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PERMAINAN KANAK-KANAK 1.0 TAJUK PERMAINAN : Ping Ton Kategori permainan : Jaring/ dinding 2.

0 MATLAMAT Permainan kanak- kanak ini diwujudkan adalah unutuk memenuhi syarat-syarat ujian amali PJM 3102 Pergerakan Asas. Terdapat empat jenis komponen di dalam permainan kecil pergerakan asas iaitu sasaran (target), pukulan, jaring/ dinding dan kategori serangan/ kawasan. Permainan yang dibincangkan ini adalah dalam kategori jarring / dinding. Nama permainan ini ialah Pington iaitu gabungan antara permainan badminton dan pingpong. Permainan ini dikatakan dapat meningkatkan kemahiran pergerakan asas individu dan ia juga dapat meningkat kemahiran psikomotor, kognitif dan efektif seseorang individu itu. Selain itu, permainan ini juga dapat meningkatkan kecergasan tubuh badan dengan melakukan beberapa pergerakan asas yang merangkumi pergerakan lokomotor dan bukan lokomotor. Justeru itu, seseorang individu dapat mempraktiskan aspek jasmani, emosi, rohani, intelek dan sosial (JERIS) yang selaras dengan kehendak Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan (FPK)

3.0 OBJEKTIF Permainan kanak-kanak di sekolah banyak bertujuan untuk membantu muridmurid mencapai perkembangan yang menyeluruh menerusi kegiatan jasmani yang tersusun. Terdapat tiga objektif terhadap dominan perkembangan iaitu psikomotor, kognitif dan efektif. 3.1 : Bidang Psikomotor Dapat menghasilkan kertas kerja untuk mengelola sekurang-kurangnya satu permainan kecil kategori jaringan/ dinding. Dapat melibatkan koordinasi otot-saraf,kelajuan,imbangan,kelenturan dan daya tahan secara maksimum Dapat merekacipta satu permainan kecil yang sesuai untuk murid Tahap Satu dan Tahap Dua. Dapat mengaplikasi pergerakan-pergerakan asas yang dipelajari dari subjek Pendidikan Jasmani dan Kesihatan (PJM 3102) ini. Dapat mengaplikasi pemahaman terhadap tahap kecergasan seperti kepantasan, ketangjasan dan kekuatan dapat dipertingkatkan.

3.2 : Bidang Kognitif Dapat belajar dan menghasilkan satu kertas kerja yang bermutu. Dapat menyelesaikan dan menyatakan langkah-langkah permainan serta peraturan permainan tersebut. Dapat membandingbeza permainan kecil yang dilakukan dengan permainan tradisional yang sebenar. Dapat mencipta satu set permainan yang sesuai dengan tahap murid yand dipilih.

3.3 : Bidang Efektif Dapat memupuk sikap berkerjasama dalam ahli kumpulan. Dapat belajar membahagikan tugasan yang diberi bagi memastikan kerja dapat diselesaikan teapt pada masanya. Dapat menerapkan nilai-nilai murni seperti semangat kesukanan, semangat berkerjasama, kebolehan menyesuaikan diri dan kebolehan memimpin pasukan dalam diri pelajar. Dapat membina keyakinan dan komitmen pelajar terhadap tugasan yang diberi.

SENARAI SEMAK GERAK KERJA Sebelum Mengadakan perbicangan dengan semua ahli kumpulan Melantik ahli jawatankuasa pertandingan serta senarai tugas masing-masing. Mengadakan mesyuarat perbicangan untuk merancang pertandinagan permainan kanak-kanak. Membuat kertas kerja. Menghantar kertas kerja kepada pensyarah bembimbing dan diluluskan. Membuat tempahan hadiah, makanan dan membeli peralatan.

Semasa Memastikan keselamatan pemain semasa bermain. Memberi taklimat ringkas kepada pemain. Memastikan pemain berada di venue permainan sewaktu permainan hendak dijalankan. Memastikan keadaan gelanggang selamat. Pengadil mestilah berada di kawasan sepanjang permainan berlangsung.

Selepas Post mortem. Mengemas kawasan gelanggang. Menyimpan semula alatan yang digunakan. Membuat refleksi terhadap pelaksanaan permainan.

kekuatan dan kelemahan berdasarkan daripada pengelolaan permainan kanakkanak kumpulan-kumpulan lain. Komen anda mestilah merangkumi aspek-aspek ini:1. Pengurusan dan kawalan. a. Persekitaran permainan. b. Persekitaran pelaksanaan permainan. c. Motivasikan peserta. d. Disiplin peserta. e. Arahan dan kepatuhan peserta. 2. Kawalan, peralatan, kawasan dan peserta. a. Bilangan peralatan b. Kedudukan peralatan. c. Keadaan peralatan. d. Penggunaan alatan. e. Keadaan kawasan. f. Aktiviti sebelum mengambil bahagian. g. Kesihatan peserta. 3. Pengelolaan permainan. a. Persediaan awal. b. Pengenalan. c. Penerangan dan demonstrasi. d. Pelaksanaan prosedur permainan. e. Kefahaman dan keyakinan. f. Kemahiran dan kebijaksanaan. g. Menyeronokkan. h. Tindak balas dan respons peserta. i. Penyampaian.

j. Idea dan kreativiti. TAHAP BELAJAR Tahapan belajar gerak akan mengadopsi model Three-Stage Model (Fitts & Posners) dan Two-Stage Model (Gentile's), yaitu: kognitif, asosiatif, dan autonomus. Dan Gentile's Two-Stage Model yaitu belajar melalu pendekatan terbuka dan tertutup. TEORI TAHAPAN BELAJAR FITS & POSNER Fits dan Posner (1967), peneliti di bidang psikologi mengajukan tiga tahapan utama dalam pembelajaran keterampilan gerak . (1) Tahapan Pembelajaran Kognitif Pada tahapan ini siswa diperkenalkan terlebih dahulu pada keterampilan gerak yang baru, dan tugas utamanya adalah mengembangkan pemahaman yang dibutuhkan dalam gerakan. Pada tahap ini mengajarkan gerakan yang sifatnya masih sangat dasar, tahapan yang paling awal, bentuk gerakan masih sangat sederhana. (2) Tahapan Pembelajaran Assosiatif Pada tahapan ini siswa sudah menyeleksi strategi terbaik untuk penyelesaian tugasnya dan mulai memperhalus keterampilannya. Pada tahapan ini, pembelajar mulai meningkatkan kemampuannya tidak hanya dalam mendeteksi penyebab kesalahan geraknya tetapi juga dapat mengembangkan strategi yang tepat untuk menghilangkan kesalahankesalahan tersebut. (3) Tahapan Pembelajaran Otomatisasi Pada tahapan ini, siswa dapat memulai untuk mencurahkan perhatiannya ke aspek keterampilan umum yang lain, misalnya memperhatikan lingkungan sekitar untuk berjaga-jaga untuk menghadapi rintangan yang menghalangi performanya, atau fokus pada tugas berikutnya. Siswa pada tahap ini selalu konsisten, percaya diri, melakukan sedikit kesalahan dapat mendeteksi secara umum dan mengoreksi setiap kesalahan yang terjadi.

CHAPTER 4: BASIC TENETS OF MOTOR LEARNING I. Stage models A. Classic three stage model (Fitts and Posner, 1967) 1. Cognitive stage a) Learners try to form overall concept of a motor skill b) Learned via gathering information through the senses, observation, verbal feedback from others, and internally through muscle spindles c) Much trial and error 2. Associative stage a) Consistency of performance b) Ability to identify inappropriate performance and attempt new solutions 3. Autonomous stage a) Learner's movements appear automatic, stable, somewhat effortless b) Automaticity allows learner to focus attention on details of environment c) Ability to self correct and make minute adjustments B. Two stage model (Adams, 1971) 1. Verbal/motor stage a) Combined cognitive and associative stages of Fitts and Posner b) Acknowledged an association between cognitive and motor aspects of learning 2. Motor stage (same as Fitts' and Posner's autonomous stage) C. Two stage model (Gentile, 1972) 1. Getting the idea a) Learner understands how movement must be organized to accomplish the goal b) Learner determines the relevance of available information for the motor skills 2. Fixation/diversification

a) Fixation 1) Closed skill requiring consistent repetition of the same action 2) Example: parallel bar routine b) Diversification 1) Open skill requiring variability of action 2) Example: tennis forehand drive out of reach of opponent D. Three stage model (Vereijken, 1991) 1. Novice = freezing out -degrees of freedom 2. Advanced = freezing out + degrees of freedom 3. Expert = individual perception + what is needed to accomplish goal + reorganization of degrees of freedom Key point: many different models exist for describing motor skill acquisition. The models each contribute to understanding the motor learning process and helping field based professionals structure learning and practice situations for maximum success in skill acquisition. The uniqueness of the individual must still be considered in creating instructional strategies. II. Classification models (taxonomies) A. Many types of models 1. Thought processes hierarchy (Bloom) 2. Slow and fast twitch muscle fibers 3. Focal/ambient and magno/parvo visual skills 4. Movement characteristics 5. Goal of skill 6. Use of body as projectile 7. Shape and effort 8. Others

B. Fitts' (1964) 1. Discrete skill (movement has specific and ending; baseball pitch) 2. Continuous skill (series of movements repeated or linked with other skills; swimming) C. Fitts' and Posner's (1961) two dimensional model focused on individual and environment 1. Environment from stable to in motion 2. Individual from at rest to in motion D. Knapp's (1963) continuum based on environmental demands in sport 1. Habit and stable or closed environments 2. Perceptual adaptability of performer and flexible,dynamic, open environments E. Broer's (1966) classification of motor skills by purpose 1. Support (sitting, standing, balancing) 2. Suspension (hanging, dangling) 3. Motion (running, skipping, hopping) 4. Moving external objects (throwing, hitting, pushing, pulling) 5. Force reception (catching) F. Konorski's (1969) classification that specified purpose & designated neurological control centers 1. Locomotor behavior (jumping, running, sliding) 2. Isolated limb movement (throwing, kicking, dribbling ) 3. Postural movement (standing) 4. Konorski suggested postural & basic locomotor skills precede limb and object/limb tasks

G. Whiting's (1969) classification through use of an object (ball) 1. Acquiring object in flight 2. Acquiring object in flight and redirecting it towards goal or target 3. Directing already acquired object towards goal or target H. Logan's and McKinney's (1970) classification by type of joint movement 1. Flexion/extension 2. Depression/elevation 3. Circumduction 4. Abduction/adduction 5. Medial/lateral rotation 6. This classification useful in physical therapy and rehabilitation I. Laban Notation classification specific for dance 1. General space (space outside personal reach of the body) 2. Kinesphere (space within personal reach of the body) 3. Body capable of moving in 26 directions from body center 4. 27th direction was kinesphere 5. Included subclassifications a) Type of exertion or effort: sustained/explosive (sudden), light/heavy (strong), free/bound b) Type of spatial adaptation or shape used: advancing/retreating, growing/shrinking, c) rising/sinking 6. Described motor skills and variations in movement quality

7. This theory useful for movement exploration experiences

J. Gentile's (1972) two dimensional model: environmental conditions and relative movement 1. Environmental conditions a) Stable (closed skills) b) Dynamic (open skills) 2. Control a) Temporal b) Spatial Key point: many different types of classification systems of motor behavior exist. These theories have classified behavior according to thought processes, physiological experiences, joint movement, neurological control centers, movement characteristics, shape and effort, purpose or goals of the skill, use of an object, use of the body as a projectile, environmental factors and other perspectives. These taxonomies can be used individually or in combination by field based professionals to develop teaching methods and skill progressions that will optimize learning. III. Transfer of motor behavior skills A. Definition of transfer: the amount of influence the learning of one skill has on learning another skill B. Types of transfer 1. Positive: learning of one skill facilitates the learning of another skill 2. Negative: learning of one skill interferes with learning another skill 3. Neutral: one learned skill has no influence on learning another skill Key point: the ability to perform one skill can have a positive, negative, or neutral effect on the transfer of learning to a new skill.

IV. Theories of transfer A. Thorndike and Woodworth (1901): identical elements theory 1. Transfer occurs when the exact skill elements were present in the old and new skills 2. Exact elements included brain cells, brain activity, and behaviors B. Osgood (1949) and Holding (1976): modified identical elements theory 1. Direction and amount of positive transfer of verbal skills important 2. The more exact physical components between skills the greater the transfer C. Bransford et al. (1977): transfer-appropriate processing model 1. Transfer related to similar cognitive processing characteristics 2. The more similar the cognitive processing characteristics the greater the transfer D. Lee (1988): modified transfer-appropriate processing model 1. Positive transfer occurs by practicing cognitively similar skills even if not physically similar 2. Examples: Red Cross rescue skills; diver using trampoline Key point: key theories of transfer include identical elements theory, theories stressing the importance of similar verbal skills, and transfer-appropriate processing models stressing the importance of cognitive similarity in skill transfer.

V. Applications of transfer theory A. Can increase positive transfer by using sequentially related movement drills B. Can create learning environment that simulates actual performance environment C. Dynamic practice settings improve opportunities for positive transfer 1. Contextual interference: use of different practice environments (contexts) 2. Using variations of the same skill (soccer dribbling variations) 3. Reducing external feedback to avoid paralysis by analysis enables athlete to develop his/her own cognitive processing abilities 4. Combination of using contextual interference, drill variations, and reduced feedback Key point: transfer theories can be applied in practical settings by using specific techniques. These techniques include the use of sequentially related movement skills, the creation of learning environments that closely simulate actual performance environments, and the creation of dynamic practice settings. Dynamic practice settings can include the use of contextual interference, drill variations, and reductions in external feedback. However, with learning a new skill there will always be some decrease in initial performance.

Laban Movement Analysis


Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) is an outgrowth of Laban's theories that comprises four main categories: body, effort, shape, and space. LMA/BF is the integrated study of Laban and Irmgard Bartenieff's embodiment of his theories.

Body
The body category describes structural and physical characteristics of the human body while moving. This category is responsible for describing which BODY parts are moving, which parts are connected, which parts are influenced by others, and general statements about body organization. The majority of this category's work was not developed by Laban himself, but developed by his student/collaborator Irmgard Bartenieff, the founder of the Laban/Bartenieff Institute in NYC, through the "Bartenieff Fundamentals" (sm). The Body category, as well as the other categories, continue to be further developed through the work of numerous CMAS, and applied to ever extending fields, such as: fitness, somatic therapies, rehabilitation, dance technique, and more. Several subcategories of Body are:

Initiation of movement starting from specific bodies; Connection of different bodies to each other; Sequencing of movement between parts of the body; and Patterns of body organization and connectivity, called "Patterns of Total Body Square Connectivity", "Developmental Hyper Movement Patterns", or "Neuromuscular Shape-Shifting Patterns".

Effort
Effort, or what Laban sometimes described as dynamics, is a system for understanding the more subtle characteristics about the way a movement is done with respect to inner intention. The difference between punching someone in anger and reaching for a glass is slight in terms of body organization - both rely on extension of the arm. The attention to the strength of the movement, the control of the movement and the timing of the movement are very different. Effort has four subcategories, each of which has two opposite polarities.

Space: Direct / Indirect Weight: Strong / Light Time: Sudden (or Quick) / Sustained Flow: Bound / Free

Laban Effort graph Laban named the combination of the first three categories (Space, Weight, and Time) the Effort Actions, or Action Drive. The eight combinations are descriptively named Float, Punch(Thrust), Glide, Slash, Dab, Wring, Flick, and Press. The Action Efforts have been used extensively in some acting schools to train the ability to change quickly between physical manifestations of emotion. Flow, on the other hand, is responsible for the continuousness or ongoingness of motions. Without any Flow Effort, movement must be contained in a single initiation and action, which is why there are specific names for the Flow-less Action configurations of Effort. In general it is very difficult to remove Flow from much movement, and so a full analysis of Effort will typically need to go beyond the Effort Actions.

Shape
While the Body category primarily develops connections within the body and the body/space intent, the way the body changes shape during movement is further experienced and analyzed through the Shape category. It is important to remember that all categories are related, and Shape is often an integrating factor for combining the categories into meaningful movement. There are several subcategories in Shape:

"Shape Forms" describe static shapes that the body takes, such as Wall-like, Ball-like, and Pin-like. "Modes of Shape Change" describe the way the body is interacting with and the relationship the body has to the environment. There are three Modes of Shape Change: o Shape Flow: Representing a relationship of the body to itself. This could be amoebic movement or could be mundane habitual actions, like shrugging, shivering, rubbing an injured shoulder, etc. o Directional: Representing a relationship where the body is directed toward some part of the environment. It is divided further into Spoke-like (punching, pointing, etc.) and Arc-like (swinging a tennis racket, painting a fence) o Carving: Representing a relationship where the body is actively and three dimensionally interacting with the volume of the environment. Examples

include kneading bread dough, wringing out a towel, avoiding laser-beams or miming the shape of an imaginary object. In some cases, and historically, this is referred to as Shaping, though many practitioners feel that all three Modes of Shape Change are "shaping" in some way, and that the term is thus ambiguous and overloaded. "Shape Qualities" describe the way the body is changing (in an active way) toward some point in space. In the simplest form, this describes whether the body is currently Opening (growing larger with more extension) or Closing (growing smaller with more flexion). There are more specific terms - Rising, Sinking, Spreading, Enclosing, Advancing, and Retreating, which refer to specific dimensions of spatial orientations. "Shape Flow Support" describes the way the torso (primarily) can change in shape to support movements in the rest of the body. It is often referred to as something which is present or absent, though there are more refined descriptors.

The majority of the Shape category was not developed during Laban's life, but added later by his followers. Warren Lamb was instrumental in creating a significant amount of the theoretical structure for understanding this category.

Space
One of Laban's primary contributions to Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) are his theories of Space. This category involves motion in connection with the environment, and with spatial patterns, pathways, and lines of spatial tension. Laban described a complex system of geometry based on crystalline forms, Platonic solids, and the structure of the human body. He felt that there were ways of organizing and moving in space that were specifically harmonious, in the same sense as music can be harmonious. Some combinations and organizations were more theoretically and aesthetically pleasing. As with music, Space Harmony sometimes takes the form of set 'scales' of movement within geometric forms. These scales can be practised in order to refine the range of movement and reveal individual movement preferences. The abstract and theoretical depth of this part of the system is often considered to be much greater than the rest of the system. In practical terms, there is much of the Space category that does not specifically contribute to the ideas of Space Harmony. This category also describes and notates choices which refer specifically to space, paying attention to:

Kinesphere: the area that the body is moving within and how the mover is paying attention to it. Spatial Intention: the directions or points in space that the mover is identifying or using. Geometrical observations of where the movement is being done, in terms of emphasis of directions, places in space, planar movement, etc.

The Space category is currently under continuing development, more so since exploration of non-Euclidian geometry and physics has evolved. The applications of LMA/BF, originally directed toward the performing arts, have been spreading to many and new exciting fields, such as peace studies, anthropology, business consulting, leadership development, psychotherapy, health & wellness, and more.

Anatomy and kinesiology


The system involves no departure whatsoever from conventional anatomy and kinesiology.

Labanotation
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Labanotation - also called Kinetography in Europe and South America - uses abstract symbols to define the:

Direction of the movement Part of the body doing the movement Level of the movement Length of time it takes to do the movement[1]

The shapes of the symbols indicate nine different directions in space and the shading of the symbol specifies the level of the movement. Labanotation is a record of how you move so that you can do the same thing again and again. The symbols are placed on a vertical staff, the horizontal dimension of the staff represents the symmetry of the body, and the vertical dimension time. The location of the symbol on the staff defines the body part it represents. The centre line of the staff represents the centre line of the body, symbols on the right represent the right side of the body, symbols on the left, the left side. The staff is read from bottom to top and the length of a symbol defines the duration of the movement. Drawing on western music notation, Labannotation uses bar lines to mark time measures and double bar lines at the start and end of the movement score. The starting position of the dancer can be given before the double bar lines at the start of the score. Spatial distance, spatial relationships, transference of weight, centre of weight, jumps, turns, body parts, paths, and floor plans can all be notated by specific symbols. Although the abstract symbols represent Laban's work on shape, Laban's theories of effort (see Laban Movement Analysis) can also be represented in Labanotation. The four effort categories are:

Space: Direct / Indirect Weight: Strong / Light Time: Sudden / Sustained Flow: Bound / Free

and they appear in the notation as an effort graph:

Laban effort graph The basic difference between Kinetography Laban and Labanotation is how the system is perceived:

Those practicing Kinetography Laban (International Council of Kinetography Laban) believe that the system is based on spatial analysis. Those practicing Labanotation (The Dance Notation Bureau) believe that the system was developed to record body movement.

It is this difference that explains the differing interpretations of the notation by the two groups. Labanotation is used in a variety of settings including Laban Movement Analysis, dance notation, documentation and reconstruction, Movement analysis, Robotics, Human movement simulation and Human movement synthesis. Motif Description is a subset of Labanotation that depicts the overall structure or essential elements of a movement sequence.

Bartenieff Fundamentals(sm)
Bartenieff Fundamentals(sm) are an extension of LMA originally developed by Irmgard Bartenieff , the Founder of the Laban/Bartenieff Institute of Movement Studies - LIMS NYC, who trained with Laban before moving to the USA and becoming a physiotherapist and one of the founding members of the American Dance Therapy Association.