for women in Parliament will not serve their cause .
What do we mean by cause of women? Education, social oppression, female infanticide, womens health, professional discrimination, mother, childcare, molestation, eve teasing etc. Are girl children given the same opportunity to education as is given to male children? Among the lower strata of the society it appears to be an issue at the primary education level it self. Between the Middle class and the Higher Income categories this becomes a problem only when it comes to higher education as well as professional education. Education here covers aspects beyond literacy, like sports and allied activities. However does this require a representation in the parliament for redressal? Since the problem is present in all the strata of society, representation in the parliament will help reduce the problem. On the other hand, what can the parliament do about parents not sending children to school? This appears not to be in the scope of the Parliament. Thus in this case it seems to be a problem of the masses and they have to be the best judge for it. For: 1. Our Country has been witness to many tortures on women, like bride burning, child Infanticide etc. And hence the reservation given out by the Parliament to women wont be enough to safeguard their prestige. 2. Although Urbanisation in India is on the rise, Indian families still live in villages. And hence most of the families are against educating their girl child. This would prove the measures taken by the Parliament futile. 3. The average age at which Indian girls get married is 18-20. Hence such facilities would be of no worth to them. 4. The reservation will result in more working women, which in turn will result in ill cared children 5. Women will try to compete with men rather than act as equals. Against: 1. The Parliament is the highest authority in the country. Thus its decision is the best decision. 2. Thirty percent is a good figure to boost the position of women in Indian society. It will help them become self-dependent. 3. Women have proved themselves in various arenas of life like defence, social welfare, manufacturing etc. Hence they are worth this gift given to them by the parliament. 4. More than thirty percent reservation will induce a feeling of too much security in the women community, because of which the will become hedonists and will make wrong use of the powers.

Red tape with respect to Infrastructure has been the reason for stiff Economic growth
Infrastructure is an area, which is highly debated upon today. Crore of rupees are being spent on setting up committees and bodies, for carrying out case studies and feasibility reports. But at the end of this entire nothing much is achieved and there is waste of precious time and project delays. Just publishing reports and appointing chairpersons will not solve the problem. What India actually needs to do is to change the mindset of the people emphasising on that if government has to spend crores of rupees it will have to recover some amount of the cost from the people as well who are the one utilise and take benefit from the public infrastructure. User charger concept will have to be clearly defined and fixation should be done in a rational manner. If the government seeks to provide long-term quality infrastructure, there is no reason why the people will hesitate in paying for these facilities. Currently, there is no correlation between expenditure and the growth achieved. Why is this so? Need of the hour What basically then needs to be done is the government should delegate its powers and evolve an independent decision making system at the ground level. What is happening today is that the government is taking decisions in right earnest with a long-term perspective too, but its role seems to be ending there. Governments should be involved till the last step of clearing projects and see to it that they take off. What usually happens is that projects get announced but do not get commissioned. This has been happening because basically the entire administrative setup is faulty and loopholes exist at every stage. Hence, single-window clearance is the only solution. Bureaucracy and red tapism should be eliminated to make projects viable. For: 1. Distribution and transmission loss is tremendous.50% in case of Delhi. 2. The telephone is scarcely found in Indian homes, what to talk of the Internet. 3. Majority of the state highways in India are in a poor condition. 4. Even the ports of the country have been showing a low productivity 5. The Railways are inflicted by numerous accidents due to ill maintained tracks. 6. The overall growth of the GDP has been slowed down due to these bottlenecks.

Against: 1. The Government has welcomed FDI to improve the Infrastructural sector 2. We maintain one of the biggest Railway networks in the world. 3. Our GDP has been growing healthily and expected to grow at 6.5% in the coming years. 4. India is the fourth largest economy in the World on the basis of Purchasing power parity. 5. We have made rapid progress in the Service sector and have emerged as a Global IT player.

6. WE have also been leading in the field of E-Commerce. 7. In the past years the performance of most of the Infrastructure services have improved.

Should Women be considered equal to Men?


It is not a matter of equality but a matter of Identity. The above topic should not be visualized in terms of endless competition between the male and the female gender but as necessity for coexistence of these two creatures in the present world. Moreover organisations like that of the womens lib have worsened the situation. Thus lets think of symbiosis, of living in harmony and not of endless war in the precincts of what we call our sweet home. The whole exercise should be towards developing humankind as a whole through the cohesive force of both the genders. For: 1. God created men and women to be partners and not subordinates. 2. The necessity of uplifting womens status is never over emphasized. 3. Equality of status makes them work better for the nation. 4. There is a woman behind every successful man. 5. They have a right to equality, as they should be considered as individuals first. Against: 1. Man is usually the head of the family. 2. Such issues would only lead to quarrels in a family. 3. It will lead to the women neglecting their children and thus underdeveloped future citizens. 4. It will lead to undue usage of power and thus frequent conflicts 5. Women should strive to be better individuals rather than competing with men.

Lagans fate at the Oscars was the result of a fair decision


How can one say that so-and-so movie was better than LAGAAN? It is not the same run-around-the-mill story. Its different from all the movies of this generation. These days you this kind of movies are made very less and when a movie of such a caliber is made one naturally feels good about the movie and words of appreciation flows just the way a healthy person breathes. Its no the usual love story or family drama. Ok so what if K3G, Mujhe Kuch. , Dil Chata Hai and Gadar were great success and they were good in their own form, but Lagaan gives you not only three-hour wholesome entertainment but also inspiration to win against something great. It is really a great influencing movie. Performances, music, sets, screenplay and direction were all superb. But one cannot deny the fact that the direction, sets and performance (strictly in that order) of K#G were also fine. But Lagaan will be remembered for generations to come. It will be a classic of all times. For: 1. The film lagan was not able to portray reality as had been done by the Bosnian film. 2. This bolywood production was worth only the nomination. 3. The synchronization between the actors and the director seemed to be missing. 4. Mother India which was of a better quality than Lagan failed to get an Oscar 5. The difference between actual villagers playing the cricket match and actors trying to portray the same was distinct. 6. Although it was good effort it was missing that wow effect. 7. The directors need a lot of exposure to foreign films. Against: 1. Lagan was the film of the decade. 2. Amir Khan had put his heart and soul into the film. 3. The various songs were able to bring out the feeling of the villagers very well. 4. The film was a work of art. 5. The village culture of our Country was very suttly portrayed in the film. 6. The way the cricket match builds up excitement in the minds of the people is incomparable. 7. As an effort by youngsters the film should have got some recognition for the same.

Womens liberalization movement in India has been a farce


The current economic and socio-political maladies along with increasing violence against women andchildren are attributed to the failure of male oriented polity. Representation of women in higher bodies of political authority has been considered a prerequisite for the success of democracy at the grass-root level. However the need for accountability and sense of commitment on the part of the elected women representatives is stressed. This requires a higher degree of awareness among women regarding health, literacy, gender and other relevant social, economic and political issues.

For: 1. Most organisations have tried to encash this issue commercially. 2. Women in villages have no reach to such organisations. 3. These days most of the organisations are politically motivated. 4. Joining such organisations has become a means for whiling away time for affluent women. 5. The leader of such organisations is nowhere near to the actual problem faced by women 6. Because of our orthodox family set up very few cases on atrocities on women are reported. 7. Many women have used these organisations as a platform to gain popularity. Against: 1. Several social ads on women, supported by such organisations are frequently seen on T.V 2. The percentage of the female child going to school has increased in the past couple of years. 3. Various road shows by such organisations have helped in spreading awareness in the society. 4. These organisations have helped Indian women to become self-sufficient. 5. Self-sufficiency has given the traditional Indian housewife the strength to stand against the atrocities of their husbands. 6. These organisations had strongly opposed the issue of gender identification.

Ceasefire in J&K-A Losing Game


The mutability of truth is a phenomenon best demonstrated in Kashmir. Journalists havecensured the Indian Government on its inability to implement the ceasefire on the ground, particularly with the human rights violations at Haigam and Maisuma. The alarming reports of the spontaneous intifada-type uprising and the violent reaction of the state have jolted the Centre out of its over-optimism generated by the ceasefire which has failed to live up to its promise of leading to peace in the valley. If there was a reduction in cordon and search operations, fewer checks on the highways, a drop in combat operations by the security forces, then, logic would have it, the stresses on the ordinary Kashmiri would lighten and perhaps one could gradually look forward to a much-needed restoration of normal civil life. But this was not to be and the security forces are not the only ones to blame. In the three months of the ceasefire, 87 militants were killed. The corresponding figures of last year show that there has been a decrease of 42 per cent, which indeed indicates a decline in the number of pro-active combat operations against the insurgents. And yet the number of violent incidents by the militants shows a rise of over 100 per cent from the previous year. Even during Ramzan, when Islam strictly forbids acts of violence, far from reducing the number of attacks, the mujahideen actually stepped up the violence from 54 incidents of the previous year to a startling 110 in December 2000. Important points: 1. The ceasefire in Kashmir has failed to live up to its potential for peace in the valley when it was introduced first time last year. 2. The ceasefire period has been marked by an increase in the number of casualties among lawenforcement agencies and decrease in those of militants. 3. Experts say that the ceasefire has hurt counter-insurgency operations as the Security forces are no longer pro-active in carrying put search and seizure operations along with engaging militants in combats and limited their role to defensive actions and counter-attacks. 4. The ceasefire has lead to a severe assault on the informal intelligence network built assiduously by the security forces. Informers who were vital sources of inputs about whereabouts and activities of militants have become sitting ducks for militants retribution. Rebuilding this network will be a hard and long drawn out task. 5. The inability to create a favorable atmosphere for beginning a political dialogue for peaceful resolution of the dispute is the single biggest failure of the cease fire initiative. The Centre is tornbetween competing claims of the Hurriyat Conference and Farooq Abdullah government of being genuine representatives of the Kashmiri people to begin a dialogue. 6. The actions of Special Operations Groups (SOG) of the J & K Police though effective have invited widespread condemnations of fake killings and extortions.

7. The Centres dithering over allowing the Hurriyat members to visit Pakistan to persuade the militant organizations there for a dialogue has frittered away the goodwill generated when the idea was first mooted. Centres insistence of excluding Pro-Pakistani Geelani from any delegation visiting Pakistan is being seen as an attempt to create divisions between Hurriyat members. 8. Centres move to raise additional battalions of Rashtriya Rifles and giving a more pro-active role to & K Police is being a step in the right direction, as it would reduce the role of Army in counterinsurgency operations. 9. The Authorities in J&K must be proactive in dealing with complaints of Human Rights violations. Fake killings and high handedness by security forces have turned the tide in favors of militants. 10. Security apparatus in the state should be beefed up. Ceasefire should not lead to a lowering of guard. An objective assessment of the gains and fall-outs of the ceasefire are a must for any future decision regarding its extension.

Flexi time should be abolished from Companies


Preoccupation with increased productivity is the prime concern of any organisation, be it in public or private sector. For this purpose many new concepts are devised and adopted. The concept of introducing flexible working hours has evoked a mixed response form the employers and the employees. In companies where working hours are strictly concerned, some schedule has to be maintained in the interest of productivity, development and progress.

For:
1. This is a professional world where nobody likes to work for pleasure. 2. With regards to working hours a strict schedule is required to ensure productivity. 3. People cannot enter and leave the office as and when they want. 4. Introducing flexi time will lead to lack of accountability. 5. Keeping track of every Individuals work is going to be very difficult.

Against:
1. Human beings are not Robots. 2. A person can be productive when he is not burdened by severe tensions. 3. Strict working hours should be employed in Central Government Organisations. 4. Flexi time is a high motivational factor in corporate houses. 5. Strict regimes are a reason for Employee turnovers in various companies

T.V Quiz Shows propagate greed and a tendency towards gambling among people
T.V Quiz show exploits the element of greed and gambling among people. There is more of hollow rigmarole and consumerism involved then a genuine desire to test the participants general knowledge. They encourage gambling among people by offering cash and prizes, thus making people believe that they can follow the winners and answer simple questions that the winners are able to answer easily. There are times when the participants make wild guesses among the choices offered withought trying to understand why and how a particular answer is right.

For:
1. T.V quiz shows bow the seed of greed in the human brain. 2. These shows are about more of showmanship and less of knowledge. 3. By offering a lot of cash and costly prizes they induce an inclination towards gambling among people. 4. Such show limits the I.Q of our youth by making them couch potatoes. 5. The participants are not selected through any recognised filtration process. Against: 1. Quiz shows, like those organised by people like Siddharth Basu are an asset for the country. 2. Such shows propagate a quest for knowledge among the participants and the audience. 3. These shows act like distant education for people. 4. Whatever the participants get is a token of their knowledge and skills. 5. Various shows are also organised by bodies like the U.G.C

China: Future Ally or Potential Foe


Historical records show that the Sino-Indian relations can be traced back to 2nd century B. C. Two famous Chinese Buddhist monks Fahien and Huen Tsang went to India to learn the Buddhist scriptures, and the Indian monk Budhi- Dharma came to China to preach and established the Chan sect. During the War of Resistance against Japan, the Indian National Congress Party sent a medical team to China and Dr. Kotnis devoted his life to the liberation cause of the Chinese people. The two countries established diplomatic relations on 1 April 1950 and India was the first out of the non-socialist countries to establish diplomatic relations with China. In 1954, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru exchanged visits and jointly initiated the famous Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. In the mid 1950s, a slogan "Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai", which means the Indian and Chinese peoples were brothers, was known to every household In 1959, India and China parted ways as India supported and took in the Tibetan people who fled Tibet because of Chinese atrocities. In 1962 India was attacked by China along the SinoIndian border areas, India was forced to fight back for self-defense. Much later, in 1984, the two sides signed a trade agreement In1988 Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited China, which brought the relations of the two countries into a new stage of development. At the end of November 1996, President Jiang Zemin paid a state visit to India, which was the first of its kind paid by the head of state from China to India since the establishment of the Sino-Indian diplomatic relations. However Chinas pro Pakistan stand was always a cause for concern to India & in May 1998, India carried out nuclear tests. One of the reasons for carrying out the nuclear tests was the "China threat". This seriously frustrated the Sino-Indian relations. left over by history. With the recent visit of the Chinese president Zhu Rongh now seem to be improving. India is the biggest trade partner of China in south Asia. The main items China exports to India include petroleum, chemical, mechanical and electrical products and those China imports from India include iron ore and chromium mineral. At present, cooperation between China and India in science and technology is in its initial stage. Cultural exchanges are getting active, while military exchanges revitalizing and developing. Facing with the complicated and rapidly changing international situation, China and India hold similar or identical views towards major international issues and bilateral cooperation on international and regional affairs have been strengthened continuously. As two biggest developing countries in the world, China and India enjoy broad convergence on vindicating the legitimate interests of developing countries and establishing a just and reasonable international political and economic order. A stable, normal and friendly Sino-Indian relations are beneficial to the peace, stability and development of Asia and the world as a whole.

For
Current visit of the Chinese premier Zhu Rongji can be seen as the beginning of a new era of friendship between India and china. Indian corporates can now plan an entry into the Chinese markets. Infosys was given permission by Ronghi to set up an office in Shanghai India too has nuclear weapons so China would want to avoid the possibility of a nuclear war. Sino-Indian alliance is going to be the best answer to U.S.A. hegemony. Certain population in India still shares same communist ideologies as China. Thus, there is a link, howsoever weak, between China and India. Indian defense is as strong as Chinese defense .So; an alliance is going to be the best option. China will benefit more economically if it aligns with India. Public opinion in todays scenario counts a lot. Currently the world favors peaceful nations. China would not want to go against the worlds opinion. Both the countries have cherished cultural heritages, which they both want to preserve. This too forms a common link between the two. China and India are neighbors. By creating a hostile situation china would not want to rock the boat in this region. Both the countries can benefit exchanges of trade and technology. Against 1. China has attacked (unprovoked) before in 1962. The Indo - China war cannot be relegated to history so soon. 2. China has always maintained an aggressive attitude aggressiveness can be seen in its behavior towards Taiwan. .for example its

3. India sheltered Dalai Lama when he fled from Tibet after china attacked it. Political asylum given to Dalai Lama has been a bone of contention between India and china. 4. The past has taught us not to blindly trust China (1962 war) 5. India is an economic superpower in this region. We also have nuclear weapons. We can therefore be viewed as a threat to china. 6. China has shown pro Pakistan tendencies. One of the reasons of the growth of Pakistan terrorists is China. 7. China has provided arms and other such aid to the neighboring countries Sri Lanka, Pakistan and has kept India in strategic engagement. 8. China did not support Indias demand of getting a permanent seat in the UN Security Council. 9. China has tried to destablize Indian economy by dumping goods in Indian markets. 10. Among the upcoming superpowers of the world India is the only threat to china becoming a superpower. 11. China has always had an insular attitude towards acceptance of other cultures.

Career Launcher

GD TOPICS