This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................23 News Item Text.................................................................................24 What is News Item? ..........................................................................24 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................27 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................27 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................ 39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................49 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................51 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................54 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................55 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................55 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................57 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
......105 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..................................................................................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ..........................................103 GERUND .......................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.............................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .........................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ........................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)....................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ........................................................................101 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...........................................................................................................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)........................106 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...........................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .......................
what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. 2. Spoof 5. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Recount 6. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. 1. Procedure 12. why is the text made?. Narrative 11. Explanation 2. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Descriptive 10. News Items 13. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Analytical Exposition 8. Anecdote 9. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Hortatory Exposition 3. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. The language feature. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Report 4. These types of text are.
cars create pollution. In one hour in smoky room. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Reiteratio In conclusion. lung cancer. cars are very noisy. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. or concentrate on your homework. which causes them to die. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. the risk is nineteen greater. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Thirdly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. cars. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. the city is very busy. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. As we all know. If you live in the city. Secondly. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. it is better to look at the fact. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. and especially talk to someone. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Additionally. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. as we all know. Argument Firstly.
The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. In this example of analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. As the US. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Furthermore. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. That wil be true if the conditions.
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. dsb. we. government. Additionally.dsb. secondly. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. • Action verbs. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. First. misalnya firstly. leaded petrol car. Secondly. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. • Modal adverbs. misalnya Many people believe. misalnya species of animals. ruler and such other stuff. misalnya we must preserve. Penguatan pernyataan. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Technical verbs. misalnya It is important. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. • Relating verbs. in this multimedia era. That is really easy and save time and money. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. students need more to reach their progressive development.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. • Thinking verbs. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya car. misalnya certainly. dsb. The students just need to brows that online shop. dsb • Modal verbs. misalnya policy. pen. students need book. dsb. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. dsb. drawing book. dsb. From all of that. pollution. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates Ciri Umum: the thesis in another phrases to point the (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: writer'opinion. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb. misalnya C. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. this method will help student to get better understanding. dsb. • Connectives. and then complete the transaction. decide which computer or laptop they need. • Abstract nouns. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. misalnya She must save. eraser. • Reiteration . • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above Small Notes thesis. • Bahasa evaluatif. 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping.
Students just need to decide which type they really need. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. E. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. you might have one link in your dialogue SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Career in Translation Functionally. It seems Indonesia. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. India is likely being an English speaking country. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. For instance.Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. If Hindi translation is provided. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. India translation will grow better and. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. D. Arabic translation. Therefore. According to Nida.
Using action verb. etc 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. do you know what? 4. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Using exclamation words. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Incident. Using conjunction of time. etc 5. etc • Causal conjunction . Using imperative. it's wonderful!. Using simple past tense 4. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Abstract 2. it's awful!. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. write.box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using rhetoric question. 2. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. 3. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. because. go. then. afterward 6. which had been SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Writing takes some time to gain credibility. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Orientation 3. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. listen to this 3. Crisis 4.
misalnya go. who luckily came(Cerita Lucu) Ciri a broom. there were being quarantined for long days. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. look! Ever since then I’ve always(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure put the plug in firmly Abstrak (Abstract) before running the bath water. They had gotten • action verbs. Then I Anecdote running and yelled for my husband. dsb. was(a) Tujuan interested in the quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakanout of the way or whole business. America. who killed the snake with the handle of Umum: was only three at the time. Anna. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. dsb. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. The family dreams were dashed. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. and turned on the tap. • seruan/kata seru. seperti then. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. The family worked and saved. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. several years but finally they had saved enough money. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! They were making plan to travel with And do you know what? It’s awful. their children to America. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He shed tears of disappointment. had shank. For an instant I stood thereSmall Notes quite paralysed.Crisis Incident Coda empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. The doctor sewed up the boy. passport. Suddenly to my horror. the mighty Titanic. Pengenalan (Orientation) Krisis (Crisis) Example of Anecdote Tindakan (Incident) A. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. They were Clark family with (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: nine children. It had taken isn’t it? dsb. spitting and hissing at us. so we set to. They had a dream to go to America. However few days before their departure. The ship. Indeed I had to pull her kejadian/peristiwa lucu she’d probably have leant over berdasarkan khayalan atau better the bath to get a peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Blessing behind Tragedy Koda (Coda) There was a black family in Scotland years ago. It took hundreds of SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . afterwards. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. write. Five days latter.
he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. they were left behind. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. qualities. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. It was unbelievable but it was. They had to forget their plan. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. or/and characteristics. The Clak family should have been on that ship.passenger and crew with it. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. He thanked God for saving their lives. place. describing the phenomenon in parts. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. The father was angry with his son and God. You have and so do I. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It made they were being quarantined. When the father heard the news. • Description. Examples and structures of the text Identificati MacQuarie University Macquarie University is one of the largest universities 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. identifying the phenomenon to be described. but because of the bitten son by a dog. or thing. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. When the dream will come true. They had dream to travel to America. 3. 2. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. there is something wrong last minute before it. • Using simple present tense 4. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland.
She really have perfect appearance. She is really mad on that shoes. This shoes really matches on her. Sydney. Ballet. SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. all her friends. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. When she are walking on that shoes. attractive and trendy. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. She is beautiful. Recently. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Example of Description A. a railway station is under construction. This year. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. a grass amphitheatre. She said that the products covered all genders. bright color. The style. native plants and eucalypts. In 1964. in 2004. She always pays much attention on her appearance.on in Australia. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. The products provide varieties of choice. In three years1 time. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. casual. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. yet retaining its beautiful site. Today. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles.
Cambodia.8 km of passage and starways. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The upper three are circular. Borobudur temple • Description. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur is well-known. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.The temple is constructed. valuable • Using simple present tense. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The way to the summit extends through some 4. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.Budhist temple. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. B. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace.boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Central Java. Indonesia. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.
Misalnya: I have many pets. misalnya.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. dsb. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. numbering. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. better or worse 3. dsb. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. kualitas. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. It has very thick fur. dsb. dsb. Description. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. White. • simple present tense. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. • berbagai macam adjectives. My mum is realy cool. a sweet young lady. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . 2. enough money to take Snow White. sharp white fangs. • action verbs. misalnya. two strong legs. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. but my favourite one is a cat. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. bersifat describing. sifat-sifat (characteristic). dsb. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3.my cat. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. house. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. misalnya teacher. perilaku umum. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. misalnya fast. classifying. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4.
Maura asked them for something to eat.” Doc. “My name is Snow White. They want to know what next will happen. The following day. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. The dwarfs said. one of the dwarfs. said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. One evening. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. As they were about to have dinner. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . “If you wish. They were also rich and strong. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The first gave her some left over food. The psychological conflict inside Maura.” Snow White said. who was called Hakim. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. in what way she will decide who the best is. One by one she discarded them. “Oh could I? Thank you. The third sheik. There they found Snow White sleeping. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. who received a plate of delicious meat.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. you may live here with us. “what is your name?” Snow White said. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. Hakim. She saw the dwarfs. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. which she strikes against herself. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. After dinner. Example of Narative A. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. “Without question. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. had many suitors.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Then Snow White woke up. They went inside. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her.
Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. stayed. Resolution. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Complication. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. dsb. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. misalnya here. waktu. long black hair. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. konflik dalam cerita. Penyelesaian masalah. in the mountain. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. At the first. misalnya then. Masalah. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. housework. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). The parrot could say every word. stepsisters. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Although he tried hard to teach. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. dsb. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Pengenalan tokoh. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. happily ever after. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. misalnya. There was no other parrot like it. • action verbs dalam past tense. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time.dsb. climbed. soon.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. before that. the parrot would not say it. Then he continued to humble. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. I will cut the chicken 17 . a man had a wonderful parrot. dsb. except one word. He could not bear it. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. misalnya. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. phrase. the man really got very angry. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The name of the place was Catano. two red apples. “You know. dsb. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens.
He could not control his mad. C. There were three death chickens on the floor. the man attempted to teach the bird. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. the man came back to the chicken house. I will eat you too. The fish begged him to set it free. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru could not bear it. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. The daughters were crying. readers see the problem is finished. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. She attracted Batara Guru so much. he caught a fish. They found their mother and talked her about it. As soon as it was free. 3. That was the smartest parrot. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. He made the fish free. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. there was a handsome man. They were married happily. They had two daughters. It will show the crisis. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. paragraph 2. He liked fishing. At the moment. One day. 4 are describing the complication. rising crisis and climax of the story. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. A man and his parrot took place once time. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He opened the door and was very surprised. Next it will be your turn. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. To fix this problem. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . stupid parrot”. In that parrot story. In the parrot story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. After that he left the chicken house. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication.for my meal. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The next day.
They were married and live happily ever after. D. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. In the end. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . such as scrubbing the floor. In her hurry. Finally. The earth formed a very big hole. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Then the earth began to shake. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her.The mother was very annoyed. Volcanoes started to erupt. Magically. The mother was shouting angrily. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. and it became a beautiful ball gown. and away went the sisters to it. They treated Cinderella very badly. Batara Guru broke his promise. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. she said. It fitted perfectly. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. “Now. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. The two step sisters. “Why are crying. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. A few days later. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. the day of the ball came. At last. hardworking. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. on the other hand. “You must leave before midnight”. did not work about the house. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Cinderella”. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. One day.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Cinderella?” a voice asked. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. “Well” said the godmother. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. She danced again and again with the king’s son. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. she was driven to the palace.
Generic Structure Analysis 1. One day. “you are so big and strong. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Then he said. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. “oh. In the last paragraph. said the buffalo. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Complication. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Once there was a farmer from Laos. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. Every morning and every evening. The tiger asked. “it at home”. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. introducing specific participants. “No. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. The Smartest Animal. “Can I see your intelligence?”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. E. the man is very intelligent”. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . But the man answered. I can’t tell you”. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “Yes” said the man. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Orientation. farmer and his buffalo. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. 3. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Complication: In this Cinderella story. Resolution: Like complication. After the man went home. Resolution. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. once in Laos 2. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. He took his plough and hit the tiger.
• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. spatula. there was a farmer. once. Add milk and whisk well 4. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. saw. the man tied the tiger. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. cheese grater. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. plate Method 1. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. the next day past tense. Place on a plate. ¼ cup milk. bowl. hit time conjunction. tie. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. fork. 50 g cheese. was surprised to action verb. answered thinking verb. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. after. one day connectives. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Cook both sides 9.
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. etc • Action verb. Here are the steps. finally.10. etc • Temporal conjunction. dry a handful seeding. put it in another big pot. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. next. Finally. dry. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. firstly. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. wait it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. • Material. It should be in open area Next. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. put the seeding on the soil. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. put. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Firstly. planting is a nice activity. informing on how to plant chillies. the following is a guided information SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Example of Procedure A. put it. excluded • Steps.
Use a nice rhythm. showing the method in writing for business. take the topic of benefits. Thirdly. a pinch of satlt and SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . • Imperative sentences. write your benefit like you talk Memberi petunjuk tentang cara it. Writing For Business Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. writing the topic like the way it is talked. fifty gram cheese. Small Notes Firstly. etc • Temporal conjunction. dsb.com/? expert=Daniel_F_O'connor misalnya. excluded • Steps/ method. write. misalnya turn. secondly. Some Note: Materials are not required for all sentences are long and some are short. you need an egg. Bahan-bahan Fourthly. etc • Action verb. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Language Feature Analysis • action verbs. tempat. It's so easy to (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: make mistakes which you don't notice the Menggunakan: first time through. write like you talked. Your customers don't care about Ciri Umum: you.B. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. dsb. a quarter cup of milk. read. choosing the advantageous topic. • pola kalimat imperative. dsb. lose the weak words. Well. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Mix Procedure text them up and keep things interesting. put. Don't (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure describe how your company may. Edit it necesarily. don’t. 2 centimetres from the top. informing on how to write for business • Material. you don't have to. Steps. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. Read aloud what melakukan sesuatu melalui you've written. Fifthly. How does it sound? serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. etc C. Materials. might or should help customers but talk about how Aim/Goal. while. re-reading what have been written . Langkah-langkah. reread what you have done. misalnya then. firstly. mix. three tablespoons cookin oil. not Procedure (Prosedur) features. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Cut. Tujuan kegiatan your company will. Use regular words. but it will help. They want to know "What's in it for me?" (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Secondly.re-read what you've done before publishing. to make a cheese omelet. misalnya for five minutes. Don’t mix. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. menyatakan rinci waktu. cara yang akurat.
participant. Listen carefully. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Definition of News Item News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. spatula. fork. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Using material process 4. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Language Feature of News Item 1. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Resource of information 3. 2.pepper. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Next. First. place) 3. frying pan. bowl and plate. time. cheese grater. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Next. Elaboration (background. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . such as. The accident. you need some tools. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Focusing on circumstances 2. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Main event 2. add First.
SMA Students’ Modul of English (Source The Jakarta Post. pendengar Sources atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. komentar Star Newspaper. in tertuang dalam bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Example of Procedure A. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Sources. Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: International Aids Memorial day. A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. but the number is steadily rising. Latar belakang “This is not to debate them but to protect kejadian. 2008) 25 . “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. pendapat para ahli. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. it’s up saksi kejadian. Malaysian Aids Council president. he said in the report. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. • Menggunakan action Last year. “But this just a suggestion. a Background Events. 745 Malaysian women were identified verbs as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Sumber Memberitakan kepada Informasi pembaca. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims. In the past the headline event was held behind closed door. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Newsworthy events. woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. even though they know they have HIV” she said. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. June 01. to them”. which was • Informasi singkat celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. news report said. dsb. Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every Kejadian inti. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Women are the first ones to get exploited by terlibat. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. many women who contract HIV are housewives. orang yang them. tempat their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” kejadian dsb. less then 10 percent are woman.
She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. She had relationship the boy for five months. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. the Saudi Interior Minister said.co. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.bbc. Hong Kong.Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. The maid. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. (Taken from: www. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . 2008) An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.news. Indonesian Maid beheaded (Adapted from Reuters. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Last year. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Saudi Arabia. Then the maid was arrested. Rape. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. May 6. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. named Suwartin. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria.
and social text. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue I have been wondering if homework is necessary. Background 3. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. Using material process. carry. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. historic. believe. hopefully. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Resource. 2. similarly. and causal connection. execute. etc 4. Background 2. etc • Using modalities. must.Background 1. should. law of serious crimes. etc • Using adverbial of manner. deliberately. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. Statemen I think we should have homework because it helps us to t of issue learn and revise our work. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. and Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to Preview SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . contrastive. on the hand. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc • Using additive. hope. could. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? 1. feel. may. however. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. behead.
Sometimes homework is boring and not important. Statemen t of various viewpoint s But. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . doing homework is not a great idea. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. It is reliable. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. so it is not expansive to make. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. and produces huge amounts of energy. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. Example of Discussion Text A. many times. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It produces small amount of waste. England in 1956. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels.
very dangerous. perception and recommendation. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. however. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. dsb. alcohol. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. • adverbials of maner. believe. misalnya smoking is harmful. dsb. Furthermore. . misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. This example of discussion text present the two poles. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. dsb. nuclear power is very.On the other hand. seperti perhaps. should. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. dsb.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. should have been. must. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. Elaborasi (uraian). although it is reliable. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. on the hand. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. dsb. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. hopefully. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. could 29 be. misalnya feel. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. Gagasan Pokok 2. memberikan informasi secara padu. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. misalnya deliberately. Kesimpulan. hope. In many social activities. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya similarly. misalnya uniforms. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis.
conservationists.co. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Contrastive point.bbc. Supporting point. B. Using modalities. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. farmer. Many farmer and even conservationists. however. believe. geography and history text books. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. must. hunting fox. Using connectives. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. social. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Using thinking verb. 2. Recommendation. (Taken from: www. scientific and cultural phenomena. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. It is often found in science.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.
The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. etc Using chronological connection. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. sun. rain. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Sequenced explanation. Featuring generic participant. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. to begin with.• • General statement. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Example of Explanation Text A. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . next. Language Feature • • • • 4.
misalnya word chopping. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. conjunctions of time dan cause. closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the bahasa teksni. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. sosialbudaya. is not because as much people think we are complex sentences. noun phrase. action verbs. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. This adverbial phrases.panda. earth. (simplified from www. (Taken from: www. Why Summer Daylight is Longger than • • • • • • Winter Daylight In the summer. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. dunia ilmiah. This process is called revolution. The sun seems to rise in the morning. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. misalnya the temperature. It takes 365 days or a year. misalnya the large cloud. It causes day and night.co.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. The earth is actually closer to the sun in kalimat pasif winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. It is called as rotation. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. But that is the case. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. Tsunami always bring great damage. the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. abstract nouns. simple present tense. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. earthquakes. passive voice.org) B. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. The earth also moves around the sun.ictteachers.uk) SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. Penjelasan proses • Penutup.
valuable.where you only see another car every five to ten minutes. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. etc 6. Using evaluative words. policy. so. etc 7. Using present tense. etc 8.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using pasive voice. Using modal adverb. daylight. Using chronological connection. surely. Using passive voice 9.Generic Structure Analysis General statement. but. Arguments 3. etc 3. 2. Using action verb 4. Using abstract noun. Using simple present tense 4. then. Focusing on the writer 2. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. certainly. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using thinking verb 5. you would be forgiven. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Recommendation 3. Explanation. advantage. important. Using temporal connective. I feel that when you travel through the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Thesis 2. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). firstly. secondly. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . trustworthy. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Recomendation I feel that country people. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.Those who want to penalise older . pornography. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. and short sleep duration.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Considering some facts mentioning above. especially violence. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Meanwhile. of course. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. However. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like the writer thought as stated in the text. Recently. stress. consumerism and so on. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. and the possibility of being aggressive.
Basically. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. advertising. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. B. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. So when students want to throw away their litters. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. they can find the dust bins easily. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. mineral water cops. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. When we look at classroom. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. In the first paragraph. school corridors and schoolyard. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. and news advertorial. straws. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. there papers. If it is a hortatory text. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption.presenting the supporting arguments. and napkin everywhere. SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . More Dust Bins is Cleaner. In many social activities. Both take place as argumentative essays. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. More dust bins should be put beside each step. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. sales letter. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. speech campaign. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position.
Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. it will be quite confusing. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. As the alternative method of studying. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. the available time will be more flexible for them. they will think hard about the time and cost. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. when they think about straightly seeking job. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. So. In the same way. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. it will be very hard to looking for job. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. In the other hand. When they think about continuing study. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them.When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. As result. C. Where should be after High School?. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost.
misalnya I believe . dsb. Argument. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns.we.government dsb. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. dsb.dsb. valuable. Technical verbs. Connectives. make. plant. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. etc Using thinking verb. felt Using simple present tense. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Thinking verbs. there is a way out of financial problem. secondly. give up. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. he drives a sport car. Relating verbs. now there is a way out. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too.misalnya policy. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Modal adverbs. Generic Structure of Report 1.D. public place. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya species of animals. Action verbs. Albert Smith is the proof. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. misalnya important. dsb. We can show the way to give up work. misalnya We must preserve. dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . are you tired?. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. part per part . animal. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. dsb. Modal verbs. reward Using action verb. we must save. misalnya should be. etc which will be discussed in general 2. dsb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Recommendation. Millions from Property Market. as it is. misalnya. misalnya certainly. misalnya firstly. etc Report Text What is Report? 1.
and lakes. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. etc Using simple present tense 4. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. In the other hand. beating the water furiously with their wings. Platypus' eyes and head are small. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. perhaps two dozen birds. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. rivers. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Example of Report Text A. Platypus lives in streams. the animal of platypus. so. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. A group. and woolly layer of fur. stating general classification. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus. when.• • Using conditional logical connection. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. As the bird lifts its head. driving the fish before them.
apa adanya. qualities. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. istilah teknis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . misalnya lizards cannot fly. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. lingkungan. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. dan klasifikasinya. dsb. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. habits or behaviors. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. male platypus does not need any burrow. logical connective. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. atau gejala-gejala sosial. misalnya. Platypus lives in streams. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . dsb. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. the animal of platypus conditional.Description. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). but. dsb. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. in terms of parts. keterangan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. kegunaannya jika non natural. benda buatan manusia.
happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Generic Structure of Spoof 1.’ replied the man. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Told in chronological order 4. Dave found a nice office. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. 2. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Language Feature of Spoof 1. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Kejadian/peristiwa He took him to a policeman and said. He bought some new furniture and moved in. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Using adverb of time and place 4.1. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Focusing on people. Using action verb. Kejadian/peristiwa The next day the policeman saw the same / kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Events 3. ate. etc 3. Twist 3. Orientation 2. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. animals or certain things 2. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. ran. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. ‘ I have / kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought.
Instead leaving the country. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. no children. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. run. He had not left the country yet. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. “Hey Abu Nawas. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. verbs. Then the man said to Dave. “Yes. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). conversation on the phone. B. In his office. Event 1: Being rich. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Event 2: He had his new office. “You want me. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. Then “Remember. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. I want you to leave the country. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. misalnya eat. binatang. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. benda tertentu. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He suddenly became a 1. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. terduga atau lucu). “If that is what you want.
young man and young woman. “I remember exactly what you said.In the end. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. The King continued “And now. The play was very interesting. I have been walking on this stilts.guards. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. You walk on stilts like a child. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. They were talking very loudly. I could not bear it. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. look at you. I do not step on the ground of this country”.I got very angry.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I had a very good seat. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. So you see. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The king was not able to say anything. I turned around. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. (Adapted from S. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I do not step on the ground. I could not hear the actors. You have not left this country”. The king wondered and said “Abu. I turned around again. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . And since yesterday. Your Majesty. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. They did not pay any attention. were talking noisily. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me.I did not enjoy it.
I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. you give food to my coat instead of me”. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The host at once got up and came to meet him. D. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. they just shook the head. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “When I came here with my old clothes. So. nobody looked at me. "What should I do?" The policeman replied.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. It’s a private conversation”. He took it to a policeman and said. “It’s none of your business. He put his coat and said. Getting Nasreddin's answer. The next day. "Take it to the zoo!". When he arrived in the party. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. “Eat the food.
chronological order by days. heard. were. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. They were in the park Event1. Orientation: Introducing the participants. walk up Using adverb of time and place. He. was.did. Reorientation: It is optional. then. saw. So. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. I. look. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. policeman Using action verb. my group. go. etc • Using chronological connection. penguin. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. change. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Generic Structure of Recount 1. etc • Using action verb. place and time 2. today I am taking it to the movie". And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. carry. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. etc • Using simple past tense 4. Even. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. once. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . first. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. etc • Using linking verb. in the park Told in chronological order. The following day.
They gave them food and drink. In writer's point of view. Richard with two sons. hear. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. It was scary. It can be what the writer has done. they inserted a key-card to open the door. They are Mr. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Mr. On the third floor. We stayed at David and Della’s house. Vacation to London Mr. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. n Example of Recount text A. They slept part of the way. Richard’s family was on vacation. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. This includes travel and accommodation. They went to London. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. The officers were pleasant. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. The room had perfect view of the park. Events Reorientatio In the afternoon we went home. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. B. The two week in London went by fast. At the end of the 14-day. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had a very pleasant flight.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. and Mrs. There was a film for their entertainment. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. read. the thing is an experience. Then. We saw cockatoos having a shower. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Instead of keys for the room. They had booked fourteen days tour. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. They had variety of food. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel.
Rekaman peristiwa. the on Tuesday. misalnya David. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. he was ready. recount describes series of events in detail. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. It is a busy but quiet town. then. after that. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. dsb. misalnya beautiful. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. The event happened smoothly. misalnya We went to the zoo. funny. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. Reorientation. then on Monday. Pengenalan. the second was to Ubud. what happened on Sunday. sleep. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya and. The first stop was at Batubulan. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. we dsb. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa.Small Notes and felt. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The first one was to Singaraja. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. but. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. kejadian atau kegiatan. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. She was happy dsb. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. past tense. di mana dan kapan. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. • • • • • . SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. 46 slowly dsb. On the other hand. kejadian atau kegiatan. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. C. dsb. the monkey. at my house. misalnya go. misalnya yesterday. In simple way. waktu dan cara. run dsb. Events. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. On the day of the tour. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa.
The next stop was Celuk. introducing the participant. was. Mass is a tourist center My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. in the town. The car lunched to one side. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. and. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I • Using chronological connectives. left. Re-orientation. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. describing a series of event which happened. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. etc E. stating the writer's personal note. I was on the car las week. to the left. Even I could not move my car at all. moved. Events. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. walked. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. I thought I got flat tire. etc. There were rocks everywhere. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . He was quiet satisfied.a center of stone sculpture. Although nothing was left. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. my car lunched on one side. made. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. suddenly • Using linking verb. When the earthquake happened. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. all his day was spent on the beach. D. I was on my car. earthquake happened. then. were • Using action verb. using first person point of view. I was trapped by the rock. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. When I reached my town. like matchsticks. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I was on the car.
the ceremony was quite elaborate. However. a series of events in chronological order. connect a sentence with the next one. Questions 1. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. On the last day. Overall. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. It took about a week. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. and then moved the corpse to face north. my brother. During the day. Several days before the ceremony was done. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events.Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. chanting. we were feasting. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. After that. In the text. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. Then. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. you find words and phrases used to start. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. In the night. First. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. They were great matches. Finally. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. The funeral was performed in two phases. A recount text has an orientation. and dancing. 48 • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . After that. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. and end your composition. there were also buffalo matches. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. grandpa’s body was kept in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Meanwhile. my uncle. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Then. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Those words and phrases are: First.
In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. As I said in my previous post. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Focus on specific participants 2. quality of the product which will be known publicly. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. It states the parts. It can be product. Using adjectives SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Review Text What is review text 1. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. etc. or just a site which want to be known publicly.• Finally. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. valuable. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Definition Review is one of text genres. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. It is personal idea about the product. worthy. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. services which want to be sold. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. 3. After clearly explanation. uniqueness. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Dominant Language features: 1. useful.
and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. In some (Interpretativ instances this works.. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. and this part I loved. and ultimately satisfying. I cried!) as sad as it was.you feel a whole new level of e recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. however. Using metaphor 4.housekeeping is still housekeeping. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. fast-paced. I was truly moved by the last page.3. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. this was not my favorite. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. especially with being a teenager and all. magical or no. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. depressing feel. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. for example . When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa.. The stories were bright. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and all of the Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Still a 50 SMA Students’ Modul of English . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. Using long and complex clauses 4. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. intriguing. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. I actually liked the ending (and yes. and parts of it do seem long. Examples and structures of the text Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan / I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. A few other changes in this book . Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.
In certain case. Similarly. The translation experts. aluminum and rimless frame are available. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. with some editing it would have been great. Recording Mommy Journey SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. woman and man are available choice. if he works with Farsi translation. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. If we visit the site. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. The experts who have grammatical. It straightly goes to the end user. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . It is real. Again. However. it will be quite difficult to make translation. easy and not complicated design. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Eyeglasses for children. lexical. Titanium. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important.really good book. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding the trend. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. The site is quite simple but very informative. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one.
Life itself is a journey. For Rosemarie, a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid, the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did, does and will do daily. The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;
Good Young Mother Rangkuman. It is about a young mother. It has a title (Evaluative of yummy mummy. This blog is representative Summation) of her idea of becoming young mother. He (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: pours her thought and opinion on this blog in Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to Menggunakan: monetizing it • adjectives This blog has fresh physical appearance. menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good; She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look • klausa panjang dan kompleks; fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her • metafor. monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife. Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena. He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
SMA Students’ Modul of English
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement. Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
Mostly. product case or problem. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. is the scope of the written object. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. how to make a good kite. its parts. In short. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. report is written after getting careful observation. If we talk about. it belongs to report text. descriptive text will convey more focus. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. between report and descriptive text. However if they are analyzed carefully. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. colour. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. What make different. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. etc. lengh. eg: bicycle. In the other hand. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Procedure. goods. animal and scientific object. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. physical strengh. Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text Some text types are quite difficult to differ. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. They give the detail description on something.interest for them to want to interview you. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. phenomena. It will talk about bicycle in general. wheel style. For example how to make a cup of tea.
read. Procedure. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. hear. the on Tuesday. It can be what the writer has done. what happened on Sunday. It reveals the conflict among the participants. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. phenomena. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. goods. etc is the best example of the procedure text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. product case or problem. first boil water.is the best example of the procedure text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. the thing is an experience. It is such word. how to make a good kite. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. The event happened smoothly. secondly prepare the cup. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It is such word. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. secondly prepare the cup. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. In simple way. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. and felt. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. On the other hand. Explanation. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. They give the detail description on something. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. then on Monday. Explanation is such a scientific written material. and so on. For example how to make a cup of tea. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. and so on. first boil water. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. recount describes series of events in detail. In writer's point of view. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. How a tornado form. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more.
discussion. Orientation 3. Using technical terms SMA Students’ Modul of English 7. 17. spoof. 22.Explanation. They are narrative. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Reaction 5. descriptive. procedure. Arguments 3. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Dominant Language Features: 57 . Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 23. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 18. Using general and abstract noun 8. These variations are known as GENRES. Using action verbs 3. Using adverbs 5. review. texts are divided into several types. explanation. Crisis 4. 16. 19. Using thinking verbs 4. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. analytical exposition. 25. anecdote. Coda. 14. Thesis 2. Using modals 2. 20. 26. 24. and news item. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. report. How a tornado form. Using adjective 6. recount. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Abstract 2. hortatory exposition. 15.
Newsworthy event(s) 2. Resolution SMA Students’ Modul of English 5. Goal/Aim 2.1. Orientation 2. Using technical terms 7. Using action verbs 3. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using exclamations. Materials/Equipments 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using noun phrase 5. Using passive voice 4. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Complication 4. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. General statement 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverb 4. Using saying verbs 58 . Using Simple Present Tense 2. Evaluation 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Background event(s) 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using action verb 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using Past Tense 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Generic Structure: 1. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using material process 3. Explanation 3. Short.
Using Simple Present Tense 2. Arguments for and against 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. place or thing in detail. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Description Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using modality 7. Using action verbs 4. Arguments 3. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using action verb 3. Using thinking verbs 5. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1.4. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION SMA Students’ Modul of English Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Issue 2. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 8. Identification 2. Using adverb 4. Thesis 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT 59 . place and manner. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using modals 3. Using adjective 7. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using adverbs : time. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using thinking verb 4. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using adverbs 6.
Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. or Past Perfect Tense. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Orientation 2. Using action verb 3. social conflict or psychological conflict. Event(s) 3. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using Past Tense 2. In the contrary. fable. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. as it is. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Event(s) 3. General classification 2. Using Past Tense 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Orientation 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: SMA Students’ Modul of English 1. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1.Purpose: to presents information about something. Using adverb 4. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. myth. Using conditional logical connection 3. etc while recount text is found in biography. Generic Structure 1. folklore. Using Simple Present Tense k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using action verb 3. Orientation 60 . Description Dominant Language Feature 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. whether Simple Past Tense.
sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. biasanya tentang nama. Using long and complex clauses 4. tabel. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 8. 3. spoof dsb. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE.2. 4. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. label. Evaluation 5. 1. dsb. 2.exposition. SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. descriptive. Evaluation 3. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. grafik. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. map. diagram dsb. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Continuous text misalnya narrative. tahun. penjelasan. 5. 9. 7. 6. 10. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tempat. tanggal. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Using adjectives 3. Focus on specific participants 2. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Interpretative Recount 4. Using metaphor Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan.
Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. f) Menentukan makna kata. And cute. b) Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. d) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. fluffy. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… e) Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. The purpose of the text is _____. i) Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.11.” The underlined word mean ____ g) Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. it is small. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… c) Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. h) Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 .
outside of the classrooms. there are paper mineral water cups. They put their litters on the proper places. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Besides. in every ten meters. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. a number of dust bins should be increased.. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. readers to do something good. and napkins here and there. school corridors and school yard. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. When we look at classrooms. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. So when students want to throw away their litters. more dust bins…. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. and some more also the corridors. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. According to the writer. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters.EXERCISES. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. 1. What is the writer’s intention? To …. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. they can find the dust bins easily. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. straws. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins..
In addition. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. learning vocabulary. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. The generic structures of the text are …. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. songs in general also use simple conversational language. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. From the elaboration above. which is just what many learners look for sample text. Secondly. even revolution. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. lexically and poetically. Although usually simple. 5. Last but not least. with a lot of repetition. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. shopping malls. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Furthermore.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. They provide variety and fun. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Firstly. religion. songs are relaxing. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . translating songs. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. patriotism and yeas. place or time reference. practicing selective listening comprehension. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. spelling and culture. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. What is the text about ….
Based on the text. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.“They provide variety and fun. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . smoking in a restaurant is impolite. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. not just in restaurants.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.” The underlined word refers to …. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.. smoking in restaurants is impolite. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10.9. Finally.Since we can find a thesis.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Firstly. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. The word reasons mean…. It must not be allowed because it is rude. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. 11. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.. Therefore.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. Would you like…?, Would you care for …?, Why don’t you have…?, How about having …? May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• • • •
Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks:
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Mrs. co-worker. teacher. Watson. Penny Pitcher.. Jack. Cindy. • I want to introduce you to …. boss. 2. father. Mary Jones. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Very nice to meet you. friend.. Mr.. I'm Linda 1. Nice to meet you too. sister.. mother. Likewise. Harris. It's a pleasure to meet you. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. I don't believe we've met before. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Harris. Introducing someone else my name is. Nice to meet you. Ritter. Mr. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Ms. Bob. Pleased to meet you. Hi Jack.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. my my my my my my my my my brother. And you. This is my friend. I'm. Carrie. student.
Arnys. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . By the way. They meet at the students’ orientation course. are you a new student. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. I’m Arnys. Hi. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Good sir afternoon madam Mr Jones evening Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. My name is Adib. and Retno are new students. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Shall we go to the canteen?. Situation: Adib.g. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. a restaurant. Adib : Anyway. e. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Adib : Hi. this is Retno.g. I am. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. hotel. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Retno.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Adib.
thank you. Do you wanna . . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English .Expressions • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. . before leaving. . thanks. (informal) Would you like to . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Very well. . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. See you soon /later /tomorrow. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. thanks. thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women. . Not so bad. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . . . • Good bye. Bye. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. • Functions Greeting someone • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to .
.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.I’d love to . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.Some responds of inviting.a chocolate bar? . I’d be delighted to..... let’s not.to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .? Would you like . Receiving ..I’d like very much .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. ..Yes. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.I’d be happy/glad to accept .. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .
returned your lost wallet. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . helped carry your grocery bags. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I need it.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Thank you. Happy birthday to you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Happy new year. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. you very much. complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thanks.
All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so..• • • Oh. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s too bad e. What’s shame b. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . It’s nice of you to say so. not really. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . holidays and other special occasions. That’s a nuisance d. and congratulations Special Days . Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . What’s pity c.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.
h.. I’m sorry to hear that b. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. …. I’m delighted. m. j. l. I feel … b. d. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m really sad to … c.B. Expression Displeasure a. I’m so happy …. g. I’m really sorry for them d. f. I’m sorry about that c. I enjoyed it I love it. e. k. feel unpleased with …. How dreadful! C. How terrible! c. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. c. I feel disappointed. i. How Awful! d. I feel …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. It was terrifi c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. d. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Goodness! b. b.
Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh.
In my opinion….. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. • Yes. I think the other one’s better. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. … If you ask me. In my opinion. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. I agree • I know what you mean.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)….. As I see. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. • I am with you • Definitely. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. What do you think of this refrigerator? So.
kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 .• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. Fear. that's not a good idea. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I don't think that's what happened. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. No.
• Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like I love it I like it I am keen on it I am crazy about it We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea Dislike I don’t really like it I dislike it I am not really interested in… I can’t enjoy… (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it 79 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • Ugh.. • I feel sick.... • I’m sick. it’s killing me! 2.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . it’s very painful! • Oh./I feel ill. • Thank God for .. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I’m glad it was done.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.
This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. BUT "I don't really like it." This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . but it is not a very strong dislike.
Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I was so ashamed. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 ..please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance Refusal I should be delighted to I regret to say that come we find ourselves By all means unable to go I have no objection I’m afraid it’s not I’d be happy to possible Sure I’m afraid not Yeah Sorry OK No. That’s a real embarrassment. I’m extremely unhappy about this. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I will..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t No problem Not likely Mmm You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.
.... There may have been a misunderstanding about. Don't get me wrong. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Of course.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.. Blame (keluhan.. I'm sorry to bother you. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. I think you might have forgotten to. but. but I think we should... Excuse me if I'm out of line.. Right away.. It's your fault for (doing something)..Palupi : OK. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Maybe you forgot to. Sure. Certainly.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Complaint. but. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but...
. I'd like to apologise for. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly... I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. to express regret an exclamation a word. I …. Pete. I didn't mean to lose your book. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Examples I'm really sorry... I'm so sorry.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding this can mean 'a small disagreement' SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Sorry for taking your DVD. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Apology (penyesalan. I'll clear up later.simply starters! Regret.. to ask for forgiveness. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday... Sorry for. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry..
She might not be at home SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . It’s possible that he’ll win the There is a little chance that ….… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .. Several ways of indicating possibly he hasn’t heard the news yet... game.. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.. possibility are: There is a good chance that ….trouble unhappiness. there is a possibility .. It is impossible There’s a possibility of his winning Probably She is on the way the game/ that he will win the May be he needs more time game. NOTE : 1. distress...
we Has utk S= he.she. I’m capable of doing it 2. Expressions to show I don’t think I have the ability capability are : I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.they.it She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Now At present At this moment To day Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect (Menyatakan perbuatan/tindakan yang terjadi pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada V= (+) S + have/has + V3 Have utk S= I.? incapability are: Do you think we are capable of ….she.they.. Expressions to show …. Would there be any possibility of 4.we Always dll Does utk S= he.it Father has gone to work for 12 hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Lately Recently For Since already yet lately 85 SMA Students’ Modul of English . doing something are: I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it. 3. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES Present Tense (Menyatakan kebiasaan hingga sekarang masih dilakukan) POLA KET. Expressions used to ask I can do it possibility or capability of There is a chance that I can do it.she.? I can’t do it Is it possible for me to …? I’m not sure I’m capable of doing Are we capable enough to …? it.it) Every… (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally Do utk S= I.you.you. WAKTU V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.
they.she.it Were utk S= you. selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.saat berbicara Father has been at his office perbuatan/tindakan since 12 tsb telah hours ago. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang akan Will utk semua Sabjek (S) dilakukan di waktu Shall utk S = I.we yang akan datang) N= (+) S + will/shall +be + adj/n/adv For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… Future Continuous V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time (Menyatakan tomorrow aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan SMA Students’ Modul of English 86 .he.we just Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Before/when + Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) S + V2 (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have If + past perfect (menyatakan suatu +V3 pengandaian pada N= (+) S + would/should + masa lampau.datang) At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. have been + adj/n/adv sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been By + ket.waktu SMA Students’ Modul of English 87 .waktu aktivitas yang akan + V-ing telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ perbuatan/keadaan N= (+) S + would/should + be + yang akan datang adj/n/adv dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.is. has been working b. practised d. worked e. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. will have worked c. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) 2.does/am. they are succesful. works d. Fred : Juda. have been practising b. a. “Srimpi”. will be practising c. is.(Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. Iwan : Yes. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. was parctising e. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. are Was. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. the telephone rang twelve times. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . a.
If we don”t hurry. would have started d. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. This sentence means that Ann ___. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. cleaned e. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will be started 2. was carrying 3. My family ____ when the postman arrived. starts c. am carrying b. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. have been cleaning c. has stopped looking for a job SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . am living d. have carried c. were cleaning b. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. a. have lunch d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. will start b.berlangsung. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. clean d. has got a new job d. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. will have lived b. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. will have lunch e. was living e. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. have been living c. carry d. have been having lunch c. a. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. carried e. will have started e. will have had lunch b.
was e. a. sir. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. sir. has been attending e. will have been c. but I ____ there many times. forgot c. I forget to bring your book. will be b. He ____ ill for a week. would be b. will be attending d. will be learning b. a. am d. Is it right? Student : Yes. learn d. is still looking for a job 4. would be attended SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . forgets b. Learn all these. She studies business.b. have caused c. He ____ there for three weeks. had been 9. will have learnt c. My father is still in Bali. I ____ them by then. will cause 5. is d. She ___ the lectures. causes e. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. has attended b. When airport are located in the center of citied. has been b. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. was d. have been c. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. has forgotten d. has been e. was e. a. Reni goes to her university every morning. Student : All right. a. had forgotten e. a. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. am learning 10. a. has worked for six months e. caused d. started to work 6 months a go c. were causing b.00 tomorrow. a. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. have been 6. will have been c. have learnt e. had been 7. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. would forget 8. attended c.
who. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). “Bring my bag here now!” (!) He ordered me. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. “Do I have a present for you in my bag?” (?) He asked me. keterangan waktu. struktur kalimat. why. (!) He ordered/commanded me to bring his bag there then. “I do not have a present for you in my bag” (?) He asked. Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 91 Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous SMA Students’ Modul of English .” (-) He said. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat Kalimat langsung/direct (+) He said.DIRECT . (!) He ordered me not to bring my bag there. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. how. (?) He asked me why he had to have a present for me in his bag. where. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. dan tempat. “ I have a present for you in my bag. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. when. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. pronoun (kata ganti orang). “Don’t bring your bag here!” Kalimat tidak langsung/indirect (+) He said that he had a present for me in his bag. (-) He said that he did not have a present for me in his bag. “ Why do I have to have a present for you in my bag? (!) He ordered/commanded me. (?) He asked me if/whether he had a present for me in his bag.
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday The day before yesterday Here This These Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … The preceeding …before …earlier The day before The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal SMA Students’ Modul of English 92 .
indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 93 . to be not so noisy c. Herman : Okay. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. he goes to his country c. opened my mouth c. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. that I open his mouth d. The baby is sleeping. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. why Mary had been absent c. had gone to his country d. not to be so noisy e. to open my mouth b. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. Herman. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. why Mary was absent e. that Mary had been absent b. if Mary was absent d. I am very noisy b. a. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. he has gone to his country e. He said ____ the previous day. he went to his country b. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. mom. a. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping.1. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. I wasn’t so noisy d. if I opened my mouth e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a.
c. c. wether he goes with us c. do not spend d. It is windy outside. forgot c. how was my appointment e. a. Ari : What did he say. It is windy outside. b. e. has forgotten d. e. that I had an appointment 94 5. 4. He asked me ____ a. can he go with us e. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Mira closed the window. forgets b. It was windy outside. I forgot to bring your book. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. what I am doing now. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. 7. “ ___________” a. a. he asked me ____”. not spending b. going with us b. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Anto : I am sorry Lina. had forgotten e. Mother said. Closed the window. Mira. It was windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. would forget 3. b. he hasn’t cleaned 2. If he could go with us d. Does Mira close the window. not to spend e. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. Slamet. Mira closed the window. I hadn’t cleaned d. what I was doing then. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what are you were doing now d. he asked. d. he does not clean e. a. what were you doing now.Soal-Soal Latihan 1. 6. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. he would not clean c. when is my appointment b. I got a headache. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. not spend c. he went with us My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. did I have an appointment d. a. a. “What are you doing now?”.
S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. e. e. a. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel.c. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. “Can I find you a hotel?”. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. finished your work e. to finish my work c. whether I had appointment 8. c. Father said. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. • Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. to finish your work b. 10. She told the children not to make noise. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. d. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She said the children didn’t make noise c. She didn’t say the children should noise d. children”. she said. b. finish your work d. She told the children don’t make noise b. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . Mean____ a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. “don’t make noise. My friend said to me.
The announcement ____ twice. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was kicking b.Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) Active S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V-ing S + have/has + been + V-ing S + was/were + V-ing S + had + been + V-ing S + will/shall + be + Ving S + will + have + V-ing S + would + be + Ving+ S +would +have+been+V-ing Passive S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has +been + being +V3 S + was/were + being + V3 S + had + been + being + V3 S + will/shall + be + being + V3 S + will +have+been+ being +V3 S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + be + V3 S + may/can/must + be + V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + will/shall + V1 S + would/should + V1 S + may/can/must + V1 S + might/could/had to + V1 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 Perfect been + V3 Continuous being + V3 Future/modal be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. A : Look! The girl is crying. was kicked c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. kicks d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . kicked e. she ____ a.
has to be postponed b. have arranged b. a. was born e. R. were being unloaded e. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. have been arranged 3. had been sold c. is arranged d. will be unloaded b. A big dam ___ in this area next year. to be abolished c. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. would be built SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 .A. have been unloaded d. are unloaded c. was it abolishing d. has been built b. a. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. a. has been born c. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. will be built e. were sold b. is sold d. Y : Really. was being postponed e. will be born 2. is being built c.? a. a. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present.a. was it to abolish b. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. has been postponed c. a. was postponed d. would be born b. are sold e. did it abolish e. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. when…. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. has arranged c. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will build d. is born d. was arranged e.
was being cleaned d. the baby will be well looked after d. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. will clean b. the baby is being looked after well e. has been promising b. is demolishing c. has been taken SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . has promised d. The passive form is ____ a. a.4. had been demilishing b. a. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. will be taken d. a. She looks after the baby well. a. will be promised 10. a. is being demolished e. is being cleaned e. will be promised e. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. was being promised c. is being destroyed c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. is being rewarded b. is being taken e. cleaned c. was being demolishing 9. the baby is well looked after b. the baby was looked after well c. a. will be destroyed b. was rewarded e. took c. was taken b. destroyed d. will be rewarded 8. rewarded d. had destroyed e. was destroyed 6. the baby would be well looked after 7. demolishing d. has been cleaned 5. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. he ____ to the nearest hospital. has been rewarded c.
Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. yaitu: 1. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Contoh: large larger largest SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most c. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k.
isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Present Conditional (type 2) SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . will. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. itulah yang diharapkan. dll. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. shall. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • • • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. did. (jika saya punya uang. Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. can. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. -er. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. dll. I will buy a new car. -ow.). saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang.4. Contoh: If I have much money. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. -le. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. had. Apa yang diucapkan. was/were. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. may. have/has.
whose. Kalau kalimatnya (+). 3. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I would have written you a letter. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . whom. I would go to the beach with you. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. which. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. of which.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai.Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there.
your. sebuah benda. Their car has been stolen. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. its. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Its surface is not smooth. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. his. Meja yg dimaksud the table) SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Contoh: We saw the people. our. her. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. They are printed in English. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. their. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang.) 2. I bought it last year.Contoh: We know a lot of people. I met him last week. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. (him = the man. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week.
Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Where 8. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.7. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek.
She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. 6. Jogging makes us fresh. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Consider Avoid Delay Enjoy Finish Quit Mind Miss Postpone Recall Regret Report 104 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). I had mechanic repair my car.their.her. 4. 3. The manager gets the letter typed.Amir’s. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap.to be used to. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.our. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. before dll. I got the mechanic to repair my car. can’t help/can’t bear. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 2. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport.your. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). The manager has the letter typed. his. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. on. to be worth.S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Before leaving. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. to be busy. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). get used to. he said nothing. 5. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.
(Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V better than radio.Juned prefers combro to deblo. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .V. 3. . b. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 Contoh: . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. Menunjukan waktu: before. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . after.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS.I like T.Dita would rather watch T. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3.Can’t help Resume Deny Risk Resist Siggest Practice Advise Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.V . I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. while.V ketimbang main video game) 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . a. We went home after the rain stopped.Dona prefers dancing to singing. when. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. c. than plays a video game. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. yaitu: 1. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .Kokom likes reading better than watching T. as soon as.
I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. we put them into frying pan. we must prepare the ingredients. 1. first. although/though. dll. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga….I went to your house but you weren’t at home. d. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . I was really sad when I saw a drama movie.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . he come on time. after that. After that. if. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) .d. c. a. b. 2. we put some sauce and salt. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. a. Contoh: . Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. b.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. since. finally.He is not only active but also clever. While he was reading her novel. or.He is both wise and good. Since I have no money. then. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . Finally. c.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Next. (dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. that. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. for. e. 3.Amir and I go to school everyday. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . next. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. somebody knocked on the door.Although it was raining.You can read this book if you like. but. I can’t treat you.
arti asalnya. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .