DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

......................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION...................103 GERUND .........................................................................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)...........................99 QUESTION TAGS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)..............................................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..............................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .........100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ........................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .............................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .............................................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH................................................................

News Items 13. Report 4. in what way is the text constructed by its writer.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. 1. Recount 6. Anecdote 9. 2. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Narrative 11. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. why is the text made?. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Explanation 2. The language feature. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Procedure 12. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Spoof 5. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Analytical Exposition 8. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. These types of text are. Hortatory Exposition 3. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Descriptive 10.

non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. or concentrate on your homework. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. you may find it hard to sleep at night.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Reiteratio In conclusion. Secondly. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. it is better to look at the fact. the city is very busy. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Additionally. Argument Firstly. Thirdly. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. lung cancer. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. as we all know. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. As we all know. cars. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. and especially talk to someone. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. cars are very noisy. If you live in the city. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. the risk is nineteen greater. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. In one hour in smoky room. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . which causes them to die. cars create pollution. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Example of Analytical Exposition A. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day.

The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. That wil be true if the conditions. As the US. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. In this example of analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Furthermore. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.

dsb. students need book. ruler and such other stuff. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. Secondly. Penguatan pernyataan. misalnya we must preserve. (Simplified from the jakartapos. eraser. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. From all of that. • Reiteration . terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. decide which computer or laptop they need. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. drawing book. leaded petrol car. this method will help student to get better understanding. misalnya policy. misalnya It is important. dsb • Modal verbs. Additionally. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. • Action verbs. dsb. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. • Technical verbs. pollution. misalnya species of animals.dsb. misalnya car. government. we. That is really easy and save time and money. secondly. • Abstract nouns.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Relating verbs. and then complete the transaction. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. misalnya Many people believe. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. • Connectives. misalnya C. First. • Modal adverbs. • Thinking verbs. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya firstly. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. dsb. students need more to reach their progressive development. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. • Bahasa evaluatif. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. in this multimedia era. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. The students just need to brows that online shop. dsb. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. misalnya certainly. pen. dsb. dsb. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. misalnya She must save.

Therefore. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Career in Translation Functionally. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. D. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. According to Nida.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Students just need to decide which type they really need. E. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. India is likely being an English speaking country. India translation will grow better and. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Arabic translation. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. It seems Indonesia. If Hindi translation is provided. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. For instance. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.

then. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. afterward 6.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Abstract 2. etc 2. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. go. do you know what? 4. etc • Causal conjunction . Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. it's awful!. 2. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Using rhetoric question. Orientation 3. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. 3. it's wonderful!. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. because. Incident. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. etc 5. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Using action verb. Using imperative. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. write. Using exclamation words. Crisis 4. Using simple past tense 4. Using conjunction of time. listen to this 3.

who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. Suddenly to my horror. write. had shank.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . dsb. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. • seruan/kata seru. afterwards. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly  Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. and turned on the tap. the mighty Titanic. They had gotten • action verbs. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. However few days before their departure. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. misalnya go. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. passport. America. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. their children to America. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. so we set to. The family dreams were dashed. Five days latter. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. Anna. The father was full of disappointed and anger. seperti then. dsb. The doctor sewed up the boy. The ship. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. They had a dream to go to America. He shed tears of disappointment. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Blessing behind Tragedy  Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. spitting and hissing at us. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. The family worked and saved. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu.  Pengenalan (Orientation)  Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote  Tindakan (Incident) A. there were being quarantined for long days. several years but finally they had saved enough money.

The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. they were left behind. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. When the dream will come true. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. 3. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. • Description. place. It made they were being quarantined. or/and characteristics. but because of the bitten son by a dog. You have and so do I. The Clak family should have been on that ship.passenger and crew with it. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . describing the phenomenon in parts. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. qualities. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It was unbelievable but it was. The father was angry with his son and God. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. He thanked God for saving their lives. or thing. When the father heard the news. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. identifying the phenomenon to be described. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. 2. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. • Using simple present tense 4. there is something wrong last minute before it. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. They had to forget their plan. They had dream to travel to America.

Example of Description A. a railway station is under construction. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . a grass amphitheatre. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Recently. This shoes really matches on her. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Sydney. Ballet. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. The products provide varieties of choice. Today. attractive and trendy. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. This year. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. She said that the products covered all genders. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. all her friends. yet retaining its beautiful site. She is really mad on that shoes. The style. In three years1 time. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus.on in Australia. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. In 1964. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. She really have perfect appearance. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. She is beautiful. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. When she are walking on that shoes. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. in 2004. native plants and eucalypts. casual. bright color. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend.

Budhist temple.The temple is constructed. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur is well-known all over the world.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. B. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The way to the summit extends through some 4. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Cambodia. Borobudur temple • Description. Central Java. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. valuable • Using simple present tense. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Borobudur is well-known.8 km of passage and starways. Indonesia. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. describing the Borobudur temple in parts.

She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. two strong legs. dsb. dsb. misalnya. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. • berbagai macam adjectives. kualitas. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. dsb. sifat-sifat (characteristic). a sweet young lady. It has very thick fur.  Description. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. better or worse 3. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. house. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. sharp white fangs. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. bersifat describing.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. misalnya. misalnya teacher.my cat. dsb. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. enough money to take Snow White. numbering. perilaku umum. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. but my favourite one is a cat. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. misalnya fast. dsb. • simple present tense. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. White. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. classifying. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. dsb. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. My mum is realy cool. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. 2. • action verbs. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Misalnya: I have many pets.

The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. They went inside. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. which she strikes against herself. “Oh could I? Thank you. Hakim. “Without question. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. The following day. They want to know what next will happen. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The third sheik.” Doc. had many suitors. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. in what way she will decide who the best is. She saw the dwarfs. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. After dinner. Then Snow White woke up. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. As they were about to have dinner. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . you may live here with us. One by one she discarded them. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. The psychological conflict inside Maura. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. Maura asked them for something to eat. who was called Hakim. who received a plate of delicious meat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. They were also rich and strong. The dwarfs said. The first gave her some left over food. said. “what is your name?” Snow White said. “If you wish. “My name is Snow White. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. One evening.” Snow White said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. one of the dwarfs. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. There they found Snow White sleeping. Example of Narative A.

At the first. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. stayed. “You know. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. climbed. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. Pengenalan tokoh.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. dsb. Masalah. Although he tried hard to teach. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. konflik dalam cerita. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. the man really got very angry. except one word. dsb.dsb. Penyelesaian masalah. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. waktu. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. • action verbs dalam past tense. before that. happily ever after. housework. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. misalnya then. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. misalnya. dsb. misalnya here. the parrot would not say it. He could not bear it. Then he continued to humble. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). I will cut the chicken 17 . a man had a wonderful parrot. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. soon. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. The name of the place was Catano. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. misalnya. Resolution. phrase. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. in the mountain. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. long black hair. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. two red apples. dsb. The parrot could say every word. Complication. There was no other parrot like it. stepsisters. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry.

The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. the man attempted to teach the bird. He made the fish free. 4 are describing the complication. 3. One day. there was a handsome man. After that he left the chicken house. To fix this problem. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. stupid parrot”. He felt in love with that fish-woman. Next it will be your turn. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. At the moment. They found their mother and talked her about it. He liked fishing. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. he caught a fish. He could not control his mad. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. They had two daughters. I will eat you too. It will show the crisis. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. The next day. That was the smartest parrot. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. She attracted Batara Guru so much. There were three death chickens on the floor. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. In the parrot story. C. In that parrot story. readers see the problem is finished. rising crisis and climax of the story. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. paragraph 2. They were married happily. Batara Guru could not bear it. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 .for my meal. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. A man and his parrot took place once time. The fish begged him to set it free. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. He opened the door and was very surprised. the man came back to the chicken house. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. As soon as it was free. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The daughters were crying.

The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Magically. In her hurry. “Well” said the godmother. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. did not work about the house. on the other hand. It fitted perfectly. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Finally. The two step sisters. Cinderella”. She danced again and again with the king’s son. The mother was shouting angrily. such as scrubbing the floor. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. she was driven to the palace. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. At last. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Batara Guru broke his promise. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. The earth formed a very big hole. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Then the earth began to shake.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. she said. and it became a beautiful ball gown. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Cinderella?” a voice asked. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. They were married and live happily ever after. In the end. “Now. One day. They treated Cinderella very badly. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. the day of the ball came. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Volcanoes started to erupt. D. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. A few days later. “You must leave before midnight”. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella.The mother was very annoyed. hardworking. and away went the sisters to it. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. “Why are crying. People believed that the big hole became a lake.

Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. One day. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “Yes” said the man. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “it at home”. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. introducing specific participants. Generic Structure Analysis 1. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . E. once in Laos 2. “No. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. He took his plough and hit the tiger. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Every morning and every evening. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “Can I see your intelligence?”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Resolution. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Orientation. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Complication. But the man answered. 3. “oh. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. said the buffalo.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Once there was a farmer from Laos. Then he said. the man is very intelligent”. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. I can’t tell you”. In the last paragraph. farmer and his buffalo. After the man went home. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Complication: In this Cinderella story. The tiger asked. Resolution: Like complication. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. “you are so big and strong. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. The Smartest Animal.

Goal: showing the purpose 2. fork. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. one day connectives. Cook both sides 9. the man tied the tiger. Add milk and whisk well 4. was surprised to action verb. the next day past tense. cheese grater. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. once. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . spatula. 50 g cheese.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. bowl. there was a farmer. tie. answered thinking verb. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Place on a plate. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. plate Method 1. ¼ cup milk. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. hit time conjunction. after. saw.

• Material. firstly. planting is a nice activity.10. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Firstly. It should be in open area Next. wait it. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Here are the steps. excluded • Steps. etc • Temporal conjunction. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. next. put it in another big pot. Example of Procedure A. put. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. dry a handful seeding. put it. put the seeding on the soil. etc • Action verb. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. dry. informing on how to plant chillies. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Finally. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. finally.

excluded • Steps/ method. writing the topic like the way it is talked. misalnya turn. Use a nice rhythm. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. secondly. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . etc • Action verb. tempat.  Materials. dsb. • Imperative sentences. re-reading what have been written . Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. lose the weak words. menyatakan rinci waktu. Langkah-langkah. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. Use regular words. misalnya for five minutes. 2 centimetres from the top. informing on how to write for business • Material. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. • pola kalimat imperative. to make a cheese omelet. Small Notes Firstly. Here's a simple checklist to follow. might or should help customers but talk about how  Aim/Goal. choosing the advantageous topic. mix. etc C.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. cara yang akurat. Thirdly. while. write like you talked. etc • Temporal conjunction. not Procedure (Prosedur) features.B. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. Don’t mix. you need an egg. you don't have to. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. Well. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Tujuan kegiatan your company will.re-read what you've done before publishing. showing the method in writing for business. firstly. take the topic of benefits. read. Fifthly. fifty gram cheese. misalnya then. but it will help.  Steps. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. dsb. Cut. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. don’t. Edit it necesarily. write. dsb. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. reread what you have done. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. put. three tablespoons cookin oil. a quarter cup of milk.

bowl and plate. The accident. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Main event 2. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. fork. you need some tools. Listen carefully. 2. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth.pepper. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Resource of information 3. Next. Focusing on circumstances 2. The events are considered newsworthy or important. frying pan. Language Feature of News Item 1. Next. time. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Elaboration (background. participant. place) 3. spatula. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Generic Structure of News Item 1. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. cheese grater. First. Using material process 4. such as. add First.

A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms  Newsworthy events. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday  Sources. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. news report said. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. it’s up saksi kejadian. Example of Procedure A. to them”. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Malaysian Aids Council president. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. a  Background Events. but the number is steadily rising. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. “But this just a suggestion. even though they know they have HIV” she said. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. pendapat para ahli. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. many women who contract HIV are housewives.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. dsb. less then 10 percent are woman. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. he said in the report. komentar Star Newspaper. orang yang them. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. June 01. 2008) 25 . (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. • Menggunakan action Last year.

She had relationship the boy for five months. The maid. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months.co.bbc.news.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. May 6. named Suwartin. Hong Kong. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. (Taken from: www. Saudi Arabia. Rape. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Last year. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Then the maid was arrested. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.

2. hope. carry. deliberately. believe. feel.Background 1. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. Using material process. should. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. behead. law of serious crimes. etc • Using additive. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. on the hand. and social text. etc • Using modalities. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. may. contrastive. historic. Resource. Background 2. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. and causal connection. hopefully. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. execute. similarly. must. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc 4. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. could. however. Background 3. etc • Using adverbial of manner.

It is reliable. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies.remember what they have learned. doing homework is not a great idea. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Example of Discussion Text A. so it is not expansive to make. It produces small amount of waste. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. England in 1956. many times. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. and produces huge amounts of energy. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.

although it is reliable. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian).On the other hand. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. dsb. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. misalnya similarly. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. dsb. In many social activities. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. believe. perception and recommendation. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. should have been. seperti perhaps. • adverbials of maner. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. must. memberikan informasi secara padu. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. should. however. misalnya smoking is harmful. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. very dangerous. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. Gagasan Pokok 2. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. alcohol. This example of discussion text present the two poles. misalnya feel.  Kesimpulan. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. dsb. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). could 29 be. misalnya uniforms. on the hand. hope. Furthermore. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. misalnya deliberately.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. dsb. hopefully. Elaborasi (uraian). . • thinking verbs untuk • additives. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. nuclear power is very.

It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. Recommendation. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. scientific and cultural phenomena. must. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. believe. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. farmer. hunting fox.co. conservationists. however. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. 2. Using modalities. B. Many farmer and even conservationists. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. It is often found in science. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Contrastive point. Using thinking verb. Supporting point. social.bbc. (Taken from: www. geography and history text books.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Using connectives. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue.

Featuring generic participant. etc Using chronological connection. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. next. sun. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.• • General statement. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. to begin with. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Example of Explanation Text A. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Language Feature • • • • 4. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. rain. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Sequenced explanation. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips.

How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. simple present tense. the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. But that is the case. earth. It causes day and night. This adverbial phrases. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. misalnya word chopping. conjunctions of time dan cause. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. The earth also moves around the sun. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. action verbs. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. misalnya the temperature. dunia ilmiah.org) B. passive voice. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. misalnya the large cloud. earthquakes. This process is called revolution. Tsunami always bring great damage.co.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. (Taken from: www. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. sosialbudaya. noun phrase. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. It is called as rotation. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. abstract nouns. (simplified from www. It takes 365 days or a year. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. The sun seems to rise in the morning. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. Penjelasan proses • Penutup.ictteachers.panda.

Using chronological connection.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. secondly. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Focusing on the writer 2. daylight. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Arguments 3. but. policy. Using thinking verb 5. then. 2. important. Using evaluative words. Using action verb 4. Using pasive voice. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Using present tense. firstly. Using passive voice 9. I feel that when you travel through the country. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Thesis 2. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Recommendation 3. trustworthy. surely. you would be forgiven. Using abstract noun. etc 3. Explanation. etc 6. certainly. etc 7. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using temporal connective. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. so. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. advantage. Using simple present tense 4. valuable. Using modal adverb. etc 8.

Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . of course. Recomendation I feel that country people. Considering some facts mentioning above. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. and short sleep duration. consumerism and so on. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. especially violence.Those who want to penalise older . and the possibility of being aggressive. Meanwhile. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. stress. Recently.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. pornography. However. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly.

Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. In the first paragraph. If it is a hortatory text. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. In many social activities. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. When we look at classroom. they can find the dust bins easily. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. More dust bins should be put beside each step. school corridors and schoolyard. So when students want to throw away their litters. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. there papers. Both take place as argumentative essays. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show.presenting the supporting arguments. sales letter. B. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. Basically. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. and news advertorial. straws. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. and napkin everywhere. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. advertising. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. speech campaign. mineral water cops. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain.

It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. they will think hard about the time and cost. the available time will be more flexible for them. Where should be after High School?. when they think about straightly seeking job. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. As result. In the same way. When they think about continuing study. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. it will be quite confusing. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. As the alternative method of studying. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. So. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. In the other hand. C. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . it will be very hard to looking for job.

dsb. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Relating verbs. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. dsb. misalnya species of animals. Albert Smith is the proof. misalnya certainly. Argument. Action verbs. misalnya We must preserve. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. misalnya firstly. secondly. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . plant. give up. Generic Structure of Report 1.we. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Modal verbs. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. we must save. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. public place. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Millions from Property Market. dsb. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. are you tired?. Modal adverbs. make.government dsb. Recommendation. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. etc which will be discussed in general 2. misalnya. dsb. misalnya important.D. reward Using action verb. dsb. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . We can show the way to give up work. misalnya I believe . Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Technical verbs. he drives a sport car. animal. felt Using simple present tense. etc Using thinking verb. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. doesn’t seem to have been . there is a way out of financial problem. misalnya should be. part per part . now there is a way out. valuable. Connectives. dsb. Thinking verbs. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.misalnya policy. as it is. dsb. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend.

Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. driving the fish before them. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. when. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . As the bird lifts its head. beating the water furiously with their wings. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. A group. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus' eyes and head are small. stating general classification. etc Using simple present tense 4. perhaps two dozen birds. Example of Report Text A. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. so.• • Using conditional logical connection. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. and woolly layer of fur. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. rivers. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. the animal of platypus. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Platypus. and lakes. In the other hand. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus lives in streams.

misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). atau gejala-gejala sosial. benda buatan manusia. but. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. the animal of platypus conditional. dan klasifikasinya. logical connective.Description. dsb. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. lingkungan. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. kegunaannya jika non natural. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. dsb. Platypus lives in streams. qualities. dsb. habits or behaviors. in terms of parts. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. misalnya lizards cannot fly. male platypus does not need any burrow. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . istilah teknis. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. keterangan. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. apa adanya. misalnya. dsb. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku.

happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. animals or certain things 2. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Using adverb of time and place 4. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. etc 3. ‘ take him to the zoo’. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Focusing on people. 2. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 .1. Orientation 2. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Using action verb. Dave found a nice office. Twist 3. ran. Events 3. He bought some new furniture and moved in. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college.’ replied the man. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ate. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Language Feature of Spoof 1. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Told in chronological order 4.

He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. benda tertentu. binatang. misalnya eat. Then the man said to Dave. terduga atau lucu). Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. “Yes. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. Event 2: He had his new office. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. Instead leaving the country. He suddenly became a 1. “If that is what you want. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. no children. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. B. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. Event 1: Being rich. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. run. conversation on the phone. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Then “Remember. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. “Hey Abu Nawas. In his office. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. verbs. I want you to leave the country. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . “You want me. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He had not left the country yet.

In the end. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. So you see. They did not pay any attention. “I remember exactly what you said. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. young man and young woman. (Adapted from S.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The King continued “And now. I have been walking on this stilts.I got very angry. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. You walk on stilts like a child. were talking noisily. I do not step on the ground of this country”. I could not hear the actors. I do not step on the ground. I could not bear it. The play was very interesting. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. You have not left this country”. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. The king wondered and said “Abu. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. They were talking very loudly. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace.I did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. look at you. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. And since yesterday. I turned around again. I had a very good seat. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. The king was not able to say anything.guards. I turned around. Your Majesty.

When he arrived in the party. It’s a private conversation”. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. nobody looked at me. So. the policeman saw the man in the same park. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. “It’s none of your business. He took it to a policeman and said. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. He put his coat and said. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. "Take it to the zoo!". they just shook the head. The man was still carrying the penguin. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. you give food to my coat instead of me”. The next day. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. “When I came here with my old clothes. “Eat the food. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. D.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . The host at once got up and came to meet him. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked.

Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. heard. walk up Using adverb of time and place. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. policeman Using action verb. were. carry. I. etc • Using simple past tense 4. etc • Using linking verb. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. Reorientation: It is optional. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. change. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. The following day. Generic Structure of Recount 1. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. Orientation: Introducing the participants.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin.did. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. chronological order by days. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. my group. once. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. place and time 2. today I am taking it to the movie". Even. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. He. etc • Using action verb. etc • Using chronological connection. then. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . in the park Told in chronological order. penguin. They were in the park Event1. So. look. go. first. was. saw.

It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They had booked fourteen days tour. They are Mr. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. They slept part of the way. Then. hear. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They gave them food and drink. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. The room had perfect view of the park. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. B. It was scary. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. n Example of Recount text A. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. Mr. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. The two week in London went by fast.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. There was a film for their entertainment. The officers were pleasant. On the third floor. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. Instead of keys for the room. In writer's point of view. They had a very pleasant flight. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They went to London. It can be what the writer has done. Richard’s family was on vacation. They had variety of food. Vacation to London Mr. Richard with two sons. read. At the end of the 14-day. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. the thing is an experience. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. This includes travel and accommodation. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. they inserted a key-card to open the door. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. and Mrs.

Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. kejadian atau kegiatan.  Events. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. The first one was to Singaraja.Small Notes and felt. misalnya beautiful. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. C. then. then on Monday. misalnya David. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. misalnya go. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. after that. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. he was ready. the monkey. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. at my house. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. On the other hand. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. kejadian atau kegiatan. past tense.  Reorientation. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. the on Tuesday. run dsb. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. the second was to Ubud. but. Rekaman peristiwa. what happened on Sunday. misalnya and. dsb. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. misalnya yesterday. It is a busy but quiet town. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. we dsb. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. It reveals the conflict among the participants. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. recount describes series of events in detail. di mana dan kapan. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya We went to the zoo. The first stop was at Batubulan. sleep. She was happy dsb. In simple way. 46 slowly dsb. funny. • • • • • . waktu dan cara. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. The event happened smoothly. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. On the day of the tour. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. dsb. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Pengenalan. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them.

I was on the car las week. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. D. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. The car lunched to one side. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. in the town. I was on the car. were • Using action verb. Although nothing was left. describing a series of event which happened. walked. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. There were rocks everywhere. to the left. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. Re-orientation. When the earthquake happened. all his day was spent on the beach. was. etc E. I did not know that it was an earthquake. and. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. stating the writer's personal note. earthquake happened. left. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Events. I was on my car. The next stop was Celuk. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. Even I could not move my car at all. moved. When I reached my town. then. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. He was quiet satisfied.a center of stone sculpture. like matchsticks. etc. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. my car lunched on one side. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I • Using chronological connectives. made. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. introducing the participant. I was trapped by the rock. using first person point of view. suddenly • Using linking verb. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. I thought I got flat tire.

Meanwhile. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. During the day. The funeral was performed in two phases. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. chanting. and dancing. the ceremony was quite elaborate. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. On the last day. my uncle. However. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. After that. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. my brother. and end your composition. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. a series of events in chronological order. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. Then. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Those words and phrases are: First. Overall. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Finally. After that. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. we were feasting. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. A recount text has an orientation. It took about a week. there were also buffalo matches. In the text. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. Several days before the ceremony was done. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. First. Questions 1. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. In the night. connect a sentence with the next one. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. and then moved the corpse to face north. Then.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. They were great matches. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. you find words and phrases used to start.

However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good.• Finally. Review Text What is review text 1. quality of the product which will be known publicly. worthy. or just a site which want to be known publicly. It is personal idea about the product. It can be product. Definition Review is one of text genres. Focus on specific participants 2. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Dominant Language features: 1. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. It states the parts. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. useful. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. valuable. etc. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. uniqueness. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. 3. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . After clearly explanation. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. As I said in my previous post. services which want to be sold.

the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. I was truly moved by the last page. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. and ultimately satisfying. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. especially with being a teenager and all. this was not my favorite. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. however. Using long and complex clauses 4. I actually liked the ending (and yes. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. depressing feel. intriguing. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. and parts of it do seem long. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. for example . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. The stories were bright.housekeeping is still housekeeping.3. I cried!) as sad as it was. magical or no. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. fast-paced. and this part I loved. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. He goes from being a warm-hearted. A few other changes in this book . Using metaphor 4... Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English .

such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Again. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. lexical. The translation experts. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. with some editing it would have been great. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. It is real. woman and man are available choice. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. aluminum and rimless frame are available. The site is quite simple but very informative. It straightly goes to the end user. However.really good book. Eyeglasses for children. Similarly. Titanium. In certain case. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. The experts who have grammatical. it will be quite difficult to make translation. if he works with Farsi translation. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. easy and not complicated design. If we visit the site.

Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;

Good Young Mother  Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
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buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
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It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. etc. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. colour. descriptive text will convey more focus. In short. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. It will talk about bicycle in general. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. wheel style. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. between report and descriptive text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. They give the detail description on something. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. animal and scientific object. eg: bicycle. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . product case or problem. goods. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. report is written after getting careful observation. its parts. Mostly. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. If we talk about. Procedure. physical strengh. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. For example how to make a cup of tea. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. how to make a good kite. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. it belongs to report text.interest for them to want to interview you. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. In the other hand. lengh. is the scope of the written object. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. phenomena. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. However if they are analyzed carefully. What make different.

It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. the on Tuesday. the thing is an experience. read. How a tornado form. It is such word. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. phenomena. etc is the best example of the procedure text. They give the detail description on something. product case or problem. Explanation. For example how to make a cup of tea. In simple way. and so on. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place.is the best example of the procedure text. secondly prepare the cup. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. and felt. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. how to make a good kite. what happened on Sunday. On the other hand. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. first boil water. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It can be what the writer has done. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. secondly prepare the cup. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. and so on. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. In writer's point of view. then on Monday. The event happened smoothly. first boil water. Procedure. goods. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It is such word. recount describes series of events in detail. hear. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure.

descriptive. and news item. Crisis 4. 25. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. Reaction 5. 14. Using thinking verbs 4. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Explanation is such a scientific written material. 22. They are narrative. recount. anecdote. Using adverbs 5. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Coda.Explanation. Using modals 2. 19. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 20. analytical exposition. Using action verbs 3. texts are divided into several types. 26. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Using adjective 6. 15. Abstract 2. Dominant Language Features: 57 . Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. report. Thesis 2. 16. Orientation 3. hortatory exposition. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. explanation. 24. procedure. 18. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. spoof. Arguments 3. review. 17. 23. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. discussion. These variations are known as GENRES. How a tornado form.

Using Past Tense 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. Using material process 3. Goal/Aim 2. Using passive voice 4. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1.1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using exclamations. Using action verbs 3. Using action verb 3. Short. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Using adverb 4. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Materials/Equipments 3. Evaluation 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Background event(s) 3. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Complication 4. Using saying verbs 58 . Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using noun phrase 5. General statement 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Explanation 3.

Using conjunction/transition 6. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adjective 7. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using general and abstract noun 9. place or thing in detail. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Identification 2. Using modality 7. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . place and manner. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using modals 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Issue 2. Using thinking verbs 5.4. Using thinking verb 4. Arguments for and against 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Thesis 2. In simple word. Description Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 4. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using adverbs : time. Using adverbs 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Arguments 3. Using adverb 4. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using action verb 3. Using technical terms 8. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1.

Using Past Tense 2. myth. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. fable. as it is. Orientation 60 . Orientation 2. Generic Structure 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Event(s) 3. Using adverb 4. General classification 2. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. In the contrary. social conflict or psychological conflict. or Past Perfect Tense. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Event(s) 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Using conditional logical connection 3. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. folklore. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed.Purpose: to presents information about something. Orientation 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. whether Simple Past Tense. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3. Using action verb 3. Description Dominant Language Feature 1.

8. Evaluation 3. Evaluation 5.2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. tempat. 4. label. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. descriptive. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. 2. Continuous text misalnya narrative. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 10. tabel. Using adjectives 3. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 7. Using long and complex clauses 4. 1. 5. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap.exposition. biasanya tentang nama. diagram dsb. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. dsb. 3. penjelasan. 6. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. grafik. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. tahun. map. tanggal. Focus on specific participants 2. spoof dsb. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Interpretative Recount 4. 9. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul.

i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. it is small. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. fluffy. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . And cute. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.11. f) Menentukan makna kata. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna.

The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. in every ten meters.EXERCISES. 1. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. a number of dust bins should be increased. straws. there are paper mineral water cups. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. more dust bins…. What is the writer’s intention? To …. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Besides. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2.. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. school corridors and school yard. and napkins here and there. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. and some more also the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. readers to do something good. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. According to the writer. they can find the dust bins easily. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 .. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. When we look at classrooms. So when students want to throw away their litters. They put their litters on the proper places. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment.

What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. spelling and culture. which is just what many learners look for sample text. religion. 5. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Last but not least. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. songs are relaxing. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Secondly. shopping malls. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. What is the text about …. lexically and poetically. From the elaboration above. with a lot of repetition. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. In addition. songs in general also use simple conversational language. even revolution. The generic structures of the text are …. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. translating songs. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Although usually simple. some songs can be quite complex syntactically.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. learning vocabulary. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Furthermore. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. They provide variety and fun. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. patriotism and yeas. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. practicing selective listening comprehension. place or time reference. Firstly.

9. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. not just in restaurants.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided..What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.“They provide variety and fun. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Therefore. 11. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .. Firstly.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Finally. It must not be allowed because it is rude.” The underlined word refers to …. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. The word reasons mean…. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Based on the text.Since we can find a thesis. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. smoking in restaurants is impolite.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

• • • •

Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

sister. Mr.. Nice to meet you too. mother. Harris. I'm Linda 1. Very nice to meet you. Pleased to meet you. Carrie. Harris. Jack. student. Mary Jones. Introducing someone else my name is. Cindy.. Mrs.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Nice to meet you. 2. co-worker. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Penny Pitcher. Ms.. boss. my my my my my my my my my brother. father. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . It's a pleasure to meet you. I'm. This is my friend. Ritter. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Watson. Hi Jack. Mr. I don't believe we've met before. teacher. Bob. friend.. And you. • I want to introduce you to …. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Likewise.

e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Retno. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Arnys? Retno : Okay. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Situation: Adib. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Arnys. Adib : Anyway. I’m Arnys. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. My name is Adib. and Retno are new students. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Adib : Hi.g. By the way. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Shall we go to the canteen?. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. I am. this is Retno. are you a new student. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Hi. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School.g. hotel. a restaurant. Adib.

. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks. Bye. Very well. . . Do you wanna . thanks. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. (informal) Would you like to . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. before leaving. Not so bad. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . thank you. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. .Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . . thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. • Good bye. See you soon /later /tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to .

if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.Some responds of inviting.? Would you like .a chocolate bar? .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.Yes... let’s not.I’d love to . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. Receiving . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it...I’d like very much .I’d be happy/glad to accept . ...to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . I’d be delighted to. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.

Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I need it.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Thank you. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . helped carry your grocery bags. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. you very much. Happy new year. Thanks. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Happy birthday to you. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. returned your lost wallet.

holidays and other special occasions. and congratulations Special Days . That’s pity f. That’s too bad e. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.• • • Oh. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s a nuisance d.. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . It’s nice of you to say so.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. not really. How kind of you to say so. What’s shame b.

d. d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I’m sorry to hear that b. I’m really sorry for them d. j.. …. l. m. f. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. How terrible! c. How Awful! d. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. b. Expression Displeasure a. I feel disappointed. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. c. I feel …. I feel … b. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m really sad to … c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. g. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. I enjoyed it I love it. I’m delighted. k. feel unpleased with …. i. I’m sorry about that c.B. h. How dreadful! C. Goodness! b. e. It was terrifi c. I’m so happy ….

but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .Satisfaction.

you should buy the florescent light bulbs. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. • Yes. … If you ask me. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. I agree • I know what you mean.  I think the other one’s better. say • Absolutely. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. • I am with you • Definitely. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.  In my opinion. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 .Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. In my opinion…. As I see.

kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I don't think that's what happened. that's not a good idea. Fear. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 .• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. No. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan.

it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.. • I feel sick.. • Ugh.. • Thank God for .. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. • I’m glad it was done. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . it’s very painful! • Oh./I feel ill.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.

When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. It means that you do not like something." This is not very strong. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike. BUT "I don't really like it. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .

such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. That’s a real embarrassment. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I was so ashamed. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. I’m extremely unhappy about this. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .. I will. Informal Situations … really makes me mad.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No..

 Certainly. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner... Sure. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.. Complaint. I'm sorry to bother you..Palupi : OK.. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. There may have been a misunderstanding about.  Right away. I think you might have forgotten to. Don't get me wrong.. but. It's your fault for (doing something). Excuse me if I'm out of line.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.  Of course.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Blame (keluhan.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.... There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Maybe you forgot to. but I think we should.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . but...

Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.. I ….. Examples I'm really sorry.. I didn't mean to lose your book.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. Pete.. I'd like to apologise for. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. to ask for forgiveness. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. to express regret an exclamation a word.. Sorry for.simply starters! Regret. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. I'm so sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I'll clear up later. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. Apology (penyesalan.. Sorry for taking your DVD..

possibility are:  There is a good chance that ….  It is impossible  There’s a possibility of his winning  Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the  May be he needs more time game... NOTE : 1. game.  She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ..  It’s possible that he’ll win the  There is a little chance that …. distress. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.trouble unhappiness...… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .. Several ways of indicating  possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet.. there is a possibility .. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.

3.  Would there be any possibility of 4. Expressions to show  I don’t think I have the ability capability are :  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I.they. Expressions to show ….?  I can’t do it  Is it possible for me to …?  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing  Are we capable enough to …? it..it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English .she.she. doing something are:  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.she. I’m capable of doing it 2. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.you.you.they.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I. Expressions used to ask  I can do it possibility or capability of  There is a chance that I can do it.we Has utk S= he.we Always dll Does utk S= he.? incapability are:  Do you think we are capable of ….

she. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.he.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .it Were utk S= you.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.they. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.

waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.

were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. “Srimpi”. the telephone rang twelve times. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .does/am. works d. have been practising b. a. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. are Was.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. will have worked c. is. they are succesful. was parctising e.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. has been working b. worked e. practised d. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. a.is. Fred : Juda. Iwan : Yes. will be practising c.

Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. would have started d. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. am living d. was carrying 3. will have started e. will have lunch e. were cleaning b. a. has got a new job d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. My family ____ when the postman arrived. clean d. have been living c. a. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . have lunch d. have carried c. a. will have lived b. will have had lunch b. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. carried e. will be started 2. a. This sentence means that Ann ___. carry d. will start b. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. If we don”t hurry. starts c. a. cleaned e. have been having lunch c. was living e. am carrying b. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard.berlangsung. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. have been cleaning c. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous.

had forgotten e. have been c. Student : All right. but I ____ there many times. have been 6. a. attended c. learn d. would be b. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. I ____ them by then. She studies business. is d. My father is still in Bali. would forget 8. has been attending e. will be attending d. has attended b. was e. a. was d. forgets b. will have learnt c. has been e. causes e. She ___ the lectures. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. will cause 5. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. will have been c. will have been c. caused d. were causing b. had been 9. a. will be b. I forget to bring your book. a. forgot c. am d. have learnt e. a. was e. When airport are located in the center of citied. a. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life.00 tomorrow. Is it right? Student : Yes. Learn all these. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . have caused c. Reni goes to her university every morning. sir. had been 7.b. has worked for six months e. is still looking for a job 4. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. He ____ there for three weeks. started to work 6 months a go c. sir. has been b. has forgotten d. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. a. He ____ ill for a week. will be learning b. am learning 10.

struktur kalimat. keterangan waktu. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). “ I have a present for you in my bag.” (-) He said. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. pronoun (kata ganti orang). where. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. when. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me.DIRECT . (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. dan tempat.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. why. who. how. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English .

Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .

whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Herman : Okay. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. He said ____ the previous day. why Mary had been absent c. not to be so noisy e. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. why Mary was absent e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. he goes to his country c. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. to be not so noisy c. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. mom. he went to his country b. to open my mouth b. opened my mouth c. if Mary was absent d. Herman. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. had gone to his country d. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. if I opened my mouth e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. The baby is sleeping. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. a. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. I wasn’t so noisy d. that Mary had been absent b.1. I am very noisy b. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . that I open his mouth d. he has gone to his country e. a.

6. Mira closed the window. If he could go with us d. He asked me ____ a. c. what are you were doing now d. not to spend e. he asked. It is windy outside. It was windy outside. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. 7. he would not clean c. b. not spending b. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Mira.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. It was windy outside. Anto : I am sorry Lina. “What are you doing now?”. Mother said. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Closed the window. Slamet. Mira closed the window. 4. e. forgot c. what I am doing now. can he go with us e. do not spend d. Does Mira close the window. has forgotten d. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English . did I have an appointment d. he headn’t cleaned b. a. he does not clean e. a. wether he goes with us c. It is windy outside. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Ari : What did he say. a. would forget 3. d. c. what I was doing then. a. “ ___________” a. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. what were you doing now. how was my appointment e. going with us b. he asked me ____”. I got a headache. when is my appointment b. that I had an appointment 94 5. he hasn’t cleaned 2. I forgot to bring your book. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. not spend c. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. had forgotten e. forgets b. e. I hadn’t cleaned d. b.

to finish my work c.c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. to finish your work b. c. 10. d. e. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children don’t make noise b. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. she said. She told the children not to make noise. whether I had appointment 8. Father said. My friend said to me. a. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. She didn’t say the children should noise d. children”. She said the children didn’t make noise c. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. finish your work d. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . “Can I find you a hotel?”. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. “don’t make noise. e. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. b. finished your work e. Mean____ a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.

was kicking b. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . was kicked c.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. she ____ a. kicked e. A : Look! The girl is crying. The announcement ____ twice. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2.

have arranged b. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. are sold e. will be built e. will build d. is arranged d. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . is born d. A big dam ___ in this area next year. a. would be born b. a. a. has been built b. has been born c. was postponed d. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. has arranged c. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. have been arranged 3. did it abolish e. to be abolished c. is sold d. will be unloaded b. R. are unloaded c. was arranged e. was it abolishing d.a. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. a. was being postponed e. has to be postponed b. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. have been unloaded d. was born e. had been sold c.A. were sold b. were being unloaded e. Y : Really. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. a. was it to abolish b. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. has been postponed c.? a. when…. will be born 2. is being built c.

had been demilishing b. has promised d. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. is demolishing c. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. is being taken e. the baby would be well looked after 7. was destroyed 6. was being cleaned d. The passive form is ____ a. a. a.4. will clean b. will be destroyed b. rewarded d. a. was being promised c. the baby was looked after well c. is being destroyed c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. has been promising b. was taken b. demolishing d. was being demolishing 9. has been cleaned 5. was rewarded e. the baby is being looked after well e. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. will be promised e. is being cleaned e. will be taken d. cleaned c. She looks after the baby well. he ____ to the nearest hospital. had destroyed e. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . a. will be promised 10. will be rewarded 8. took c. has been rewarded c. the baby is well looked after b. is being demolished e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. the baby will be well looked after d. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. a. is being rewarded b. destroyed d. a.

Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 .DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. yaitu: 1. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b.

-le. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. -ow. have/has. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. can. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. did. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Apa yang diucapkan. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . shall. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. -er. was/were. (jika saya punya uang. itulah yang diharapkan. dll. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. I will buy a new car. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1.4. will. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Contoh: If I have much money. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang.). may. dll. had. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does.

I would have written you a letter. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. whom. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Kalau kalimatnya (+). whose.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). of which. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. which. 3.Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. I would go to the beach with you. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai.

sebuah benda. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. her. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. their. (him = the man. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. Its surface is not smooth. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (its surface/permukaannya meja. our. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week.Contoh: We know a lot of people. Contoh: We saw the people. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. They are printed in English. his. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . Their car has been stolen. I met him last week.) 2. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. its. I bought it last year. your.

(mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Where 8. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek.7. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.

our.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2).their. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). before dll. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.Amir’s. Before leaving. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. 4. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. can’t help/can’t bear. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . to be worth. 3. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 5. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. 6. Jogging makes us fresh. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. I had mechanic repair my car. get used to. to be busy. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. I got the mechanic to repair my car. he said nothing. Setelah possessive adjective (my.to be used to.her. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. on.your. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). The manager has the letter typed. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). The manager gets the letter typed. his. 2. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.

Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.I like T.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. Menunjukan waktu: before. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. as soon as. .Kokom likes reading better than watching T.Dita would rather watch T. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . while. when. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.V better than radio.V ketimbang main video game) 4. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. after. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.Juned prefers combro to deblo. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .V.Dona prefers dancing to singing. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: . We went home after the rain stopped. a. b. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. yaitu: 1. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.V . SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . 3. c. than plays a video game.

although/though. After that.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. somebody knocked on the door. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. we put them into frying pan. Next.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Finally. 1. he come on time. a. since. next. 3. c. Since I have no money. b. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .He is not only active but also clever.You can read this book if you like.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. e. a. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. c. then. that. or. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. finally. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. dll. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. d. for.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 .Amir and I go to school everyday. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. While he was reading her novel. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) .Although it was raining. if. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . Contoh: . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . I can’t treat you. we must prepare the ingredients. first. after that.He is both wise and good.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. but. 2. we put some sauce and salt. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. b.d.

Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .arti asalnya.

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