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1 Trigonometry 1

Although most people connect trigonometry with the study of triangles, it is from the circle that this area of mathematics originates.

The study of trigonometry is not new. Its roots come from the Babylonians around 300 BC. This area of mathematics was further developed by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BC. Hipparchus, Ptolemy and Menelaus are considered to have founded trigonometry as we now know it. It was originally used to aid the study of astronomy. In the modern world trigonometry can be used to answer questions like How far apart are each of the 32 pods on the London Eye? and What would a graph of someones height on the London Eye look like?

1.1 Circle problems


Radians
It is likely that up until now you have measured angles in degrees, but as for most measurements, there is more than one unit that can be used. Consider a circle with radius 1 unit.

1 Trigonometry 1

1 Trigonometry 1

As u increases, the arc length increases. For a particular value of u, the arc will be the same length as the radius. When this occurs, the angle is defined to be 1 radian. The circumference of a circle is given by C when r 1, C 2p. 2pr, so

Considering the infinite rotational symmetry of the circle,


1 arc 1

x 360

arc length 2pr

sector area pr2

As there are 360 at the centre of a circle, and 1 radian is defined to be the angle subtended by an arc of length 1, 2p radians Hence 1 radian 360 2p 57.3. 360

That is, dividing the angle by 360, the arc length by the circumference, and the sector area by the circle area gives the same fraction. This is very useful when solving problems related to circles. Changing the angles to radians gives formulae for the length of an arc and the area of a sector: u 2p arc length 2pr ru

Method for converting between degrees and radians


1 arc length To convert degrees to radians, multiply by To convert radians to degrees, multiply by 2p 360 360 2p p . 180 180 . p u 2p sector area pr2 1 2 ru 2

1 sector area

These formulae only work if u is in radians.

Some angles measured in radians can be written as simple fractions of p. You must learn these. Degrees Radians 0 0 15 p 12 30 p 6 45 p 4 60 p 3 90 p 2 180 p 270 3p 2 360 2p

Example
Where an angle is given without units, assume it is in radians. What is the area of the sector shown below? Sector area 1 2 ru 2 1 82 2

Example
2p Convert radians into degrees. 3 p 2p 60 1see table 2 so 60 3 3

p 3

8 cm 3

33.5 cm2 2 120.

Example Example
Convert 250 into radians. This is not one of the commonly used angles (nor a multiple), so use the method for converting degrees to radians. 250 p 180 25p 18 4.36
A

The fairground ride shown below moves through an angle of 50 from point A to point B. What is the length of the arc AB?
50

16 m

Circle sectors and segments


Arc Segment

Start by converting 50 into radians. u Hence arc length ru 16 13.96 m 0.872 p

50 2p 360 0.872 p

chord

x arc

Sector

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1 Trigonometry 1

Example
What is the volume of water lying in this pipe of radius 2.5 m?

3 Express each angle in radians, giving your answer to 3 sf. a 35 b 100 c 300 d 80 e 132 f 278 4 Find the area of each shaded sector. a b
3 3m 55 8 cm 4m 15 m

c In this example, we need to find the area of a segment. The method for doing this is: Area of segment Area of sector Area of triangle It is important to remember this. a
30 12cm Fan 140 20 cm

d
50

60 cm

5 Find the length of each arc. b


7 18 7m

First find the angle at the centre in radians:

1 u 2

sin

2 2.5 c
65 cm 260 100

0.927 p
7.5 1 2 2

d
25 mm

Area of triangle

1 2 3 m2 1 2 ru 2

1.5

Use Pythagoras to find the height of the triangle. 0.972 p 2

6 Find the perimeter of each shape. a


26 cm

b
125
70 cm

c
16 mm

60 mm

Area of sector

1 2

2.52

5.79 p m2 Area of segment Volume 2.79 p Area of sector 15 41.9 m3 Area of triangle 5.79 p 3 2.79 p m2 7 The diagram below shows a windscreen wiper cleaning a car windscreen. a What is the length of the arc swept out? b What area of the windscreen is not cleared?

Exercise 1
1 Express each angle in degrees. 3p p 2p 5p 7p p b c d e f 4 9 5 6 12 8 11p g h 2 i 1.5 j 4 k 3.6 l 0.4 18 2 Express each angle in radians, giving your answer in terms of p. a 30 b 210 c 135 d 315 e 240 f 70 g 72 h 54 a

8 9 100 cm

55 cm 45 cm

8 Find the area of the shaded segment.

60 24 cm

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1 Trigonometry 1

9 What is the area of this shape?

1.2 Trigonometric ratios


This unit circle can be used to define the trigonometric ratios.
y 1 P(x,y) 1 0 1 1 x

5m

Diameter

8m

10 Radius

32 cm
2

Area of sector 1787 cm What is the angle at the centre of the sector?

You should already know that for a right-angled triangle 11 Find the perimeter of this segment. sin u
4 6 cm Hyp Opp

Opposite Hypotenuse Adjacent Hypotenuse Opposite Adjacent

cos u
Adj

12 A sector has an area of 942.5 cm2 and an arc length of 62.8 cm. What is the radius of the circle?
r

tan u The x-coordinate is defined to be cos u. The y-coordinate is defined to be sin u.

13 Two circles are used to form the logo for a company as shown below. One circle is of radius 12 cm. The other is of radius 9 cm. Their centres are 15 cm apart. What is the perimeter of the logo?

The results for a right-angled triangle follow from the definitions of the x- and ycoordinates in the unit circle. tan u Opp 1 tan u Adj y x

Hyp 1

Opp y

14 What is the ratio of the areas of the major sector in diagram A to the minor sector in diagram B?

x Adj

A
r 150

B
1 tan u
r 60

sin u cos u More work will be done on trigonometric identities in Chapter 7.

This is the definition of tan u and is a useful identity. 15 Two circular table mats, each of radius 12 cm, are laid on a table with their centres 16 cm apart. Find a the length of the common chord b the area common to the two mats. Using the definition of sin u and cos u from the unit circle, we can see that these trigonometric ratios are defined not only for acute angles, but for any angle. For example, sin 120 0.866 (3 sf). As the x-coordinate is cos u and the y-coordinate is sin u, for obtuse angles sin u is positive and cos u is negative.

Exact values
You need to learn sin, cos and tan of the angles given in the table overleaf for non-calculator examinations.

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1 Trigonometry 1

U (in radians) U (in degrees) sin U

0 0 0

p 6 30 1 2 23 2

22 22 1 1 1

p 4

p 3

45

60

23 2

p 2 90 1

Example
Solve cos u cos u 1u 1u 1u 1 2 1 for 0 2 u 6 2p.
y

cos U tan U

1 0

23 1

23 1 2

0 undefined

The last row is given sin u by tan u . cos u

1 cos 1 2 p or u 2p 3 p 5p or u 3 3

p 3

1 2

These values can also be remembered using the triangles shown below.

45 30 2 1 2 3

Exercise 2
1 Find the value of each of these. a sin 150 b sin 170 c cos 135 d cos 175 2p 3p 5p e sin f sin g cos h cos 2.4(radians) 3 4 6 2 Without using a calculator, find the value of each of these. p p p 2p a sin b cos c tan d sin 6 3 4 3 5p e cos f sin 135 g cos 315 h sin 180 3 i cos 180 j cos 270 3 Find the possible values of x, given that 0 x 6 1 1 a sin x b cos x c sin x 2 3 1 3 d cos x e sin x f cos x 6 8 4 Find the possible values of u, given that 0 a cos u d sin u This is recognizing the symmetry of the circle. g cos u 1 2 2 4 11 b sin u e cos u h sin u 23 2 23 2 360. 2 3 4 7

45 1

60 1

Finding an angle
When solving right-angled triangles, you found an acute angle.

Example
sin u
5 2

2 5

1u 1u However, sin u 2 has two possible solutions: 5


y

2 5 23.6 sin
1

u 6 2p.

c cos u f sin u

22 1

sin u
2 5 0 x

2 5 23.6 or 154.6

2 7

0.7

1u

1.3 Solving triangles


A c b

Vertices are given capital letters. The side opposite a vertex is labelled with the corresponding lower-case letter.

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1 Trigonometry 1

Area of a triangle
We know that the area of a triangle is given by the formula 1 base perpendicular height A 2
h

Putting these results together gives the sine rule: a sin A Look at this obtuse-angled triangle:
A base

b sin B

c sin C

To be able to use this formula, it is necessary to know the perpendicular height. This height can be found using trigonometry.
A

h B

sin C
C

h b b sin C

If we consider the unit circle, it is clear that sin u sin u sin B. So the result is the same. Use the sine rule in this form when finding a side: a sin A b sin B c sin C

sin1180

u2 and hence

This is dealt with in more detail later in the chapter in relation to trigonometric graphs.

1h

So the area of the triangle is given by Area This formula is equivalent to 1 2 one side 1 ab sin C 2 another side sine of angle between.

Use the sine rule in this form when finding an angle: sin A a sin B b sin C c

Example Example
Find the area of this triangle.
x 6 cm 40 7 cm

Find x.

B 8m 40 C

Area

1 2

6
2

sin 40

60

13.5 cm

a sin A x 1 sin 40 1x 1x

b sin B 8 sin 60 8 sin 40 sin 60 5.94 m

Sine rule
Not all triangle problems can be solved using right-angled trigonometry. A formula called the sine rule is used in these problems.
A

sin B
h b C a

AD AB AB c sin B 1 c sin B 1 b sin B sin B

sin C 1 AD 1 AD b sin C

AD AC AC b sin C sin C

Example
Find angle P.
Q 8 100 12 R

c B

1 AD 1 AD

sin P p sin P 1 8 1 sin P

c sin C c sin C

a Drawing a line perpendicular to AC from B provides a similar result: sin A

1 sin P 1P

sin Q q sin 100 12 8 sin 100 12 0.656 p 41.0

10

11

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When the given angle is acute and it is opposite the shorter of two given sides, there are two possible triangles.

Now

x c

cos u cos1180 B2 We will return to this later in the chapter.

Example
1x In a triangle, angle A 40, a 9 and b 13. Find angle B. sin B sin 40 9 13 A 13 sin 40 1 sin B 9 1 sin B 0.928 p 1 B 68.1 or B 180 68.1 111.9
B 68.1 A 40 13 9 A C 35 11 m B 111.9 40 13 9 C a b

cos B c cos B

1 c2 1 b2

b2 a2

a2 c2

2ac cos B 2ac cos B

This situation is similar to the area of the triangle formula. The different forms do not need to be remembered: it is best thought of as two sides and the angle in between.

Hence it is possible to draw two different triangles with this information:

Example
Find x.
8m x
2 2 2 2

x x

11 40.829 p 6.39 m

11

cos 35

Pythagoras theorem can be considered a special case of the cosine rule. This is the case where A 90 1 cos A 0.

Cosine rule
The sine rule is useful for solving triangle problems but it cannot be used in every situation. If you know two sides and the angle between them, and want to find the third side, the cosine rule is useful. The cosine rule is a2 b2 c2 2bc cos A

The cosine rule can be rearranged to find an angle: a2 b2 c2 2bc cos A b2 c2 a2 b2 c2 2bc a2 This is only one form. It may be useful to re-label the vertices in the triangle.

1 2bc cos A

1 cos A

We can prove this using an acute-angled triangle: We know that h2 c2


A

1a

x2 2

c2

a2

2ax b
2

x2 and h2 x 1c
2

b2 a
2 2

x2. 2ax 2ax x


2

Example
Find angle A. cos A
17 12

Hence

2 2

Now cos C
B a x D a x C

1x 1 c2

x b b cos C a2 b2 2ab cos C


A

b2

c2 2bc

a2

1 cos A
14

Drawing the perpendicular from the other vertices provides different versions of the rule: a2 b
2

1A

172 142 122 2 17 14 0.716 p 44.2

b2 a
2

c2 c
2

2bc cos A 2ac cos B

The proof for an obtuse-angled triangle is similar: In triangle ABD,


A h D x c b B a C

Example
In triangle ACD, h
2

1a a2 2ax

x2

b2 1c 1c
2 2

2ax x
2

x2
P

8 km 65

120 Q 13 km x

A ship sails on a bearing of 065 for 8 km, then changes direction at Q to a bearing of 120 for 13 km. Find the distance and bearing of R from P.

2 2

2 2

2ax

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N

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c To find the distance x, angle Q is needed.


17 cm 125 23 cm

d
6m

N 65 P

Q 65

120 60

10 m

As the north lines are parallel, we can find angle Q. 132 352.3 p 18.8 km 82 2 8 13 cos 125

2 Three roads intersect as shown, with a triangular building plot between them. Calculate the area of the building plot.

So Q

125 x 1x
2

Using the cosine rule, x2

We can now find the bearing of R from P.


65

Using the sine rule,

sin P 13 1 sin P 1P

sin 125 18.8 13 sin 125 18.8 34.5 34.5 099.5.

P R

0.566 p

3 A design is created by an equilateral triangle of side 14 cm at the centre of a circle. a Find the area of the triangle. b Hence find the area of the segments.

Bearing of R from P is 65

4 An extension to a house is built as shown. What is the volume of the extension?

Decision making about triangle problems


It is worth remembering that Pythagoras theorem and right-angled trigonometry can be applied to right-angled triangles, and they should not need the use of the sine rule or the cosine rule. For non-right angled triangles, use this decision tree.

2m

65

3m

5.5 m 3.5 m

5 Find the area of this campsite.

side

angle

7m

100 20

37 m 29 m

6 Use the sine rule to find the marked side.


know two sides and the angle between otherwise otherwise know all three sides

cosine rule a2 b2 c2 2bc cos A

sine rule c a b sin A sin B sin C

sine rule sin A sin B sin C b c a

cosine rule cos A b2 c2 2bc a2

Once two angles in a triangle are known, the third angle can be found by subtracting the other two angles from 180.

B 80 55 7cm x C

b
x

Q 18 cm 75 P 20 R

U 40 x 125 S 6 cm 18 mm 52 x B 37 T

d
9 cm
4

25 0

70

PLOT 110

n
3

Exercise 3
1 Calculate the area of each triangle. a
8 cm 30 12 cm

e
80 6m

b
7m

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7 Use the sine rule to find the marked angle. a


50 7 cm B x A 10 cm C

d
19 x U

S 80 55 19 cm

K 100 J x 45 29 cm L

P 30 x Q 12 R

8 Triangle LMN has sides LM 32 m and MN Find the possible values for MLN. 9 Triangle ABC has sides AB 11 km and BC Calculate BCA. 10 Use the cosine rule to find the marked side. a
6 cm T U 55 7 cm V

35 m with LNM 6 km and BAC

40 20.

16 A plane flies from New York JFK airport on a bearing of 205 for 200 km. Another plane also leaves from JFK and flies for 170 km on a bearing of 320. What distance are the two planes now apart?
N

x T

170 km

JFK

17 m 70 R 22 m 200 km

c
195 mm A

B 140 p

210 mm

d
68 9.6 cm

17 Twins Anna and Tanya, who are both 1.75 m tall, both look at the top of Cleopatras Needle in Central Park, New York. If they are standing 7 m apart, how tall is the Needle?

11 A golfer is standing 15 m from the hole. She putts 7 off-line and the ball travels 13 m. How far is her ball from the hole?
13 m 7 15 m 40 50

12 Use the cosine rule to find the marked angle. a


1.7 m Q

18 Find the size of angle ACE.


B C D G H 8m 9m E 6m F

b
2.5 m

A 17 cm B

38 cm 23 cm C A

2.2 m

13 Calculate the size of the largest angle in triangle TUV.


U 91 mm T 88 mm V

19 Find the area of triangle SWV.


R S 8 cm T 15 cm

101 mm

P U

14 Find the size of all the angles in triangle ABC.


B

1.1 m

0.7 m

W C

24 cm

0.8 m

15 Calculate x in each triangle. a b Y


62 6.3 m 8.2 m E W x Z

1.4 Trigonometric functions and graphs


D x 60 26 cm 29 cm F

c
88 km Q x

P 131 km R

sin u is defined as the y-coordinate of points on the unit circle. U sin U 0 0 30 1 2 45 1 22 60 90 1 180 0 270 1 360 0

107 km

23 2

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y 1

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cos u

1 1 0 1 1 x 2 1 0 2 4 6

cos u is defined as the x-coordinate of points on the unit circle. U cos U 0 1 30 22 1 45 60 1 2 90 0 180 1 270 0 360 1

23 2

Repeating at regular intervals is known as periodicity. The period is the interval between repetitions. For y sin u and y cos u, the period is 360 or 2p.

Graph of tan x
We have defined tan u as sin u . This allows us to draw its graph. cos u 22 45 1 22 1 1 60 23 2 1 2 90 1 180 0 270 1 360 0

These functions are plotted below.


y 1 y x 0 1 90 180 270 360 y sinx cosx

U sin U

0 0

30 23 2 1 2 1

Both graphs only have y-values of 1 y 1.

Periodicity
When considering angles in the circle, it is clear that any angle has an equivalent angle in the domain 0 x 6 360. For example, an angle of 440 is equivalent to an angle of 80.
y

cos U

tan U

23

23

undefined

undefined

0 The vertical asymptote is a line: there are other types of asymptote that we will meet later.

440

360

80

There is a problem when x 90, 270 p because there is a zero on the denominator. This is undefined (or infinity). Graphically, this creates a vertical asymptote. This is created by an x-value where the function is not defined. The definition of an asymptote is that it is a line associated with a curve such that as a point moves along a branch of the curve, the distance between the line and the curve approaches zero. By examining either side of the vertical asymptote, we can obtain the behaviour of the function around the asymptote. As x S 90 (x approaches 90) tan x increases and approaches q (infinity): tan 85 11.4, tan 89 57.3, tan 89.9 573 etc. q:

This is also true for negative angles.


y

On the other side of the asymptote, tan x decreases and approaches


240 0 120 x

tan 95 120 240

11.4, tan 91

57.3, tan 90.1

573 etc.

The graph of y
y

tan x is shown below.

This means that the sine and cosine graphs are infinite but repeat every 360 or 2p. y sin u
y 0 90 1 2 1 0 2 4 180 270 360 x

These graphs can be drawn using degrees or radians.

It is clear that this graph is also periodic, and the period is 180.

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Reciprocal trigonometric functions


There are three more trigonometrical functions, defined as the reciprocal trigonometric functions secant, cosecant and cotangent. Secant is the reciprocal function to cosine, cosecant is the reciprocal function to sine, and cotangent is the reciprocal function to tangent. These are abbreviated as follows: sec u 1 , cos u csc u 1 1or cosec u2 cot u sin u 23 2 2 1 tan u

Composite graphs
Using your graphing calculator, draw the following graphs to observe the effects of the transformations. 1. y y y y 2. y y y y 3. y y y 4. y y y 5. y y y y 6. y y y 2 sin x 3 cos x 5 sin x 1 sin x 2 sin 2x cos 3x sin 5x 1 cos x 2 sin x cos x tan x sin1 x2 cos1 x2 tan1 x2 sin x cos x sin x cos x sin1x cos1x 2 2 1 1 302 302 p 3 p 3

In order to obtain the graph of f 1x2

csc u, consider the table below. 60 90 1 180 0 270 1 360 0

U sin U 1 sin U

0 0

30 1 2 2

csc U

22 1

22 45

23

The roots (zeros) of the original function become vertical asymptotes in the reciprocal function.
y 1 180 1 360

csc u

This function is also periodic with a period of 360. Similarly we can obtain the graphs of y
y

sec u and y

cot u:

sin u

The table summarizes the effects. y sec u y A sin x, A cos x, A tan x sin Bx, cos Bx, tan Bx
y

cos u

1 90 1 90 270

Effect Vertical stretch Horizontal stretch/ compression

Notes

This is the only transformation that affects the period of the graph

y
180 90 0 90 270

cot u The general method for plotting reciprocal graphs will be addressed in Chapter 8.

sin x,

cos x,

tan x

Reflection in x-axis Reflection in y-axis C D2 Vertical shift Horizontal shift Positive D left, negative D right

sin1 x2, cos1 x2, tan1 x2 sin x sin1x C, cos x D 2, cos1x C, tan x D2, tan1x

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Example
Draw the graph of y
y 3

2 cos u

1 for 0

u 6 2p.

The domain tells you how much of the graph to draw and whether to work in degrees or radians.

This is a vertical stretch shift 1.

2 and a vertical

cos u Since it is upside down there is a reflection in the x axis 1 y cos 2u There is a period of p and so there are two full waves in 2p 1 y There is a difference of 6 between the max and min values. There would normally be a difference of 2 and hence there is a 3 vertical stretch 1y 3 cos 2u The min and max values are 1, 7 so there is a shift up of 4 1y 3 cos 2u 4 So the equation of this graph is y 3 cos 2u 4.

Example
Draw the graph of y
y

Exercise 4
csc1x 902 1 for 0 x 6 180. 1 What is the period of each function? a d g j
180 x

2 0

y y y y

sin 2x tan 2x 5 csc 2x 3 8 tan 60x

b y e y h y

cos 3x sec x 7 3 sin 4u

c y f y i y

cos 4u 1 2 cos 3x 3 9 sin 10x

This is a horizontal shift of 90 to the right and a vertical shift 1.

2 Draw the graphs of these functions for 0 x 6 360. a y sin 3x b y c y cos x d y 4 csc x e y tan1x 302 f y 3 Draw the graphs of these functions for 0 a y sin 2u csc1 u2 b y e y cot u p 3 5 sin u u 6 2p. c y

sin1 x2 sec x 2

4 cos u

Example
Draw the graph of y
y 3 x 360

d y

3 sin 2x for 0

x 6 360.

4 Draw the graphs of these functions for 0 x 6 180. a y cos 3x b y 2 sin 4x c y d y 6 sin 10x e y 2 tan1x 302 f y 5 Draw the graphs of these functions for 0 a y 6 cos u cot 3u 2 b y e y u 6 p. p 3 5 c y 7

3 sec 2x 3 cos 2x

0 3

90

180

270

In this case, there are two full waves in 360. There is a reflection in the x-axis and a vertical stretch 3.

d y

6 Draw the graph of y 7 Draw the graph of y

4 sin 2x

Example
What is the equation of this graph? We assume that, because of the shape, it is either a sine or cosine graph. Since it begins at a minimum point, we will make the assumption that it is a cosine graph. (We could use sine but this would involve a horizontal shift, making the question more complicated.) y cos u
7 y

x 6 12. p 8 Draw the graph of y 8 3 sin 4u for 0 u 6 . 2 9 Find the equation of each graph. a b
y y 2 1

6 cos 30x for 0

tan 2u

3 sin 4u

4 cos u

3 for 0

x 6 720.

0 1 O 4

360 x

22

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y

y 6

y
y 360 1

sin x

cos x
y 1

tan x
y 1

0 2

0 90 180 270 1 360

x 0 1 90 180 270 360

x 0 1 90 180 270 360 x

y 8

These graphs can be split into four quadrants, each of 90. We can see that in the first quadrant all three graphs are above the x-axis (positive). In each of the other three quadrants, only one of the functions is positive.
0 0

90

This is summarised in the following diagram.


90

180

x Sin

x All 0

y 11

180 Tan 180 x 270 0 6 Cos 360 x

1 0 3 12 x

The diagram shows two important features. First, it shows where each function is positive. Second, for every acute angle, there is a related angle in each of the other three quadrants. These related angles give the same numerical value for each trigonometric function, ignoring the sign. This diagram is sometimes known as the bow-tie diagram. By taking an example of 25, we can see all of the information that the bow-tie diagram provides:

Related angles 25 180 25 25 25 155 205 335


25 25 25 25

2 0 2 120 x

3 0 3

180 360

Using

S T

A C

we can say that sin 155 sin 205 sin 335 cos 155 cos 205 cos 335 tan 155 tan 205 tan 335 sin 25 sin 25 sin 25 cos 25 cos 25 cos 25 tan 25 tan 25 tan 25

1.5 Related angles


To be able to solve trigonometric equations algebraically we need to consider properties of the trigonometric graphs. Each graph takes a specific y-value for an infinite number of x-values. Within this curriculum, we consider this only within a finite domain. Consider the graphs below, which have a domain 0 x 6 360.

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Example
Find the exact value of cos 4p 7p 7p and tan . , sin 3 6 4

Exercise 5
1 Find the exact value of each of these. a cos 120 b tan 135 c sin 150 e tan 225 f cos 210 g tan 300 i cos 330 j cos 150 d cos 300 h sin 240

This is the bow-tie diagram in radians:


2

A 0

C 2 3 2

4p , we need to find the related acute angle. 3 4p p u S A 3 p 1u T C 3 4p 4p Since is in the third quadrant, cos is negative. 3 3 4p p 1 So cos cos 3 3 2 7p Considering sin : 6 7p p u S A 6 p T C 1u 6 7p 7p Since is in the third quadrant, sin is negative. 6 6 7p p 1 So sin sin 6 6 2 7p Considering tan : 4 7p 2p u S A 4 p 1u T C 4 7p 7p Since is in the fourth quadrant, tan is negative. 4 4 7p p So tan tan 1 4 4 For cos

2 Find the exact value of each of these. 7p 3p 11p 5p a tan b sin c cos d tan 6 4 6 3 5p 5p 3p 5p e sin f tan g cos h sin 4 6 2 3 5p 11p i 2 sin j 8 cos 6 6 3 Express the following angles, using the bow-tie diagram, in terms of the related acute angle. a sin 137 b cos 310 c tan 200 d sin 230 e cos 157 f tan 146 g cos 195 h sin 340 i tan 314 4 State two possible values for x given that 0 a sin x c tan x 23 2 1 2 1 2 b cos x d tan x 23 23 2 1 u 6 2p. x 6 360.

5 State two possible values for u given that 0 a sin u b tan u 1 23 2

23

c cos u

d cos u

1.6 Trigonometric equations


We can use related angles to help solve trigonometric equations, especially without a calculator.

Example
Solve 2 sin x 2 sin x 3 1 2 sin x 1 sin x 1 x 1 x 3 4 for 0 x 6 360.
S T A 30 C

It is very important to take account of the domain.

4 1 1 2 30, 1180 30, 150

302

Thinking of the graph of sin x, it is clear these are the only two answers:
y y sin x

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Example

Solve 2 cos u 2 cos u

23

23 0

Example
0 for 0 u 6 2p.
/6 S T A C

1 cos u We know that cos p

23 2

Solve 7

3 tan u

11 for 0

u 6 2p.

p 6

23 and cos is negative in 2 p 6

the second and third quadrants. 1u 1u p , p 6 5p 7p , 6 6 u 2.21, 5.36

Example
Solve 5 2 sec x 8 for 0 x 6 180.

Example
Solve 2 cos13x 2 cos13x 1 cos13x 1 13x 152 152 152 1 3x 1 x 152 1 for 0 x 6 360.

1 1 2 60 or 300 75 or 315 25 or 105

S T

A 60 C

We know that 3x means three full waves in 360 and so the period is 120. The other solutions can be found by adding on the period to these initial values: x 25, 105, 145, 225, 265, 345

Noting the domain, x

131.8

The algebraic method can be used in conjunction with a calculator to solve any equation.

Example
A graphical method can also be used to solve trigonometric equations, using a calculator. Solve 3 cos 3u 3 cos 3u 5 1 3 cos 3u 1 cos 3u 2 3 for 0 x 6 360. 5 4 1 1 3 4 for 0 u 6 2p.

Example
Solve 5 sin x

Using a calculator:

1 Use a calculator to find cos 1 3


S A C T

1.23

11.5, 168.5

Cos is negative in the second and third quadrants. 1 3u p 1.23, p 1.23 1 3u 1.91, 4.37 1 u 0.637, 1.46

28

29

1 Trigonometry 1

2p Here the period is and hence we can find all six solutions: 3 u 0.637, 1.46, 2.73, 3.55, 4.83, 5.65

M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

3 Solve these for 0 1 a sin 2x 2 d 2 cos 2x 4 Solve these for 0 5 Solve 23 tan 2x a cos 4u c 4 2 sin 5u 6 Solve 2 sin 4u 7 Solve 6 sin 30x 8 Solve 2 tan x 9 Solve 6 cos 3u 1 2 1

x 6 360. b 2 cos 3x e 4 sin13x u 6 2p. b tan2u 3 d 6 cos 2u 1 0 for 0

23 152 p 6 23 1

1 Trigonometry 1

c 6 tan 4x 223 f sec 3x

6 2

M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

Example
Solve 2 sin 2u 3 2 for p u 6 p.

227

Here we notice that the domain includes negative angles. It is solved in the same way. 2 sin 2u 3 2 1 2 sin 2u 1 S A 1 1 sin 2u 2 T C sin is negative in the third and fourth quadrants: p 1 We know that sin 6 2 7p 11p so the related angles are and . 6 6 7p 11p Hence 2u , 6 6 7p 11p 1u , 12 12 Now we just need to ensure that we have all of the solutions within the domain by using the period. These two solutions are both within the domain. The other two solutions required can be found by subtracting a period: u 5p , 12 p 7p 11p , , 12 12 12


M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

x 6 180.

212 for 3 2

0 for 0 0 for 0

u 6 p. x 6 24. x 6 180. u 6 p.

180 p

1 for x 6 360. 1

10 Solve these for 0 a 3 sin x d 6 cos x g 3 j 7 m 7 s 4 1 5 2 4 9

4 cos x 5 sin x 3 11 tan 5x 3 sin 30x 1 4

h 22 sin x b 4 cos x e 4 sin x k 6 sin 2x 3

3 3 3 5 1 8 0

c 5 tan x f 8 cos1x 2 i 9 sin1x 1 l 8 cos 3x o csc x r 9 sec 4x 2

1 202 152 5 5 3

7 5 5 7 21

9 n sec x q 6 cot x 2 u 6 2p. b 9 cos u 3 e 7 cos u k 9 7 for 0 n 2

p 4 sec x d 25 cos u a 4 sin u g 9

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

11 Solve these for 0

5 tan u 2 tan 4u 3 csc u

23 13 11

h 3 cos 3u cot u

Exercise 6
M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

1 Solve these for 0


a tan x d 2 sin x g 4 sin x
M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

23 1 3

x 6 360. b cos x 0 1 e 2 cos x h csc x u 6 2p. 23 2 h 23 sec u b sin u e 4 1 2 2 1 2

2 Solve these for 0


a cos u d 3 tan u g sinu p 6 2

23 2

23

c sin x f cos x i 6 cot x

23 2 1 1 0 23 1 5

j 7 m 1
M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

4 sin 3u

p 3 1 9

c 8 tan u 4 0 6 f 6

17 7 1

5 sin u

i 6 sin 2u l 8 sec u o 6 csc 4u 19

11

12 Solve 8 13 Solve 5

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

p 6 for p u 6 p. 4 14 The height of a basket on a Ferris wheel is modelled by 2 sin 3u H1t2 21 where H is the height above the ground in metres and t is the time in minutes. a How long does it take to make one complete revolution? b Sketch the graph of the height of the basket during one revolution. c When is the basket at its (i) maximum height (ii) minimum height? 15 The population of tropical fish in a lake can be estimated using P1t2 6000 1500 cos 15t 18 sin 2p t 3

3 cos x

x 6 720.

c tan u 3 2 f 3 tan u

2 sin u

23

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

where t is the time in years. Estimate the population a initially b after 3 years. c Find the minimum population estimate and when this occurs.

30

31

1 Trigonometry 1

1 Trigonometry 1
M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

1.7 Inverse trigonometric functions


In order to solve trigonometric equations, we employed the inverse function. For example, sin x 1 x 1 arcsin 2 1 2 arcsin is the inverse sine function (also denoted sin
1

4 Find the length of this arc

40 2.5 m

).
M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

An inverse function is one which has the opposite effect to the function itself. For an inverse function, the range becomes the domain and the domain becomes the range. Hence for the inverse of the sine and cosine functions, the domain is 3 1, 1 4. The graphs of the inverse trigonometric functions are:
y

More work is done on inverse functions in Chapter 3.

5 The diagram below shows a circle centre O and radius OA The angle AOB 135. Find the shaded area.

5 cm.

[IB Nov 04 P1 Q9] y arcsin u


M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

2 1 2 0 1

6 Find x in each triangle. a


5 cm 60 17 cm x

8m

70

6m

y
2 1 0 1

arccos u

c
20 mm x 21 mm 17 mm

80 30 17 mm

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

y
2 0 2

arctan u

M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

7 In the triangle ABC, the side AB has length 5 and the angle BAC = 28. For what range of values of the length of BC will two distinct triangles ABC be possible? 8 Find the exact value of each of these. 2p 3p 5p a cos b sin c tan 3 4 6 7p e cos f sin 300 g tan 240 4 i tan 330 j sec 60 k csc 240 9 Sketch each of these graphs. a y 6 cos 2u 1 b y c y 8 3 cos 4u d y e y arcsin u 4 sin1x 5 sec u 7p 6

d sin

h cos 135

M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

302

Review exercise

1 Express in degrees: 2 Express in radians:


M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + = M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

p a 6 a 120

5p b 12 b 195

M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

10 State the equation of the graph. a b


y y 5 2 x 0 0

3 Find the area of this segment.


18 cm 70 cm

20

360

32

33

1 Trigonometry 1

11 Solve these for 0


M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

12 Solve these for 0


M C 7 M CE 8 M+ % 9 ON X 4 5 6 1 2 3 0 + =

e 23 tan 2u a 2 sin u c 6 tan u

u 6 2p. 0 0 1 0 0 0 b 2 cos u d 2 sin 4u d 23 tan x b 9 sin x f 8 sin 3x x 6 360. 0 0 b 8 sin 2x d 3 sec x p p x . 2 2

1 6

23

23

0 0

x 6 360.

a 8 tan x c 4 sin x

9 1 4 5 7 0 0 0 [IB May 01 P1 Q2] 4

e 6 cos 2x
M C 7 4 1 0 M CE 8 5 2 M+ % 9 6 3 + ON X =

323 3 17

13 Solve these for 0 a 7 cos x c 9 tan 3x

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

14 Solve 2 sin x

tan x for

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

15 The angle u satisfies the equation tan u cot u 3 where u is in degrees. Find all the possible values of u lying in the interval [0, 90]. [IB May 02 P1 Q10] 16 The height in cm of a cylindrical piston above its central position is given by 16 sin 4t p where t is the time in seconds, 0 t . 4 a What is the height after 1 second? ` 2 h

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

M C 7 4 1 0

M CE 8 5 2

M+ % 9 6 3 +

ON X =

17 Let f1x2

x 3 arccos for 4 x 4. 4 5 a Sketch the graph of f(x). b On the sketch, clearly indicate the coordinates of the x-intercept, the y-intercept, the minimum point and the endpoints of the curve of f(x). sinarcsin c Solve f1x2 1 . 2 [IB Nov 03 P1 Q14]

b Find the first time at which the height is 10 cm.

34