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1. Functional English: Different words perform different functions in a sentence. The study of these functions is called functional English.

(e.g.) I play cricket. (Subject) (Verb) (Object) 2. Sentence: A group of words, which gives a complete sense, is called sentence. (e.g.) The sky is blue. 3. Kinds of sentences: Following are four kinds of sentences: iDeclarative sentence iiInterrogative sentence iiiImperative sentence ivExclamatory sentence 4. Declarative sentence: A sentence that makes a statement is called declarative sentence. (e.g.) This is my car. 5. Interrogative sentence: A sentence that is used to ask a question is called interrogative sentence. (e.g.) What is your good name? 6. Imperative sentence: A sentence that makes a command or request is called imperative sentence. (e.g.) Could you please, bring me a glass of water? 7. Exclamatory sentence: A sentence that expresses strong feelings is called exclamatory sentence. (e.g.) What a shame! 8. Use of exclamatory mark after an imperative sentence: If the command in an imperative sentence is short and sharp, an exclamatory mark is used at the end of the sentence. (e.g.) Get lost! 9. Parts of a sentence: A sentence can be divided in to two parts i.e. subject and predicate. (e.g.) Usman plays cricket. (Subject) (Predicate) 10. Subject: Subject is the name of a thing, a person or a place about which something is said in a sentence. (e.g.) Usman plays cricket. (Subject) 11. Predicate: The part of a sentence that tells something about the subject is called predicate. (e.g.) Usman plays cricket. (Predicate) 12. Place of subject in a sentence: Usually the subject is written first and sometimes after the predicate. (e.g.) Tahir stood in the doorway. (Usual order) (e.g.) In the doorway stood a stranger. (Unusual order)

13. Sentence without subject: In imperative sentence the subject is left out. (e.g.) Get lost! ["You" is understood here] 14. Sentence fragment: A group of words that does not give a complete sense is called sentence fragment. (e.g.) in the play ground. 15. Simple subject: If the subject consists of more than one word, the key word is called simple subject. (e.g.) (The students of the class) are there. 16. Simple predicate: If the predicate consists of more than one word, the key word is simple predicate. The main verb is always simple predicate. (e.g.) I (play cricket daily.) 17. Complete Subject: A subject may be one word or more than one word as a complete subject. (e.g.) Students laughed. (e.g.) Students of the class laughed. 18. Complete predicate: A predicate may be one word or more than one word as a complete predicate. (e.g.) Students laughed. (e.g.) Students laughed in the class room. 19. Compound subject: A compound subject may have two or more nouns. (e.g.) Noman and Usman went to Lahore. 20. Compound predicate / Compound verb: A compound predicate may have to or more verbs. (e.g.) I completed my work and slept. 21. Order of subject in interrogative sentences: In some interrogative sentences, subject is written first. (e.g.) Who will play cricket? And in some some interrogative sentences, subject is written after helping verb. (e.g.) Do she listen music? 22. Parts of speech: Words are divided into different kinks are called part of speech. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective, Preposition, Interjection and Conjunction 23. Noun: Noun the name of a person, place or thing. (e.g.) Ali, Lahore, Love, Pen, Allama Iqbal. 24. Kinds of Noun: i. Common noun ii. Proper noun iii. Collective noun iv. Abstract noun 25. Common noun: Common noun refers to the name of an ordinary person, place or thing. (e.g.) Boy, School, Pen. 26. Proper noun: Proper noun refers to a particular person. Place or thing. (e.g.) Allama Iqbal, Lahore, F-16.

27. Collective noun: Common noun refers to a group of people or things as a single noun. (e.g.) Army, Team, Club. 28. Abstract noun: Abstract noun refers to immaterial things. (e.g.) Knowledge, Beauty, Love, Truth. 29. Adjective as a noun: The + Adjective can be used as a noun. (e.g.) The injured were taken to the hospital. 30. Compound noun: Compound noun refers to the combination of two or more nouns as a single noun. (e.g.) Compact disk, Seafood. 31. Uncountable or Mass noun: Uncountable or Mass noun refers to the noun that can not be counted. (e.g.) Cream, Love, Gold. 32. Genders: There are four genders as under: i. Masculine gender ii. Feminine gender iii. Common gender iv. Neuter gender 33. Masculine gender: Masculine gender refers to male. (e.g.) man, Lion, Horse. 34. Feminine gender: Feminine gender refers to female. (e.g.) Woman, Hen, Lioness. 35. Common gender: Common gender refers to either masculine gender or feminine gender. (e.g.) Friend, Teacher, Doctor. 36. Neuter gender: Neuter gender neither refers to masculine gender and not feminine gender. (e.g.) Book, Pen, Table. 37. Pronoun: A word that takes the place of a noun is called pronoun. (e.g.) Ahmad is a good boy. He is a student. 38. Antecedent: A pronoun usually refers to a noun is called antecedent. (e.g.) Zahid loves his country. He is patriot. 39. Personal pronoun: A pronoun that represents a person in a sentence is called personal pronoun. (e.g.) I, We, You, They, He, She, It. 40. Indefinite pronoun: A pronoun having no specific object or event. (e.g.) All, Each, Every. 41. Interrogative pronoun: Interrogative pronoun that is used to ask a question. (e.g.) who, Whom, What, Which.

42. Quantitative pronoun: Quantitative pronoun is used to represent quantity. (e.g.) Few, Many, Little, Some. 43. Relative pronoun: a pronoun such as which, who or that which is used to begin a relative clause. (e.g.) This is the person who gave me a pen. 44. Reflexive Pronoun: A personal pronoun compounded with self or selves is called reflexive pronoun. (e.g.) I hurt myself. 45. Emphatic or intensive pronoun: Emphatic or intensive pronoun emphasizes the subject of the sentence. (e.g.) I myself did it. 46. Demonstrative pronoun: Demonstrative pronoun is used point out the intended object. (e.g.) This is a pen. 47. Verb: Verb is used to ask or to state something. A verb expresses an action. (e.g.) I am a student. (e.g.) What is your name? (e.g.) I play cricket. 48. Transitive verb: Transitive verb is a verb which denotes an action which passes over from subject to object. (e.g.) I ply hockey. 49. Intransitive verb: Intransitive verb is a verb which denotes an action which does not pass over from subject to object. (e.g.) I sleep. 50. Double transitive verb: The verb having direct and indirect object is called double transitive verb. (e.g.) She gave me a rose. 51. Object: Object may be noun or pronoun that receives action of the verb. (e.g.) I eat apple. 52. Direct object: the object that receives the action of the verb directly is called direct object. (e.g.) She gave me a rose. 53. Indirect object: the object that receives the action of the verb indirectly is called indirect object. (e.g.) She gave me a rose. 54. Linking verb: A linking verb is denotes a state of being or condition of the subject. (e.g.) The sky is blue. (e.g.) I am a student. 55. Complement: The word or group of words that makes the sense of a verb complete is called complement.

56. Subjective complement: The word that makes the sense of the linking verb complete is called subjective complement. (e.g.) I am happy. 57. Objective complement: The additional word that makes the sense of transitive verb complete is called objective complement. (e.g.) I made him doctor. 58. Finite form of verb: These forms of verbs can be used alone as main verb. (e.g.) I love my country. (e.g.) They played cricket. 59. Non finite form of verb: These forms of verbs are used with helping verbs. (e.g.) I have eaten food. (e.g.) I am playing game. 60. Verbal: Those forms of verbs that are used as noun, adjective or adverb are called verbal. (e.g.) The dancing boy is my brother. 61. Kinds of verbal: iGerunds iiInfinitives iiiparticiples 62. Gerund: A gerund is the ing form of verb used as a noun. (e.g.) Swimming is good game. 63. Infinitive: Infinitive is to + 1st form of the verb that is used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb. (e.g.) To err is human After some certain words infinitive is used without to. (e.g.) Let him sit here. 64. Present participle: Present participle is used in continues tenses as a main verb after the helping verb. (e.g.) He is playing cricket. 65. Past participle: Past participle is third form of verb that is used after the helping verbs. (e.g.) The letter is written. (e.g.) he has written a letter. 66. Adjective: An adjective is a word that is used to add something in the meaning of a noun is called adjective. (e.g.) Long distance, Claver boy, Fat girl etc. 67. Articles as adjective: The most frequently articles are used as adjective. (e.g.) A book, the boy, an apple etc. 68. Proper adjective: Proper adjective is made by proper noun. (e.g.) Pakistani cotton, Italian pizza etc.

69. Quantitative adjective: The adjective that expresses quantity is called quantitative adjective. (e.g.) Many girls, Five Fingers, Few boys etc 70. Qualitative adjective: The adjective that expresses quality is called qualitative adjective. (e.g.) Good, Old, New, young etc. 71. Interrogative adjective: What, which and whose are used with noun are known as interrogative adjective. 72. Adverb: A word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb is called adverb. (e.g.) He played carefully. 73. Adverb of time: An adverb of time denotes when an action occurs. (e.g.) I will come soon. 74. Adverb of frequency: An adverb of frequency denotes how often an action occurs. (e.g.) She will call me again. 75. Adverb of place: An adverb of place denotes where an action occurs. (e.g.) Sit here. 76. Adverb of manner: An adverb of manner denotes how an action occurs. (e.g.) He went slowly. 77. Adverb of quality: An adverb of quality denotes how much an action occurs. (e.g.) He is very happy. 78. Adverb of reason: Adverb of reason expresses the reason of action. (e.g.) He therefore gave me your pen. 79. Interrogative adverb: Interrogative adverb is used to ask a question. (e.g.) where do you play? 80. Preposition: Preposition expresses connection of a noun or pronoun with another word. (e.g.) The book is on the table. 81. Conjunction: Conjunction is a word that is used to join words or group of words. (e.g.) He is poor but honest. (e.g.) He is dull but hard worker. 82. Articles: The adjectives A, An and The are called articles. 83. Definite article: The is called definite article . (e.g.) The Holly Quran, The Bible, the red pen etc. 84. Indefinite articles: A and An are called indefinite articles. (e.g.) a book, a pen etc.

85. Interjection: A word expressing emotion; exclamation like oh, ouch, hurrah etc. in a sentence alone is called interjection. (e.g.) ouch, I have broken my leg. 86. Tense: Tense is derived from a Latin word tempus which means time. 87. Conditional sentence: A conditional sentence has two parts i.e. if clause and main clause. (e.g.) If he comes he will get it. 88. Modal auxiliary words: Can, Could, May, Might, Shall, Should etc. are modal auxiliaries words. 89. Active voice: Active voice sentence express that subject performs and object receive the action. (e.g.) I play cricket. 90. Passive voice: To Stress on action rather than agent is called passive voice. (e.g.) Cricket is played by me. 91. Use of passive voice: To Stress on action rather than agent. Or When the agent is unknown or not important. 92. Syntax: The grammatical arrangement of words` into phrases and phrases into sentences is called syntax. 93. Mood: Mood is the manner in which the action denoted by the verb is represented. 94. Types of mood: 1. Indicative mood 2. Imperative mood 3. Subjunctive mood 95. Indicative mood: It is used to make a statement of fact or ask a question. (e.g.) I teach to commerce students. (e.g.) Are u well? 96. Imperative mood: It is used to make command, request, advice, suggestion, etc. (e.g.) Polish my shows. (e.g.) Please bring me a glass of water. (e.g.) have a mercy on children. (e.g.) You should drive carefully. 97. Subjunctive mood: It is used to express assumed conditions, wishes and recommendations etc. (e.g.) She sings if she were a singer (e.g.) I wish to become an incredible manager. (e.g.) Ali recommended me to meat Dr. Anjum Sohail, 98. Clause: A clause is a group of words having a subject and a predicate. There are two types of clauses i.e. dependent clause and independent clause (e.g.) Ali is an intelligent boy but his brother is dull. Dependent clause Independent clause

99. Phrase: A phrase is a group of words used as a part of a sentence. (e.g.) He is a good boy. Phrase 100. Homophones: Two or more words have same sounds but have different meanings are called homophones. 101. Syllable: A unit of sound is called syllable. (e.g.) Beau-ti-ful, Pen-cil, Co-py