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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
...............................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..........................................................................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.............................................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.................103 GERUND ...................................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...........................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...............99 QUESTION TAGS ...............................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)................105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ....................................................................
1. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. why is the text made?.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. These types of text are. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. 2. Report 4. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Narrative 11. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Recount 6. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. News Items 13. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Review 7. Spoof 5. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . The language feature. Anecdote 9. Explanation 2. Analytical Exposition 8. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Hortatory Exposition 3. Descriptive 10. Procedure 12.
cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Argument Firstly. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. it is better to look at the fact. If you live in the city. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Example of Analytical Exposition A. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. the city is very busy. Reiteratio In conclusion.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Additionally. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. cars are very noisy. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Secondly. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. the risk is nineteen greater. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. cars. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. cars create pollution. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. In one hour in smoky room. Thirdly. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. or concentrate on your homework. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. as we all know. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. which causes them to die. lung cancer. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. and especially talk to someone.
The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Furthermore. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. As the US.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. In this example of analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. financial crisis has now spread to Europe.
eraser. misalnya we must preserve. we. misalnya She must save. From all of that.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. pen. in this multimedia era. leaded petrol car. misalnya firstly. misalnya It is important. • Relating verbs. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. dsb. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Secondly. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. misalnya car. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. students need book.dsb. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya policy. dsb. • Thinking verbs. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Penguatan pernyataan. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. pollution. decide which computer or laptop they need. misalnya species of animals. • Abstract nouns. • Bahasa evaluatif. drawing book. dsb. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. dsb. That is really easy and save time and money. The students just need to brows that online shop. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. this method will help student to get better understanding. • Technical verbs. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. dsb. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. misalnya certainly. dsb • Modal verbs. and then complete the transaction. Additionally. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. First. secondly. misalnya C. • Reiteration . • Modal adverbs. misalnya Many people believe. • Action verbs. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. students need more to reach their progressive development. (Simplified from the jakartapos. dsb. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. dsb. ruler and such other stuff. government. • Connectives. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject.
It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. India translation will grow better and. If Hindi translation is provided. Career in Translation Functionally. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. For instance. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Therefore. India is likely being an English speaking country. Arabic translation. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Students just need to decide which type they really need. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. D. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. E. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. It seems Indonesia. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. According to Nida. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs.
credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Abstract 2. 2. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Incident. Crisis 4. then. afterward 6. Using action verb.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Using imperative. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Using conjunction of time. it's wonderful!. etc 5. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Using simple past tense 4. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. listen to this 3. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using exclamation words. it's awful!. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. do you know what? 4. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. write. go. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . because. etc 2. Orientation 3. Using rhetoric question. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. 3. etc • Causal conjunction .
For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed. The doctor sewed up the boy. • seruan/kata seru. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. Suddenly to my horror. there were being quarantined for long days. had shank. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. However few days before their departure. They had a dream to go to America. The father was full of disappointed and anger. dsb. so we set to. passport. afterwards. dsb. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. He shed tears of disappointment. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. and turned on the tap. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. America. Five days latter. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. seperti then. several years but finally they had saved enough money. misalnya go. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. write. their children to America.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. the mighty Titanic. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The ship. spitting and hissing at us. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. The family dreams were dashed. The family worked and saved. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. They had gotten • action verbs. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Anna.
Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. identifying the phenomenon to be described. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. 2. You have and so do I. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. It made they were being quarantined. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. they were left behind. They had to forget their plan. When the father heard the news. or thing. It was unbelievable but it was. The father was angry with his son and God. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. The Clak family should have been on that ship. 3. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. describing the phenomenon in parts. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. They had dream to travel to America. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. but because of the bitten son by a dog. qualities. place. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family.passenger and crew with it. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. When the dream will come true. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. • Description. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. there is something wrong last minute before it. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. • Using simple present tense 4. or/and characteristics.
Today. all her friends. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Ballet. In three years1 time. When she are walking on that shoes. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. She is beautiful. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus.on in Australia. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. casual. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Sydney. bright color. The products provide varieties of choice. in 2004. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. She said that the products covered all genders. native plants and eucalypts. In 1964. She always pays much attention on her appearance. The style. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. She is really mad on that shoes. a railway station is under construction. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. yet retaining its beautiful site. Example of Description A. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. a grass amphitheatre. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . This shoes really matches on her. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She really have perfect appearance. Recently. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. attractive and trendy. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. This year. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary.
Borobudur is located in Magelang. Indonesia. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The upper three are circular. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Central Java. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur temple • Description. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . B. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.Budhist temple.8 km of passage and starways. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur is well-known. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace.The temple is constructed. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Cambodia. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. valuable • Using simple present tense.
I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. numbering. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. White. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. sharp white fangs. better or worse 3. kualitas. dsb. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. perilaku umum. a sweet young lady. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. classifying. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. dsb. Description.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. two strong legs. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. misalnya. dsb. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. enough money to take Snow White. dsb. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). misalnya teacher. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. Misalnya: I have many pets. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. 2. • action verbs. bersifat describing. misalnya. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. house. misalnya fast. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • berbagai macam adjectives. It has very thick fur. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. sifat-sifat (characteristic). dsb. • simple present tense. My mum is realy cool. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. dsb. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. but my favourite one is a cat.my cat. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu.
Hakim. After dinner. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. “Oh could I? Thank you. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. in what way she will decide who the best is. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. “Without question. Example of Narative A. said. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. One evening. One by one she discarded them. which she strikes against herself. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. She saw the dwarfs. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. “If you wish. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. The following day. They want to know what next will happen. “My name is Snow White. one of the dwarfs. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat.” Snow White said. They went inside. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . who was called Hakim. you may live here with us. The dwarfs said. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. Then Snow White woke up. Maura asked them for something to eat. “So it is Hakim I will marry”.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. who received a plate of delicious meat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. As they were about to have dinner. They were also rich and strong. had many suitors. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail.” Doc. The psychological conflict inside Maura. “what is your name?” Snow White said. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. The first gave her some left over food. There they found Snow White sleeping. The third sheik.
khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. I will cut the chicken 17 . phrase. The parrot could say every word. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. Then he continued to humble. misalnya. stepsisters. • action verbs dalam past tense. misalnya then. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. before that. misalnya. in the mountain. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. a man had a wonderful parrot. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. the parrot would not say it. except one word. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. climbed. “You know. dsb. two red apples. dsb. waktu. Although he tried hard to teach. konflik dalam cerita. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. At the first.dsb. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. dsb. housework. There was no other parrot like it. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Penyelesaian masalah. Complication. misalnya here. dsb. stayed.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. He could not bear it. happily ever after. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Pengenalan tokoh. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. soon. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The name of the place was Catano. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. Masalah. the man really got very angry. Resolution. long black hair. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.
readers see the problem is finished. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. The next day. the man attempted to teach the bird. He felt in love with that fish-woman. They had two daughters. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. I will eat you too. The daughters were crying. He liked fishing. He could not control his mad. After that he left the chicken house. paragraph 2. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. At the moment. There were three death chickens on the floor. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. Batara Guru could not bear it. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. In the parrot story. 4 are describing the complication. Next it will be your turn. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. That was the smartest parrot. A man and his parrot took place once time. As soon as it was free. 3. He made the fish free. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . The fish begged him to set it free. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. To fix this problem. rising crisis and climax of the story. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. C. They were married happily. It will show the crisis. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. One day. the man came back to the chicken house. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He opened the door and was very surprised. In that parrot story. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. he caught a fish. there was a handsome man. They found their mother and talked her about it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters.for my meal. stupid parrot”.
the day of the ball came. hardworking. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. At last. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. In her hurry. It fitted perfectly. Cinderella?” a voice asked. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. and it became a beautiful ball gown. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Magically. A few days later. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. The two step sisters. Then the earth began to shake. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. and away went the sisters to it.”you’ve been such a cheerful. she was driven to the palace. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Volcanoes started to erupt. Finally. “Well” said the godmother. on the other hand. “Why are crying. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. The mother was shouting angrily. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. “Now. Batara Guru broke his promise. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. one of her glass slipper was left behind. One day. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Cinderella”. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. She danced again and again with the king’s son. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. The earth formed a very big hole. such as scrubbing the floor.The mother was very annoyed. D. They treated Cinderella very badly. “You must leave before midnight”. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. did not work about the house. In the end. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. They were married and live happily ever after. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. she said. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly.
But the man answered. E. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. Resolution. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. I can’t tell you”. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. After the man went home. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Complication: In this Cinderella story. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 .her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. In the last paragraph. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “it at home”. Every morning and every evening. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “you are so big and strong. 3. “oh. The tiger asked. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “Yes” said the man. farmer and his buffalo. Orientation. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. Resolution: Like complication. Once there was a farmer from Laos. introducing specific participants. said the buffalo. Complication. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. the man is very intelligent”. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Then he said. once in Laos 2. He took his plough and hit the tiger. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. “Can I see your intelligence?”. “No. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. One day. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Generic Structure Analysis 1. The Smartest Animal.
Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. cheese grater. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. spatula. the next day past tense. tie. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. hit time conjunction. saw. once. Cook both sides 9. 50 g cheese. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. was surprised to action verb.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. answered thinking verb. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. plate Method 1. there was a farmer. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Goal: showing the purpose 2. fork. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. the man tied the tiger. Add milk and whisk well 4. after. Place on a plate. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. bowl. one day connectives. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. ¼ cup milk. 3 tablespoons cooking oil.
the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 .10. planting is a nice activity. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. dry a handful seeding. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. wait it. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. etc • Temporal conjunction. Example of Procedure A. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. informing on how to plant chillies. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. put the seeding on the soil. Finally. etc • Action verb. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. excluded • Steps. dry. Firstly. firstly. finally. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. It should be in open area Next. Here are the steps. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. put it in another big pot. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. next. • Material. put it. put.
tempat. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. etc C. write like you talked. re-reading what have been written . don’t. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. read. reread what you have done. a quarter cup of milk. writing the topic like the way it is talked. write. Thirdly. but it will help. menyatakan rinci waktu. Langkah-langkah. Small Notes Firstly. while. take the topic of benefits. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. you don't have to. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly. Use a nice rhythm. Use regular words. etc • Temporal conjunction. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. put. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . dsb. mix. lose the weak words. 2 centimetres from the top. informing on how to write for business • Material. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. Fifthly. you need an egg. dsb. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. Well. Edit it necesarily.B. misalnya for five minutes.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. not Procedure (Prosedur) features.re-read what you've done before publishing. etc • Action verb. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. dsb. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Don’t mix. Cut. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. showing the method in writing for business. three tablespoons cookin oil. secondly. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you. • pola kalimat imperative. Materials. excluded • Steps/ method. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Steps. fifty gram cheese. firstly. • Imperative sentences. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. misalnya turn. misalnya then. choosing the advantageous topic. to make a cheese omelet. cara yang akurat.
Language Feature of News Item 1. The accident. cheese grater. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Focusing on circumstances 2. add First. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. frying pan. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. place) 3. 2. fork. time. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Elaboration (background. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Next. Resource of information 3. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Generic Structure of News Item 1. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Next. spatula. Listen carefully. Main event 2. bowl and plate. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Using material process 4. First. such as. participant. you need some tools.pepper.
to them”. news report said. 2008) 25 . Malaysian Aids Council president. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. but the number is steadily rising. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. it’s up saksi kejadian. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. orang yang them. many women who contract HIV are housewives. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. he said in the report. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. even though they know they have HIV” she said. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. • Menggunakan action Last year. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. dsb. June 01. pendapat para ahli. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. “But this just a suggestion. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. komentar Star Newspaper. a Background Events. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. Example of Procedure A. less then 10 percent are woman.
news. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event.bbc. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. (Taken from: www. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children.co. The maid. Then the maid was arrested. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . She had relationship the boy for five months. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. Last year. Hong Kong. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. May 6. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. named Suwartin. Saudi Arabia. Rape.
This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . etc • Using modalities. Background 3. Using material process. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical.Background 1. could. similarly. hopefully. deliberately. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Background 2. however. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc • Using adverbial of manner. contrastive. law of serious crimes. and causal connection. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. must. believe. Resource. and social text. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. should. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. behead. feel. hope. 2. may. execute. historic. etc • Using additive. etc 4. carry. on the hand.
so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. so it is not expansive to make. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. many times. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. doing homework is not a great idea. Example of Discussion Text A. It is reliable. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. and produces huge amounts of energy. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 .remember what they have learned. It produces small amount of waste. England in 1956. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.
although it is reliable. Elaborasi (uraian). contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. must.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. misalnya uniforms. hopefully. hope. perception and recommendation. dsb. dsb. misalnya deliberately. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. on the hand. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. however.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. alcohol. should. Kesimpulan. Elaborasi (uraian). it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. dsb. dsb. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.On the other hand. This example of discussion text present the two poles. believe. nuclear power is very. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. • adverbials of maner. dsb. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. misalnya similarly. Gagasan Pokok 2. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. . In many social activities. misalnya smoking is harmful. memberikan informasi secara padu. dsb. dsb. could 29 be. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Furthermore. Elaborasi (uraian). should have been. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. very dangerous. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. seperti perhaps. misalnya feel. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan.
(Taken from: www. believe.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.co. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. must. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Using thinking verb. scientific and cultural phenomena. social. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. B. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Many farmer and even conservationists. Supporting point. geography and history text books. hunting fox. Using connectives. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way.bbc. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. conservationists. Contrastive point. 2. It is often found in science. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. farmer. Recommendation. however. Using modalities. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 .
Language Feature • • • • 4. Featuring generic participant. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. sun. Sequenced explanation. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. rain. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Example of Explanation Text A. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. etc Using chronological connection. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. to begin with. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. next.• • General statement. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.
conjunctions of time dan cause.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. (simplified from www. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. dunia ilmiah. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns.ictteachers.panda.co. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. earthquakes. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. earth. But that is the case. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. misalnya the large cloud. It is called as rotation. Tsunami always bring great damage. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. (Taken from: www. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. The sun seems to rise in the morning. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. This process is called revolution. The earth also moves around the sun. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. This adverbial phrases. It causes day and night. passive voice. noun phrase. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. simple present tense. misalnya word chopping.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. sosialbudaya. It takes 365 days or a year. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.org) B. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. misalnya the temperature. abstract nouns. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. action verbs. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night.
there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. certainly. Using abstract noun. etc 3. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. 2. trustworthy. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. important. firstly. Using simple present tense 4. then. so. secondly. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Explanation. policy. Focusing on the writer 2. daylight. you would be forgiven. etc 8. Using temporal connective. Using chronological connection. surely. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Using pasive voice. but. advantage. Recommendation 3. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Arguments 3.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). valuable. Thesis 2. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Using thinking verb 5. Using present tense. I feel that when you travel through the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. etc 6. Using evaluative words. Using action verb 4. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. etc 7. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using passive voice 9. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using modal adverb.
Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Recently. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. pornography. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Recomendation I feel that country people.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. of course. stress. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. especially violence. Considering some facts mentioning above. However. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. and short sleep duration. consumerism and so on. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Meanwhile. and the possibility of being aggressive. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text.Those who want to penalise older . who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol.
Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. and napkin everywhere. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. In many social activities. When we look at classroom.presenting the supporting arguments. Basically. B. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. advertising. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. school corridors and schoolyard. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. So when students want to throw away their litters. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. More dust bins should be put beside each step. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. If it is a hortatory text. mineral water cops. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. sales letter. speech campaign. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. and news advertorial. In the first paragraph. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Both take place as argumentative essays. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. straws. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. there papers. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. they can find the dust bins easily. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . there should be an increasing number of dust bins.
It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. they will think hard about the time and cost. Where should be after High School?. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . students do not have problem of discomfort any more. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. As the alternative method of studying. When they think about continuing study. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. when they think about straightly seeking job. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. In the other hand.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. In the same way. As result. it will be very hard to looking for job. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. it will be quite confusing. So. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. C. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. the available time will be more flexible for them.
dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. dsb. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Millions from Property Market. felt Using simple present tense. misalnya important. Action verbs. we must save. there is a way out of financial problem. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. misalnya species of animals. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Generic Structure of Report 1. misalnya. he drives a sport car. dsb. animal. dsb. are you tired?. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. etc Using thinking verb. Technical verbs. We can show the way to give up work.we. Modal verbs. public place.dsb. secondly. now there is a way out. Albert Smith is the proof. Thinking verbs. Recommendation.government dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Relating verbs.D. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. plant. Connectives. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. as it is. Modal adverbs. valuable. dsb. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya should be. doesn’t seem to have been . Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. give up. dsb. Argument. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. misalnya We must preserve.misalnya policy. make. misalnya certainly. reward Using action verb. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. part per part . dsb. etc which will be discussed in general 2. misalnya I believe . Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. misalnya firstly.
stating general classification.• • Using conditional logical connection. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. the animal of platypus. rivers. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. when. beating the water furiously with their wings. Platypus. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Platypus lives in streams. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. perhaps two dozen birds. and lakes. etc Using simple present tense 4. so. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. and woolly layer of fur. Example of Report Text A. Platypus' eyes and head are small. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. driving the fish before them. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . As the bird lifts its head. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. In the other hand. A group. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick.
dsb. dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. qualities. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri.Description. benda buatan manusia. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. habits or behaviors. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. lingkungan. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Platypus lives in streams. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. istilah teknis. dsb. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. logical connective. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. in terms of parts. kegunaannya jika non natural. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. the animal of platypus conditional. male platypus does not need any burrow. keterangan. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. misalnya lizards cannot fly. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. dsb. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. apa adanya. but. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. dan klasifikasinya.
2. Using action verb. ate. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist 3. Told in chronological order 4. He bought some new furniture and moved in. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. etc 3. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Orientation 2. Events 3. ran. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Using adverb of time and place 4. Focusing on people. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. What should I do?’ The policeman replied.’ replied the man. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said.1. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Dave found a nice office. Language Feature of Spoof 1. animals or certain things 2.
“Hey Abu Nawas. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. Event 1: Being rich. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. binatang. no children. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. “Yes. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. “You want me. Then the man said to Dave. I want you to leave the country. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . conversation on the phone. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Then “Remember. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. misalnya eat. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. verbs. “If that is what you want. In his office. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. benda tertentu.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Event 2: He had his new office. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). He suddenly became a 1. run. B. terduga atau lucu). Instead leaving the country. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. He had not left the country yet. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house.
Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I have been walking on this stilts. young man and young woman. I could not bear it.I did not enjoy it. The king was not able to say anything. You have not left this country”. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. They did not pay any attention. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I turned around again. So you see.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. The King continued “And now. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I turned around. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking very loudly. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. were talking noisily. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The play was very interesting. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C.In the end. (Adapted from S. The king wondered and said “Abu. And since yesterday. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily.I got very angry. I do not step on the ground of this country”. I could not hear the actors. I had a very good seat. I do not step on the ground.guards. Your Majesty. look at you. You walk on stilts like a child. “I remember exactly what you said.
"I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . you give food to my coat instead of me”. “Eat the food. “It’s none of your business. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. “When I came here with my old clothes. "Take it to the zoo!". the policeman saw the man in the same park.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. It’s a private conversation”. The man was still carrying the penguin. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. So. He took it to a policeman and said. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. nobody looked at me. He put his coat and said. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. they just shook the head. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The next day. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. The host at once got up and came to meet him. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. When he arrived in the party. D.
look. Even. etc • Using linking verb. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. was. They were in the park Event1. etc • Using chronological connection. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. go. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . The following day. saw. my group. penguin. Generic Structure of Recount 1. I. first. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. then. walk up Using adverb of time and place. chronological order by days. today I am taking it to the movie". policeman Using action verb. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. So. Reorientation: It is optional.did. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. He.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. were. etc • Using simple past tense 4. once. etc • Using action verb. change. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. place and time 2. in the park Told in chronological order. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. heard. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. carry.
they were quite tired but they felt very happy. At the end of the 14-day. read. B. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. The two week in London went by fast. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. There was a film for their entertainment. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. We saw cockatoos having a shower. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them food and drink. Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Instead of keys for the room. n Example of Recount text A. On the third floor. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. they inserted a key-card to open the door.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They had variety of food. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. They are Mr. In writer's point of view. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They had booked fourteen days tour. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. It can be what the writer has done. Vacation to London Mr. and Mrs. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. We stayed at David and Della’s house. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Then. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. The officers were pleasant. hear. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They slept part of the way. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The room had perfect view of the park. This includes travel and accommodation. They went to London. They had a very pleasant flight. Richard with two sons. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. the thing is an experience. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. It was scary.
The first stop was at Batubulan. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. Rekaman peristiwa. funny. Reorientation. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. In simple way. misalnya go. di mana dan kapan. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. then. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. misalnya beautiful. The first one was to Singaraja. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. 46 slowly dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. we dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. misalnya and. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. On the other hand. waktu dan cara. misalnya David. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. Pengenalan. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. the second was to Ubud. but. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. recount describes series of events in detail. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. misalnya We went to the zoo. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa.Small Notes and felt. at my house. the monkey. Events. She was happy dsb. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. The event happened smoothly. after that. On the day of the tour. run dsb. It reveals the conflict among the participants. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. misalnya yesterday. he was ready. sleep. dsb. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. the on Tuesday. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. then on Monday. C. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. It is a busy but quiet town. • • • • • . kejadian atau kegiatan. what happened on Sunday. past tense. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa.
etc. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. stating the writer's personal note. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. When the earthquake happened. walked. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. Re-orientation. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . was. He was quiet satisfied. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. then. and. When I reached my town. I was on my car. I thought I got flat tire. made. Even I could not move my car at all. etc E. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Although nothing was left. suddenly • Using linking verb. my car lunched on one side. introducing the participant. using first person point of view. moved. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. left. to the left. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Events. The car lunched to one side. I • Using chronological connectives. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. like matchsticks. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. I was on the car. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. in the town. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. There were rocks everywhere. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. D. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. describing a series of event which happened. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. The next stop was Celuk. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. I was trapped by the rock. all his day was spent on the beach.a center of stone sculpture. were • Using action verb. I was on the car las week. earthquake happened.
What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. connect a sentence with the next one. First. Overall. Then. In the text. we were feasting. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. my brother. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. During the day. The funeral was performed in two phases. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Several days before the ceremony was done. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Finally. Meanwhile. On the last day. However. In the night. and end your composition. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. and dancing. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Those words and phrases are: First. my uncle. and then moved the corpse to face north. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. chanting. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Questions 1. a series of events in chronological order. After that. Then. you find words and phrases used to start. A recount text has an orientation. the ceremony was quite elaborate. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. After that. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. It took about a week. They were great matches. there were also buffalo matches. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there.
Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. It is personal idea about the product. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. worthy. As I said in my previous post.• Finally. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. quality of the product which will be known publicly. It can be product. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Dominant Language features: 1. useful. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. services which want to be sold. uniqueness. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. It states the parts. After clearly explanation. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. 3. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. valuable. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Focus on specific participants 2. Review Text What is review text 1. etc. Definition Review is one of text genres. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. or just a site which want to be known publicly. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word.
intriguing. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. Using long and complex clauses 4.. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa.. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. and ultimately satisfying. magical or no. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. A few other changes in this book . depressing feel. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. this was not my favorite. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books.3. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. I actually liked the ending (and yes. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. I was truly moved by the last page. I cried!) as sad as it was. fast-paced. especially with being a teenager and all. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. In some (Interpretativ instances this works. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and this part I loved. The stories were bright.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. and parts of it do seem long. for example . Using metaphor 4. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.housekeeping is still housekeeping. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. however. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English .
what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. Again. easy and not complicated design. it will be quite difficult to make translation. if he works with Farsi translation. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. However. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. with some editing it would have been great. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. The translation experts. The site is quite simple but very informative. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. aluminum and rimless frame are available. woman and man are available choice. Similarly. It straightly goes to the end user. Eyeglasses for children. The experts who have grammatical. lexical. It is real. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Titanium. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. If we visit the site. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message.really good book. In certain case. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. However if they are analyzed carefully. animal and scientific object. product case or problem. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. It will talk about bicycle in general. What make different. between report and descriptive text. how to make a good kite. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. In short. colour. physical strengh. its parts. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. phenomena. it belongs to report text. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. To see the differences between explanation and procedure.interest for them to want to interview you. wheel style. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. They give the detail description on something. If we talk about. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. report is written after getting careful observation. descriptive text will convey more focus. lengh. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. In the other hand. Mostly. eg: bicycle. etc. goods. is the scope of the written object. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. For example how to make a cup of tea. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Procedure. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 .
How a tornado form. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Procedure. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. what happened on Sunday. On the other hand. For example how to make a cup of tea. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. phenomena. product case or problem. Explanation. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. In simple way. then on Monday. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It reveals the conflict among the participants. It is such word. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. They give the detail description on something. the on Tuesday. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. recount describes series of events in detail. It is such word. how to make a good kite. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. goods. Explanation is such a scientific written material. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. The event happened smoothly. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. first boil water. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text.is the best example of the procedure text. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . and so on. read. In writer's point of view. secondly prepare the cup. hear. and felt. etc is the best example of the procedure text. the thing is an experience. It can be what the writer has done. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. and so on. secondly prepare the cup. first boil water.
Using modals 2. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 15. Crisis 4. 17. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. recount. 20. and news item. hortatory exposition. 26. 14. Dominant Language Features: 57 . report. Arguments 3. These variations are known as GENRES. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Using action verbs 3.Explanation. review. 23. procedure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Explanation is such a scientific written material. 16. Using adjective 6. Using general and abstract noun 8. They are narrative. Coda. Orientation 3. 24. Using adverbs 5. 19. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Thesis 2. texts are divided into several types. Using thinking verbs 4. spoof. 25. explanation. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. 18. Reaction 5. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. descriptive. 22. analytical exposition. anecdote. Abstract 2. How a tornado form. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. discussion. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1.
Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verbs 3. Short. Generic Structure: 1. Background event(s) 3. Using technical terms 7. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Using exclamations. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using material process 3. Explanation 3. Using action verb 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Evaluation 3. General statement 2. Using adverb 4. Complication 4.1. Using saying verbs 58 . Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Goal/Aim 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Materials/Equipments 3.
Using action verb 3. Using thinking verbs 5. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using modals 3. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. place and manner. Using Simple Present Tense 2.4. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adverbs 6. Using action verbs 4. Description Language Features: 1. place or thing in detail. Arguments 3. Using adverbs : time. Using general and abstract noun 9. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Issue 2. In simple word. Using adverb 4. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modality 7. Thesis 2. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using technical terms 8. Identification 2. Use of relating verb/to be 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using thinking verb 4. Arguments for and against 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using adjective 7.
or Past Perfect Tense. folklore. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. General classification 2. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Event(s) 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using Past Tense 2. Using Past Tense 2. Orientation 60 . Using conditional logical connection 3. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Simple Past Continuous Tense.Purpose: to presents information about something. Using action verb 3. social conflict or psychological conflict. fable. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Event(s) 3. Orientation 2. myth. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. In the contrary. Using adverb 4. whether Simple Past Tense. etc while recount text is found in biography. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Using action verb 3. Generic Structure 1. as it is. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE.
TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 1. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tahun. 6. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . spoof dsb. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. tabel. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. tempat. descriptive. 10. 9.exposition. diagram dsb. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 5. Using adjectives 3. grafik. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Continuous text misalnya narrative. map. Focus on specific participants 2.2. label. Evaluation 5. biasanya tentang nama. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 4. 8. dsb. 7. Interpretative Recount 4. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. penjelasan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Using long and complex clauses 4. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 3. Evaluation 3. 2. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. tanggal.
Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. And cute. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 .” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. The purpose of the text is _____. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. fluffy. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. it is small. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. f) Menentukan makna kata. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.11.
they can find the dust bins easily.. They put their litters on the proper places. and some more also the corridors. straws. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. When we look at classrooms. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. outside of the classrooms. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. What is the writer’s intention? To …. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. school corridors and school yard. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. readers to do something good. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . more dust bins…. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.. So when students want to throw away their litters. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. 1. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Besides. a number of dust bins should be increased. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. there are paper mineral water cups. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. and napkins here and there. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. According to the writer.EXERCISES.
learning English can be enjoyable and fun. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . even revolution. lexically and poetically. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. translating songs. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. which is just what many learners look for sample text. place or time reference. Secondly.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. In addition. Firstly. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Last but not least. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. learning vocabulary. What is the text about …. spelling and culture. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. songs in general also use simple conversational language. shopping malls. From the elaboration above. The generic structures of the text are …. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. religion. 5. Furthermore. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Although usually simple. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. songs are relaxing. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. with a lot of repetition. patriotism and yeas. They provide variety and fun. practicing selective listening comprehension.
Finally. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. smoking in restaurants is impolite. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Firstly. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. The word reasons mean…. It must not be allowed because it is rude. Based on the text. 11. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.“They provide variety and fun. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.” The underlined word refers to …..Since we can find a thesis. Therefore. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. not just in restaurants.9. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Cindy. Bob.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself.. Harris. Mrs. I'm Linda 1. Mr. Ritter. my my my my my my my my my brother. This is my friend. And you. student. Mary Jones. Watson. mother. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Nice to meet you. teacher. Introducing someone else my name is. father. Jack. Nice to meet you too. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Hi Jack. 2. Very nice to meet you. boss. I don't believe we've met before. I'm. It's a pleasure to meet you. • I want to introduce you to …. Pleased to meet you. co-worker.. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Likewise. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Mr. Harris... Penny Pitcher. sister. Carrie. Ms. friend.
I am. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Arnys. we still have half an hour before the class starts.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Retno. and Retno are new students. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Adib : Hi. Situation: Adib. Hi. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. are you a new student. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Arnys? Retno : Okay. this is Retno. Shall we go to the canteen?. Adib : Anyway. They meet at the students’ orientation course. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. My name is Adib.g. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry.g. By the way. I’m Arnys. a restaurant. Adib. hotel. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. e.
Not so bad. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. before leaving. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . Do you wanna . . . . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. thank you. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . thanks. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women. • Good bye. . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow.Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Very well. Bye. (informal) Would you like to . See you soon /later /tomorrow. . . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. thanks.
I’d like very much .. Receiving . I’d be delighted to.I’d love to .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks..... Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks..Some responds of inviting. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 . .? Would you like . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.I’d be happy/glad to accept .a chocolate bar? .Yes. let’s not. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it...to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .
Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. I need it. Thank you. returned your lost wallet. Happy birthday to you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Happy new year. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. helped carry your grocery bags. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Thanks. you very much.
Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. That’s pity f.• • • Oh. not really. and congratulations Special Days . It’s nice of you to say so. That’s too bad e. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc..use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . What’s shame b. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. How kind of you to say so. That’s a nuisance d. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.. holidays and other special occasions. What’s pity c.
Goodness! b. feel unpleased with …. k. h.B. e. I feel … b. I’m really sad to … c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. I’m delighted. It was terrifi c. j. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I enjoyed it I love it. I’m really sorry for them d. l. I feel …. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. m. How Awful! d. d. f. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I feel disappointed. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m so happy …. How dreadful! C. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. I’m sorry about that c. b. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. I’m sorry to hear that b. c. …. d. Expression Displeasure a. How terrible! c. i. g..
kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.Satisfaction. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.
Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. In my opinion…. • I am with you • Definitely. As I see. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. say • Absolutely. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. you should buy the florescent light bulbs.. … If you ask me.. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. I think the other one’s better. I agree • I know what you mean. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. In my opinion. • Yes. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.
kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about ….• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. No. that's not a good idea. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Fear. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. I don't think that's what happened. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.
. • I’m sick. • I feel sick. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I’m glad it was done.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • Thank God for .. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English ../I feel ill. it’s very painful! • Oh. • Ugh. it’s killing me! 2..
Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. BUT "I don't really like it. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. It means that you do not like something.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. but it is not a very strong dislike." This is not very strong.
I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. I’m extremely unhappy about this. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.. I will. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I was so ashamed. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. That’s a real embarrassment..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No.
Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Of course... It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Blame (keluhan. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Certainly...Palupi : OK... but I think we should. but. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. Complaint. I think you might have forgotten to.. Excuse me if I'm out of line. Sure..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it... I'm sorry to bother you. It's your fault for (doing something). I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Right away. Maybe you forgot to... Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English ... It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. but. Don't get me wrong.
Sorry for taking your DVD.. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday... I'll clear up later. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.simply starters! Regret.. to express regret an exclamation a word. I ….. Apology (penyesalan. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.. I didn't mean to lose your book. I'd like to apologise for.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. Sorry for.. I'm so sorry. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. to ask for forgiveness.. Examples I'm really sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Pete.
game. there is a possibility .. possibility are: There is a good chance that ….… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .. It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game. She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .trouble unhappiness... worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability... distress. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that …. NOTE : 1. Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet..
they. Expressions to show …. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET. doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I.you. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it..they. I’m capable of doing it 2.she.we Has utk S= he. 3.we Always dll Does utk S= he.? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it.she. Would there be any possibility of 4.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it.you.it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I.she.
they.he. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.she.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .
datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .
has been working b. will have worked c. “Srimpi”. a. worked e. Iwan : Yes. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. works d. the telephone rang twelve times. have been practising b. practised d.is.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. will be practising c. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . they are succesful. Fred : Juda. was parctising e. are Was. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1.does/am. is. a.
the meeting ___ by the time we get there. would have started d. will have started e. will have had lunch b. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. starts c. have been cleaning c. am living d. have carried c. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. will be started 2. cleaned e. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. was carrying 3. My family ____ when the postman arrived. have been having lunch c. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. were cleaning b. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. If we don”t hurry. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. will have lived b. was living e. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. a. have been living c. have lunch d. will have lunch e. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . clean d. a. a. a. has got a new job d. will start b. am carrying b.berlangsung. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. This sentence means that Ann ___. carry d. a. a. carried e. Ann has been looking for a job for six month.
sir. She ___ the lectures. but I ____ there many times. He ____ there for three weeks. Student : All right. had been 9. will have learnt c. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. would forget 8. will cause 5. He ____ ill for a week. started to work 6 months a go c. a. a. will have been c.b. is still looking for a job 4. will be learning b. causes e. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. has forgotten d. attended c. had been 7. forgets b. I forget to bring your book. caused d. Reni goes to her university every morning. When airport are located in the center of citied. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. have learnt e. have caused c. sir. has worked for six months e. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. has been attending e. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. has been b. was d. were causing b. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. forgot c. a. am learning 10. had forgotten e. a. I ____ them by then. Anto : I’m sorry Ary.00 tomorrow. have been 6. She studies business. Is it right? Student : Yes. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . My father is still in Bali. would be b. learn d. Learn all these. will be attending d. is d. a. a. will be b. has been e. has attended b. am d. have been c. was e. was e. will have been c.
why. “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag. dan tempat.DIRECT . (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then.” (-) He said. struktur kalimat. who. (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. keterangan waktu. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English .INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. when. “ I have a present for you in my bag. where. “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. pronoun (kata ganti orang). how. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
1. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. Herman : Okay. I am very noisy b. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. a. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. why Mary had been absent c. he has gone to his country e. that I open his mouth d. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. had gone to his country d. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. I wasn’t so noisy d. mom. if I opened my mouth e. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. He said ____ the previous day. that Mary had been absent b. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. opened my mouth c. why Mary was absent e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. he went to his country b. to be not so noisy c. if Mary was absent d. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Herman. to open my mouth b. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. not to be so noisy e. he goes to his country c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . a. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. The baby is sleeping. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d.
b. Slamet. had forgotten e. a. a. c. It was windy outside. not spending b. It is windy outside. what are you were doing now d. did I have an appointment d. 7. c. forgets b. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. he would not clean c. wether he goes with us c. when is my appointment b. would forget 3. 4. Closed the window. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. I hadn’t cleaned d. Mira closed the window.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Mira closed the window. not to spend e. 6. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Does Mira close the window. “What are you doing now?”. I forgot to bring your book. It is windy outside. what I was doing then. He asked me ____ a. a. “ ___________” a. d. I got a headache. can he go with us e. has forgotten d. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. a. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. going with us b. a. e. e. Mira. do not spend d. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Anto : I am sorry Lina. b. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. not spend c. If he could go with us d. Mother said. he asked. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. he does not clean e. how was my appointment e. what I am doing now. what were you doing now. It was windy outside. forgot c. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. he headn’t cleaned b. Ari : What did he say. that I had an appointment 94 5. he asked me ____”.
My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. e. b. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. d. Mean____ a. She told the children not to make noise. My friend said to me. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. finish your work d. to finish my work c. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. she said. “don’t make noise. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . to finish your work b. Father said. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. She told the children don’t make noise b. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. whether I had appointment 8. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel.c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. finished your work e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. a. e. She didn’t say the children should noise d. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. 10. “Can I find you a hotel?”. children”. c. She said the children didn’t make noise c.
was kicking b. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . she ____ a. kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. was kicked c. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. kicked e.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. The announcement ____ twice. A : Look! The girl is crying. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2.
to be abolished c. had been sold c. will be built e.a. were sold b. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. a. a. are unloaded c. was born e. A big dam ___ in this area next year. have been unloaded d. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. would be born b. when…. is being built c. will be born 2. was it to abolish b. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. is born d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck.? a. will build d. has arranged c. are sold e. have arranged b. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. has been postponed c. Y : Really. has been built b. was it abolishing d. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. R.A. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . was postponed d. were being unloaded e. have been arranged 3. a. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. a. was being postponed e. was arranged e. is arranged d. will be unloaded b. has been born c. a. has to be postponed b. is sold d. did it abolish e.
therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. was rewarded e. a. was destroyed 6. was taken b. cleaned c. a. is being rewarded b. has been rewarded c. the baby is being looked after well e. has promised d. a. the baby would be well looked after 7. a. will clean b. The passive form is ____ a. is being cleaned e. the baby is well looked after b. has been promising b. he ____ to the nearest hospital. She looks after the baby well. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 .4. is being destroyed c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. will be destroyed b. will be rewarded 8. has been cleaned 5. demolishing d. had been demilishing b. a. rewarded d. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. is being taken e. is demolishing c. is being demolished e. was being promised c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. will be promised 10. had destroyed e. the baby was looked after well c. will be taken d. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. will be promised e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. took c. was being cleaned d. a. was being demolishing 9. destroyed d. the baby will be well looked after d.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. yaitu: 1. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.
dll. dll. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi.). can. -le. will. have/has. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. -ow. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Contoh: If I have much money. did. may. I will buy a new car. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. itulah yang diharapkan. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. had. shall.4. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. -er. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Apa yang diucapkan. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. was/were. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. (jika saya punya uang.
I would have written you a letter. whose. which. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1.Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Contoh : (+) If I had time. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. I would go to the beach with you. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. of which. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. 3. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. whom. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Kalau kalimatnya (+).
They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car.) 2. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. its. I met him last week. sebuah benda. Its surface is not smooth. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. their. They are printed in English. our. Their car has been stolen. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Contoh: We saw the people. (its surface/permukaannya meja. her. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . (him = the man. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. I bought it last year. his. your.Contoh: We know a lot of people. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang.
She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 .7. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). Where 8. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.
Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. 6. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). to be busy. I had mechanic repair my car. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). get used to.Amir’s. The manager gets the letter typed. 2.your. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Before leaving. to be worth.our. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Jogging makes us fresh. before dll. 4. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1).her. he said nothing. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. on. I got the mechanic to repair my car. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.their. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 3.to be used to. can’t help/can’t bear. The manager has the letter typed. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. his. 5. Gerund digunakan bila: 1.
(Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Dona prefers dancing to singing. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.V . S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . c.V ketimbang main video game) 4.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. as soon as. b. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. a. We went home after the rain stopped.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. when. after.Dita would rather watch T. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Menunjukan waktu: before.V better than radio. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . yaitu: 1.Juned prefers combro to deblo. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. . (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V.I like T. 3. than plays a video game. while.
we put them into frying pan. then.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. Contoh: .You can read this book if you like.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. c.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. 2. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . if. While he was reading her novel. finally. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. After that. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. first. 1. we put some sauce and salt. or. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . e.d.He is both wise and good. we must prepare the ingredients. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . c. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. 3.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Finally.Although it was raining. next. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. after that. Since I have no money. b. but.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . b. Next. although/though. d.Amir and I go to school everyday. that. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. since. for. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. somebody knocked on the door. a.He is not only active but also clever. dll. I can’t treat you. he come on time. a.
arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.
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