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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
......................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ...................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.....103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...........................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ......................................................................................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .........................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)......................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)...................................103 GERUND ......106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ..........................................................................................................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............................................................................................................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ............101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH............................
Analytical Exposition 8. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Explanation 2. Report 4. Anecdote 9. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Descriptive 10. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Hortatory Exposition 3. Procedure 12. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Spoof 5. These types of text are. Review 7. 2. News Items 13. Recount 6. why is the text made?. 1. The language feature. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Narrative 11. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. in what way is the text constructed by its writer.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.
Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. which causes them to die. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. the city is very busy. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. the risk is nineteen greater. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. If you live in the city. it is better to look at the fact. and especially talk to someone. Thirdly. As we all know. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Reiteratio In conclusion. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. or concentrate on your homework. Example of Analytical Exposition A. as we all know. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. lung cancer. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally. Secondly. cars. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. cars are very noisy. In one hour in smoky room. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Smoking however is not good for every body else. cars create pollution. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Argument Firstly. you may find it hard to sleep at night.
The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. As the US. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. In this example of analytical exposition text. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. That wil be true if the conditions. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Furthermore. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments.
(Simplified from the jakartapos. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. • Connectives. pollution. First. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. dsb • Modal verbs. decide which computer or laptop they need. government. students need more to reach their progressive development. secondly. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. misalnya policy. this method will help student to get better understanding. and then complete the transaction. misalnya we must preserve. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. dsb. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. eraser. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. misalnya certainly. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. misalnya car. misalnya She must save. • Thinking verbs.dsb. • Action verbs. • Technical verbs. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. in this multimedia era. misalnya It is important. • Reiteration . • Modal adverbs. misalnya C. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. From all of that. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. drawing book. • Relating verbs. we. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Secondly. • Abstract nouns. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya species of animals.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. students need book. ruler and such other stuff. Penguatan pernyataan. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. dsb. The students just need to brows that online shop. Additionally. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. pen. dsb. misalnya Many people believe.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. dsb. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. That is really easy and save time and money. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. leaded petrol car. misalnya firstly. dsb.
Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. If Hindi translation is provided. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. India translation will grow better and. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Therefore. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. For instance. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. India is likely being an English speaking country. E. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. D. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. According to Nida. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. It seems Indonesia. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Arabic translation. Career in Translation Functionally. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation.
Language Feature of Anecdote 1. 2. Using simple past tense 4. afterward 6. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. because. then. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using imperative. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Abstract 2. it's wonderful!. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using action verb. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Using conjunction of time. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. go. Using exclamation words. etc 5. it's awful!. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. listen to this 3. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. 3. write. do you know what? 4. etc • Causal conjunction . Crisis 4. Incident. Orientation 3.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using rhetoric question. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. etc 2.
They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. passport. misalnya go. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. • seruan/kata seru. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. The family worked and saved. the mighty Titanic. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . America. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. and turned on the tap. They had a dream to go to America. several years but finally they had saved enough money. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. seperti then. their children to America. afterwards. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. Suddenly to my horror. He shed tears of disappointment. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. Five days latter. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. The doctor sewed up the boy. The family dreams were dashed. so we set to. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. there were being quarantined for long days. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. They had gotten • action verbs. dsb. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. dsb. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The ship. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. Anna. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. However few days before their departure. had shank. write. The father was full of disappointed and anger. spitting and hissing at us.
his youngest son was bitten by a dog. When the dream will come true. but because of the bitten son by a dog. The Clak family should have been on that ship. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. or thing. He thanked God for saving their lives. They had to forget their plan. • Description. You have and so do I. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. • Using simple present tense 4. identifying the phenomenon to be described. place. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. they were left behind. When the father heard the news. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God.passenger and crew with it. 3. It made they were being quarantined. It was unbelievable but it was. 2. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. there is something wrong last minute before it. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. They had dream to travel to America. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. describing the phenomenon in parts. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . qualities. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. or/and characteristics.
The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. Recently. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. bright color. yet retaining its beautiful site. Today. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. She always pays much attention on her appearance. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products.on in Australia. She really have perfect appearance. When she are walking on that shoes. a grass amphitheatre. This year. native plants and eucalypts. The style. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Ballet. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. all her friends. The products provide varieties of choice. Sydney. She is really mad on that shoes. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Example of Description A. a railway station is under construction. She said that the products covered all genders. In 1964. She is beautiful. attractive and trendy. casual. In three years1 time. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. This shoes really matches on her. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . in 2004. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.
Budhist temple. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Indonesia. Central Java.8 km of passage and starways. Borobudur is well-known. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Cambodia. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. B. valuable • Using simple present tense. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.The temple is constructed. The upper three are circular. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur temple • Description. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general.
My mum is realy cool. misalnya fast. numbering. bersifat describing. a sweet young lady. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. sifat-sifat (characteristic). when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. misalnya. White. better or worse 3. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. dsb. 2. dsb. house. • berbagai macam adjectives. dsb.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. dsb. Misalnya: I have many pets. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. but my favourite one is a cat. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead.my cat. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. two strong legs. It has very thick fur. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. • simple present tense. enough money to take Snow White. perilaku umum. misalnya teacher. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. classifying. dsb. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. sharp white fangs. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. kualitas. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. dsb. Description. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. • action verbs. misalnya.
One evening. The dwarfs said. Then Snow White woke up. “Oh could I? Thank you. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. They were also rich and strong.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Hakim. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. who was called Hakim. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. “Without question. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. They went inside. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. one of the dwarfs. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. Maura asked them for something to eat. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The third sheik. said. who received a plate of delicious meat. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace.” Snow White said. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. As they were about to have dinner. The first gave her some left over food. She saw the dwarfs. There they found Snow White sleeping. had many suitors. The psychological conflict inside Maura. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. After dinner. They want to know what next will happen. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “If you wish. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. Example of Narative A. in what way she will decide who the best is. “My name is Snow White. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. which she strikes against herself.” Doc. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . The following day. One by one she discarded them. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. you may live here with us. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.
misalnya then. dsb. Pengenalan tokoh. a man had a wonderful parrot. • action verbs dalam past tense. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. dsb. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Then he continued to humble.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Although he tried hard to teach. dsb. stepsisters. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. I will cut the chicken 17 . He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. misalnya. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Resolution. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. before that. misalnya. the parrot would not say it. long black hair. housework. The name of the place was Catano. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. in the mountain. stayed. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. phrase. Complication. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. except one word. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. Penyelesaian masalah. Masalah. The parrot could say every word. There was no other parrot like it. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). “You know. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B.dsb. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. konflik dalam cerita. the man really got very angry. two red apples. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. He could not bear it. happily ever after. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. climbed. waktu. dsb. At the first. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. misalnya here. soon.
It will show the crisis. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. The daughters were crying. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. As soon as it was free. She attracted Batara Guru so much. To fix this problem. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He liked fishing. I will eat you too. the man came back to the chicken house. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. he caught a fish. They found their mother and talked her about it. there was a handsome man. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. In the parrot story. Next it will be your turn. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. C. After that he left the chicken house. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He made the fish free. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. A man and his parrot took place once time. They were married happily. the man attempted to teach the bird. At the moment. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot. They had two daughters. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . One day. readers see the problem is finished. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.for my meal. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not control his mad. paragraph 2. The next day. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. 3. rising crisis and climax of the story. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. Batara Guru could not bear it. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. 4 are describing the complication. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. There were three death chickens on the floor. He felt in love with that fish-woman. In that parrot story. stupid parrot”. The fish begged him to set it free.
her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. the day of the ball came. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. They were married and live happily ever after. The mother was shouting angrily. hardworking. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. A few days later. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Finally. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve.The mother was very annoyed. she was driven to the palace. D. Cinderella?” a voice asked. In the end. “Why are crying. and it became a beautiful ball gown. she said. One day. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. on the other hand. did not work about the house. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Magically. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. They treated Cinderella very badly. In her hurry. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her.”you’ve been such a cheerful. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Cinderella”. Volcanoes started to erupt. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. “Well” said the godmother. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Then the earth began to shake. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. and away went the sisters to it. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. there was a young girl named Cinderella. such as scrubbing the floor. Batara Guru broke his promise. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. She danced again and again with the king’s son. At last. “You must leave before midnight”. The earth formed a very big hole. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. “Now. The two step sisters. It fitted perfectly.
the man is very intelligent”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. The tiger asked. 3. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “you are so big and strong. farmer and his buffalo. Every morning and every evening. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Resolution. The Smartest Animal. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. “Can I see your intelligence?”. “it at home”. “oh. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. One day. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . introducing specific participants. I can’t tell you”. But the man answered. Resolution: Like complication. once in Laos 2. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Complication. Complication: In this Cinderella story.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Orientation. E. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “Yes” said the man. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Once there was a farmer from Laos. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. Then he said. After the man went home. “No. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. said the buffalo. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. In the last paragraph.
• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. cheese grater. Goal: showing the purpose 2. was surprised to action verb. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. the next day past tense. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. ¼ cup milk. after. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. there was a farmer. Cook both sides 9. answered thinking verb. bowl. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. fork. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. one day connectives. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. tie. once. hit time conjunction. spatula. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Place on a plate. the man tied the tiger. saw. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Material: Telling the needed materials 3. plate Method 1. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Add milk and whisk well 4. 50 g cheese.
excluded • Steps. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Here are the steps. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. wait it. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. etc • Temporal conjunction. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. put it in another big pot. next. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. put the seeding on the soil. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. etc • Action verb. • Material. informing on how to plant chillies. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. firstly. dry. Finally. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly.10. Example of Procedure A. finally. put it. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Firstly. put. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . dry a handful seeding. planting is a nice activity. It should be in open area Next.
read. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . informing on how to write for business • Material. Use a nice rhythm. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. Fifthly. Thirdly. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. tempat. secondly. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Langkah-langkah. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. while. but it will help. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. etc C. Here's a simple checklist to follow. 2 centimetres from the top. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. Steps. firstly. you need an egg. dsb. Materials. menyatakan rinci waktu. to make a cheese omelet. • Imperative sentences. Don’t mix. dsb.re-read what you've done before publishing. write like you talked. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. a quarter cup of milk. re-reading what have been written . Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. choosing the advantageous topic. misalnya for five minutes.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. mix. excluded • Steps/ method. write. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. • pola kalimat imperative. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. three tablespoons cookin oil. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dsb. misalnya turn. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. etc • Temporal conjunction. etc • Action verb. you don't have to. Use regular words. put.B. don’t. cara yang akurat. Small Notes Firstly. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Cut. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. misalnya then. take the topic of benefits. lose the weak words. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. Edit it necesarily. reread what you have done. writing the topic like the way it is talked. fifty gram cheese. showing the method in writing for business. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. Well.
fork. such as. frying pan. The events are considered newsworthy or important. time. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. participant. Main event 2. 2. Language Feature of News Item 1. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Next. Elaboration (background. First. Generic Structure of News Item 1. cheese grater. spatula. bowl and plate. The accident. Using material process 4. Resource of information 3. Next. Listen carefully. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe.pepper. you need some tools. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Focusing on circumstances 2. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. add First. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. place) 3.
woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. but the number is steadily rising. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. even though they know they have HIV” she said. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. dsb. 2008) 25 . June 01. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. Malaysian Aids Council president. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. a Background Events. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. komentar Star Newspaper. less then 10 percent are woman. “But this just a suggestion. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. to them”. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. Example of Procedure A. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. he said in the report. it’s up saksi kejadian. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. • Menggunakan action Last year. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. news report said. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. orang yang them. pendapat para ahli. many women who contract HIV are housewives.
May 6.bbc. (Taken from: www. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. named Suwartin. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to.news.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. Saudi Arabia.co. The maid. Rape. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. Hong Kong. Then the maid was arrested. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. She had relationship the boy for five months. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Last year. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.
Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. should. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. hope. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. execute. must. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. etc • Using additive. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. feel. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. however. 2. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. may. and causal connection. law of serious crimes. carry. historic. Using material process. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. Background 2. similarly. Resource. contrastive. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. hopefully. Background 3. and social text. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. etc • Using modalities. deliberately. believe.Background 1. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. etc 4. could. etc • Using adverbial of manner. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. on the hand. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. behead.
Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. doing homework is not a great idea. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 .remember what they have learned. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Example of Discussion Text A. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. England in 1956. many times. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It is reliable. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It produces small amount of waste. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. and produces huge amounts of energy. so it is not expansive to make.
dsb. misalnya feel. very dangerous. Elaborasi (uraian). Elaborasi (uraian). They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. Kesimpulan.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. should. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. dsb.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. however. dsb. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Furthermore. dsb. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. dsb. • adverbials of maner. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. . dsb. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. could 29 be. memberikan informasi secara padu. misalnya similarly. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. seperti perhaps. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. believe. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. although it is reliable. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. on the hand. • thinking verbs untuk • additives.On the other hand. nuclear power is very. misalnya deliberately. should have been. In many social activities. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. misalnya uniforms. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. alcohol. dsb. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. This example of discussion text present the two poles. misalnya smoking is harmful. hope. perception and recommendation. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. Gagasan Pokok 2. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. Elaborasi (uraian). must. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. hopefully.
It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. farmer. Using thinking verb. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. geography and history text books. Recommendation. conservationists.co. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Supporting point. It is often found in science. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. B. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. hunting fox.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. (Taken from: www. Using connectives. Contrastive point. however. Using modalities. scientific and cultural phenomena. 2. social. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy.bbc. must. Many farmer and even conservationists. believe.
stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Featuring generic participant. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. next. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Sequenced explanation. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. rain. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 .• • General statement. etc Using chronological connection. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. sun. to begin with. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Example of Explanation Text A. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Language Feature • • • • 4. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.
the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves.ictteachers. It is called as rotation. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. passive voice. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. It takes 365 days or a year.org) B. But that is the case. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. earthquakes. action verbs. It causes day and night. noun phrase. earth. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. sosialbudaya. (simplified from www. (Taken from: www. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. conjunctions of time dan cause. Tsunami always bring great damage. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. abstract nouns. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. simple present tense.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . The sun seems to rise in the morning. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. misalnya the large cloud. The earth also moves around the sun. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. This process is called revolution.co. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. This adverbial phrases. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. dunia ilmiah.panda. misalnya the temperature. misalnya word chopping. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium.
Recommendation 3. but. etc 7. Using temporal connective. Using evaluative words. Using pasive voice. firstly. Using present tense. trustworthy. I feel that when you travel through the country.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. you would be forgiven. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. etc 6. Using passive voice 9. Explanation.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Focusing on the writer 2. the earth is actually closer to the sun. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using modal adverb. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. then. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using abstract noun. 2. secondly. policy. important. daylight. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using chronological connection. certainly. Using simple present tense 4. Arguments 3. Thesis 2.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. valuable. so. Using thinking verb 5. advantage. etc 3. etc 8. surely. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using action verb 4.
and the possibility of being aggressive. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. and short sleep duration. Meanwhile. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Recently. However. pornography. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.Those who want to penalise older . Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . especially violence. of course. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Considering some facts mentioning above. consumerism and so on. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. stress. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Recomendation I feel that country people.
the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. advertising. and napkin everywhere. straws. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. sales letter. and news advertorial.presenting the supporting arguments. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. More dust bins should be put beside each step. In the first paragraph. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. If it is a hortatory text. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. they can find the dust bins easily. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. In many social activities. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. So when students want to throw away their litters. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. Basically. B. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. mineral water cops. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. When we look at classroom. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. speech campaign. school corridors and schoolyard. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. there papers. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. Both take place as argumentative essays.
Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. In the other hand. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. As the alternative method of studying. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. they will think hard about the time and cost. In the same way. it will be very hard to looking for job. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. Where should be after High School?. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . As result. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. when they think about straightly seeking job. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. it will be quite confusing. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. So. C. When they think about continuing study. the available time will be more flexible for them.
misalnya should be. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . plant. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. dsb. Modal verbs. Millions from Property Market. Technical verbs. dsb. Albert Smith is the proof. give up. there is a way out of financial problem. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. public place. dsb. dsb. Argument. make. Generic Structure of Report 1. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. Recommendation. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Modal adverbs. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. he drives a sport car. as it is. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Thinking verbs. now there is a way out. Connectives. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. misalnya firstly.we. secondly. we must save. misalnya.government dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Relating verbs. misalnya species of animals. dsb. reward Using action verb. part per part . Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya important. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. misalnya certainly. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. misalnya I believe . are you tired?. animal. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail.D. We can show the way to give up work. doesn’t seem to have been . It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. felt Using simple present tense.misalnya policy. Action verbs. etc Using thinking verb. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet.dsb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. dsb. misalnya We must preserve. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. valuable.
When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. and woolly layer of fur. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. stating general classification. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. etc Using simple present tense 4. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus lives in streams. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. when. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. beating the water furiously with their wings. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. the animal of platypus. perhaps two dozen birds. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Example of Report Text A.• • Using conditional logical connection. Platypus. and lakes. Platypus' eyes and head are small. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. In the other hand. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. so. rivers. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . driving the fish before them. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. A group.
atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. apa adanya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. dsb. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. misalnya lizards cannot fly. istilah teknis. the animal of platypus conditional. Platypus lives in streams. male platypus does not need any burrow. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. kegunaannya jika non natural. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. dsb. but. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. benda buatan manusia. in terms of parts. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. misalnya. keterangan. lingkungan. dsb. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. logical connective. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. habits or behaviors. qualities. dsb. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg.Description. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dan klasifikasinya. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan.
Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. 2. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. ‘ take him to the zoo’. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. etc 3. Dave found a nice office. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ran. ate. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Using action verb. Language Feature of Spoof 1. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Orientation 2. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Twist 3. Events 3.1.’ replied the man. Focusing on people. Told in chronological order 4. animals or certain things 2. Using adverb of time and place 4. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A.
yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). Event 2: He had his new office. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. He suddenly became a 1. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. terduga atau lucu). “Yes. misalnya eat. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. In his office. Instead leaving the country. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. “If that is what you want. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Event 1: Being rich. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . run. “You want me. Then the man said to Dave. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. binatang. verbs. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. conversation on the phone. Then “Remember. “Hey Abu Nawas. He had not left the country yet. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. benda tertentu. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. B. I want you to leave the country. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. no children.
I do not step on the ground of this country”. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. They were talking very loudly. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. The king wondered and said “Abu. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. Your Majesty. And since yesterday. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. You have not left this country”. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.I did not enjoy it. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. were talking noisily. I could not hear the actors. So you see. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. “I remember exactly what you said. look at you. I turned around. I have been walking on this stilts. The play was very interesting. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily.guards. The king was not able to say anything.In the end. (Adapted from S. The King continued “And now. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I turned around again. I do not step on the ground.I got very angry. young man and young woman. I had a very good seat. You walk on stilts like a child. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. They did not pay any attention. I could not bear it.
"I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . he aske his coat to eat the served food E. So. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. you give food to my coat instead of me”. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The next day. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. It’s a private conversation”. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. "Take it to the zoo!". “Eat the food. “When I came here with my old clothes.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. “It’s none of your business. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. nobody looked at me. D. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The man was still carrying the penguin. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He took it to a policeman and said. they just shook the head. When he arrived in the party. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He put his coat and said.
the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. I.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. today I am taking it to the movie". first. Generic Structure of Recount 1. change. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. in the park Told in chronological order. So. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. once. They were in the park Event1. chronological order by days. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience.did. policeman Using action verb. were. walk up Using adverb of time and place. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. etc • Using action verb. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. penguin. He. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. etc • Using chronological connection. etc • Using linking verb. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. carry. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . was. etc • Using simple past tense 4. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Even. look. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Reorientation: It is optional. then. go. saw. heard. place and time 2. The following day. my group.
The two week in London went by fast. Then. They had variety of food. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. It was scary. There was a film for their entertainment. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. We stayed at David and Della’s house. On the third floor. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. Richard with two sons. At the end of the 14-day. they inserted a key-card to open the door. and Mrs. They went to London. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. They are Mr. It can be what the writer has done. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. The officers were pleasant. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. In writer's point of view. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. n Example of Recount text A. Mr. The room had perfect view of the park. The room had its own bathroom and toilet.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. Richard’s family was on vacation. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They had booked fourteen days tour. This includes travel and accommodation. Instead of keys for the room. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They arranged the transfer to a hotel. Vacation to London Mr. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. They had a very pleasant flight. the thing is an experience. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. read. They slept part of the way. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. B. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. hear. They gave them food and drink. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text.
• • • • • . at my house. The first stop was at Batubulan. She was happy dsb. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. what happened on Sunday. after that.Small Notes and felt. dsb. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. misalnya We went to the zoo. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. It is a busy but quiet town. misalnya go. misalnya beautiful. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. On the other hand. funny. 46 slowly dsb. Rekaman peristiwa. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. dsb. we dsb. then on Monday. kejadian atau kegiatan. misalnya yesterday. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. but. then. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. the second was to Ubud. recount describes series of events in detail. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. past tense. Events. he was ready. run dsb. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. On the day of the tour. the monkey. The event happened smoothly. kejadian atau kegiatan. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. misalnya and. sleep. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. the on Tuesday. misalnya David. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. The first one was to Singaraja. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. Reorientation. waktu dan cara. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. C. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. di mana dan kapan. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Pengenalan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. In simple way. It reveals the conflict among the participants. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival.
I was on the car. When the earthquake happened. suddenly • Using linking verb. was. made. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . using first person point of view. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Events. Re-orientation. then. in the town. The car lunched to one side. to the left. There were rocks everywhere. like matchsticks. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. earthquake happened. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. left.a center of stone sculpture. I was on the car las week. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. and. I was on my car. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. were • Using action verb. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. He was quiet satisfied. introducing the participant. The next stop was Celuk. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. I • Using chronological connectives. etc. etc E. stating the writer's personal note. I thought I got flat tire. all his day was spent on the beach. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. D. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. walked. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. my car lunched on one side. describing a series of event which happened. Although nothing was left. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. moved. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. I was trapped by the rock. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Even I could not move my car at all. When I reached my town.
It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. Those words and phrases are: First. and end your composition. A recount text has an orientation. They were great matches. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Overall. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. my uncle. connect a sentence with the next one. Then. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. you find words and phrases used to start. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. my brother. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. chanting. First. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . In the text. On the last day. Meanwhile. there were also buffalo matches.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. we were feasting. During the day. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. After that. After that. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. In the night. the ceremony was quite elaborate. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Questions 1. and dancing. Finally. It took about a week. Several days before the ceremony was done. However. a series of events in chronological order. Then. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. and then moved the corpse to face north. The funeral was performed in two phases.
In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word.• Finally. valuable. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Focus on specific participants 2. It states the parts. worthy. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. After clearly explanation. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. It is personal idea about the product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. As I said in my previous post. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. etc. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Dominant Language features: 1. uniqueness. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Review Text What is review text 1. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. services which want to be sold. quality of the product which will be known publicly. It can be product. 3. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Definition Review is one of text genres. useful. Each text type will have different form of generic structure.
and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. however. magical or no..you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English .the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and this part I loved. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. and ultimately satisfying. I cried!) as sad as it was.3. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. Using long and complex clauses 4. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted. I was truly moved by the last page. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. I actually liked the ending (and yes. intriguing. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. Using metaphor 4. fast-paced. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. and parts of it do seem long. this was not my favorite. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. A few other changes in this book . as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures.. The stories were bright. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. especially with being a teenager and all.housekeeping is still housekeeping. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. for example . Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. depressing feel.
How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . it will be quite difficult to make translation. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important.really good book. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . Again. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. If we visit the site. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Eyeglasses for children. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. lexical. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. However. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. if he works with Farsi translation. with some editing it would have been great. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. Titanium. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. Similarly. In certain case. It is real. It straightly goes to the end user. The site is quite simple but very informative. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. The translation experts. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. easy and not complicated design. woman and man are available choice. The experts who have grammatical.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
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buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
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The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. animal and scientific object. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. how to make a good kite. What make different. It will talk about bicycle in general. descriptive text will convey more focus. report is written after getting careful observation. eg: bicycle. between report and descriptive text. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. goods. If we talk about. wheel style. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. For example how to make a cup of tea. They give the detail description on something. lengh. In short. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. product case or problem. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. However if they are analyzed carefully. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. physical strengh. Mostly. phenomena. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. etc. is the scope of the written object. colour. its parts. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. it belongs to report text. In the other hand. Procedure. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal.interest for them to want to interview you. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 .
goods. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. what happened on Sunday.is the best example of the procedure text. Procedure. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. In writer's point of view. Explanation. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. recount describes series of events in detail. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. the on Tuesday. In simple way. product case or problem. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Explanation is such a scientific written material. first boil water. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. secondly prepare the cup. secondly prepare the cup. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . read. For example how to make a cup of tea. It is such word. and so on. On the other hand. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. The event happened smoothly. How a tornado form. the thing is an experience. hear. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. It can be what the writer has done. then on Monday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It is such word. and felt. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. phenomena. They give the detail description on something. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. how to make a good kite. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. first boil water. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. and so on.
it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Crisis 4. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Using thinking verbs 4. Using modals 2. and news item. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. They are narrative. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Reaction 5. spoof. 17. Using general and abstract noun 8. Coda. Orientation 3. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. 20. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 18. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. analytical exposition.Explanation. hortatory exposition. Abstract 2. report. 23. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Using action verbs 3. 15. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Thesis 2. anecdote. procedure. Using adverbs 5. descriptive. 25. Using adjective 6. explanation. Arguments 3. recount. How a tornado form. 16. 22. discussion. 14. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. review. 19. 24. texts are divided into several types. Dominant Language Features: 57 . These variations are known as GENRES. 26.
Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Complication 4. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using action verb 3. General statement 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verbs 3. Using technical terms 7.1. Goal/Aim 2. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Using adverb 4. Using action verbs 3. Using adverbial phrase 6. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Evaluation 3. Explanation 3. Using exclamations. Using saying verbs 58 . Using material process 3. Using noun phrase 5. Orientation 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Generic Structure: 1. Background event(s) 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Materials/Equipments 3. Short. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.
It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Using modals 3. Description Language Features: 1. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Arguments 3. Arguments for and against 3. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adverb 4. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using action verbs 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2.4. Using adverbs 6. Using technical terms 8. Issue 2. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. In simple word. place and manner. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 5. Using adverbs : time. Using thinking verb 4. Using action verb 3. Using adjective 7. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Thesis 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using modality 7. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. place or thing in detail. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Identification 2.
Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Using Past Tense 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Event(s) 3. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. whether Simple Past Tense. fable. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. General classification 2. Orientation 60 . social conflict or psychological conflict. etc while recount text is found in biography. Simple Past Continuous Tense. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed.Purpose: to presents information about something. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. myth. folklore. In the contrary. Using action verb 3. Using adverb 4. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Generic Structure 1. Event(s) 3. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Orientation 2. as it is. or Past Perfect Tense. Introducing group or general aspect 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text.
Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 7. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. tahun. descriptive. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. label. tanggal. 1. penjelasan. Interpretative Recount 4. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. dsb. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. diagram dsb. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives 3. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 6. Using long and complex clauses 4. tempat. 2.exposition. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. 9. Evaluation 3. 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. map. 8. 5. grafik. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 10. Continuous text misalnya narrative.2. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. spoof dsb. 4. tabel. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. biasanya tentang nama. Evaluation 5.
Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. it is small. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 .11. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. fluffy. f) Menentukan makna kata. And cute. i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.
especially empty plastic cup or glasses. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out.EXERCISES. and napkins here and there. What is the writer’s intention? To ….. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters.. 1. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. more dust bins…. they can find the dust bins easily. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. readers to do something good. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. straws. a number of dust bins should be increased. outside of the classrooms. They put their litters on the proper places. So when students want to throw away their litters. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. When we look at classrooms. in every ten meters. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. school corridors and school yard. According to the writer. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Besides. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . there are paper mineral water cups. and some more also the corridors.
This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. What is the text about …. They provide variety and fun. From the elaboration above. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Firstly. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Secondly. patriotism and yeas. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . place or time reference. with a lot of repetition. which is just what many learners look for sample text. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. songs are relaxing. 5. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. even revolution. Although usually simple. learning vocabulary. translating songs. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. religion. lexically and poetically. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Furthermore. songs in general also use simple conversational language. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. In addition. Last but not least. practicing selective listening comprehension. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. shopping malls. The generic structures of the text are …. spelling and culture.
The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13..Since we can find a thesis. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.” The underlined word refers to …. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .9. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. Based on the text. The word reasons mean…. It must not be allowed because it is rude. not just in restaurants. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. smoking in restaurants is impolite. Finally. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Therefore. 11. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Firstly.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.“They provide variety and fun.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Carrie. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Harris. • I want to introduce you to …. I'm Linda 1. Jack. Ms. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Hi Jack. Pleased to meet you. co-worker. Penny Pitcher. mother. This is my friend. Cindy. Mr. Mary Jones. boss. And you. student. Mrs. father. Introducing someone else my name is. sister.. I don't believe we've met before. 2. Bob.. Watson. Likewise.. I'm.. Nice to meet you. It's a pleasure to meet you. Very nice to meet you. Nice to meet you too. friend. teacher.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. my my my my my my my my my brother. Mr. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Ritter. Harris.
By the way. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 .g. Adib : Hi. this is Retno. Shall we go to the canteen?. a restaurant. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work.g. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. e. Retno. we still have half an hour before the class starts. My name is Adib. Hi. hotel. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Adib : Anyway. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Adib. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Arnys. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. and Retno are new students.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. I am. Arnys? Retno : Okay. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Situation: Adib. are you a new student. I’m Arnys.
(formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. thanks. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. • Good bye. • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. . shake hands with other Virga :… women. Not so bad. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions.Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. See you soon /later /tomorrow. . Bye. thank you. before leaving. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Do you wanna . . thanks. . thanks. (informal) Would you like to . Very well. . . .
Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.a chocolate bar? .. I’d be delighted to...I’d love to .Some responds of inviting. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. .? Would you like . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.I’d be happy/glad to accept ..I’d like very much ..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Receiving . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.Yes.. let’s not..That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.
Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Thanks. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Happy birthday to you. I need it.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. returned your lost wallet. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. you very much. complimented you on your necktie. Happy new year. helped carry your grocery bags. Thank you.
What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. and congratulations Special Days . not really. That’s a nuisance d.• • • Oh. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.. It’s nice of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. That’s too bad e. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. That’s pity f. What’s shame b. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . holidays and other special occasions..use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .
g. It was terrifi c. k. I’m really sorry for them d. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m sorry about that c. …. l. Expression Displeasure a. i. I’m sorry to hear that b. b. c. e. I’m delighted. I’m really sad to … c. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a.B. Goodness! b. f. h. I feel … b. j. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. How terrible! c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . m. d.. I feel disappointed. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. I’m so happy …. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. d. How dreadful! C. I feel …. How Awful! d. feel unpleased with …. I enjoyed it I love it.
ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .Satisfaction. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.
Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • I am with you • Definitely. I think the other one’s better. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. … If you ask me. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . As I see. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. I agree • I know what you mean. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. say • Absolutely. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. In my opinion.. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. In my opinion….
but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. Fear. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I don't think that's what happened. No. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. that's not a good idea. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain.
Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse./I feel ill.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • I’m glad it was done... • I’m sick.. it’s very painful! • Oh. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. it’s killing me! 2.. • Ugh. • I feel sick..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • Thank God for .
BUT "I don't really like it. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence." This is not very strong. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . but it is not a very strong dislike.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. It means that you do not like something. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.
I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment. I’m extremely unhappy about this.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I will.
Don't get me wrong. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. Sure. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Of course.. Blame (keluhan.... It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. but.Palupi : OK.. I'm sorry to bother you. It's your fault for (doing something).menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Certainly. I think you might have forgotten to. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. but. but I think we should. Right away. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. Maybe you forgot to.. Complaint......
I'm so sorry. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.simply starters! Regret. to ask for forgiveness.. Sorry for.. I'll clear up later... I …. Sorry for taking your DVD. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. I didn't mean to lose your book. I'd like to apologise for. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier... meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Pete. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.. Examples I'm really sorry.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.. Apology (penyesalan.. to express regret an exclamation a word.
• Is it possible to …? • Yes... possibility are: There is a good chance that ….. distress. It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game. game.trouble unhappiness. It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that …. Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability... there is a possibility ... NOTE : 1.. She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .
? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….you. 3.we Has utk S= he. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET.we Always dll Does utk S= he.you. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he..she.they.they.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Expressions to show …. doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I. Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it. I’m capable of doing it 2.? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it.it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I. Would there be any possibility of 4.she.she.
they. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .he.she.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket.datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.
is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. have been practising b.does/am. Iwan : Yes.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. has been working b. will have worked c.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. Fred : Juda.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. worked e. “Srimpi”. are Was. is. will be practising c. the telephone rang twelve times.is. a. practised d. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. a. they are succesful. works d. was parctising e. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2.
will start b. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. were cleaning b. a. starts c. have been having lunch c. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. a. has got a new job d. would have started d. This sentence means that Ann ___. will have had lunch b. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. have been cleaning c. cleaned e. have been living c. have lunch d. will have started e. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . will have lived b. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. have carried c. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. was carrying 3. will be started 2. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. will have lunch e. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. My family ____ when the postman arrived. am carrying b. clean d. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. carried e. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. am living d. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. carry d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. If we don”t hurry. was living e.berlangsung. a. a. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau.
had been 9. is d. forgets b. forgot c. When airport are located in the center of citied. will be attending d. was e. a.00 tomorrow. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. have caused c. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. He ____ there for three weeks.b. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. have learnt e. a. will have been c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. He ____ ill for a week. had forgotten e. a. has been b. I forget to bring your book. I ____ them by then. She ___ the lectures. will have been c. has worked for six months e. has attended b. am learning 10. was d. had been 7. learn d. causes e. have been c. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . will cause 5. will be learning b. is still looking for a job 4. will have learnt c. a. were causing b. was e. has forgotten d. Reni goes to her university every morning. My father is still in Bali. will be b. attended c. She studies business. sir. Is it right? Student : Yes. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. but I ____ there many times. caused d. started to work 6 months a go c. am d. would forget 8. sir. a. would be b. has been e. Learn all these. Student : All right. a. have been 6. has been attending e.
dan tempat. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English .DIRECT .INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there.” (-) He said. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. “ I have a present for you in my bag. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). pronoun (kata ganti orang). (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. where. (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. when. struktur kalimat. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. who. keterangan waktu. how. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. why. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
he went to his country b. a. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. if Mary was absent d. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. The baby is sleeping. had gone to his country d. he has gone to his country e. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . mom. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. to be not so noisy c. a. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Herman : Okay. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. if I opened my mouth e. Mother : Don’t be so noisy.1. that I open his mouth d. Herman. I wasn’t so noisy d. why Mary was absent e. that Mary had been absent b. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. opened my mouth c. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. to open my mouth b. he goes to his country c. not to be so noisy e. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. He said ____ the previous day. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. why Mary had been absent c. I am very noisy b.
when is my appointment b. he would not clean c. 4. what were you doing now. did I have an appointment d. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Does Mira close the window. that I had an appointment 94 5. I hadn’t cleaned d. would forget 3. can he go with us e. not spend c. I forgot to bring your book. he asked. c. Closed the window. a. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Mira closed the window. has forgotten d. Mira closed the window. It was windy outside. what I am doing now. a. Anto : I am sorry Lina. “ ___________” a. I got a headache. e. Slamet. If he could go with us d. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. He asked me ____ a. forgot c. It is windy outside. Ari : What did he say. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. a. what are you were doing now d. a. do not spend d. wether he goes with us c. how was my appointment e. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Mother said. he headn’t cleaned b. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Mira. what I was doing then. not to spend e. d. a. going with us b. had forgotten e. b. It was windy outside. e. not spending b. 7. forgets b. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. c. he does not clean e. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. SMA Students’ Modul of English . he asked me ____”.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. “What are you doing now?”. It is windy outside. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. b. 6.
“don’t make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d.c. 10. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. finish your work d. e. She told the children don’t make noise b. My friend said to me. She said the children didn’t make noise c. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. “Can I find you a hotel?”. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. e. she said. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. whether I had appointment 8. to finish my work c. children”. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. to finish your work b. Mean____ a. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. d. Father said. a. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. c. She told the children not to make noise. finished your work e. b. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel.
kicked e. kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. The announcement ____ twice. was kicked c. she ____ a.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. A : Look! The girl is crying. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was kicking b.
was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5.A. is sold d. R. are sold e. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Y : Really. A big dam ___ in this area next year. a. has arranged c. were sold b. a. did it abolish e. a. has been born c. is arranged d. was arranged e. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . have been arranged 3. was postponed d. are unloaded c. has been postponed c. was being postponed e. is being built c. was it abolishing d. have arranged b. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. to be abolished c.a. had been sold c. will be born 2. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. were being unloaded e. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. is born d. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was born e. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. have been unloaded d. when…. has to be postponed b. would be born b. will be built e. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. was it to abolish b. will build d. a. has been built b. will be unloaded b.? a. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present.
She looks after the baby well. has been rewarded c. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. the baby was looked after well c. has promised d. the baby will be well looked after d. is being taken e. he ____ to the nearest hospital. a. had destroyed e. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. is demolishing c. is being demolished e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. a. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. destroyed d. the baby is being looked after well e. cleaned c. the baby is well looked after b. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . has been promising b. was destroyed 6. a. will be taken d. rewarded d. had been demilishing b. will be promised 10. has been cleaned 5. is being rewarded b.4. is being destroyed c. is being cleaned e. a. will be destroyed b. will be rewarded 8. was taken b. a. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. took c. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. will clean b. The passive form is ____ a. was being demolishing 9. demolishing d. a. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. the baby would be well looked after 7. was rewarded e. will be promised e. was being cleaned d. was being promised c.
Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. yaitu: 1.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2.
Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Contoh: If I have much money. was/were. itulah yang diharapkan. -er. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. -le. Apa yang diucapkan. (jika saya punya uang. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. have/has. did. dll. had. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. may. dll. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. -ow. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.4. will. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman.). Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. shall. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. can. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . I will buy a new car.
Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja).Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would have written you a letter. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . 3. I would go to the beach with you.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. whom. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. whose. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Contoh : (+) If I had time. of which. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. which. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kalau kalimatnya (+). saya sudah mengirim surat padamu.
jabatan sebagai objek) 3.) 2. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . her. their. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Its surface is not smooth. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. its. his. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. (him = the man. They are printed in English. our. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. jabatan sebagai objek) 6.Contoh: We know a lot of people. Their car has been stolen. Contoh: We saw the people. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. sebuah benda. I bought it last year. your. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. I met him last week. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my.
(saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.7. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Where 8. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 .
I got the mechanic to repair my car. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Gerund digunakan bila: 1. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.our. to be worth.to be used to. his. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. to be busy. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. before dll. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. can’t help/can’t bear.their. Jogging makes us fresh. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. The manager has the letter typed. 2. Before leaving. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing).your. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . get used to. 4. The manager gets the letter typed. 3. on. 6. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. 5. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). he said nothing.Amir’s.her. Setelah possessive adjective (my.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). I had mechanic repair my car.
V better than radio. than plays a video game. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .V.V ketimbang main video game) 4. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. c.Juned prefers combro to deblo. yaitu: 1. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.V . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. as soon as. a.Dona prefers dancing to singing.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.Dita would rather watch T. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . when. We went home after the rain stopped. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. Menunjukan waktu: before. b.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. 3. . S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . after. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: .I like T. while. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .
or. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. Next. finally. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . after that. dll. we put some sauce and salt. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . Contoh: . Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. Since I have no money.Amir and I go to school everyday. a. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. then. While he was reading her novel. 3. b. d. Finally. c.You can read this book if you like. we must prepare the ingredients. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. that. 1. we put them into frying pan.Although it was raining. first.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. a. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. After that. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . somebody knocked on the door. 2. e. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. although/though.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . since. for. but. I can’t treat you. if.He is not only active but also clever.He is both wise and good. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. he come on time. b.d. c.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. next.
arti asalnya. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .
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